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KAIZEN Management

KAIZEN Management

Graduate School of Commerce


Waseda Business School
Professor
Dr. Seiichi FUJITA

fujitas@waseda.jp
http://www.wiaps.waseda.ac.jp/user/fujita/

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KAIZEN Management

KM 1 KM 2

KAI-ZEN
KAIZEN Management
Characteristics of
Japanese Production
Systems

Continuous improvement

KM 3 KM 4

What is Industry ? What are evaluation


criteria for the output ?
Input Output
Industry
Q, C, D
Input Output
Man-power Products Industry
Machines Services
Materials Q: Quality
Methods C: Cost KAIZEN
(4M’s) D: Delivery action
4 5

KM 5 KM 6

KAIZEN is a feedback. KAIZEN is a Japanese word.

Input Output
Industry

KAIZEN
action

KAIZEN is a corrective action.


2 Contents

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KAIZEN Management

KM 7 KM 8

Definitions of KAIZEN
1. A selection of better means
Definition of KAIZEN or a change of current method
for achieving an objective.

2. An accumulation of small changes


The Japan HR Association

KM 9
Orange Packing (1) KM 10

The way of packing oranges


It is difficult to open a net and put
in Japan oranges in the net at the same time.

I need
help.

Productivity: 1 net per min.

KM 11 KM 12
Orange Packing (2)
A selection of better means
Cooperation increases a work efficiency. or a change of current method
for achieving an objective.

Can you think of a better


method to pack oranges?

Productivity: 5 nets per min. with 2 workers Productivity: 5 nets per min. with 1 worker
1 2

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KM 13 KM 14

Definitions of KAIZEN Chopsticks

1. A selection of better means


or a change of current method
for achieving an objective.

2. An accumulation of small changes


The Japan HR Association

Benjo 1

KM 15 KM 16
Problem KAIZEN 1
Many Japanese children hold Parents teach the proper way of
their chopsticks improperly holding chopsticks

… but still difficult to use

KM 17 KM 18
KAIZEN 2 KAIZEN 3

Soft paddings (Japanese fish paste) were Training chopsticks were used for
attached to the ends of the chopsticks teaching

… for some children, balancing the chopsticks is difficult

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KAIZEN Management

KM 19 KM 20

Where
KAIZENisisa adivision between
small change to
our jobs andsomething
make KAIZEN? better.
KAIZEN is a - I picked up a garbage and
continuous improvement put it in a trashcan.
- I wiped the windows and
Continuous = again and again, ongoing made them clean.
- I used a mop to clean the gasoline
left on the floor.
4

KM 21 KM 22

A waitress was working KAIZEN is a small change


at a restaurant in Tokyo A small change of a method

- KAIZEN is to change a way of using


the mop

Any way to pick up the mop?


Any way to store the mop?
Any way to carry the mop?
1

KM 23 KM 24

stapler stapler

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KAIZEN Management

KM 25 KM 26

toothbrush Swatter

KM 27 KM 28

tweezers

KM 29 KM 30

Improvement by
changing methods KAIZEN Steps
How do we change methods?

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KAIZEN Management

KAIZEN Steps KM 31 KM 32
KAIZEN Steps Review
- Abolition - Abolition
- Discontinuance - Discontinuance
- Exclusion - Exclusion
- Removal - Removal

- Simplification - Simplification
- Centralization - Centralization
- Synchronization - Synchronization
- Standardization - Standardization
- Management for exceptions - Management for exceptions
- Integration - Integration
- Combination - Combination

- Alternation - Alternation
- Exchange - Exchange
- Conversion - Conversion
- Diversification - Diversification
- Separation - Separation
4 3

KM 33 KM 34

Elimination Remove this


KAIZEN by “Elimination”
sliding door
Why are shoe box doors needed?

What is the use of the sliding doors? Before After


1

KM 35 KM 36
Toilets Frankfurt
KAIZEN by “Elimination” CDG(Paris)

Why is the toilet cover needed?

Before After
1 Hong Kong Tokyo

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KAIZEN Management

KM 37 KM 38

KAIZEN by “Elimination” Reduce A fluorescent light


bulb was removed.
No sleeves down-jacket is easy to work.

Before

The number of fluorescent lights


1 was reduced.
After

KM 39 KM 40

KAIZEN by “Reduction” Parking Lot

Are two bricks needed


to stop a car?

Before

KM 41 KM 42

KAIZEN by “Reduction”
One brick is enough
Zebra Zone
to stop a car.

Before

After 1 1

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KAIZEN Management

KM 43 KM 44

KAIZEN by “Reduction” KAIZEN by “Reduction”


A brush part of the toothbrush is
Side lines of
not necessarily long.
the zebra zone
are removed.

Before

After After
1 Before 1

KM 45 KM 46

toothbrushes Change

By watching the ribbon movement,


one can recognize that the air
conditioner is working.

Motion Picture KM 47 KM 48

KAIZEN by “Change”
The hollow about the key hole
smoothes the key movement.

Before After
1

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KAIZEN Management

KM 49 KM 50

KAIZEN by “Change” Motion Picture

To oil the pan, a small teapot is


more convenient than a ladle.

Before After
1

KM 51 KM 52

KAIZEN by “Change”
Stairways at the railway station
should have signs of up and down.

At JR Kurume Station

Before After 1

KM 53 KM 54

Rush Hour

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KAIZEN Management

KM 55 KM 56

KAIZEN by “Change” Hanging Straps in JR trains


The shape of the hanging strap
fits the hand.

Before After
1

KM 57 KM 58

Hanging strap in
Hong Kong subways
Suggestion System
vs.
KAIZEN Suggestion System

The Japan HR Association


to Suggestion System

KM 59 KM 60

Suggestion System Suggestion System Concept


You suggest your ideas, and I will
examine them and implement some
of your ideas later.
Reward

Idea

Idea

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KAIZEN Management

KM 61 KM 62

KAIZEN Suggestion System Suggestion System


Implemented KAIZEN ideas must Workers’
responsibility Management responsibility
be submitted
Idea
generation

Workers’ responsibility Management


N
IZE responsibility
KA eet
sh

KAIZEN Suggestion System


Difference (1)

KM 63 KM 64

Suggestion System
Propose improvement ideas for any
activity in the company.

KAIZEN Suggestion System


Propose only improvement ideas
which will improve your own work.

KAIZEN
1
Difference (2) Memo

AOTS KAIZEN KM 65 AOTS KAIZEN KM 66

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KAIZEN Management

Reward KM 67 KM 68
Award Payment for Each
KAIZEN Suggestion (1999)
0 50 100 150 200 250

0 2
1-99 8
100-199 88
200-299 79

Jpn Yen
300-399 80
400-499 21
500-599 192
600-999 30
1000-2999 89
over 3000 14
Average 321 yen
Surveyed 603 companies

KM 69 KM 70

Implementation Survey
Different styles of change
No. of Participated Companies
900
Implementation rate 1. Small change --- By individual effort, a better
800 Participation rate way of proceeding a job is
700
95
(KAIZEN) considered. (Idea creation)
600
500 90
400
300
85 2. Medium change --- By group effort, a better way
200 is proposed by following
100
80
(Small group predetermined steps (or rule).
75
0
73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99
70
activities)
65 3. Big change --- By investments in new technology
or equipment, dramatic alterations
60
82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 (Innovation) are achieved.
1 2

KM 71 KM 72
Newspaper
Article
Process
Tool Change Change

Nikkei News,
Nov. 22,1997
1
Tomato Juice

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KAIZEN Management

Tomato Juice
KM 73 KM 74
Hydroponics Cultivation
Process Material
Tool Change Change Change

6000 tomatoes Input Output


Industry
Man-power
Machines
Materials
Methods KAIZEN
(4M’s) action
2
1

Two Attitudes KM 75 Two Attitudes KM 76


Japanese firms
n
Management a tio
v
no
In EN
Staff IZ
A o
K qu
Management Breakthrough us
Floor people at
St

Staff Non-Japanese firms


n
Management tio
va
Status quo no EN
Floor people In A
IZ
Staff K o
qu
us
at
Floor people St
1
1 Contents

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KAIZEN Management

5S 1 5S 2

What is ?
5S KAIZEN

Source: Takashi Osada “The 5S’s: Five Keys to a Total Quality


Environment” APO, 1991.

5S 3 5S 4

5S stands for 5 initials of the


following Japanese words: International 5S
1. Sei-ri (Organization)
2. Sei-ton (Neatness) 5 Steps for improvement
3. Sei-so (Cleaning)
4. Sei-ke-tsu (Standardization)
5. Shi-tsu-ke (Self-discipline) KAIZEN
5S ONCSS

5S 5 5S 6

Seiri = Organization Why is my desk getting messy?


Dictionary definition:
To put things in order (or organize them)
according to a specific rule or principle.

Industrial definition:
To distinguish between necessary things
and unnecessary things, and getting rid
of what you do not need.

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KAIZEN Management

5S 7 5S 8

Why messy? Do you throw these


things away?
It works!
Not necessary
Unnecessary Not necessary It has a value!
Necessary now, but maybe
in the future now, but maybe It’s still new!
in the future
It’s usable!
It looks nice!
Every item on my desk belongs to the gray circle

5S 9 5S 10

For example:

Small erasers
The first step
Short pencils to assist your
Notebook decision to “throw
Tie pin away or save” is a
Red tag movement.
at Japanese companies

5S 11 5S 12

Red tag movement Red tag movement


At the beginning of each month,
put a red tag on every item.

During the month, remove the red


tag when item is used.

At the end of the month, decide


whether the item with the tag is
necessary or not.

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KAIZEN Management

5S 13 5S 14

Key Words:

1. Classification management
Wooden (Necessary & unnecessary things)
Pallet
2. Red tag movement

For unnecessary things, find


their true causes.

5S 15 5S 16

SEIRI

After Necessary Not necessary Unnecessary


things now ,but-------- things

Red tag
movement
Before SEITON

Disposal
T. Sugiyama “The 5S Approach to Improvement” PHP, 1995
Cleaned workplace

5S 17 5S 18

Question
Seiton = Neatness
When you ask someone to bring a
Dictionary definition:
Establishing a neat layout so that you can hammer, how long can you wait
always get just as much of what you need without getting mad?
when you need it.
How long is your patience?
Industrial definition:
It is a way of eliminating 5 minutes?
search. 2 minutes??
or
5 seconds???

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KAIZEN Management

5S 19 5S 20

30 Second Rule

Tool Box

K.P.Shrestha (Nepal)

5S 21 5S 22

30 Second Rule Key Words:


1.Design an efficient layout.
(Functional storage)

2.Eliminate search
(Less search)

Everything should have a name.


(A place for everything and everything in its place)

Reserved seats
The Japan HR Association

5S 23 5S 24
Posters of Seiri

After

Before

T. Sugiyama “The 5S Approach to Improvement” PHP, 1995 Malaysia, AOTS Oman

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KAIZEN Management

5S 25 5S 26
Posters of Seiton

Seiso = Cleaning
Definition:
Eliminating trash, filth, and
foreign matters for a cleaner
workplace. Cleaning as a form
of inspection.

Malaysia, AOTS Oman

5S 27 5S 28

Cleanliness is a big business today.


Key Words:
Sanitation engineers
Keep things clean Laundry
Dry cleaner
Janitor
+ Inspection Garbage collector
Pollution control operator
(Caring attitude) Clean-room designer
One-third (1/3) or one-fourth (1/4) of
the total investment amount is used
for cleanliness.

5S 29 5S 30

Cleanliness
Broom

Dust pan
Mop

Mumbai (India) Churchgate station Oct ‘05


Marugoto 5S Tenkai Daijiten, Nikkan-kogyo Shinbun, 1992

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5S 31 5S 32

Sei-ke-tsu Seiketsu = Standardization


Definition: SEIRI SEITON
Keeping things organized, neat,
and clean, even in personal and
environment aspects.
SEISO

5S 33 5S 34

Charles H. Kepner
What is “Problem” ? Benjamin B. Tregoe
Problem is something like ----. “The New Rational Manager” Princeton Research Press, Shin-
kanrisha no Handanryoku (Japanese Edition), 1985

GAP
Ideal State Current State

5S 35 5S 36

Key Words:

1. Define an ideal state


2. Standardize the solution
(5S standardization)

Documentation (ISO 9000)

1 Kathmandu, NEPAL

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KAIZEN Management

5S 37 5S 38

Streets in
After
Kathmandu

Before

T. Sugiyama “The 5S Approach to Improvement” PHP, 1995

5S 39 5S 40

ATA Boiler Company


(at Petropolis near Rio de Janeiro)
Shitsuke = Self-discipline

Definition:
Doing the right things as a matter
of course.

Associated to Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd .

5S 41 5S 42
Morning exercise
ATA Boiler

The Japan HR Association

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5S 43 5S 44

Key Words:
Typical Shitsuke Activities
1. Wear your safety shoes
1. Habit formation 2. Exercise time
(Make it a habit) 3. No smoking at workplace

2. Create a disciplined workplace

Click for Exercise

5S 45 5S 46
Posters of 5S
5S in
Colombo

Chennai, India

5S 47 5S 48
Posters of 5S Posters of 5S

SEIRI

SEITON SHITSUKE

SEISO SEIKETSU

Nepal Thailand Nepal

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Benefits of 5S 5S 49 5S 50

National Productivity
Board, Singapore At SIME Tyres (Malaysia)

5S 51

Why not start 5S today?

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JIT 1 JIT 2

KAIZEN in Just-In-Time
KAIZEN in Just-In-Time Production System
Production System
Jay-eye-tea

JIT
Toyota Production System

JIT 3 JIT 4
Supermarket Concept &
“What issue/concept will be most
important to you in the 1990’s ?”
KANBAN System
Reduction of Production Lead Time

KANBAN
Delivery Order Receipt

Production
Production Lead Time

Source: Sanno College “Seisan-shi Textbook” Source: Suzuki “The New Manufacturing

Challenge”

JIT 5 JIT 6
Push System
Just-In-Time (JIT) system
The concept of producing or conveying
only those units needed,
just when they are needed,
in just the amount needed,
at all stages of production.
By Toyota Motor Company

Push and Pull System


Pull System Source: Weekly Diamond ’91.11.2

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KAIZEN Management

JIT 7 JIT 8

Mistakes
Fool-proof (Poka-yoke)
Note: “Poka” ----- Carelessness; Absent-mind Make mistakes for counting, measuring,
work sequence, setting, etc.
“Yoke”----- Elimination

“I forgot things to do.”


This refers to the thoughtful use “I missed the monitoring.”
of devices which eliminates
operator’s careless mistakes. “I did something which I should not do.”

JIT 9 JIT 10

Analysis of Carelessness Poka-yoke Example 1


Kanebo Chemical, 1989

0% 100%

Wrong operations 23%


( )

Negligence (Forgetfulness) 48%


( )
Screw driver slips
and scratches the
Never slips
Source: “Poka-yoke activities“ Kanebo Chem.,1991 product. Source: “Poka-yoke Daizukan” Nikkan-kogyo 1987

JIT 11 JIT 12

Poka-yoke Example 2 Have you ever been to a bakery shop?

Fool-proof device

Non-defective
Defective

Bending Machine

Kumasi, Ghana
Source: “Poka-yoke Daizukan” Nikkan-kogyo 1987

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KAIZEN Management

JIT 13 JIT 14

When you visit a Japanese home, Something in shoes


you must take off your shoes.

JIT 15 JIT 16

Exercise 1 Brush?
Where is a brush?
Inside the tank?
Poka-yoke Exercises

By unknown

JIT 17 JIT 18

Exercise 2
Poka-yoke Solution
The worker stirs the liquid in a
The brush
tank and add some additives.
is tied with
a rope. “Did I already add
additives?”

By unknown

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KAIZEN Management

JIT 19 JIT 20

Poka-yoke Solution Autonomation (Jidoka)


Before stirring the liquid,
put additives in cups. Autonomous Automation

Jidoka refers to the ability of


production equipment, including
a single machine, to sense a
malfunction of the machine.

JIT 21 JIT 22

Autonomation (Jidoka): Andon board (an electrical


Automation with a human touch board)
Stop! I don’t know.

Jidoka Simple automation

JIT 23 JIT 24
Three processes of weaving
Loom with non-stop shuttle change, 1924
(Sakichi Toyoda, 57years old)
Automatic loom, type G

In 1929, Platt Brothers of England requested


Koshibata (primitive loom) Back strap loom technology licensing agreement from Toyota.

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KAIZEN Management

JIT 25 JIT 26

Single minute exchange of die


Stamping Machine
(SMED)

The goal of single minute 13.1 tons


set-up movement is to
reduce the set-up time to
less than 10 minutes.
Single minute
Old style Modern style

JIT 27 JIT 28
Demonstration 1
Question
Make a knot, but you must
hold both ends of the rope.

JIT 29 JIT 30
Demonstration 2
The Trick of the Magic

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KAIZEN Management

JIT 31 JIT 32
Masking
tape Paint an arrow Advanced Preparation

Trash can Spreadsheet

Example (1) Source: The Japan HR Association

JIT 33 JIT 34

Can you put your tie


within 5 seconds? 10 minutes look too short to
replace
both upper and lower dies

Time Savings

JIT 35 JIT 36
U-shaped washer Nut and bolt

Demonstration

Pear-shaped holes

Source: H. Hirano “Me de mite wakaru JIT Seisan Hoshiki” Nikkan-kogyo Shinbun, 1990
Example (2)

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KAIZEN Management

JIT 37 JIT 38
Toyota’s spirit

KAIZEN in Toyota
Waste Elimination
A single KAIZEN effect may be
small, but with continuous
Squeeze out a last drop
accumulated effort, it can out of a dried towel.
produce good results.

JIT 39 JIT 40

Seven Wastes
1. Waste from over-production
2. Waste of waiting time
3. Transportation waste
4. Processing waste
5. Inventory waste
6. Waste of motion
7. Waste from product defectives
Source: “Stockless Production” Nikkan-kogyo Shinbun, 1989
Stockless Production Contents

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KAIZEN Management

Reference books
Many reference books are available. You may search “Amazon.com” by putting one of the following
keywords: KAIZEN, 5S, JIT or Toyota. Some reference books which are recommended to have a
deep understanding for KAIZEN Management are listed as follows:
1. Tozawa Bunji, Norman Bodok “The Idea Generator: Quick and Easy Kaizen” PCS Press 2001
2. Imai Masaaki “Kaizen (Ky’zen): the key to Japan’s competitive success” McGraw Pub. 1986
3. Japan Human Relations Association “The improvement engine: creativity & innovation through
employee involvement: The Kaizen Teian system” Productivity Press, 1995
4. Osada Takashi “The 5S’s: five keys to a total quality environment” Asian Productivity
Organization, 1995
5. Hirano Hiroyuki “Putting 5S to work: a practical step-by-step approach” PHP Institute, 1993
6. Shingo Shigeo “A revolution in manufacturing: the SMED system” Productivity Press, 1985
7. Shingo Shigeo “A study of the Toyota production system from an industrial engineering
viewpoint” Productivity Press, 1989
8. Christensen Clayton “The innovator’s Dilemma” Harper Collins, 2003
9. Utterback James “Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation: How companies can seize
opportunities inn the face of technological change” Harvard Business School Press, 1994
10. Sugiyama Tomoo “5S approach to improvement” PHP Institute, 1998
11. Ohno Taiichi “Toyota production system: Beyond large-scale production” Productivity Press,
1988
12. Shingo Shigeo “ “Non-stock production: The Shingo System for Continuous Improvement”
Productivity Press, 1995
13. Liker Jeffrey “The Toyota Way: 14 Management Principles from the World’s Greatest
Manufacturer, McGraw-Hill 2004
14. Robinson, Alan (Editor) “The continuous improvement in Operations: A systematic Approach
to Waste Reduction” Productivity Press, 1991
15. Japan HR Association “KAIZEN Teian I: Development systems for Continuous Improvement
through Employee Suggestions” Productivity Press 1992
16. Japan HR Association “KAIZEN Teian II: Guiding Continuous Improvement through
Employee Suggestions” Productivity Press, 1992
17. Japan HR Association “The Idea Book: Improvement through TEI (Total Employee
Involvement)” Productivity Press
18. Hirano, H. “JIT Factory Revolution: A Pictorial Guide to Factory Design of the Future”
Productivity Press. ISBN 0-915299-44-5
19. Majima, I. “The shift to JIT: How people make the difference” Productivity Press.
ISBN0-9915299-93-3
20. Monden, Y. “Toyota Production Systems” Institute of Industrial Engineers. 1983

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KAIZEN awareness check 1
1. A driving force to KAIZEN activities is
a. Monetary award
b. Problem consciousness
c. Workers' motivation
d. Management skill

2. "Innovation" (in contrast to KAIZEN) is


a. A short cut approach
b. A new fashion
c. A good management
d. A big change

3. KAIZEN is defined as
a. An accumulation of small changes
b. A quick way of changing your work
c. A method to increase productivity
d. A good manner

4. KAIZEN steps are defined as


a. Change - Eliminate - Reduce
b. Reduce - Change - Eliminate
c. Eliminate - Reduce - Change
d. Simplify - Combine - Remove

5. Approximately what percent of Japanese companies seems to adopt KAIZEN


suggestion system?
a. 40%
b. 70%
c. 90%
d. 100%

6. Japanese production managers believe that the most important issue/concept for
production management in 1990's is
a. Reduction of production lead-time
b. Integration of production and sales
c. Improvement of customer service
d. Marketing research

7. An original idea of JIT came from


a. Drive-in theater
b. Fast food restaurant
c. Supermarket
d. Gas station

8. KANBAN which is used in JIT production systems is


a. A tool to supply products to customers
b. A tool to fill up parts which are used.
c. A sign for alarm
d. A billboard

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KAIZEN Management
9. "Poka-Yoke (Fool proof) devices" are
a. Protection devices from earthquake and typhoons
b. Devices which increase production volume
c. Devices which motivates production workers
d. Devices which eliminate operator's careless mistakes

10. A purpose of minimum inventory (stockless production) is


a. To find out (or visualize) problems to be improved.
b. To enhance management capability for the risk.
c. To make inventory control easy.
d. To save inventory cost.

11. The 5S stands for


a. Five times more satisfaction
b. Five keys for success
c. Five Japanese words with an initial S
d. Five factors for a work improvement

12. The average time allowed to fetch (search, find and bring back) a hammer is
a. 10 seconds
b. 30 seconds
c. 60 seconds
d. 90 seconds

13. For a facility investment, approximately how much is used for cleanliness?
a. 80% of the investment cost
b. 60% of the investment cost
c. 30% of the investment cost
d. 10% of the investment cost

14. The essence of "Seiso (cleaning)" is


a. An inspection
b. Picking up a garbage
c. A search
d. A standardization

15. The essence of " Shitsuke (self-discipline) " is


a. To set up a rule
b. To let people greet to each other
c. A communication
d. A habit formation

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KAIZEN Management
KAIZEN awareness check 2
[KAIZEN]
1. A driving force to KAIZEN activities is
a. Monetary award
b. Problem consciousness
c. Workers' motivation
d. Management skill

2. "Innovation" (in contrast to KAIZEN) is


a. A short cut approach
b. A new fashion
c. A good management
d. A big change

3. KAIZEN is defined as
a. An accumulation of small changes
b. A quick way of changing your work
c. A method to increase productivity
d. A good manner

4. What does KAIZEN change?


a. Change - Eliminate - Reduce
b. Reduce - Change - Eliminate
c. Eliminate - Reduce - Change
d. Simplify - Combine – Remove

5. KAIZEN steps are defined as


a. Change - Eliminate - Reduce
b. Reduce - Change - Eliminate
c. Eliminate - Reduce - Change
d. Simplify - Combine - Remove

6. For KAIZEN suggestion system, what type of ideas must be submitted?


a. Ideas to change company policy
b. Ideas to change your own work
c. Ideas to improve profit
d. Ideas to improve management style

7. Approximately what percent of Japanese companies seems to adopt KAIZEN


suggestion system?
a. 40%
b. 70%
c. 90%
d. 100%

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KAIZEN Management
[JIT]
1. Japanese production managers believe that the most important issue/concept for
production management in 1990's is
a. Reduction of production lead-time
b. Integration of production and sales
c. Improvement of customer service
d. Marketing research

2. An original idea of JIT came from


a. Drive-in theater
b. Fast food restaurant
c. Supermarket
d. Gas station

3. A factor which makes your production schedule difficult is


a. A demand fluctuation
b. A marketing strategy
c. An employee involvement
d. A bonus incentives

4. KANBAN which is used in JIT production systems is


e. A tool to supply products to customers
f. A tool to fill up parts which are used.
g. A sign for alarm
h. A billboard

5. An aim of one-piece flow is


a. A high productivity
b. A high flexibility
c. A low defective rate
d. A low cost

6. "Poka-Yoke (Fool proof) devices" are


a. Protection devices from earthquake and typhoons
b. Devices which increase production volume
c. Devices which motivates production workers
d. Devices which eliminate operator's careless mistakes

7. A purpose of minimum inventory (stockless production) is


a. To find out (or visualize) problems to be improved.
b. To enhance management capability for the risk.
c. To make inventory control easy.
d. To save inventory cost.

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KAIZEN Management
[5S]
1. The 5S stands for
a. Five times more satisfaction
b. Five keys for success
c. Five Japanese words with an initial S
d. Five factors for a work improvement

2. The purpose of the“Red Tag Movement” is


a. To distinguish the necessary things and unnecessary things
b. To clean up a workplace
c. To decorate products
d. To find the shortest way of achieving an objective

3. The average time allowed to fetch (search, find and bring back) a hammer is
a. 10 seconds
b. 30 seconds
c. 60 seconds
d. 90 seconds

4. For a facility investment, approximately how much is used for cleanliness?


a. 80% of the investment cost
b. 60% of the investment cost
c. 30% of the investment cost
d. 10% of the investment cost

5. The essence of "Seiso (cleaning)" is


a. An inspection
b. Picking up a garbage
c. A search
d. A standardization

6. A “problem”is defined as
a. Homework assignment
b. Objects which you must attack
c. A gap between ideal state and current state
d. Something which you can buy at supermarket

7. The essence of " Shitsuke (self-discipline) " is


a. To set up a rule
b. To let people greet to each other
c. A communication
d. A habit formation

8. The value of“fixed-position photographic approach” is


a. Employees’ involvement
b. Customer satisfaction
c. Job rotation
d. Quality improvement

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KAIZEN Management

Conference materials from Website


For participants who would like to receive power point print-out materials for today’s
KAIZEN Conference, please download the files from the following URLs
(http://www.waseda.jp/ocw/index_e.html).

(Steps)
1. Click "Course List”on the left column of the screen.
2. Choose “2007 Management and Technology 1”(Click “Choose” button)
3. Click “Referring to Related Material” at the bottom of the screen.
4. View “OCW KAIZEN Management”.(Click “View” button)
5. Then you will find a menu page of the work.

(Three options)
1. When you simply like to view conference materials, click the icon named “Material
View”.
2. When you like to download the conference material in your computer, click the
icon named “PPT download”. Make sure to save each file in your computer. The
downloaded files (zip files) need to be unpacked for opening individual file. It will
take five to ten minutes for downloading.
3. When you like to see the video material, click the icon named “Video Introduction”.
It takes a little time to download the entire materials. Be patient!

Should you have any questions or further requests, feel free to send me an e-mail:
fujitas@waseda.jp

In order to read the downloaded materials, your computer must have Adobe Reader.
If you do not have it, please download the free software from the following URL:
http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html

Seiichi FUJITA

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KAIZEN Management

Instructions: Draw sketches of “Before KAIZEN” and “After KAIZEN”


Use a DARK black pen or a THICK pencil
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