Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

79 tayangan

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- MECP Basic Study Guide
- 10th CBSE Science-compressed.pdf
- p2 - Electric Circuits - Low Demand- Qp Aqa-gcse-physics
- Circuit Theory - Solved Assignments - Semester Fall 2006
- Circuits in Parallel and in Series-simulation and Hands On
- Sample Anwer for Robot
- BASIC ELECTROTECHNOLOGY.pdf
- Voltage, Current, Resistance, And Ohm's Law - Learn
- Circuit Theory PPT
- Phys 142 Final 2013
- CCJ_Generators_Efforts to Locate, Repair Damage From Spark Erosion Advance
- RESISTORS CLASS X
- IJISET_V1_I3_49
- EE-1998
- EC GRAND TEST-1 30.10.2014
- CURRENT-ELECTRICITY
- Docslide.us Solucionario Capitulo 26 Paul e Tippens
- Chap 2 Elektrik
- Application Note - High Current With 3 CP CB2
- 09 Resistivity Logging

Anda di halaman 1dari 56

Voltage can be thought of as the force that pushes electrons through a conductor and the

greater the voltage the greater is its ability to "push" the electrons through a given circuit.

As energy has the ability to do work this potential energy can be described as the work

required in joules to move electrons in the form of an electrical current around a circuit

from one point or node to another. The difference in voltage between any two nodes in a

circuit is known as the Potential Difference, p.d. sometimes called Voltage Drop.

Voltage Symbols

A simple relationship can be made between a tank of water and a voltage supply. The

higher the water tank above the outlet the greater the pressure of the water as more

energy is released, the higher the voltage the greater the potential energy as more

electrons are released. Voltage is always measured as the difference between any two

points in a circuit and the voltage between these two points is generally referred to as the

"Voltage drop". Any voltage source whether DC or AC likes an open or semi-open

circuit condition but hates any short circuit condition as this can destroy it.

Electrical Current

Electrical Current is the movement or flow of electrical charge and is measured in

Amperes, symbol i, for intensity). It is the continuous and uniform flow (called a drift) of

electrons (the negative particles of an atom) around a circuit that are being "pushed" by

the voltage source. In reality, electrons flow from the negative (-ve) terminal to the

positive (+ve) terminal of the supply and for ease of circuit understanding conventional

current flow assumes that the current flows from the positive to the negative terminal.

Generally in circuit diagrams the flow of current through the circuit usually has an arrow

associated with the symbol, I, or lowercase i to indicate the actual direction of the current

flow. However, this arrow usually indicates the direction of conventional current flow

and not necessarily the direction of the actual flow.

Conventionally this is the flow of positive charge around a circuit. The diagram at the left

shows the movement of the positive charge (holes) which flows from the positive

terminal of the battery, through the circuit and returns to the negative terminal of the

battery. This was the convention chosen during the

discovery of electricity in which the direction of electric

current was thought to flow in a circuit. In circuit diagrams,

the arrows shown on symbols for components such as

diodes and transistors point in the direction of conventional

current flow. Conventional Current Flow is the opposite

in direction to the flow of electrons.

Electron Flow

The flow of electrons around the circuit is opposite to the direction of the conventional

current flow. The current flowing in a circuit is composed of

electrons that flow from the negative pole of the battery (the

cathode) and return to the positive pole (the anode). This is

because the charge on an electron is negative by definition

and so is attracted to the positive terminal. The flow of

electrons is called Electron Current Flow. Therefore,

electrons flow from the negative terminal to the positive.

many textbooks. In fact, it makes no difference which way the current is flowing around

the circuit as long as the direction is used consistently. The direction of current flow does

not affect what the current does within the circuit. Generally it is much easier to

understand the conventional current flow - positive to negative.

Resistance

The Resistance of a circuit is its ability to resist or prevent the flow of current (electron

flow) through it making it necessary to apply a bigger voltage to the circuit to cause the

current to flow again. Resistance is measured in Ohms, Greek symbol ( Ω, Omega ) with

prefixes used to denote Kilo-ohms (kΩ = 103Ω) and Mega-ohms (MΩ = 106Ω).

Resistance cannot be negative only positive.

Resistor Symbols

The amount of resistance determines whether the circuit is a "good conductor" - low

resistance, or a "bad conductor" - high resistance. Low resistance, for example 1Ω or less

implies that the circuit is a good conductor made from materials such as copper,

aluminium or carbon while a high resistance, 1MΩ or more implies the circuit is a bad

conductor made from insulating materials such as glass, porcelain or plastic. A

"semiconductor" on the other hand such as silicon or germanium, is a material whose

resistance is half way between that of a good conductor and a good insulator.

Semiconductors are used to make Diodes and Transistors etc.

electric current. An object of uniform cross section will have a resistance proportional to

its resistivity and length and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area.

parallels with the mechanical notion of friction. The SI unit of electrical resistance is the

ohm (Ω). Resistance's reciprocal quantity is electrical conductance measured in siemens.

R = {V \over I}

the passage of current. It is the ratio of the potential difference (i.e. voltage) across an

electric component (such as a resistor) to the current passing through that component:

<math>R = \frac{V}{I}<math>

where

I is the current passing through the component, measured in amperes

Here are the standard units of measurement for electrical current, voltage, and resistance:

Summary

Hopefully by know you have an idea of how voltage, current and resistance are related.

The relationship between Voltage, Current and Resistance forms the basis of Ohm's law

which in a linear circuit states that if we increase the voltage, the current goes up and if

we increase the resistance, the current goes down. A basic summary of the three units is

given below.

• Voltage or potential difference is the measure of potential energy between

two points in a circuit and is commonly referred to as its "volt drop".

• When a voltage source is connected to a closed loop circuit the voltage

will produce a current flowing around the circuit.

• In D.C. voltage sources the symbols +ve (positive) and -ve (negative) are

used to denote the polarity of the voltage supply.

• Voltage is measured in "Volts" and has the symbol "V" for voltage or "E"

for energy.

• Current flow is a combination of electron flow and hole flow through a

circuit.

• Current is the continuous and uniform flow of charge around the circuit

and is measured in "Amperes" or "Amps" and has the symbol "I".

• The effective (rms) value of an AC current has the same average power

loss equivalent to a DC current flowing through a resistive element.

• Resistance is the opposition to current flowing around a circuit.

• Low values of resistance implies a conductor and high values of

resistance implies an insulator.

• Resistance is measured in "Ohms" and has the Greek symbol "Ω" or the

letter "R".

Unit of

Quantity Symbol Abbreviation

Measure

Voltage V or E Volt V

Current I Amp A

Resistance R Ohms Ω

In the next tutorial about DC Theory we will look at Ohms Law which is a mathematical

equation explaining the relationship between Voltage, Current, and Resistance within

electrical circuits and is the foundation of electronics and electrical engineering. Ohm's

Law is defined as: E = I x R.

Ohms Law

The relationship between Voltage, Current and Resistance in any DC electrical circuit

was firstly discovered by the German physicist Georg Ohm, (1787 - 1854). Georg Ohm

found that, at a constant temperature, the electrical current flowing through a fixed linear

resistance is directly proportional to the voltage applied across it, and also inversely

proportional to the resistance. This relationship between the Voltage, Current and

Resistance forms the bases of Ohms Law and is shown below.

By knowing any two values of the Voltage, Current or Resistance quantities we can use

Ohms Law to find the third missing value. Ohms Law is used extensively in electronics

formulas and calculations so it is "very important to understand and accurately remember

these formulas".

It is sometimes easier to remember Ohms law relationship by using pictures. Here the

three quantities of V, I and R have been superimposed into a triangle (affectionately

called the Ohms Law Triangle) giving voltage at the top with current and resistance at

the bottom. This arrangement represents the actual position of each quantity in the Ohms

law formulas.

Then by using Ohms Law we can see that a voltage of 1V applied to a resistor of 1Ω will

cause a current of 1A to flow and the greater the resistance, the less current will flow for

any applied voltage. Any Electrical device or component that obeys "Ohms Law" that is,

the current flowing through it is proportional to the voltage across it (I α V), such as

resistors or cables, are said to be "Ohmic" in nature, and devices that do not, such as

transistors or diodes, are said to be "Non-ohmic" devices.

Electrical Power, (P) in a circuit is the amount of energy that is absorbed or produced

within the circuit. A source of energy such as a voltage will produce or deliver power

while the connected load absorbs it. The quantity symbol for power is P and is the

product of voltage multiplied by the current with the unit of measurement being the Watt

(W) with prefixes used to denote milliwatts (mW = 10-3W) or kilowatts (kW = 103W).

By using Ohm's law and substituting for V, I and R the formula for electrical power can

be found as:

Also,

Also,

Again, the three quantities have been superimposed into a triangle this time called the

Power Triangle with power at the top and current and voltage at the bottom. Again, this

arrangement represents the actual position of each quantity in the Ohms law power

formulas.

One other point about Power, if the calculated power is positive in value for any formula

the component absorbs the power, but if the calculated power is negative in value the

component produces power, in other words it is a source of electrical energy. Also, we

now know that the unit of power is the WATT but some electrical devices such as electric

motors have a power rating in Horsepower or hp. The relationship between horsepower

and watts is given as: 1hp = 746W.

We can now take all the equations from above for finding Voltage, Current, Resistance

and Power and condense them into a simple Ohms Law pie chart for use in DC circuits

and calculations.

Fundamentals: Electric Laws − Formulary −

Equations Formula wheel ▼ Important

formulas Electrical engineering laws Electronic

engineering laws

V comes from "voltage" and E from "electromotive

force". E means also energy, so V is chosen.

Example No1

For the circuit shown below find the Voltage (V), the Current (I), the Resistance (R) and

the Power (P).

Current [ I = V ÷ R ] = 24 ÷ 12Ω = 2A

Resistance [ R = V ÷ I ] = 24 ÷ 2 = 12 Ω

Power [ P = V x I ] = 24 x 2 = 48W

Power within an electrical circuit is only present when BOTH voltage and current are

present for example, In an Open-circuit condition, Voltage is present but there is no

current flow I = 0 (zero), therefore V x 0 is 0 so the power dissipated within the circuit

must also be 0. Likewise, if we have a Short-circuit condition, current flow is present but

there is no voltage V = 0, therefore 0 x I = 0 so again the power dissipated within the

circuit is 0.

As electrical power is the product of V x I, the power dissipated in a circuit is the same

whether the circuit contains high voltage and low current or low voltage and high current

flow. Generally, power is dissipated in the form of Heat (heaters), Mechanical Work

such as motors, etc Energy in the form of radiated (Lamps) or as stored energy

(Batteries).

Electrical Energy that is either absorbed or produced is the product of the electrical

power measured in Watts and the time in Seconds with the unit of energy given as Watt-

seconds or Joules.

Although electrical energy is measured in Joules it can become a very large value when

used to calculate the energy consumed by a component. For example, a single 100 W

light bulb connected for one hour will consume a total of 100 watts x 3600 sec = 360,000

Joules. So prefixes such as kilojoules (kJ = 103J) or megajoules (MJ = 106J) are used

instead. If the electrical power is measured in "kilowatts" and the time is given in hours

then the unit of energy is in kilowatt-hours or kWh which is commonly called a "Unit of

Electricity" and is what consumers purchase from their electricity suppliers.

Now that we know what is the relationship between voltage, current and resistance in a

circuit, in the next tutorial about DC Theory we will look at the Standard Electrical Units

used in electrical and electronic engineering to enable us to calculate these values and see

that each value can be represented by either multiples or sub-multiples of the unit.

Kirchoff's Circuit Laws

In 1845, a German physicist, Gustav Kirchoff developed a pair or set of rules or laws

which deal with the conservation of current and energy within electrical circuits, one of

these laws deals with current flow, Kirchoff's Current Law, (KCL) and the other one

which deals with voltage, Kirchoff's Voltage Law, (KVL).

Kirchoff's Current Law or KCL, states that the "total current or charge entering a

junction or node is exactly equal to the charge leaving the node as it has no other place

to go except to leave, as no charge is lost within the node". In other words the algebraic

sum of ALL the currents entering and leaving a node must be equal to zero,

I(exiting) + I(entering) = 0. This idea by Kirchoff is known as the Conservation of Charge.

Here, the 3 currents entering the node, I1, I2, I3 are all positive in value and the 2 currents

leaving the node, I4 and I5 are negative in value. Then this means we can also rewrite the

equation as;

I1 + I2 + I3 - I4 - I5 = 0

The term Node in an electrical circuit generally refers to a connection or junction of two

or more current carrying paths or elements such as cables and components. Also for

current to flow either in or out of a node a closed circuit path must exist. We can use

Kirchoff's current law when analysing parallel circuits.

Kirchoff's Voltage Law or KVL, states that "in any closed loop network, the total

voltage around the loop is equal to the sum of all the voltage drops within the same loop"

which is also equal to zero. In other words the algebraic sum of all voltages within the

loop must be equal to zero. This idea by Kirchoff is known as the Conservation of

Energy.

Starting at any point in the loop continue in the same direction noting the direction of all

the voltage drops, either positive or negative, and returning back to the same starting

point. It is important to maintain the same direction either clockwise or anti-clockwise or

the final voltage sum will not be equal to zero. We can use Kirchoff's voltage law when

analysing series circuits.

number of definitions and terminologies are used to describe the parts of the circuit being

analysed such as: node, paths, branches, loops and meshes. These terms are used

frequently in circuit analysis so it is important to understand them.

current flows.

• Path - a line of connecting elements or sources with no elements or

sources included more than once.

• Node - a node is a junction, connection or terminal within a circuit were

two or more circuit elements are connected or joined together giving a

connection point between two or more branches. A node is indicated by a dot.

• Branch - a branch is a single or group of components such as resistors or

a source which are connected between two nodes.

• Loop - a loop is a simple closed path in a circuit in which no circuit

element or node is encountered more than once.

• Mesh - a mesh is a single open loop that does not have a closed path. No

components are inside a mesh.

• Components are connected in series if they carry the same current.

• Components are connected in parallel if the same voltage is across them.

Example No1

Find the current flowing in the 40Ω Resistor, R3

Using Kirchoff's Current Law, KCL the equations are given as;

At node A : I1 + I2 = I3

At node B : I3 = I1 + I2

Using Kirchoff's Voltage Law, KVL the equations are given as;

We now have two "Simultaneous Equations" that can be reduced to give us the value of

both I1 and I2

As : I3 = I1 + I2

and the voltage across the resistor R3 is given as : 0.286 x 40 = 11.44 volts

The negative sign for I1 means that the direction of current flow initially chosen was

wrong, but never the less still valid. In fact, the 20v battery is charging the 10v battery.

These two laws enable the Currents and Voltages in a circuit to be found, ie, the circuit is

said to be "Analysed", and the basic procedure for using Kirchoff's Circuit Laws is as

follows:

• 1. Assume all voltage sources and resistances are given. (If not label them V1, V2

..., R1, R2 etc)

• 2. Label each branch with a branch current. (I1, I2, I3 etc)

• 3. Find Kirchoff's first law equations for each node.

• 4. Find Kirchoff's second law equations for each of the independent loops of the

circuit.

• 5. Use Linear simultaneous equations as required to find the unknown currents.

As well as using Kirchoff's Circuit Law to calculate the voltages and currents

circulating around a linear circuit, we can also use loop analysis to calculate the currents

in each independent loop helping to reduce the amount of mathematics required using

just Kirchoff's laws. In the next tutorial about DC Theory we will look at Mesh Current

Analysis to do just that.

Circuit Analysis

In the previous tutorial we saw that complex circuits such as bridge or T-networks can be

solved using Kirchoff's Circuit Laws. While Kirchoff´s Laws give us the basic method

for analysing any complex electrical circuit, there are different ways of improving upon

this method by using Mesh Current Analysis or Nodal Voltage Analysis that results in

a lessening of the math's involved and when large networks are involved this reduction in

maths can be a big advantage.

One simple method of reducing the amount of math's involved is to analyse the circuit

using Kirchoff's Current Law equations to determine the currents, I1 and I2 flowing in the

two resistors. Then there is no need to calculate the current I3 as its just the sum of

I1 and I2. So Kirchoff's second voltage law simply becomes:

• Equation No 2 : 20 = 40I1 + 60I2

A more easier method of solving the above circuit is by using Mesh Current Analysis or

Loop Analysis which is also sometimes called Maxwell´s Circulating Currents

method. Instead of labelling the branch currents we need to label each "closed loop" with

a circulating current. As a general rule of thumb, only label inside loops in a clockwise

direction with circulating currents as the aim is to cover all the elements of the circuit at

least once. Any required branch current may be found from the appropriate loop or mesh

currents as before using Kirchoff´s method.

We now write Kirchoff's voltage law equation in the same way as before to solve them

but the advantage of this method is that it ensures that the information obtained from the

circuit equations is the minimum required to solve the circuit as the information is more

general and can easily be put into a matrix form.

These equations can be solved quite quickly by using a single mesh impedance matrix Z.

Each element ON the principal diagonal will be "positive" and is the total impedance of

each mesh. Where as, each element OFF the principal diagonal will either be "zero" or

"negative" and represents the circuit element connecting all the appropriate meshes. This

then gives us a matrix of:

Where:

• [ V ] gives the total battery voltage for loop 1 and then loop 2.

• [ I ] states the names of the loop currents which we are trying to find.

• [ R ] is called the resistance matrix.

and this gives I1 as -0.143 Amps and I2 as -0.429 Amps

As : I3 = I1 - I2

which is the same value of 0.286 amps, we found using Kirchoff´s circuit law in the

previous tutorial.

This "look-see" method of circuit analysis is probably the best of all the circuit analysis

methods with the basic procedure for solving Mesh Current Analysis equations is as

follows:

• 1. Label all the internal loops with circulating currents. (I1, I2, ...IL etc)

•

• 2. Write the [ L x 1 ] column matrix [ V ] giving the sum of all voltage sources in

each loop.

•

• 3. Write the [ L x L ] matrix, [ R ] for all the resistances in the circuit as follows;

o R11 = the total resistance in the first loop.

o Rnn = the total resistance in the Nth loop.

o RJK = the resistance which directly joins loop J to Loop K.

• 4. Write the matrix or vector equation [V] = [R] x [I] where [I] is the list of

currents to be found.

As well as using Mesh Current Analysis, we can also use node analysis to calculate the

voltages around the loops, again reducing the amount of mathematics required using just

Kirchoff's laws. In the next tutorial about DC Theory we will look at Nodal Voltage

Analysis to do just that.

As well as using Mesh Analysis to solve the currents flowing around complex circuits it is

also possible to use nodal analysis methods too. Nodal Voltage Analysis complements

the previous mesh analysis in that it is equally powerful and based on the same concepts

of matrix analysis. As its name implies, Nodal Voltage Analysis uses the "Nodal"

equations of Kirchoff's first law to find the voltage potentials around the circuit. By

adding together all these nodal voltages the net result will be equal to zero. Then, if there

are "N" nodes in the circuit there will be "N-1" independent nodal equations and these

alone are sufficient to describe and hence solve the circuit.

At each node point write down Kirchoff's first law equation, that is: "the currents

entering a node are exactly equal in value to the currents leaving the node" then express

each current in terms of the voltage across the branch. For "N" nodes, one node will be

used as the reference node and all the other voltages will be referenced or measured with

respect to this common node.

In the above circuit, node D is chosen as the reference node and the other three nodes are

assumed to have voltages, Va, Vb and Vc with respect to node D. For example;

again is the same value of 0.286 amps, we found using Kirchoff's Circuit Law in the

previous tutorial.

From both Mesh and Nodal Analysis methods we have looked at so far, this is the

simplest method of solving this particular circuit. Generally, nodal voltage analysis is

more appropriate when there are a larger number of current sources around. The network

is then defined as: [ I ] = [ Y ] [ V ] where [ I ] are the driving current sources, [ V ] are

the nodal voltages to be found and [ Y ] is the admittance matrix of the network which

operates on [ V ] to give [ I ].

The basic procedure for solving Nodal Analysis equations is as follows:

• 1. Write down the current vectors, assuming currents into a node are positive. ie, a

(N x 1) matrices

for "N" independent nodes.

•

• 2. Write the admittance matrix [Y] of the network where:

o Y11 = the total admittance of the first node.

o Y22 = the total admittance of the second node.

o RJK = the total admittance joining node J to node K.

• 3. For a network with "N" independent nodes, [Y] will be an (N x N) matrix and

that Ynn will be

positive and Yjk will be negative or zero value.

•

• 4. The voltage vector will be (N x L) and will list the "N" voltages to be found.

We have now seen that a number of theorems exist that simplify the analysis of linear

circuits. In the next tutorial we will look at Thevenins Theorem which allows a network

consisting of linear resistors and sources to be represented by an equivalent circuit with a

single voltage source and a series resistance.

Direct and Alternating Current

There are two different ways that electricity is produced, and they are used in most cases

for very different purposes. They can also be converted from one form to another, as

discussed in this section.

The first and simpler type of electricity is called direct current, abbreviated "DC". This is

the type of electricity that is produced by batteries, static, and lightning. A voltage is

created, and possibly stored, until a circuit is completed. When it is, the current flows

directly, in one direction. In the circuit, the current flows at a specific, constant voltage

(this is oversimplified somewhat but good enough for our needs.) When you use a

flashlight, pocket radio, portable CD player or virtually any other type of portable or

battery-powered device, you are using direct current. Most DC circuits are relatively low

in voltage; for example, your car's battery is approximately 12 V, and that's about as high

a DC voltage as most people ever use.

measured relative to ground or the zero-potential default state of the earth.

(This diagram drawn to the same scale as the AC diagram below.)

The other type of electricity is called alternating current, or "AC". This is the electricity

that you get from your house's wall and that you use to power most of your electrical

appliances. Alternating current is harder to explain than direct current. The electricity is

not provided as a single, constant voltage, but rather as a sinusoidal (sine) wave that over

time starts at zero, increases to a maximum value, then decreases to a minimum value,

and repeats. A representation of an alternating current's voltage over time is shown in the

diagram below.

While simple direct current circuits are generally described only by their voltage,

alternating current

circuits require more detail. First of all, if the voltage goes from a positive value to a

negative value and back again, what do we say is the voltage? Is it zero, because it

averages out to zero? That would seem to imply that there is no energy there at all. But

imagine, if you will, a wave of water flowing across the surface of the sea. The peaks and

troughs of the wave seem to "cancel each other out", but the wave clearly exists and has

energy. The same is true of alternating current.

The way the science world measures the energy in an AC signal is to compute what is

called the root mean square (RMS) average of the voltage. In simple terms, the RMS

value of an electrical current is the number which represents the same energy that a DC

current at that voltage would produce; it is in essence an average of the alternating

current waveform. Whenever you see an AC voltage specification, they are giving you

the RMS number unless they say otherwise specifically. So for example, in North

America, most homes have 115 VAC electricity. This is AC electricity equivalent in

energy to a 115 V DC circuit. (This is an approximate number, and standard household

electricity in North America is also sometimes called 110VAC or 120VAC; it's the same

thing.) Other parts of the world use different voltages ranging from 100VAC to 240VAC,

and of course, heavy equipment anywhere can use much higher voltages.

The other key characteristic of AC is its frequency, measured in cycles per second (cps)

or, more commonly, Hertz (Hz). This number describes how many times in a second the

voltage alternates from positive to negative and back again, completing one cycle. In

North America, the standard is 60 Hz, meaning 60 cycles from positive to negative and

back again in one second. In other parts of the world the standard is 50 Hz.

Three cycles of an idealized North American 115 VAC, 60 Hz alternating current signal

(black curve).

Note that each cycle represents 16.67 milliseconds of time, because that is 1/60th of a

second. The

curve actually goes from -170 V to +170 V in order to provide the average (RMS) value

of 115 V.

The RMS equivalent is shown as a green horizontal line. To demonstrate what RMS

means, look at

the blue shaded area, which shows the total energy in the signal for one cycle. The green

shading is

the area between the RMS line and the zero line for one cycle, and represents the energy

in an equivalent

115 V DC signal. The definition of the RMS value is that which makes the green and blue

areas equal.

(This diagram drawn to the same scale as the DC diagram above.)

Why does standard electricity come only in the form of alternating current? There are a

number of reasons, but one of the most important is that a characteristic of AC is that it is

relatively easy to change voltages from one level to another using a transformer, while

transformers do not work for DC. This capability allows the companies that generate and

distribute electricity to do it in a more efficient manner, by transmitting it at high voltage

for long lengths, which reduces energy loss due to the resistance in the transmission

wires. Another reason is that it may be easier to mechanically generate alternating current

electricity than direct current.

If we have electricity, what can we do with it? Well, we can do work, which in physics is

defined as transferring energy from one object or another through the application of

force. Essentially, any time you have a circuit with electricity flowing in it and you are

doing something with it, you are accomplishing work. The basic unit of work (or energy)

is a joule ("J").

definition of power. Power is simply the rate at which work is done. The more power you

have in a system, the more work you can get done in the same period of time. In terms of

electricity, increasing power means the ability to do more electrical work (for example,

running more appliances, or spinning a motor faster, or running a faster CPU, etc.) in the

same number of seconds. Power is measured in watts ("W"). Since power is the rate at

which work is done, one watt equals one joule of energy expended in one second:

Conversely, the amount of energy used by a device can be computed as the amount of

power it uses multiplied by the length of time over which that power is applied:

Computing electrical power can be very simple or very complicated, depending on the

type of electricity you are looking at. Let's start with direct current. Here, power (in

watts) is just the product of the voltage (in volts) and the current (in amps) of the circuit:

Fairly simple stuff, and it makes sense: you do more work when you have electrons

pushing with more force (higher voltage) and also when you have more of them per

period of time (higher current). Since P = V*I, and I = V/R, another way to express

power is:

P = V² / R

For example, if you have a simple 5 V circuit running through a 20 ohm simple

resistance, you will have 250 mA of current, and the total power is 5*0.250=1.25 W.

Double the voltage to 10 V, and the power doesn't double; it increases by a factor of four,

because doubling the voltage while leaving the resistance the same will also double the

current. The new power is 5 W.

it, it is necessary to introduce the concept of phase, which I will try to do without

overcomplicating things (not an easy task! :^) ). As illustrated on this page, alternating

current is a wave of voltage that swings between a large positive and negative value. The

current also makes this sinusoidal trip the same number of times per second. However,

sometimes the current and voltage don't peak at the exact same time. The timing

relationship between current and voltage of a flow is called its phase, and is expressed in

degrees. Why degrees? Well, a cycle of a sine wave is analogous to a circle. 360 degrees

is a full cycle, 180 degree half a cycle, and so on.

Now, what determines the phasing between the current and voltage? Primarily, it depends

on the kinds of loads being powered. Simple loads, such as light bulbs, heater elements

and the like, are said to be primarily resistive. These loads will cause the phase between

the current and voltage to be close to zero. When the phase angle is zero, the voltage and

current applied to the load is equal to the voltage and current used by the load.

115 VAC current and voltage driving a purely resistive load. The phase angle between

voltage and current

is about 0 degrees. Note that the voltage and current peak together.

Other loads, particularly items such as motors, are said to be reactive. Reactive loads are

caused by more complex opposition to the flow of alternating current such as that

produced by capacitors and inductors. They can cause the current and voltage to be out of

phase, in theory by as much as 90 degrees.

115 VAC current and voltage driving a (theoretical) purely reactive load. The current is

lagging behind

the voltage by about 90 degrees. (It is possible for the current to be leading by 90 degrees

also.)

Note that whenever one of voltage or current hits a peak, the other one is at zero!

If the phase angle between current and voltage is 90 degrees, then whenever voltage is at

its peak (either positive or negative), current is zero, and vice-versa. This is a "worst-

case" situation that doesn't normally arise in the real world because real loads aren't

purely reactive. A more typical situation is where the phase angle is about 45 degrees.

115 VAC current and voltage driving a partly resistive and partly reactive

load. The current is lagging behind the voltage by about 45 degrees, making

this an inductive load. If the load were capacitive, the current would be

leading the voltage. See here for more on inductors and capacitors.

"Alright, alright," you are saying. "Why do I care about all of this?" Well, here's one

important reason: PC power supplies are partly reactive loads, and often exhibit a phase

difference between voltage and current of about 45 degrees. This means that the voltage

and current applied to the load do not equal the voltage and current used by the load, and

you cannot compute the power used by the supply by simply multiplying the current and

voltage. OK, now here's where it gets interesting. :^) The voltage and current applied to

the load can be multiplied together to yield what is called apparent power, measured in

Volt-Amps (VA):

Apparent power represents the voltage and current being sent to the device, and is used to

measure draw from the utility, for determining heat generation by equipment under use,

and for sizing wires and circuit breakers. The actual power used by the load is called

"true" power, or just power, and is measured in Watts. (Even though Watts = Volts *

Amps, apparent power is measured in VA to differentiate it from true power.) The

relationship between power and apparent power is expressed using this formula:

where "cosine" is the trigonometric function. "cosine(phase)" is also called the power

factor of the load. Let's try an example. Let's suppose we are trying to run a power supply

and the power supplied is 115V voltage and 2A of current. The apparent power is 115 * 2

= 230 VA. If the nature of the power supply is that its voltage and current are out of

phase by 50 degrees, then the power factor is cosine(50º) = 0.642 (sometimes expressed

as 64.2%) and the power used by the load is 148 W.

There's a particular place where all of this comes into play, and that is in the capacity and

sizing of uninterruptible power supplies. UPSes are normally specified in terms of

apparent power (VA), whereas PC power supplies are specified in terms of true power

(W). Many people use the numbers interchangeably, when they most definitely are not

the same! Now that you understand the difference between the two, and you know what a

power factor is, you are light years ahead of 95% of the population when it comes to

figuring out how to purchase a properly-sized UPS or similar device.

Combinations of Resistors

larger circuit, and frequently that larger circuit contains many resistors. It

is often the case that resistors occur in combinations that repeat.

physically flows through both of the elements. The critical point is that the

same current flows through both resistors when two are in series. The

particular configuration does not matter. The only thing that matters is

that exactly the same current flows through both resistors. Current flows

into one element, through the element, out of the element into the other

element, through the second element and out of the second element. No

part of the current that flows through one resistor "escapes" and none is

added. This figure shows several different ways that two resistors in series

might appear as part of a larger circuit diagram.

Questions

Here is a circuit you may have seen before. Answer the questions

below for this circuit.

Q1. Are elements #3 and #4 in series?

You might wonder just how often you actually find resistors in series. The

answer is that you find resistors in series all the time.

service entrance enter a distribution box, and then wires are strung

throughout the house. The current flows out of the distribution box,

through one of the wires, then perhaps through a light bulb, back through

the other wire. We might model that situation with the circuit diagram

shown below.

In many electronic circuits series

resistors are used to get a different

voltage across one of the resistors. We'll

look at those circuits, called voltage dividers, in a short while. Here's the

circuit diagram for a voltage divider.

capacitors, inductors, diodes. These elements can be in series with other

elements. For example, the simplest form of filter, for filtering low

frequency noise out of a signal, can be built just by putting a resistor in

series with a capacitor, and taking the output as the capacitor voltage.

you learn about series combinations as you study resistors in series.

Let's look at the model again. We see that the wires are actually small

resistors (small value of resistance, not necessarily physically small) in series

with the light bulb, which is also a resistor. We have three resistors in

series although two of the resistors are small. We know that the resistors

are in series because all of the current that flows out of the distribution

box through the first wire also flows through the light bulb and back

through the second wire, thus meeting our condition for a series connection.

Trace that out in the circuit diagram and the pictorial representation above.

case of just two resistors in series. We can perform a thought experiment

on these two resistors. Here is the circuit diagram for the situation we're

interested in.

Imagine that they are embedded in an opaque piece of plastic, so that

we only have access to the two nodes at the ends of the series connection,

and the middle node is inaccessible. If we measured the resistance of the

combination, what would we find? To answer that question we need to define

voltage and current variables for the resistors. If we take advantage of the

fact that the current through them is the same (Apply KCL at the interior

node if you are unconvinced!) then we have the situation below.

Note that we have defined a voltage across each resistor (Va and Vb) and

current that flows through both resistors (Is) and a voltage variable, Vs, for

the voltage that appears across the series combination.

• The voltage across the series combination is given by:

o Vs= Va + Vb

• The voltages across the two resistors are given by Ohm's Law:

o Va = Is Ra

o Vb = Is Rb

We can combine all of these relations, and when we do that we find the

following.

• Vs= Va + Vb

• Vs= Is Ra + Is Rb

• Vs= Is (Ra + Rb)

• Vs= Is Rseries

series, and the expression for Rseries is:

Rseries = Ra + Rb

What do we mean by series equivalent? Here are some points to

observe.

• We have shown thatVs= Is Rseries, so that voltage is proportional to

current, and the constant of proportionality is a resistance.

• We will call that the equivalent series resistance.

resistance. Imagine that you have two globs of black plastic. Each of the

globs of black plasic has two wires coming out. Inside these two black

plastic globs you have the following.

• In the first glob you have two resistors in series. Only the leads of

the series combination are available for measurement externally. You

have no way to penetrate the box and measure things at the interior

node.

• In the second box you have a single resistor that is equal to the series

equivalent. Only the leads of this resistor are available for

measurement externally.

Then, if you measured the resistance using the two available leads in the two

different cases you would not be able to tell which black plastic glob had the

single resistor and which one had the series combination.

Here are two resistors. At the top are two 2000W resistors. At the

bottom is single 4000W resistors. (Note, these are not exactly standard

sizes so it took a lot of hunting to find a supply store that sold them!). You

can click the green button to grow blobs around them.

Parallel Resistors

or any two devices are said to be in parallel when the same voltage physically

appears across the two resistors. Schematically, the situation is as shown

below.

Note that we have defined the voltage across both resistor (Vp) and the

current that flows through each resistor (Ia and Ib) and a voltage variable,

Vp, for the voltage that appears across the parallel combination.

• The current through the parallel combination is given by:

o Ip= Ia + Ib

• The currents through the two resistors are given by Ohm's Law:

o Ia = Vp /Ra

o Ib = Vp /Rb

We can combine all of these relations, and when we do that we find the

following.

• Ip= Ia + Ib

• Ip= Vp /Ra + Vp /Rb

• Ip= Vp[ 1/Ra + 1/Rb]

• Ip= Vp/Rparallel

parallel, and the expression for Rparallel is:

1/Rparallel = 1/Ra + 1/Rb

Rparallel. The expression can be rearranged to get:

equivalent resistance. The first has a certain symmetry with the expression

for a series equivalent resistance.

Problems

Here all three resistors are 33 kΩ . Remember to input your answer in

ohms.

circuit is taken from Wojslaw and Moustakas' book Operational Amplifiers

(John Wiley & Sons, 1986, p100). Assuming that the amplifiers take no

current at the "+" and "-" terminals are resistors, R3 and R4 in series?

way. For a short while we're going to work on the question of how to analyze

this circuit. For a start we're going to assume that this is a resistor. It has

two leads at the left (marked here with red dots) and we'll assume that we

want to find the equivalent resistance you would have at those leads.

We will use the following numerical values for the resistors in this

example, and we will work through using these values.

• Ra = 1500 Ω

• Rb = 3000 Ω

• Rc = 2000 Ω

• Rd = 1000 Ω

• Vs = 12 v

We need to figure out where we can start. We can start by trying to

find any of the combinations we've learned about. So let's think about

whether there are any series or parallel combinations and if there are let's

see if we can identify them. Then we can apply what we know about series

and parallel combinations. There's no guarantee that approach will work, but

it is worth a try. Let's look at two resistors at a time.

Click the red button below to see two resistors in series.

Search

Parallel

A Resistor (R) is the most commonly used in all the electronic components. There are

different types of resistors that are available in the market to resist the flow of current in

an electrical circuit to act as the voltage dividers or voltage droppers.

The Resistors produce a voltage drop across themselves when the electrical current flows

through them to obey the Ohm's Law (V=IR) where V is the Voltage, I is the current and

R is the resistance, Different values of resistance produces different values of current or

voltage.

Resistors are Combined in Series and Parallel

Connecting the Resistors in Series :

or in the combinations of both series and parallel to generate a complex networks whose

overall resistance will be the combination of the individual resistors. In any combination

all the resistors must obey the Ohm's Law and Kirchoff's Circuit Laws.

The equation of the equivalent resistance when all the resistors connected in series is

The Resistors are connected together in Parallel when both the terminals are respectively

connected to both the terminals of the other resistor or group of resistors. The voltage

drop across all the resistors will be same in the resistors that are connected in parallel

connection. All the Resistors in Parallel have the Common Voltage.

The equation of the equivalent resistance when all the resistors connected in parallel is

Series and Parallel

1) Find the Equivalent resistance of the circuit

In the above circuit, All the resistors are connected in series,The total current flows

through each resistor as all the resistors are connected in series.

The values of the resistors given are:

In the above circuit, All the resistors are connected in parallel. So the current that is

supplied by the battery splits up and the amount of current going through each resistor

will depend on the resistance of the resistor.

Series circuits

Series circuits are sometimes called current-coupled or daisy chain-coupled. The current

in a series circuit is through every component in the circuit. Therefore, all of the

components in a series connection carry the same current.

[edit] Resistors

[edit] Inductors

Inductors follow the same law, in that the total inductance of non-coupled inductors in

series is equal to the sum of their individual inductances:

each other, as the magnetic field of one device couples with the windings of its

neighbours. This influence is defined by the mutual inductance M. For example, if two

inductors are in series, there are two possible equivalent inductances depending on how

the magnetic fields of both inductors influence each other.

When there are more than two inductors, the mutual inductance between each of them

and the way the coils influence each other complicates the calculation. For a larger

number of coils the total combined inductance is given by the sum of all mutual

inductances between the various coils including the mutual inductance of each given coil

with itself, which we term self-inductance or simply inductance. For three coils, there are

six mutual inductances M12, M13, M23 and M21, M31 and M32. There are also the three self-

inductances of the three coils: M11, M22 and M33.

Therefore

Ltotal = (M11 + M22 + M33) + (M12 + M13 + M23) + (M21 + M31 + M32)

By reciprocity Mij = Mji so that the last two groups can be combined. The first three terms

represent the sum of the self-inductances of the various coils. The formula is easily

extended to any number of series coils with mutual coupling. The method can be used to

find the self-inductance of large coils of wire of any cross-sectional shape by computing

the sum of the mutual inductance of each turn of wire in the coil with every other turn

since in such a coil all turns are in series.

[edit] Capacitors

Capacitors follow the same law using the reciprocals. The total capacitance of capacitors

in series is equal to the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals of their individual

capacitances:

The working voltage of a series combination of identical capacitors is equal to the sum of

voltage ratings of individual capacitors. This simple relationship only applies if the

voltage ratings are equal as well as the capacitances. However, the division of DC voltage

between the capacitors is dominated by the leakage resistance of the capacitors, rather

than their capacitances, and this has considerable variation. To counter this equalising

resistors may be placed in parallel with each capacitor which effectively add to the

leakage current. The value of resistor chosen (perhaps a few megohms) is as large as

possible, but low enough to ensure that the capacitor leakage current is insignificant

compared to the current through the resistor. At DC, the circuit appears as a chain of

series identical resistors and equal voltage division between the capacitors is ensured. In

high-voltage circuits, the resistors serve an additional function as bleeder resistors.[4]

[edit] Switches

Two or more switches in series form a logical AND; the circuit only carries current if all

switches are 'on'. See AND gate.

A battery is a collection of electrochemical cells. If the cells are connected in series, the

voltage of the battery will be the sum of the cell voltages. For example, a 12 volt car

battery contains six 2-volt cells connected in series.

If two or more components are connected in parallel they have the same potential

difference (voltage) across their ends. The potential differences across the components

are the same in magnitude, and they also have identical polarities. The same voltage is

applicable to all circuit components connected in parallel. The total current I is the sum of

the currents through the individual components, in accordance with Kirchhoff’s current

law.

[edit] Resistors

The current in each individual resistor is found by Ohm's law. Factoring out the voltage

gives

To find the total resistance of all components, add the reciprocals of the resistances Ri of

each component and take the reciprocal of the sum. Total resistance will always be less

than the value of the smallest resistance:

For N equal resistors in parallel, the reciprocal sum expression simplifies to:

.

To find the current in a component with resistance Ri, use Ohm's law again:

The components divide the current according to their reciprocal resistances, so, in the

case of two resistors,

An old term for devices connected in parallel is multiple, such as a multiple connection

for arc lamps.

[edit] Inductors

Inductors follow the same law, in that the total inductance of non-coupled inductors in

parallel is equal to the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals of their individual

inductances:

If the inductors are situated in each other's magnetic fields, this approach is invalid due to

mutual inductance. If the mutual inductance between two coils in parallel is M, the

equivalent inductor is:

If L1 = L2

The sign of M depends on how the magnetic fields influence each other. For two equal

tightly coupled coils the total inductance is close to that of each single coil. If the polarity

of one coil is reversed so that M is negative, then the parallel inductance is nearly zero or

the combination is almost non-inductive. It is assumed in the "tightly coupled" case M is

very nearly equal to L. However, if the inductances are not equal and the coils are tightly

coupled there can be near short circuit conditions and high circulating currents for both

positive and negative values of M, which can cause problems.

More than three inductors becomes more complex and the mutual inductance of each

inductor on each other inductor and their influence on each other must be considered. For

three coils, there are three mutual inductances M12, M13 and M23. This is best handled by

matrix methods and summing the terms of the inverse of the L matrix (3 by 3 in this

case).

[edit] Capacitors

Capacitors follow the same law using the reciprocals. The total capacitance of capacitors

in parallel is equal to the sum of their individual capacitances:

smallest working voltage of an individual capacitor.

[edit] Switches

Two or more switches in parallel form a logical OR; the circuit carries

current if at least one switch is 'on'. See OR gate.

If the cells of a battery are connected in parallel, the battery voltage will be the same as

the cell voltage but the current supplied by each cell will be a fraction of the total current.

For example, if a battery contains four cells connected in parallel and delivers a current of

1 ampere, the current supplied by each cell will be 0.25 ampere. Parallel-connected

batteries were widely used to power the valve filaments in portable radios but they are

now rare.

Combination Circuits

Previously in Lesson 4, it was mentioned that there are two different ways to connect two

or more electrical devices together in a circuit. They can be connected by means of series

connections or by means of parallel connections. When all the devices in a circuit are

connected by series connections, then the circuit is referred to as a series circuit. When all

the devices in a circuit are connected by parallel connections, then the circuit is referred

to as a parallel circuit. A third type of circuit involves the dual use of series and parallel

connections in a circuit; such circuits are referred to as compound circuits or combination

circuits. The circuit depicted at the right is an example of the use of both series and

parallel connections within the same circuit. In this case, light bulbs A and B are

connected by parallel connections and light bulbs C and D are connected by series

connections. This is an example of a combination circuit.

understanding of the concepts that pertain to both series circuits and parallel circuits.

Since both types of connections are used in combination circuits, the concepts associated

with both types of circuits apply to the respective parts of the circuit. The main concepts

associated with series and parallel circuits are organized in the table below.

• The current is the same in every • The voltage drop is the same across

resistor; this current is equal to that in each parallel branch.

the battery. • The sum of the current in each

• The sum of the voltage drops across individual branch is equal to the

the individual resistors is equal to the current outside the branches.

voltage rating of the battery. • The equivalent or overall resistance

• The overall resistance of the collection of the collection of resistors is

of resistors is equal to the sum of the given by the equation

individual resistance values,

1/Req = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 ...

Rtot = R1 + R2 + R3 + ...

Each of the above concepts has a mathematical expression. Combining the mathematical

expressions of the above concepts with the Ohm's law equation ( V = I • R) allows one to

conduct a complete analysis of a combination circuit.

The basic strategy for the analysis of combination circuits involves using the meaning of

equivalent resistance for parallel branches to transform the combination circuit into a

series circuit. Once transformed into a series circuit, the analysis can be conducted in the

usual manner. Previously in Lesson 4, the method for determining the equivalent

resistance of parallel are equal, then the total or equivalent resistance of those branches is

equal to the resistance of one branch divided by the number of branches.

1 / Req = 1 / R1 + 1 / R2 + 1 / R3 + ...

where R1, R2, and R3 are the resistance values of the individual resistors that are

connected in parallel. If the two or more resistors found in the parallel branches do not

have equal resistance, then the above formula must be used. An example of this method

was presented in a previous section of Lesson 4.

combination circuit, the combination circuit can be transformed into a series circuit. Then

an understanding of the equivalent resistance of a series circuit can be used to determine

the total resistance of the circuit. Consider the following diagrams below. Diagram A

represents a combination circuit with resistors R2 and R3 placed in parallel branches. Two

4- resistors in parallel is equivalent to a resistance of 2 . Thus, the two branches can be

replaced by a single resistor with a resistance of 2 . This is shown in Diagram B. Now

that all resistors are in series, the formula for the total resistance of series resistors can be

used to determine the total resistance of this circuit: The formula for series resistance is

Rtot = R1 + R2 + R3 + ...

Once the total resistance of the circuit is determined, the analysis continues using Ohm's

law and voltage and resistance values to determine current values at various locations.

The entire method is illustrated below with two examples.

Example 1:

The first example is the easiest case - the resistors placed in parallel have the same

resistance. The goal of the analysis is to determine the current in and the voltage drop

across each resistor.

As discussed above, the first step is to simplify the circuit by replacing the two parallel

resistors with a single resistor that has an equivalent resistance. Two 8 resistors in series

is equivalent to a single 4 resistor. Thus, the two branch resistors (R2 and R3) can be

replaced by a single resistor with a resistance of 4 . This 4 resistor is in series with R1

and R4. Thus, the total resistance is

Rtot = R1 + 4 + R4 = 5 + 4 + 6

Rtot = 15

Now the Ohm's law equation ( V = I • R) can be used to determine the total current in the

circuit. In doing so, the total resistance and the total voltage (or battery voltage) will have

to be used.

Itot = 4 Amp

The 4 Amp current calculation represents the current at the battery location. Yet, resistors

R1 and R4 are in series and the current in series-connected resistors is everywhere the

same. Thus,

Itot = I1 = I4 = 4 Amp

For parallel branches, the sum of the current in each individual branch is equal to the

current outside the branches. Thus, I2 + I3 must equal 4 Amp. There are an infinite

number of possible values of I2 and I3 that satisfy this equation. Since the resistance

values are equal, the current values in these two resistors are also equal. Therefore, the

current in resistors 2 and 3 are both equal to 2 Amp.

I2 = I3 = 2 Amp

Now that the current at each individual resistor location is known, the Ohm's law

equation ( V = I • R) can be used to determine the voltage drop across each resistor.

These calculations are shown below.

V1 = I1 • R1 = (4 Amp) • (5 )

V1 = 20 V

V2 = I2 • R2 = (2 Amp) • (8 )

V2 = 16 V

V3 = I3 • R3 = (2 Amp) • (8 )

V3 = 16 V

V4 = I4 • R4 = (4 Amp) • (6 )

V4 = 24 V

The analysis is now complete and the results are summarized in the diagram below.

Example 2:

The second example is the more difficult case - the resistors placed in parallel have a

different resistance value. The goal of the analysis is the same - to determine the current

in and the voltage drop across each resistor.

As discussed above, the first step is to simplify the circuit by replacing the two parallel

resistors with a single resistor with an equivalent resistance. The equivalent resistance of

a 4- and 12- resistor placed in parallel can be determined using the usual formula for

equivalent resistance of parallel branches:

1 / Req = 1 / R1 + 1 / R2 + 1 / R3 ...

1 / Req = 1 / (4 ) + 1 / (12 )

-1

1 / Req = 0.333

-1

Req = 1 / (0.333 )

Req = 3.00

Based on this calculation, it can be said that the two branch resistors (R2 and R3) can be

replaced by a single resistor with a resistance of 3 . This 3 resistor is in series with R1

and R4. Thus, the total resistance is

Rtot = R1 + 3 + R4 = 5 + 3 + 8

Rtot = 16

Now the Ohm's law equation ( V = I • R) can be used to determine the total current in the

circuit. In doing so, the total resistance and the total voltage (or battery voltage) will have

to be used.

The 1.5 Amp current calculation represents the current at the battery location. Yet,

resistors R1 and R4 are in series and the current in series-connected resistors is

everywhere the same. Thus,

For parallel branches, the sum of the current in each individual branch is equal to the

current outside the branches. Thus, I2 + I3 must equal 1.5 Amp. There are an infinite

possibilities of I2 and I3 values that satisfy this equation. In the previous example, the two

resistors in parallel had the identical resistance; thus the current was distributed equally

among the two branches. In this example, the unequal current in the two resistors

complicates the analysis. The branch with the least resistance will have the greatest

current. Determining the amount of current will demand that we use the Ohm's law

equation. But to use it, the voltage drop across the branches must first be known. So the

direction that the solution takes in this example will be slightly different than that of the

simpler case illustrated in the previous example.

To determine the voltage drop across the parallel branches, the voltage drop across the

two series-connected resistors (R1 and R4) must first be determined. The Ohm's law

equation ( V = I • R) can be used to determine the voltage drop across each resistor.

These calculations are shown below.

V1 = I1 • R1 = (1.5 Amp) • (5 )

V1 = 7.5 V

V4 = I4 • R4 = (1.5 Amp) • (8 )

V4 = 12 V

This circuit is powered by a 24-volt source. Thus, the cumulative voltage drop of a

charge traversing a loop about the circuit is 24 volts. There will be a 19.5 V drop (7.5 V +

12 V) resulting from passage through the two series-connected resistors (R1 and R4). The

voltage drop across the branches must be 4.5 volts to make up the difference between the

24 volt total and the 19.5-volt drop across R1 and R4. Thus,

V2 = V3 = 4.5 V

Knowing the voltage drop across the parallel-connected resistors (R1 and R4) allows one

to use the Ohm's law equation ( V = I • R) to determine the current in the two branches.

I2 = V2 / R2 = (4.5 V) / (4 )

I2 = 1.125 A

I3 = V3 / R3 = (4.5 V) / (12 )

I3 = 0.375 A

The analysis is now complete and the results are summarized in the diagram below.

Developing a Strategy

The two examples above illustrate an effective concept-centered strategy for analyzing

combination circuits. The approach demanded a firm grasp of the series and parallel

concepts discussed earlier. Such analyses are often conducted in order to solve a physics

problem for a specified unknown. In such situations, the unknown typically varies from

problem to problem. In one problem, the resistor values may be given and the current in

all the branches are the unknown. In another problem, the current in the battery and a few

resistor values may be stated and the unknown quantity becomes the resistance of one of

the resistors. Different problem situations will obviously require slight alterations in the

approaches. Nonetheless, every problem-solving approach will utilize the same principles

utilized in approaching the two example problems above.

The following suggestions for approaching combination circuit problems are offered to

the beginning student:

• If a schematic diagram is not provided, take the time to construct one. Use

schematic symbols such as those shown in the example above.

• When approaching a problem involving a combination

circuit, take the time to organize yourself, writing

down known values and equating them with a symbol

such as Itot, I1, R3, V2, etc. The organization scheme

used in the two examples above is an effective starting

point.

• Know and use the appropriate formulae for the

equivalent resistance of series-connected and parallel-connected resistors. Use of

the wrong formulae will guarantee failure.

• Transform a combination circuit into a strictly series circuit by replacing (in your

mind) the parallel section with a single resistor having a resistance value equal to

the equivalent resistance of the parallel section.

• Use the Ohm's law equation ( V = I • R) often and appropriately. Most answers

will be determined using this equation. When using it, it is important to substitute

the appropriate values into the equation. For instance, if calculating I2, it is

important to substitute the V2 and the R2 values into the equation.

For further practice analyzing combination circuits, consider analyzing the problems in

the Check Your Understanding section below.

1. A combination circuit is shown in the diagram at the right. Use the diagram to answer

the following questions.

a. The current at location A is _____ (greater than, equal to, less than) the current at

location B.

b. The current at location B is _____ (greater than, equal to, less than) the current at

location E.

c. The current at location G is _____ (greater than, equal to, less than) the current at

location F.

d. The current at location E is _____ (greater than, equal to, less than) the current at

location G.

e. The current at location B is _____ (greater than, equal to, less than) the current at

location F.

f. The current at location A is _____ (greater than, equal to,

less than) the current at location L.

less than) the current at location I.

2. Consider the combination circuit in the diagram at the right. Use the diagram to answer

the following questions. (Assume that the voltage drops in the wires themselves in

negligibly small.)

a. The electric potential difference (voltage drop) between points B and C is _____

(greater than, equal to, less than) the electric potential difference (voltage drop) between

points J and K.

b. The electric potential difference (voltage drop) between points B and K is _____

(greater than, equal to, less than) the electric potential difference (voltage drop) between

points D and I.

c. The electric potential difference (voltage drop) between points E and F is _____

(greater than, equal to, less than) the electric potential difference (voltage drop) between

points G and H.

d. The electric potential difference (voltage drop) between points E and F is _____

(greater than, equal to, less than) the electric potential difference (voltage drop) between

points D and I.

e. The electric potential difference (voltage drop) between points J and K is _____

(greater than, equal to, less than) the electric potential difference (voltage drop) between

points D and I.

f. The electric potential difference between points L and A is _____ (greater than, equal

to, less than) the electric potential difference (voltage drop) between points B and K.

3. Use the concept of equivalent resistance to determine the unknown resistance of the

identified resistor that would make the circuits equivalent.

4. Analyze the following circuit and determine the values of the total resistance, total

current, and the current at and voltage drops across each individual resistor.

Resistors can be placed in series or parallel. When placed in series the total resistance is

equal to the sum of the individual resistors:

Resistors in series

It is also worth noting that the same current flows through each resistor, but the voltage

across each resistor is proportional to the resistance of that particular resistor.

For resistors placed in parallel, the arithmetic is a little more complicated because the

reciprocal of the total resistance is equal to the sum of the reciprocals of the constituent

resistors:

Resistors in parallel

When there are only two resistors R1 and R2 in parallel this can be simplified to:

If both these resistors have the same value it can be seen that the overall value of the

resistance is half the value for the individual resistor.

When resistors are placed in parallel the voltage across the resistors is the same, but the

current through each one is inversely proportional to its resistance.

- MECP Basic Study GuideDiunggah olehEric Perez
- 10th CBSE Science-compressed.pdfDiunggah olehAbhishek
- p2 - Electric Circuits - Low Demand- Qp Aqa-gcse-physicsDiunggah olehLawrence Onthuga
- Circuit Theory - Solved Assignments - Semester Fall 2006Diunggah olehMuhammad Umair
- Circuits in Parallel and in Series-simulation and Hands OnDiunggah olehGkid Gkid
- Sample Anwer for RobotDiunggah olehMuhammed I'zwan
- BASIC ELECTROTECHNOLOGY.pdfDiunggah olehIrofte Iulian
- Voltage, Current, Resistance, And Ohm's Law - LearnDiunggah olehdassujoy312
- Circuit Theory PPTDiunggah olehArunmozhi Sinouvassane
- Phys 142 Final 2013Diunggah olehImranJameel
- CCJ_Generators_Efforts to Locate, Repair Damage From Spark Erosion AdvanceDiunggah olehabdulyunus_amir
- RESISTORS CLASS XDiunggah olehNaman Masodkar
- IJISET_V1_I3_49Diunggah olehomer1299
- EC GRAND TEST-1 30.10.2014Diunggah olehsatish reddy
- CURRENT-ELECTRICITYDiunggah olehharipriya3011
- Docslide.us Solucionario Capitulo 26 Paul e TippensDiunggah olehoscar
- EE-1998Diunggah olehKatragadda Rajesh
- Chap 2 ElektrikDiunggah olehSirat Mustaqim
- Application Note - High Current With 3 CP CB2Diunggah olehInsan Aziz
- 09 Resistivity LoggingDiunggah olehMuhsan Iskandar Juarsa
- 7J Electrical CircuitsDiunggah olehMaogageoffrey
- unit2review jeopardyDiunggah olehapi-270742277
- 45_6575_EE231_2013_1__1_1_EE 231 _lect_01 (1)Diunggah olehFerrolinoLouie
- CHAP 3[1]Diunggah olehCham Matahari
- Chapter 28Diunggah olehNeil de Dios
- LESSONPLAN3 (2)Diunggah olehCarlo Bernat
- ObjectiveDiunggah olehrajeevgopan
- Chp 18 Ppd c Circuits w SansDiunggah olehFrancis Ho Ho
- Basics of Vehicle ElectronicsDiunggah olehEd Morales
- Amperage of 2 Different CablesDiunggah olehindiannewton

- 260501_Inspections and Testing for Electrical Work.docDiunggah olehshaik
- Use of the MOSFET as a Voltage-Controlled ResistorDiunggah olehhome2423
- BE sem 6 may june 2011Diunggah olehNirav Mehta
- Drv 8353Diunggah olehGustavo Bessone
- UNISTAR Product CatalougeDiunggah olehharish123456
- doc_20120529150309Diunggah olehsayedmh
- Manual_Drive_iS7_ENG_KOR_Pulse encoder option.pdfDiunggah olehFadFad
- As 60947.4.2-2004 Low-Voltage Switchgear and Controlgear Contactors and Motor-starters - A.C. Semiconductor mDiunggah olehSAI Global - APAC
- Callate Gate2Diunggah olehzagaf
- Duplexer ManualDiunggah olehflegias
- fincor 2Diunggah olehemfi
- Plasma Wave interactionsDiunggah olehehsanvatan
- JVC+MX-KB2Diunggah olehPiter De Aziz
- Antenna ArraysDiunggah olehVo Phong Phu
- Accelerometer Based MouseDiunggah olehambuerayil
- Advantages of Solid-State RelaysDiunggah olehAhmed58seribegawan
- A 60ghz Ltcc Rdra Design With CmtDiunggah olehTommy BJ
- Testing is Carried Out as Per IsDiunggah olehRohit Dera
- relay ready ppt.pptxDiunggah olehNesarkiran Bagade
- Cat-Int-QO-USADiunggah olehCésar Viveros
- Plaf 60x60 PhilipsDiunggah olehAndrés Crovetto Laye
- Reactive Power Support and Voltage Regulation in Power SystemDiunggah olehabdulyunus_amir
- ProblemSets ProblemSet II SolutionsDiunggah olehVuşcan Ovidiu
- 07095613.pdfDiunggah olehlogu_thalir
- 02Whole.pdfDiunggah olehfxsolomon
- pricelistDiunggah olehMikhail Paolo Magtibay
- Siemens Iec Overload Relay SupplementDiunggah olehvanhuong87
- cdd140487-Mennen Enmove 1200 - Service manual.pdfDiunggah olehManuel Vivero Diéguez
- Power Supply for Lcd TvDiunggah olehNGHONGOC
- DVP-7000 (E6D20ED) Service ManualDiunggah olehapi-3711045