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The Consumer Guide to

Coriolis Mass Flowmeters

Seminar Presented by
David W. Spitzer
Spitzer and Boyes, LLC
+1.845.623.1830
Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Copyright
ƒ This document may be viewed and printed for
personal use only.
ƒ No part of this document may be copied, reproduced,
transmitted, or disseminated in any electronic or non-
electronic format without written permission.
ƒ All rights are reserved.
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Disclaimer
ƒ The information presented in this document is for the
general education of the reader. Because neither the
author nor the publisher have control over the use of
the information by the reader, both the author and
publisher disclaim any and all liability of any kind
arising out of such use. The reader is expected to
exercise sound professional judgment in using any of
the information presented in a particular application.
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Copperhill and Pointer, Inc.
Seminar Presenter
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1
Disclaimer
ƒ The full and complete contents of this document are for
general information or use purposes only. The contents are
provided “as is” without warranties of any kind, either
expressed or implied, as to the quality, accuracy, timeliness,
completeness, or fitness for a general, intended or particular
purpose. No warranty or guaranty is made as to the results
that may be obtained from the use of this document. The
contents of this document are “works in progress” that will
be revised from time to time.
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Disclaimer
ƒ Spitzer and Boyes, LLC and Copperhill and Pointer, Inc.
have no liability whatsoever for consequences of any actions
resulting from or based upon information in and findings of
this document. In no event, including negligence, will
Spitzer and Boyes, LLC or Copperhill and Pointer, Inc. be
liable for any damages whatsoever, including, without
limitation, incidental, consequential, or indirect damages, or
loss of business profits, arising in contract, tort or other
theory from any use or inability to use this document.
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Disclaimer
ƒ The user of this document agrees to defend, indemnify,
and hold harmless Spitzer and Boyes, LLC and
Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., its employees,
contractors, officers, directors and agents against all
liabilities, claims and expenses, including attorney’s
fees, that arise from the use of this document.
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Disclaimer
ƒ The content of this seminar was developed in an
impartial manner from information provided by
suppliers
ƒ Discrepancies noted and brought to the
attention of the editors will be corrected
ƒ We do not endorse, favor, or disfavor any
particular supplier or their equipment
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Seminar Outline
ƒ Introduction
ƒ Fluid Flow Fundamentals
ƒ Flowmeter Technology
ƒ Flowmeter Performance
ƒ Consumer Guide

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Introduction
ƒ Working Definition of a Process
ƒ Why Measure Flow?

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Working Definition of a
Process
ƒ A process is anything that changes

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Why Measure Flow?


ƒ Flow measurements provide information
about the process
ƒ The information that is needed depends
on the process

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Why Measure Flow?


ƒ Custody transfer
ƒ Measurements are often required to
determine the total quantity of fluid that
passed through the flowmeter for billing
purposes

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Why Measure Flow?
ƒ Monitor the process
ƒ Flow measurements can be used to ensure
that the process is operating satisfactorily

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Why Measure Flow?


ƒ Improve the process
ƒ Flow measurements can be used for heat and
material balance calculations that can be
used to improve the process

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Why Measure Flow?


ƒ Monitor a safety parameter
ƒ Flow measurements can be used to ensure
that critical portions of the process operate
safely

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5
Seminar Outline
ƒ Introduction
ƒ Fluid Flow Fundamentals
ƒ Flowmeter Technology
ƒ Flowmeter Performance
ƒ Consumer Guide

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Fluid Flow Fundamentals


ƒ Temperature
ƒ Pressure
ƒ Density and Fluid Expansion
ƒ Types of Flow
ƒ Inside Pipe Diameter
ƒ Viscosity
ƒ Reynolds Number and Velocity Profile
ƒ Hydraulic Phenomena

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Temperature
ƒ Measure of relative hotness/coldness
ƒ Water freezes at 0°C (32°F)
ƒ Water boils at 100°C (212°F)

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Temperature
ƒ Removing heat from fluid lowers
temperature
ƒ If all heat is removed, absolute zero
temperature is reached at
approximately -273°C (-460°F)

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Temperature
ƒ Absolute temperature scales are
relative to absolute zero temperature
ƒ Absolute zero temperature = 0 K (0°R)
ƒ Kelvin = °C + 273
ƒ ° Rankin = °F + 460

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Temperature
ƒ Absolute temperature is important
for flow measurement

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Temperature

373 K = 100°C 672°R = 212°F

273 K = 0°C
460°R = 0°F

0 K = -273°C 0°R = -460°F

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Temperature
Problem
ƒ The temperature of a process
increases from 20°C to 60°C. For
the purposes of flow measurement,
by what percentage has the
temperature increased?

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Temperature
ƒ It is tempting to answer that the
temperature tripled (60/20), but the
ratio of the absolute temperatures is
important for flow measurement
ƒ (60+273)/(20+273) = 1.137
ƒ 13.7% increase

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Fluid Flow Fundamentals
ƒ Temperature
ƒ Pressure
ƒ Density and Fluid Expansion
ƒ Types of Flow
ƒ Inside Pipe Diameter
ƒ Viscosity
ƒ Reynolds Number and Velocity Profile
ƒ Hydraulic Phenomena

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Pressure
ƒ Pressure is defined as the ratio of a
force divided by the area over which
it is exerted (P=F/A)

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Pressure
Problem
ƒ What is the pressure exerted on a table by
a 2 inch cube weighing 5 pounds?
ƒ (5 lb) / (4 inch2) = 1.25 lb/in2
ƒ If the cube were balanced on a 0.1 inch
diameter rod, the pressure on the table
would be 636 lb/in2

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Pressure
ƒ Atmospheric pressure is caused by
the force exerted by the atmosphere
on the surface of the earth
ƒ 2.31 feet WC / psi
ƒ 10.2 meters WC / bar

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Pressure
ƒ Removing gas from a container
lowers the pressure in the container
ƒ If all gas is removed, absolute zero
pressure (full vacuum) is reached at
approximately -1.01325 bar (-14.696
psig)

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Pressure
ƒ Absolute pressure scales are relative
to absolute zero pressure
ƒ Absolute zero pressure
ƒ Full vacuum = 0 bar abs (0 psia)
ƒ bar abs = bar + 1.01325
ƒ psia = psig + 14.696

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Pressure
Absolute Gauge
Differential

Atmosphere
Vacuum

Absolute Zero

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Pressure
ƒ Absolute pressure is important for
flow measurement

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Pressure
Problem
ƒ The pressure of a process increases
from 1 bar to 3 bar. For the
purposes of flow measurement, by
what percentage has the pressure
increased?

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Pressure
ƒ It is tempting to answer that the
pressure tripled (3/1), but the ratio
of the absolute pressures is
important for flow measurement
ƒ (3+1.01325)/(1+1.01325) = 1.993
ƒ 99.3% increase

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Fluid Flow Fundamentals


ƒ Temperature
ƒ Pressure
ƒ Density and Fluid Expansion
ƒ Types of Flow
ƒ Inside Pipe Diameter
ƒ Viscosity
ƒ Reynolds Number and Velocity Profile
ƒ Hydraulic Phenomena

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Density and Fluid Expansion


ƒ Density is defined as the ratio of the
mass of a fluid divided its volume
(ρ=m/V)

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Density and Fluid Expansion
ƒ Specific Gravity of a liquid is the
ratio of its operating density to that
of water at standard conditions
ƒ SG = ρ liquid / ρ water at standard conditions

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Density and Fluid Expansion


Problem
ƒ What is the density of air in a 3.2 ft3
filled cylinder that has a weight of
28.2 and 32.4 pounds before and
after filling respectively?

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Density and Fluid Expansion


ƒ The weight of the air in the empty
cylinder is taken into account
ƒ Mass =(32.4-28.2)+(3.2•0.075)
= 4.44 lb
ƒ Volume = 3.2 ft3
ƒ Density = 4.44/3.2 = 1.39 lb/ft3

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Density and Fluid Expansion
ƒ The density of most liquids is nearly
unaffected by pressure
ƒ Expansion of liquids
ƒ V = V0 (1 + β•ΔT)
ƒ V = new volume
ƒ V0 = old volume
ƒ β = cubical coefficient of expansion
ƒ ΔT = temperature change
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Density and Fluid Expansion


Problem
ƒ What is the change in density of a
liquid caused by a 10°C temperature
rise where β is 0.0009 per °C ?

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Density and Fluid Expansion


ƒ Calculate the new volume
ƒ V = V0 (1 + 0.0009•10) = 1.009 V0
ƒ The volume of the liquid increased to
1.009 times the old volume, so the new
density is (1/1.009) or 0.991 times the
old density

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Density and Fluid Expansion
ƒ Expansion of solids
ƒ V = V0 (1 + β•ΔT)
ƒ where β = 3•α
ƒ α = linear coefficient of expansion
ƒ Temperature coefficient
ƒ Stainless steel temperature coefficient
is approximately 0.5% per 100°C
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Density and Fluid Expansion


Problem
ƒ What is the increase in size of metal
caused by a 50°C temperature rise
where the metal has a temperature
coefficient of 0.5% per 100°C ?

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Density and Fluid Expansion


ƒ Calculate the change in size
ƒ (0.5 • 50) = 0.25%
ƒ Metals (such as stainless steel) can
exhibit significant expansion

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Density and Fluid Expansion
ƒ Boyle’s Law states the the volume of
an ideal gas at constant temperature
varies inversely with absolute
pressure
ƒV=K/P

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Density and Fluid Expansion


ƒ New volume can be calculated
ƒV = K / P
ƒ V0 = K / P0
ƒ Dividing one equation by the other
yields
ƒ V/V0 = P0 / P

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Density and Fluid Expansion


Problem
ƒ How is the volume of an ideal gas at
constant temperature and a pressure
of 28 psig affected by a 5 psig
pressure increase?

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Density and Fluid Expansion
ƒ Calculate the new volume
ƒ V/V0 = (28+14.7) / (28+5+14.7) = 0.895

ƒ V = 0.895 V0

ƒ Volume decreased by 10.5%

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Density and Fluid Expansion


ƒ Charles’ Law states the the volume
of an ideal gas at constant pressure
varies directly with absolute
temperature
ƒV=K•T

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Density and Fluid Expansion


ƒ New volume can be calculated
ƒV = K • T
ƒ V0 = K • T0
ƒ Dividing one equation by the other
yields
ƒ V/V0 = T / T0

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Density and Fluid Expansion
Problem
ƒ How is the volume of an ideal gas at
constant pressure and a temperature
of 15ºC affected by a 10ºC decrease
in temperature?

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Density and Fluid Expansion


ƒ Calculate the new volume
ƒ V/V0 = (273+15-10) / (273+15) = 0.965

ƒ V = 0.965 V0

ƒ Volume decreased by 3.5%

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Density and Fluid Expansion


ƒ Ideal Gas Law combines Boyle’s and
Charles’ Laws
ƒ PV = n R T

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Density and Fluid Expansion
ƒ New volume can be calculated
ƒP • V = n • R • T
ƒ P0 • V0 = n • R • T0
ƒ Dividing one equation by the other
yields
ƒ V/V0 = (P0 /P) • (T / T0)

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Density and Fluid Expansion


Problem
ƒ How is the volume of an ideal gas at
affected by a 10.5% decrease in
volume due to temperature and a
3.5% decrease in volume due to
pressure?

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Density and Fluid Expansion


ƒ Calculate the new volume
ƒ V/V0 = 0.895 • 0.965 = 0.864

ƒ V = 0.864 V0

ƒ Volume decreased by 13.6%

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Density and Fluid Expansion
ƒ Non-Ideal Gas Law takes into
account non-ideal behavior
ƒ PV = n R T Z

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Density and Fluid Expansion


ƒ New volume can be calculated
ƒP • V = n • R • T • Z
ƒ P0 • V0 = n • R • T0 • Z0
ƒ Dividing one equation by the other
yields
ƒ V/V0 = (P0 /P) • (T / T0) • (Z / Z0)

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Fluid Flow Fundamentals


ƒ Temperature
ƒ Pressure
ƒ Density and Fluid Expansion
ƒ Types of Flow
ƒ Inside Pipe Diameter
ƒ Viscosity
ƒ Reynolds Number and Velocity Profile
ƒ Hydraulic Phenomena

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Types of Flow
ƒ Q=A•v
ƒ Q is the volumetric flow rate
ƒ A is the cross-sectional area of the pipe
ƒ v is the average velocity of the fluid in the
pipe

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Types of Flow
ƒ Typical Volumetric Flow Units(Q = A • v)
ƒ ft2 • ft/sec = ft3/sec
ƒ m2 • m/sec = m3/sec
ƒ gallons per minute (gpm)
ƒ liters per minute (lpm)
ƒ cubic centimeters per minute (ccm)

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Types of Flow
ƒ W=ρ•Q
ƒ W is the mass flow rate
ƒ ρ is the fluid density
ƒ Q is the volumetric flow rate

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Types of Flow
ƒ Typical Mass Flow Units (W = ρ • Q)
ƒ lb/ft3 • ft3/sec = lb/sec
ƒ kg/m3 • m3/sec = kg/sec
ƒ standard cubic feet per minute (scfm)
ƒ standard liters per minute (slpm)
ƒ standard cubic centimeters per minute(sccm)

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Types of Flow
ƒ Q=A•v
ƒ W=ρ•Q

ƒ Q volumetric flow rate


ƒ W mass flow rate
ƒ v fluid velocity
ƒ ½ ρv2 inferential flow rate

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Fluid Flow Fundamentals


ƒ Temperature
ƒ Pressure
ƒ Density and Fluid Expansion
ƒ Types of Flow
ƒ Inside Pipe Diameter
ƒ Viscosity
ƒ Reynolds Number and Velocity Profile
ƒ Hydraulic Phenomena

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Inside Pipe Diameter
ƒ The inside pipe diameter (ID) is
important for flow measurement
ƒ Pipes of the same size have the same
outside diameter (OD)
ƒ Welding considerations
ƒ Pipe wall thickness, and hence its ID,
is determined by its schedule
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Inside Pipe Diameter


ƒ Pipe wall thickness increases with
increasing pipe schedule
ƒ Schedule 40 pipes are considered
“standard” wall thickness
ƒ Schedule 5 pipes have thin walls
ƒ Schedule 160 pipes have thick walls

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Inside Pipe Diameter


ƒ Nominal pipe size
ƒ For pipe sizes 12-inch and smaller, the
nominal pipe size is the approximate ID of a
Schedule 40 pipe
ƒ For pipe sizes 14-inch and larger, the
nominal pipe size is the OD of the pipe

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Fluid Flow Fundamentals
ƒ Temperature
ƒ Pressure
ƒ Density and Fluid Expansion
ƒ Types of Flow
ƒ Inside Pipe Diameter
ƒ Viscosity
ƒ Reynolds Number and Velocity Profile
ƒ Hydraulic Phenomena

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Viscosity
ƒ Viscosity is the ability of the fluid to
flow over itself
ƒ Units
ƒ cP, cSt
ƒ Saybolt Universal (at 100ºF, 210 ºF)
ƒ Saybolt Furol (at 122ºF, 210 ºF)

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Viscosity
ƒ Viscosity can be highly temperature
dependent
ƒ Water
ƒ Honey at 40°F, 80°F, and 120°F
ƒ Peanut butter

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Fluid Flow Fundamentals
ƒ Temperature
ƒ Pressure
ƒ Density and Fluid Expansion
ƒ Types of Flow
ƒ Inside Pipe Diameter
ƒ Viscosity
ƒ Reynolds Number and Velocity Profile
ƒ Hydraulic Phenomena

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Velocity Profile and


Reynolds Number
ƒ Reynolds number is the ratio of
inertial forces to viscous forces in
the flowing stream
ƒ RD = 3160 • Q gpm • SG / (μcP • Din)

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Velocity Profile and


Reynolds Number
ƒ Reynolds number can be used as an
indication of how the fluid is flowing
in the pipe
ƒ Flow regimes based on RD
ƒ Laminar < 2000
ƒ Transitional 2000 - 4000
ƒ Turbulent > 4000

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Velocity Profile and
Reynolds Number
ƒ Not all molecules in the pipe flow at
the same velocity
ƒ Molecules near the pipe wall move
slower; molecules in the center of the
pipe move faster

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Velocity Profile and


Reynolds Number
ƒ Laminar Flow Regime
ƒ Molecules move straight down pipe

Velocity Profile
Flow

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Velocity Profile and


Reynolds Number
ƒ Turbulent Flow Regime
ƒ Molecules migrate throughout pipe

Velocity Profile
Flow

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Velocity Profile and
Reynolds Number
ƒ Transitional Flow Regime
ƒ Molecules exhibit both laminar and turbulent
behavior

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Velocity Profile and


Reynolds Number
ƒ Many flowmeters require a good velocity
profile to operate accurately
ƒ Obstructions in the piping system can
distort the velocity profile
ƒ Elbows, tees, fittings, valves

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Velocity Profile and


Reynolds Number
ƒA distorted velocity profile can
introduce significant errors into the
measurement of most flowmeters
Velocity Profile (distorted)

Flow

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

27
Velocity Profile and
Reynolds Number
ƒ Good velocity profiles can be developed
ƒ Straight run upstream and downstream
ƒ No fittings or valves
ƒ Upstream is usually longer and more important
ƒ Flow conditioner
ƒ Locate control valve downstream of
flowmeter

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Fluid Flow Fundamentals


ƒ Temperature
ƒ Pressure
ƒ Density and Fluid Expansion
ƒ Types of Flow
ƒ Inside Pipe Diameter
ƒ Viscosity
ƒ Reynolds Number and Velocity Profile
ƒ Hydraulic Phenomena
Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 83
Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Hydraulic Phenomena
ƒ Vapor pressure is defined as the
pressure at which a liquid and its
vapor can exist in equilibrium
ƒ The vapor pressure of water at 100°C is
atmospheric pressure (1.01325 bar abs)
because water and steam can coexist

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

28
Hydraulic Phenomena
ƒ A saturated vapor is in equilibrium
with its liquid at its vapor pressure
ƒ Saturated steam at atmospheric
pressure is at a temperature of 100°C

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Hydraulic Phenomena
ƒ A superheated vapor is a saturated
vapor that is at a higher temperature
than its saturation temperature
ƒ Steam at atmospheric pressure that is at
150°C is a superheated vapor with 50°C
of superheat

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Hydraulic Phenomena
ƒ Flashing is the formation of gas
(bubbles) in a liquid after the
pressure of the liquid falls below its
vapor pressure
ƒ Reducing the pressure of water at
100°C below atmospheric pressure (say
0.7 bar abs) will cause the water to boil

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

29
Hydraulic Phenomena
ƒ Cavitation is the formation and
subsequent collapse of gas (bubbles)
in a liquid after the pressure of the
liquid falls below and then rises
above its vapor pressure
ƒ Can cause severe damage in pumps and
valves

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Hydraulic Phenomena
Pressure Vapor Pressure (typical)

Flashing

Cavitation

Distance
Piping Obstruction

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Hydraulic Phenomena
ƒ Energy Considerations
ƒ Claims are sometimes made that
flowmeters with a lower pressure drop
will save energy

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

30
Hydraulic Phenomena
ƒ Energy Considerations

Centrifugal
Pressure Pump Curve

Flow

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Hydraulic Phenomena
ƒ Energy Considerations

Pressure System Curve


(without flowmeter)

Flow

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Hydraulic Phenomena
ƒ Energy Considerations

Pressure

Flow

Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 93


Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

31
Hydraulic Phenomena
ƒ Energy Considerations System and Flowmeter
System, Flowmeter
and Control Valve
System
P
Pressure

Flowmeter and
Control Valve
Pressure Drop
Q Flow

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Hydraulic Phenomena
System and Flowmeter
ƒ Energy Considerations (Low Pressure Drop)
System, Flowmeter
and Control Valve
System
P
Pressure

Flowmeter and
Control Valve
Pressure Drop
Q Flow

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Hydraulic Phenomena
ƒ Energy Considerations
ƒ The pump operates at the same flow and
pressure, so no energy savings are
achieved by installing a flowmeter with
a lower pressure drop

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

32
Hydraulic Phenomena
System and Flowmeter
ƒ Energy Considerations

Full Speed System


P
Pressure

Reduced Speed

Q Flow

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Hydraulic Phenomena
ƒ Energy Considerations
ƒ Operating the pump at a reduced speed
generates the same flow but requires a
lower pump discharge pressure
ƒ Hydraulic energy generated by the pump
better matches the load
ƒ Energy savings are proportional to the
cube of the speed

Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 98


Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Seminar Outline
ƒ Introduction
ƒ Fluid Flow Fundamentals
ƒ Flowmeter Technology
ƒ Flowmeter Performance
ƒ Consumer Guide

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

33
Coriolis Mass Flowmeter
Technology
ƒ Principle of Operation
ƒ Tube Geometry
ƒ Flowmeter Designs
ƒ Transmitter Designs
ƒ Installation
ƒ Accessories
ƒ Other Flowmeter Technologies

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Principle of Operation
ƒ Coriolis mass flowmeters use the
properties of mass to measure mass
ƒ Thermal mass flowmeters assume constant
thermal properties

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Principle of Operation
ƒ Coriolis acceleration
Coriolis
Force

r r
Δr
ω ω

Man Standing Still Man Moving Outward

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

34
Principle of Operation
ƒ Man Standing Still
ƒ Velocity in tangential plane is constant

F tang = m • a tang
= m • Δ v tang / Δ t
= m • (r • ω – r • ω) / Δ t
=m•0/Δt
= 0 (no force in tangential plane)

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Principle of Operation
ƒ Man Moving Outward
ƒ Velocity in tangential plane changes

F tang = m • a tang
= m • Δ v tang / Δ t
= m • ((r + Δ r) • ω – r • ω) / Δ t
=m•Δr•ω/Δt
≠ 0 (force in tangential plane)

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Principle of Operation
ƒ Components that produce Coriolis force
ƒ Rotation
ƒ Motion towards/away from center of rotation
ƒ Resultant Coriolis acceleration

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

35
Principle of Operation
ƒ U-tube Coriolis mass flowmeter
ƒ Rotation
ƒ Oscillation about a plane parallel to the
centerline of the piping connections

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Principle of Operation
ƒ U-tube Coriolis mass flowmeter
ƒ Motion towards/away from center of rotation
ƒ Mass flow through U-tube towards/away from
the centerline of piping connections

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Principle of Operation
ƒ U-tube Coriolis mass flowmeter
ƒ Coriolis force
ƒ Twist of U-tube

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

36
Coriolis Mass Flowmeter
Motion Toward
Centerline of Rotation

Centerline of
Rotation

Coriolis Forces
Twist U-tube

Flow
Motion Away from
Centerline of Rotation

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Principle of Operation
Experiment
ƒ Hold a garden hose with both hands so it
sags near the floor (like a U-tube)
ƒ Turning water on/off has little affect on the
position of the hose

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Principle of Operation
Experiment
ƒ Swing the hose toward and away from
your body
ƒ Turning on the water will cause the sides of
the U-tube to move towards/away from you
ƒ Stopping the swinging will stop the
movement and relax the U-tube

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

37
Principle of Operation
ƒ Coriolis acceleration is proportional to
the mass flow
ƒ Coriolis acceleration generates a force
ƒ Coriolis force twists the U-tube

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Principle of Operation
ƒ Mass flow is proportional to the Coriolis
force that twists the U-tube
ƒ Measure the twist of the U-tube

Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 113


Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Principle of Operation
ƒ Amount of twist depends on mechanical
properties of the U-tube
ƒ Material
ƒ Wall thickness
ƒ Temperature

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

38
Principle of Operation
ƒ Temperature Measurement
ƒ Pipe wall temperature is measured to
compensate for material properties
ƒ Many Coriolis mass flowmeters offer (an
optional) temperature measurement output
ƒ Not process temperature
ƒ Outside pipe wall temperature

Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 115


Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Principle of Operation
ƒ Density Measurement
ƒ The frequency of oscillation is related to
fluid density
ƒ Many Coriolis mass flowmeters offer (an
optional) density measurement output

Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 116


Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Principle of Operation
ƒ Viscosity Measurement
ƒ In the laminar flow regime, the mass flow
measurement, temperature measurement,
and external differential pressure
measurement across the flowmeter is used to
calculate viscosity

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

39
Principle of Operation
ƒ Viscosity Measurement
ƒ To counteract the effects of pipe vibration,
one Coriolis mass flowmeter uses a weight
that twists the tube
ƒ Measurement of the forces due this twist are
used to determine the fluid viscosity

Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 118


Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Coriolis Mass Flowmeter


Technology
ƒ Principle of Operation
ƒ Tube Geometry
ƒ Flowmeter Designs
ƒ Transmitter Designs
ƒ Installation
ƒ Accessories
ƒ Other Flowmeter Technologies
Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 119
Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Tube Geometry – Single U-tube


Drive Coil

Outer Case

Sensor
Flow (attached to case)

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

40
Tube Geometry – Single U-tube
ƒ First practical design
ƒ Sensors connected to case
ƒ Measure movement relative to case
ƒ Susceptible to pipe vibration
ƒ Rigid support structures
ƒ Metal plate
ƒ Concrete foundation

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Tube Geometry – Dual U-tube


Drive Coil

Outer Case
Recombined Flow

Flow split between


upper and lower tubes
(one tube shown)
Flow
Sensor Detects Movement
Between the Tubes

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Tube Geometry – Dual U-tube


ƒ Flow split between two tubes
ƒ Sensors connected to case
ƒ Measure relative movement of tubes
ƒ Reduced susceptibility to pipe vibration
ƒ Mount flowmeter in piping

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

41
Tube Geometry – B-Tube
Two Single Tubes

Flow Inlet

B-tube Design
Foxboro

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Tube Geometry – Curved Tube

Flow Splitters

Flow

Dual Tubes

Curved Tube Design


Endress+Hauser, Micromotion, Oval

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Tube Geometry – Curved Tube


Flow Splitters

Flow

Dual Tubes

Curved Tube Design


ABB

Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 126


Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

42
Tube Geometry – Delta
Flow Splitters

Flow

Dual Tubes

Delta Tube Design


Micromotion

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Tube Geometry – Diamond


Flow Splitters

Flow

Dual Tubes

Diamond Tube Design


Kueppers

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Tube Geometry – Omega


Flow Splitters

Flow

Dual Tubes

Omega Tube Design


Actaris (Schlumberger)

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

43
Tube Geometry – Omega
Flow Splitters

Flow

Dual Tubes

Omega Tube Design


Heinrichs

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Tube Geometry – Round


Flow

Flow Splitters

Dual Tubes
Round Tube Design
Rheonik

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Tube Geometry – Straight

Flow Splitters

Flow

Dual Tubes

Straight Dual Tube Design


Endress+Hauser

Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 132


Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

44
Tube Geometry – Straight

Flow

Single Tube

Straight Single Tube Design


Brooks, Endress+Hauser, Krohne, Micromotion, Oval

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Tube Geometry – S-Tube

Flow Splitter
Flow Splitter

Flow

Dual Tubes

S-Tube Design
FMC Energy Systems

Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 134


Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Tube Geometry – S-Tube

Flow Splitter
Flow Splitter

Flow

Dual Tubes

S-Tube Design
FMC Energy Systems

Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 135


Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

45
Tube Geometry – S-Tube

Flow Splitter
Flow Splitter

Flow

Dual Tubes

S-Tube Design
Krohne

Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 136


Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Tube Geometry– U-Tube

Flow

Single Tube

Single U-Tube Design


Brooks, Micromotion

Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 137


Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Tube Geometry– U-Tube

Flow Splitter
Flow Splitter

Flow

Dual Tubes

Dual U-Tube Design


Micromotion, Oval, Yokogawa

Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 138


Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

46
Tube Geometry – U-Tube

Flow

Single Tube

U-Tube Design
Danfoss

Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 139


Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Coriolis Mass Flowmeter


Technology
ƒ Principle of Operation
ƒ Tube Geometry
ƒ Flowmeter Designs
ƒ Transmitter Designs
ƒ Installation
ƒ Accessories
ƒ Other Flowmeter Technologies
Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 140
Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Coriolis Mass Flowmeter


Designs
ƒ Liquid
ƒ Gas
ƒ High Pressure
ƒ High Temperature

Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 141


Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

47
Coriolis Mass Flowmeter
Designs
ƒ Metal (other than stainless steel)
ƒ Plastic/Polymer
ƒ Sanitary
ƒ Single Path
ƒ Straight Path

Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 142


Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Coriolis Mass Flowmeter


Technology
ƒ Principle of Operation
ƒ Tube Geometry
ƒ Flowmeter Designs
ƒ Transmitter Designs
ƒ Installation
ƒ Accessories
ƒ Other Flowmeter Technologies
Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 143
Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Coriolis Mass Flowmeter


Transmitter Designs
ƒ Analog
ƒ Electrical components subject to drift
ƒ Mathematical corrections difficult
ƒ Four-wire design

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

48
Coriolis Mass Flowmeter
Transmitter Designs
ƒ Digital
ƒ Microprocessor is less susceptible to drift
ƒ Mathematical corrections in software
ƒ Four-wire design
ƒ Remote communication (with HART)

Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 145


Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Coriolis Mass Flowmeter


Transmitter Designs
ƒ Digital
ƒ Typical design measures a parameter related
to flow
ƒ Some designs digitize raw signals that are
processed digitally
ƒ One design measures two-phase flow by
controlling tube vibration and proprietary
signal processing algorithms

Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 146


Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Coriolis Mass Flowmeter


Transmitter Designs
ƒ Fieldbus
ƒ Microprocessor is less susceptible to drift
ƒ Mathematical corrections in software
ƒ Multi-drop wiring
ƒ Remote communication
ƒ Issues with multiple protocols

Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 147


Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

49
Coriolis Mass Flowmeter
Technology
ƒ Principle of Operation
ƒ Tube Geometry
ƒ Flowmeter Designs
ƒ Transmitter Designs
ƒ Installation
ƒ Accessories
ƒ Other Flowmeter Technologies
Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 148
Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Installation
ƒ Fluid Characteristics
ƒ Piping and Hydraulics
ƒ Mounting
ƒ Electrical
ƒ Ambient Conditions
ƒ Setup Information

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Fluid Characteristics
ƒ Single-phase homogeneous
ƒ Liquid
ƒ Gas
ƒ Vapor

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

50
Fluid Characteristics
ƒ Two-phase
ƒ Liquid/solid
ƒ Liquid/gas
ƒ Avoid flashing

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Fluid Characteristics
ƒ Within accurate flow range
ƒ Corrosion and erosion
ƒ Immiscible fluids

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Piping and Hydraulics


ƒ For liquid applications, keep the
flowmeter full of liquid
ƒ Hydraulic design
ƒ Vertical riser preferred
ƒ Avoid inverted U-tube

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

51
Piping and Hydraulics
ƒ For liquid applications, orient to self-fill
and self-drain
ƒ Self-filling is important to ensure a full pipe
ƒ If not, special precautions must be taken when
zeroing the flowmeter
ƒ If not, gas/vapor can accumulate, especially at
low flow conditions

Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 154


Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Piping and Hydraulics


ƒ For liquid applications, keep the
flowmeter full of liquid
ƒ Hydraulic design
ƒ Be careful when flowing downwards
ƒ Be careful when flowing by gravity

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Piping and Hydraulics


ƒ For gas/vapor applications, keep the
flowmeter full of gas/vapor
ƒ Hydraulic design
ƒ Self-draining
ƒ Vertical preferred
ƒ Avoid U-tube

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

52
Piping and Hydraulics
ƒ For gas/vapor applications, calculate
pressure drop carefully
ƒ Mass flow range of a given size flowmeter is
fixed
ƒ Relatively small mass occupies a relatively
large volume
ƒ High velocity and high pressure drop result
ƒ Flowmeter will operate low in its range
Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 157
Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Piping and Hydraulics


ƒ Wetted parts compatible with fluid
ƒ Sanitary applications
ƒ Orient to self-fill and self-drain
ƒ Compatible with cleaning solutions

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Piping and Hydraulics


ƒ Maintain good velocity profile
ƒ Locate control valve downstream of
flowmeter
ƒ Provide adequate straight run
ƒ Locate most straight run upstream
ƒ Use full face gaskets

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

53
Piping and Hydraulics
ƒ Install a positive shut-off valve
downstream of the flowmeter to zero the
flowmeter at process temperature and
process pressure
ƒ Some suppliers have specific instructions
regarding gas removal when installation is
not self-filling (liquid)

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Piping and Hydraulics


ƒ When locating two or more Coriolis mass
flowmeters near each other, it is possible
for their vibrations to interact
ƒ Different vibration frequencies
ƒ Isolate with supports and flexible
connections

Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 161


Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Mounting
ƒ Mount the flowmeter between flanges that
are parallel, axially aligned, and proper
spacing
ƒ Locate the flowmeter so as to reduce
vibration

Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 162


Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

54
Mounting
ƒ Some suppliers recommend:
ƒ mounting on a solid base plate
ƒ mounting heavy sensors on a rigid support
ƒ upstream bends not in certain planes that
could dampen oscillations
ƒ symmetric supports up/downstream

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Electrical
ƒ Integral sensors reduce wiring cost
ƒ Wiring
ƒ Low voltage power supply can eliminate
power conduit
ƒ Fieldbus reduces wiring

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Ambient Conditions
ƒ Outdoor applications (-20 to 60°C)
ƒ Some designs are for indoor locations
ƒ Hazardous locations
ƒ Some designs are general purpose

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

55
Setup Information
ƒ GIGO (garbage in – garbage out)
ƒ Entering correct information correctly is
critical
ƒ Dimensions
ƒ Materials of construction
ƒ Fluid properties

Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 166


Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Setup Information
ƒ Failure to use correct information can
cause significant error and startup
problems

Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 167


Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Coriolis Mass Flowmeter


Technology
ƒ Principle of Operation
ƒ Tube Geometry
ƒ Flowmeter Designs
ƒ Transmitter Designs
ƒ Installation
ƒ Accessories
ƒ Other Flowmeter Technologies
Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 168
Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

56
Accessories
ƒ Flow Tube
ƒ NEMA 4X and IP67 (IP68)
ƒ High pressure
ƒ High temperature
ƒ Non-316SS
ƒ Sanitary
ƒ Secondary containment

Spitzer and Boyes, LLC (+1.845.623.1830) 169


Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Accessories
ƒ Flow Tube
ƒ Purge fittings
ƒ Heating jacket
ƒ Removable insulation
ƒ Rupture disk

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Accessories
ƒ Transmitter
ƒ NEMA 4X and IP67
ƒ Senor wiring is often intrinsically safe
ƒ Analog output
ƒ Pulse output
ƒ Totalization and alarms
ƒ HART, Foundation Fieldbus, Profibus

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57
Coriolis Mass Flowmeter
Technology
ƒ Principle of Operation
ƒ Tube Geometry
ƒ Flowmeter Designs
ƒ Transmitter Designs
ƒ Installation
ƒ Accessories
ƒ Other Flowmeter Technologies
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Other Flowmeter Technologies


ƒ Coriolis Mass Insertion
ƒ Differential Pressure
ƒ Magnetic
ƒ Positive Displacement
ƒ Target
ƒ Thermal
ƒ Turbine
ƒ Ultrasonic
ƒ Vortex Shedding
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Coriolis Mass Flowmeter


ƒ Coriolis mass flowmeters measure the
force generated as the fluid moves
towards/away from its center of rotation

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58
Coriolis Mass Flowmeter

Flow

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Differential Pressure Flowmeter


ƒ A piping restriction is used to develop a
pressure drop that is measured and used
to infer fluid flow
ƒ Primary Flow Element
ƒ Transmitter (differential pressure)

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Orifice Plate
Primary Flow Element

Orifice Plate

Flow

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

59
Venturi
Primary Flow Element

Throat

Flow

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Flow Nozzle
Primary Flow Element

Nozzle

Flow

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V-Conetm
Primary Flow Element

V-Conetm

Flow

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

60
Differential Pressure Flowmeter
ƒ Pressure drop is proportional to the
square of the fluid flow rate
ƒ Δp α Q2 or Q α sqrt(Δp)
ƒ Double the flow… four times the differential

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Differential Pressure Flowmeter


ƒ Low flow measurement can be difficult
ƒ For example, only ¼ of the differential
pressure is generated at 50 percent of the
full scale flow rate. At 10 percent flow, the
signal is only 1 percent of the differential
pressure at full scale.

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Magnetic Flowmeter
ƒ Fluid flow through a magnetic field
generates a voltage at the electrodes that
is proportional to fluid velocity
ƒ Primary Flow Element
ƒ Transmitter

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61
Magnetic Flowmeter
Tube (non-magnetic)
Magnet
Liner (insulating)

Flow
Electrode

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Magnetic Flowmeter
ƒ Traditional AC excitation was susceptible
to noise and drift
ƒ A low voltage signal is generated that is
susceptible to noise and cross-talk at the
excitation frequency

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Magnetic Flowmeter
ƒ Pulsed DC excitation reduces drift by
turning the magnet on and off
ƒ Noise (while the magnet is off) is subtracted
from signal and noise (while the magnet is
on) to reduce the effects of noise and cross-
talk
ƒ Response time can be compromised

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62
Positive Displacement
Flowmeter
ƒ Positive displacement flowmeters
measure flow by repeatedly entrapping
fluid within the flowmeter
ƒ Moving parts with tight tolerances
ƒ Bearings
ƒ Many shapes

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Target Flowmeter
ƒ Target flowmeters determine flow by
measuring the force exerted on a body
(target) suspended in the flow stream

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Target Flowmeter

Flow

Target

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63
Thermal Flowmeter
ƒ Thermal flowmeters use the thermal
properties of the fluid to measure flow
ƒ Hot Wire Anemometer
ƒ Thermal Profile

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Thermal Flowmeter
Hot Wire Anemometer
ƒ Hot wire anemometers determine flow by
measuring the amount of energy needed
to heat a probe whose heat loss changes
with flow rate

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Thermal Flowmeter
Hot Wire Anemometer

Flow

Thermal
Sensor

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64
Thermal Flowmeter
Thermal Profile
ƒ Thermal profile flowmeters determine
flow by measuring the temperature
difference that results in a heated tube
when the fluid transfers heat from the
upstream portion to the downstream
portion of the flowmeter

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Thermal Flowmeter
Thermal Profile
Temperature Sensors

Heater Heater
Flow

Zero Flow

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Turbine Flowmeter
ƒ Fluid flow causes a rotor to spin whereby
the rotor speed is proportional to fluid
velocity
ƒ Primary Flow Element
ƒ Transmitter

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65
Turbine Flowmeter
Sensor/Transmitter

Rotor
Flow

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Turbine Flowmeter
ƒ The sensor detects the rotor blades
ƒ The frequency of the rotor blades passing
the sensor is proportional to fluid velocity

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Ultrasonic - Doppler
ƒ Doppler ultrasonic flowmeters reflect
ultrasonic energy from particles, bubbles
and/or eddies flowing in the fluid

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66
Ultrasonic - Doppler
Transmitter Receiver

Flow Reflection
Bubbles or Solids

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Ultrasonic - Doppler
ƒ Under no flow conditions, the frequencies
of the ultrasonic beam and its reflection
are the same
ƒ With flow in the pipe, the difference
between the frequency of the beam and its
reflection increases proportional to fluid
velocity

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Ultrasonic - Transit Time


ƒ Transit time (time-of-flight) ultrasonic
flowmeters alternately transmit ultrasonic
energy into the fluid in the direction and
against the direction of flow

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67
Ultrasonic - Transit Time

Sensor

Flow

Sensor

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Ultrasonic - Transit Time


ƒ The time difference between ultrasonic
energy moving upstream and downstream
in the fluid is used to determine fluid
velocity

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Ultrasonic - Transit Time


ƒ Under no flow conditions, the time for
the ultrasonic energy to travel upstream
and downstream are the same
Sensor

Flow

Sensor
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68
Ultrasonic - Transit Time
ƒ With flow in the pipe, the time for the
ultrasonic energy to travel upstream will
be greater than the downstream time
Sensor

Flow

Sensor
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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Vortex Shedding Flowmeter


ƒ A bluff body in the flow stream creates
vortices whereby the number of vortices
is proportional to the fluid velocity
ƒ Primary Flow Element
ƒ Transmitter

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Vortex Shedding Flowmeter

Sensor

Flow Vortex

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69
Vortex Shedding Flowmeter
ƒ The sensing system detects the vortices
created
ƒ The frequency of the vortices passing the
sensing system is proportional to fluid
velocity

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Insertion Flowmeter
ƒ Insertion flowmeter infer the flow in the entire
pipe by measuring flow at one or more strategic
locations in the pipe
ƒ Differential Pressure
ƒ Magnetic
ƒ Target
ƒ Thermal
ƒ Turbine
ƒ Vortex
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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Insertion Flowmeter

Sensor

Flow

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70
Seminar Outline
ƒ Introduction
ƒ Fluid Flow Fundamentals
ƒ Flowmeter Technology
ƒ Flowmeter Performance
ƒ Consumer Guide

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Flowmeter Performance
ƒ Flowmeter Performance
ƒ Performance Statements
ƒ Reference Performance
ƒ Pulse Output vs. Analog Output
ƒ Actual Performance
ƒ Supplier Claims

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Flowmeter Performance
ƒ Accuracy is the ability of the
flowmeter to produce a measurement
that corresponds to its characteristic
curve

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71
Flowmeter Performance

Accuracy

Error 0 Flow

Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Flowmeter Performance
ƒ Repeatability is the ability of the
flowmeter to reproduce a
measurement each time a set of
conditions is repeated

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Flowmeter Performance

Repeatability

Error 0 Flow

Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

72
Flowmeter Performance
ƒ Linearity is the ability of the
relationship between flow and
flowmeter output (often called the
characteristic curve or signature of
the flowmeter) to approximate a
linear relationship

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Flowmeter Performance

Linearity

Error 0 Flow

Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Flowmeter Performance
ƒ Flowmeter suppliers often specify the
composite accuracy that represents
the combined effects of repeatability,
linearity and accuracy

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73
Flowmeter Performance

Composite Accuracy (in Flow Range)

Error 0 Flow

Flow Range

Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Flowmeter Performance
ƒ Flowmeter Performance
ƒ Performance Statements
ƒ Reference Performance
ƒ Pulse Output vs. Analog Output
ƒ Actual Performance
ƒ Supplier Claims

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Performance Statements
ƒ Percent of rate
ƒ Percent of full scale
ƒ Percent of meter capacity (upper
range limit)
ƒ Percent of calibrated span

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74
Performance Statements
ƒ 1% of rate performance at different
flow rates with a 0-100 unit flow
range
ƒ 100% flow Æ 0.01•100 1.00 unit
ƒ 50% flow Æ 0.01•50 0.50 unit
ƒ 25% flow Æ 0.01•25 0.25 unit
ƒ 10% flow Æ 0.01•10 0.10 unit

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Performance Statements

10
1% Rate Performance

%Rate 0 Flow
Error

-10

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Performance Statements
ƒ 1% of full scale performance at
different flow rates with a 0-100 unit
flow range
ƒ 100% flow Æ 0.01•100 1 unit = 1% rate
ƒ 50% flow Æ 0.01•100 1 unit = 2% rate
ƒ 25% flow Æ 0.01•100 1 unit = 4% rate
ƒ 10% flow Æ 0.01•100 1 unit = 10% rate

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75
Performance Statements
1% Full Scale Performance
10

%Rate 0 Flow
Error

-10

Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Performance Statements
ƒ 1% of meter capacity (or upper range
limit) performance at different flow rates
with a 0-100 unit flow range (URL=400)
ƒ 100% flow Æ 0.01•400 4 units = 4% rate
ƒ 50% flow Æ 0.01•400 4 units = 8% rate
ƒ 25% flow Æ 0.01•400 4 units = 16% rate
ƒ 10% flow Æ 0.01•400 4 units = 40% rate

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Performance Statements

1% Meter Capacity Performance


10

0 Flow

-10

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76
Performance Statements
ƒ Performance expressed as a percent
of calibrated span is similar to full
scale and meter capacity statements
where the absolute error is a
percentage of the calibrated span

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Performance Statements
ƒ 1% of calibrated span performance at
different flow rates with a 0-100 unit flow
range (URL=400, calibrated span=200)
ƒ 100% flow Æ 0.01•200 2 units = 2% rate
ƒ 50% flow Æ 0.01•200 2 units = 4% rate
ƒ 25% flow Æ 0.01•200 2 units = 8% rate
ƒ 10% flow Æ 0.01•200 2 units = 20% rate

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Performance Statements

1% of Calibrated Span Performance


10 (assuming 50% URL)

0 Flow

-10

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77
Performance Statements
ƒ A calibrated span statement becomes
a full scale statement when the
instrument is calibrated to full scale
ƒ A calibrated span statement becomes
a meter capacity statement when the
instrument is calibrated at URL

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Performance Statements
ƒ Performance specified as a percent of
rate, percent of full scale, percent of
meter capacity, and percent of calibrated
span are different

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Performance Statements
1% Calibrated Span
(50%URL)
1% Rate 10

%Rate Flow
0
Error

-10

1% Full Scale
1% Meter Capacity

Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

78
Performance Statements
ƒ Performance statements apply over a
range of operation
ƒ Turndown is the ratio of the maximum
flow that the flowmeter will measure
within the stated accuracy to the
minimum flow that can be measured
within the stated accuracy

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Performance Statements
ƒ Performance statements can be
manipulated because their meaning
may not be clearly understood
ƒ Technical assistance may be needed
to analyze the statements

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Flowmeter Performance
ƒ Flowmeter Performance
ƒ Performance Statements
ƒ Reference Performance
ƒ Pulse Output vs. Analog Output
ƒ Actual Performance
ƒ Supplier Claims

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79
Reference Performance
ƒ Reference performance is the quality
of measurement at a nominal set of
operating conditions, such as:
ƒ Water at 20°C in ambient conditions of
20°C and 50 percent relative humidity
ƒ Long straight run
ƒ Pulse output
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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Reference Performance
ƒ In the context of the industrial world,
reference performance reflects
performance under controlled
laboratory conditions

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Performance Statements
ƒ For most Coriolis mass flowmeters,
performance statements are the
combination of:
ƒ Percentage of rate
ƒ Zero stability

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80
Performance Statements
ƒ Combination performance statement
ƒ Zero adjustment exists
ƒ Zero is is not well-defined
ƒ Zero adjustment is performed well

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Reference Performance
ƒ Hypothetical flowmeter
ƒ 0.1% rate
ƒ 0.025 kg/min
ƒ Zero stability (depends on size)

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Reference Performance
Example - Omission
ƒ Hypothetical flowmeter
ƒ 0.10% rate
ƒ This statement could be interpreted
to apply over the entire flow range

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81
Reference Performance
Example - Omission
ƒ Hypothetical flowmeter
ƒ 0.10% rate plus 0.025 kg/min
ƒ 0.10% rate dominates at high flows
ƒ 0.025 kg/min dominates at low flows

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Reference Performance
Problem
ƒ What is the performance of a
Coriolis mass flowmeter with the
following accuracy specifications?
ƒ 0.10% rate plus 0.025 kg/min
ƒ Assume a 0-100 kg/min flow range

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Reference Performance
Solution
ƒ Rate statement error
ƒ 100% flow Æ 0.001•100 0.100 kg/min
ƒ 50% flow Æ 0.001•50 0.050 “
ƒ 25% flow Æ 0.001•25 0.025 “
ƒ 10% flow Æ 0.001•10 0.010 “
ƒ 1% flow Æ 0.001•1 0.001 “

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82
Reference Performance
Solution
ƒ Flow error
ƒ 100%flow Æ0.100+0.025=0.125kg/min
ƒ 50% flow Æ 0.050+0.025=0.075 “
ƒ 25% flow Æ 0.025+0.025=0.050 “
ƒ 10% flow Æ 0.010+0.025=0.035 “
ƒ 1% flow Æ 0.001+0.025=0.026 “

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Reference Performance
Solution
ƒ Performance expressed as a percent
of rate
ƒ 100% flow Æ 0.125/100 0.13 % rate
ƒ 50% flow Æ 0.075/50 0.15 % “
ƒ 25% flow Æ 0.050/25 0.20 % “
ƒ 10% flow Æ 0.035/10 0.35 % “
ƒ 1% flow Æ 0.026/1 2.60 % “

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Reference Performance
ƒ Performance at low flow rates is
degraded as compared to the 0.10%
rate statement (while still meeting
specifications)
ƒ Rate statement dominates at high flows
ƒ Zero stability dominates at low flows

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83
Reference Performance
ƒ Rate statements are often discussed
ƒ Zero stability issues are often only
mentioned with prompting
ƒ Progressive disclosure

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Reference Performance
ƒ Flow Laboratory Performance
ƒ Flow laboratory is used to ensure that
the flowmeter performs per
specifications

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Reference Performance
ƒ Uncertainty Analysis
ƒ Formal document that quantifies flow
laboratory performance
ƒ Opportunity to take a critical look at
the facility

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84
Reference Performance
ƒ Uncertainty Analysis
ƒ Performance degrades as the look
becomes more in-depth
ƒ Buoyancy
ƒ Analog input error

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Reference Performance
ƒ Uncertainty Analysis
ƒ Best when performed/reviewed
independently
ƒ Results can suggest improvements

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Reference Performance
ƒ Flow Laboratory Performance
ƒ The “Rule of Thumb” is that the
calibration standard should be at least
4 times better than instrument

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85
Reference Performance
ƒ Flow Laboratory Performance
ƒ 4:1 implies uncertainty of 0.025% rate
ƒ Difficult to achieve and maintain
ƒ Shows importance of formal uncertainty
analysis

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Reference Performance
ƒ Flow Laboratory Performance
ƒ Some suppliers have not performed an
uncertainty analysis, other suppliers
did not know the uncertainty
ƒ Calibrations performed in these
laboratories may be suspect

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Flowmeter Performance
ƒ Flowmeter Performance
ƒ Performance Statements
ƒ Reference Performance
ƒ Pulse Output vs. Analog Output
ƒ Actual Performance
ƒ Supplier Claims

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86
Pulse Output vs. Analog Output
ƒ Most suppliers specify pulse output
performance
ƒ Analog output performance is typically
the pulse output performance plus an
absolute error

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Pulse Output vs. Analog Output


Problem
ƒ What is the error associated with a
4-20mA analog output that has an
error of 0.010 mA?

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Pulse Output vs. Analog Output


Solution
ƒ The conversion error is:
ƒ 0.010/(20-4) = 0.06% of full scale
ƒ Some flowmeters have analog output
errors of 0.10% of full scale

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87
Pulse Output vs. Analog Output
Solution

Flow 0.06% Full Scale


100 units 0.06*100/100 = 0.06% rate
50 “ 0.06*100/50 = 0.12 “
25 “ 0.06*100/25 = 0.24 “
10 “ 0.06*100/10 = 0.60 “

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Pulse Output vs. Analog Output


Solution

Flow 0.03% Full Scale


100 units 0.03*100/100 = 0.03% rate
50 “ 0.03*100/50 = 0.06 “
25 “ 0.03*100/25 = 0.12 “
10 “ 0.03*100/10 = 0.30 “

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Pulse Output vs. Analog Output


ƒ Some suppliers cannot provide an
analog output accuracy
specification, so the performance of
the analog output may be undefined

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88
Pulse Output vs. Analog Output
ƒ In some flowmeter designs, the
analog output error can be larger
than the flowmeter accuracy
ƒ Often applies to flowmeters with
percent of rate accuracy
ƒ Rate error increases at low flow rates
ƒ Others often include the analog output
error in their pulse accuracy statement
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Pulse Output vs. Analog Output


ƒ Flowmeters with percent of full
scale, meter capacity, and calibrated
span often include the analog output
error in their pulse accuracy
statement

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Pulse Output vs. Analog Output


Example
ƒ An analog output error of 0.10% of
full scale is usually neglected for a
flowmeter that exhibits 1% of full
scale performance.

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89
Flowmeter Performance
ƒ Flowmeter Performance
ƒ Performance Statements
ƒ Reference Performance
ƒ Pulse Output vs. Analog Output
ƒ Actual Performance
ƒ Supplier Claims

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Actual Performance
ƒ Operating Effects
ƒ Ambient conditions
ƒ Humidity
ƒ Precipitation
ƒ Temperature
ƒ Direct sunlight

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Actual Performance
ƒ Many flowmeters are rated to 10-
90% relative humidity (non-
condensing)
ƒ Outdoor locations are subject to 100%
relative humidity and precipitation in
various forms

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90
Actual Performance
ƒ Operating Effects
ƒ Can be significant, even though the
numbers seem small
ƒ Not published by most suppliers
ƒ Information is not generally available to
fairly evaluate actual performance

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Actual Performance
Example
ƒ The error (at 25 percent of scale and
a 0°C ambient) associated with a
temperature effect of 0.01% full
scale per °C can be calculated as:
ƒ 0.01*(20-0)/25, or 0.80% rate

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Actual Performance
ƒ Velocity Profile
ƒ A few Coriolis mass flowmeters can be
affected by a distorted velocity profile
ƒ Provide adequate straight run
ƒ Locate upstream/downstream elbows in
recommended plane

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91
Actual Performance
ƒ Fluid Properties
ƒ Reference accuracy is determined
using a known fluid at known
conditions

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Actual Performance
ƒ Fluid Properties
ƒ Variation from reference conditions
may require calibration correlations
that can affect flowmeter performance
ƒ Different fluid composition
ƒ Different fluid temperature

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Flowmeter Performance
ƒ Flowmeter Performance
ƒ Performance Statements
ƒ Reference Performance
ƒ Analog Output vs. Pulse Output
ƒ Actual Performance
ƒ Supplier Claims

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92
Supplier Claims
ƒ High Turndown
ƒ Example - Hypothetical Coriolis mass
flowmeter
ƒ 0.10% rate accuracy
ƒ 1000:1 turndown
ƒ Sounds fantastic!

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Supplier Claims
ƒ High Turndown
ƒ Further investigation reveals that the
accuracy is
ƒ 0.10% rate plus zero stability
ƒ 1000:1 turndown
ƒ Zero stability is small

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Supplier Claims
ƒ High Turndown
ƒ Even more investigation reveals that
the accuracy is
ƒ 0.10% rate plus zero stability
ƒ 1000:1 turndown
ƒ Zero stability is 0.025 kg/min (0-100
kg/min range)

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93
Reference Performance
ƒ High Turndown
ƒ Performance expressed as a percent
of rate degrades at low flows
ƒ 100% flow Æ 0.125/100 0.13 % rate
ƒ 25% flow Æ 0.050/25 0.20 % “
ƒ 10% flow Æ 0.035/10 0.35 % “
ƒ 1% flow Æ 0.026/1 2.60 % “
ƒ 0.1% flow Æ 0.025/0.1 25.0 % “
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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Supplier Claims
ƒ High Turndown
ƒ Use of analog output would degrade
performance even further

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Supplier Claims
ƒ Low Flow Operation
ƒ Flowmeter operates at low flows, but
performance expressed as a percent of
rate is degraded

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94
Supplier Claims
ƒ High Accuracy
ƒ High accuracy claims often refer to
high flow rates that may not be
practical
ƒ Zero stability is often hidden by
omission

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Supplier Claims
ƒ Improved Accuracy Claims
ƒ Trend to improve rate statement for
better marketability

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Supplier Claims
ƒ Improved Accuracy Claims
ƒ Compare zero stabilities to see whether
the “improvement” is a restatement of
the specifications
ƒ At least one supplier increasing zero
stability to allow an “improvement” of the
same flowmeter from 0.15 to 0.10% rate

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95
Supplier Claims
ƒ Inexpensive Coriolis Mass
Flowmeters
ƒ Less expensive
ƒ Fewer features
ƒ Not as accurate
ƒ Performance rivals other technologies

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Seminar Outline
ƒ Introduction
ƒ Fluid Flow Fundamentals
ƒ Flowmeter Technology
ƒ Flowmeter Performance
ƒ Consumer Guide

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Consumer Guide
User Equipment Selection Process
ƒ Learn about the technology
ƒ Find suitable vendors
ƒ Obtain specifications
ƒ Organize specifications
ƒ Evaluate specifications
ƒ Select equipment

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96
Consumer Guide
User Equipment Selection Process
ƒ Performing this process takes time and
therefore costs money

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Consumer Guide
User Equipment Selection Process
ƒ Haphazard implementation with
limited knowledge of alternatives does
not necessarily lead to a good
equipment selection

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Consumer Guide
Guide Provides First Four Items
ƒ Learn about the technology
ƒ Find suitable vendors
ƒ Obtain specifications
ƒ Organize specifications
ƒ Evaluate specifications
ƒ Select equipment

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97
Consumer Guide
Guide Provides First Four Items
ƒ Information focused on
technology
ƒ Comprehensive lists of suppliers
and equipment

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Consumer Guide
Guide Provides First Four Items
ƒ Significant specifications
ƒ Lists of equipment organized to
facilitate evaluation

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Consumer Guide
User Equipment Selection Process
ƒ By providing the first four items, the Consumer
Guides:
ƒ make technical evaluation and equipment
selection easier, more comprehensive, and
more efficient

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98
Consumer Guide
User Equipment Selection Process
ƒ By providing the first four items, the Consumer
Guides:
ƒ allow selection from a larger number of
suppliers
ƒ simplifies the overall selection process

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Consumer Guide
ƒ Supplier Data and Analysis
ƒ Attachments
ƒ Flowmeter categories
ƒ Availability of selected features
ƒ Models grouped by performance

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Supplier Data and Analysis


ƒ Flow Tube Limits
ƒ Size
ƒ 1-300 mm
ƒ Ambient temperature
ƒ -20 to 60°C typical
ƒ NEMA 4X, IP65, 67

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

99
Supplier Data and Analysis
ƒ Flow Tube Limits
ƒ Wetted parts
ƒ Stainless steel
ƒ Hastelloy
ƒ Titanium

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Supplier Data and Analysis


ƒ Flow Tube Limits
ƒ Some designs have seals
ƒ EPDM
ƒ Kalrez
ƒ PTFE
ƒ Viton

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Supplier Data and Analysis


ƒ Flow Tube Limits
ƒ Geometry (and Orientation)
ƒ Self-filling
ƒ Self-draining
ƒ Self-filling and self-draining

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100
Supplier Data and Analysis
ƒ Process Operating Limits
ƒ Pressure limit
ƒ 1000 bar
ƒ Secondary containment
ƒ Temperature limit
ƒ 200°C typical; 400°C max

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Supplier Data and Analysis


ƒ Pressure Drop Limits
ƒ Damage flowmeter if excessive
ƒ Pressure drop increases with increasing
viscosity
ƒ Flashing
ƒ Small amount causes unstable output
ƒ Large amount can stall tubes

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Supplier Data and Analysis


ƒ Flow Tube Installation/Maintenance
ƒ Straight run
ƒ Generally not required
ƒ Some designs need straight run
ƒ Examine installation instructions before
purchase

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101
Supplier Data and Analysis
ƒ Flow Tube Installation/Maintenance
ƒ Supports
ƒ None with properly supported pipe
ƒ Two upstream and two downstream
ƒ Examine installation instructions before
purchase

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Supplier Data and Analysis


ƒ Flow Tube Installation/Maintenance
ƒ Orientation
ƒ Self-filling (liquid)
ƒ Self-draining (gas/vapor)
ƒ Self-filling and self-draining
ƒ Examine literature and installation instructions
before purchase

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Supplier Data and Analysis


ƒ Flow Tube Installation/Maintenance
ƒ Liquid - setting zero calibration
ƒ Remove all gas/vapor and zero
ƒ If not self-filling, remove gas/vapor by operating
at high flow rate for a period of time

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102
Supplier Data and Analysis
ƒ Flow Tube Installation/Maintenance
ƒ Gas - setting zero calibration
ƒ Remove all liquid and zero
ƒ If not self-draining, remove liquid by operating
at high flow rate for a period of time

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Supplier Data and Analysis


ƒ Flow Tube Installation/Maintenance
ƒ Flow tube removal
ƒ Remove all liquid and remove from piping
ƒ If not self-draining, other procedures may be
necessary to safely remove liquid

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Supplier Data and Analysis


ƒ Flow Tube Operation
ƒ Start-up
ƒ If not self-filling, gas/vapor may be present
ƒ If not self-draining, liquid may be present
ƒ Undesired phase can be removed by operating at
high flow rate for a period of time

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103
Supplier Data and Analysis
ƒ Flow Tube Operation
ƒ Low flow
ƒ If not self-filling, gas/vapor may accumulate
ƒ If not self-draining, liquid may accumulate
ƒ Undesired phase can be removed by operating at
high flow rate for a period of time

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Supplier Data and Analysis


ƒ Transmitter
ƒ 4-wire device (separate power/analog wires)
ƒ Using DC power can eliminate power conduit
ƒ Typically measure forward and reverse flow
ƒ Alarms, totalization, batching

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Supplier Data and Analysis


ƒ Transmitter
ƒ Multivariable
ƒ Tube temperature
ƒ Fluid density
ƒ Fluid viscosity
ƒ Derived variables
ƒ Concentration
ƒ Volumetric flow

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104
Supplier Data and Analysis
ƒ Transmitter
ƒ Mounting
ƒ Integral
ƒ Remote
ƒ Spacing (distance)

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Supplier Data and Analysis


ƒ Transmitter
ƒ Filtering is typically used
ƒ Excessive damping can affect batching
response

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Supplier Data and Analysis


ƒ Transmitter
ƒ Range adjustment mechanism provide
insight into age of design
ƒ Analog (potentiometer)
ƒ Dip switch
ƒ Digital

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105
Supplier Data and Analysis
ƒ Performance
ƒ Flow laboratory and flow calibration stand
uncertainty is important to ensure that the
flowmeter meets specifications when shipped
ƒ Formal (written) uncertainty analysis
ƒ Many suppliers could not quantify their
uncertainty

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Supplier Data and Analysis


ƒ Performance
ƒ Reference performance assumes that
flowmeter is installed, calibrated, and
operated properly
ƒ Pulse output accuracy is typically 0.10% rate
plus zero stability

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Supplier Data and Analysis


ƒ Performance
ƒ Analog output accuracy
ƒ Add 0.02 to 0.06% full scale
ƒ Some suppliers could not quantify

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106
Supplier Data and Analysis
ƒ Performance
ƒ It can be difficult to compare the
performance of different suppliers’
equipment

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Supplier Data and Analysis


ƒ Operating Effects
ƒ Ambient
ƒ Temperature, humidity
ƒ Process conditions
ƒ Temperature, pressure, viscosity, composition
ƒ Two-phase

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Supplier Data and Analysis


ƒ Operating Effects
ƒ Other effects
ƒ Power supply voltage

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107
Supplier Data and Analysis
ƒ Operating Effects
ƒ It can be difficult to compare the operating
effects of different suppliers’ equipment

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Consumer Guide
ƒ Supplier Data and Analysis
ƒ Attachments
ƒ Flowmeter categories
ƒ Availability of selected features
ƒ Models grouped by performance
ƒ Models grouped by supplier

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Flowmeter Categories
ƒ Summary of offerings
ƒ Liquid
ƒ Gas
ƒ High Pressure
ƒ High Temperature
ƒ Metal (other than 316 stainless steel)

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108
Flowmeter Categories
ƒ Summary of offerings
ƒ Plastic/Polymer
ƒ Sanitary
ƒ Single Path
ƒ Straight Path

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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Flowmeter Categories
ƒ Suppliers (21)
ƒ Manufacturers (15)
ƒ7 USA
ƒ6 Germany
ƒ1 Brazil, Denmark, Japan, Mexico,
Switzerland, UK

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Availability of Selected
Features
ƒ Use of seals
ƒ Secondary containment
ƒ IP67 housing
ƒ Hazardous location approval
ƒ Rigid support or frame recommended

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109
Availability of Selected
Features
ƒ Vertical piping
ƒ Self-filling and self-draining
ƒ Horizontal piping
ƒ Self-filling
ƒ Self-draining
ƒ Self-filling and self-draining

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Availability of Selected
Features
ƒ Large size
ƒ Batching
ƒ Communications
ƒ HART
ƒ Foundation Fieldbus
ƒ Profibus

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Availability of Selected
Features
ƒ Less expensive design
ƒ Two-phase flow

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110
Models Grouped by Full Scale
ƒ 0.003 kg/min and under
ƒ 0.01 kg/min
ƒ 0.03 kg/min
ƒ 0.1 kg/min
ƒ 0.3 kg/min
ƒ 1 kg/min
ƒ 3 kg/min
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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Models Grouped by Full Scale


ƒ 10 kg/min
ƒ 30 kg/min
ƒ 100 kg/min
ƒ 300 kg/min
ƒ 1000 kg/min
ƒ 3000 kg/min
ƒ 10,000 kg/min
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Copyright Copperhill and Pointer, Inc., 2004 (All Rights Reserved)

Review and Questions


ƒ Introduction
ƒ Fluid Flow Fundamentals
ƒ Flowmeter Technology
ƒ Flowmeter Performance
ƒ Consumer Guide

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111
The Consumer Guide to
Coriolis Mass Flowmeters

Seminar Presented by
David W. Spitzer
Spitzer and Boyes, LLC

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112