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Question 4: Kelantan 09
ANSWER (a) X : Ammeter
Y: Voltmeter
7.1 CURRENT & ELECTRIC FIELD (b) (i) Directly proportional
1. Question 8:Melaka MY 09 (b)(ii) Ohm’s Law
(a)(i) A region where a charge (c)(i) Resistance
experiences electrical forces (c)(ii) Constantan s.w.g 36
(a)(ii) Higher gradient.

5. Question 8: Kedah 08
(a) Ohm’s law states that current
flowing through a conductor is
directly proportional to the
potential difference accross its
(b)(i) Q = It = 0.2 x 3 x 60 C ends provided that the
= 36 C temperature and other physical
(b)(ii) n = Q/e = 36/1.9 x 10 -19
quantities of the conductor
= 1.89 x 1020 remain constant
(c)(i) Extra high tension (b)  Ohm’s law is not obeyed
Produce higher strength of (i)
electric field (b)  This is because the
(c)(ii) metal (i) resistance e of the conductor
strong / good conductor is extremely high.
(d) R (iii)  From the graph:
(e) non electrolyte V = 2.0 V, I = 4.6 x 10-3 A
 R = V/I
= 2.0 / 4.6 x 10-3
(i)  Y with M
2. Question 1: MRSM 08
 Z with L
(a) Measure potential di
difference /
voltage (c)  Gradient of the graph
(ii) represents the effective
(b)(i) Increases
resistance of the circuit
(b)(ii) Remain unchanged
 Series
ies circuit has higher
(c) Length/ temperature / cross
resistance // parallel circuit
sectional are
has lower resistance
(c)  R = gradient of graph P =
(iii) 12/3
3. Question 2: Johor 09
(a) Cross section of P > cross
sectional of Q
(b) (i) gradient of V-II graph
(b)(ii) draw a triangle
(8.0 – 0) = 1.6 Ω
(5.0 – 0)

6. Question 3: Kelantan 08
(a) Parallel circuit 8.
(b) all symbols correct (a) Current is rate of flow of charge.
Circuit is correct (b)
(c) The brightness of lamp J = lamp  In Diagram 10.1(a) , the
K = lamp L = lamp M voltmeter is placed across the
(d) The voltage is the same conductor, while in Diagram
(e) One bulb blow, other bulbs can 10.2(a), the voltmeter is placed
still lights up. across the dry cells.
 Graph 10.1(b): potential
7. Question 8: SBP 09 difference is directly
(a) When the voltage supplied is 6V proportional to current.
the energy produce is12 J per  Ohm’s law
second.  Graph 10.2(b): potential
(b) Diagram 8.1: series difference decreases as the
Diagram 8.2: parallel current increases.
(c)  Due to the total internal
 Voltage for each bulb in Diagram resistance in the dry cells.
8.2 more than Diagram 8.1 There is a potential difference
 Total resistance in Diagram 8.2 drop.
less than Diagram 8.1  Part of the energy is used to
// Current flow in each bulb in overcome the internal
Diagram 8.2 is more than in resistance due to the
Diagram 8.1 electrolyte in the battery.
(d) (i) R1 = 4 + 4 + 4 = 12 Ω
V 6 .0
I= = = 0.5 A
(answer + correct unit)
1 1 1 1 3 9. Question 7: Kedah 09
(ii) = + + = (a) Electrical energy to
R 4 4 4 4
gravitational potential energy
RT = = 1. 33 Ω (b) (i) P = VI = 10 x 1.7 = 17 W
6.0 (b)(ii) P = mgh = 2 x10 x 1.5
I T= = 4.5 A
1.33 t 2.5
4. 5 = 12 W
I flow each bulb =
3 (b)(iii) efficiency = 12 x 100%
= 1.5 A 17
(e)(i) Diagram 8.2 = 70.6 %
(e)(ii) (c) Ammeter reading decreases
 If one bulb blow another bulb Less work done // less power
can still lights up required.
 less effective resistance //more (d) Lubricate with oil the moving
current flow parts to reduce friction force.

10. Question 8: Johor 07
(a) It releases 1000 J of energy per (c) W and Z
second// 1000W power when 240 (ii)
V is supplied to it Give the reason correctly
(b) P The fuse rating just bigger the
(i) current through the kettle
(c) W
1000 (iii) Give the reason correctly
240 High boiling point , High
= 4.167 A resistivity and use 8Afuse

(b) E = Pt
(ii) 1000 30 12. Question 8: Melaka 09
= X X 30 // 15 units (a) Electrical energy to kinetic
1000 60
energy + gravitational
Cost = 15 X 0.23 // RM 3.45 potential energy
(c) Calculate the energy by using (b)(i) VIt = 5 x 1.2 x 5 J
(i) E = VIt = 30 J
P : 240 X 6 X 90 // 129 600 J (b)(ii) mgh = 1.5 x 10 x 1. 5 J
Q : 240 X 5 X 150 // 180 000 J = 22.5 J
R : 240 X 4 X 120 // 115 200 J (c)(i) energy consumption :
(c) R Computer :
(ii) Uses the least energy // save Pt = 200 x 1 x 60 x 60 x7
energy = 5040000 J
Save cost // save time = 1400 whr = 1.4 kwhr
Air condition :
Pt = 2000 x 1 x 7
11. Question 8: Trengganu 08 = 14000 whr = 14 kwhr
(a) When 240 V potential Water heater :
difference is supplied, 1.2 kJ of Pt = 3800 x ½ x 7 = 13300 whr
energy is produced per = 13.3 kwhr = 47880 kJ
second. All answers with correct
(b) 1.2 or 1200 (d) Air condition
(i) 240 240 Highest energy consumption

=5A 13. Section B:SBP 07

(b) 240 or 1200 a Chemical energy  electrical
(ii) 5 240 energy
b  Figure 10.1(a): The dry cells
= 48  i connected in parallel,
(c)  W and Y  Figure 10.1(b): The dry cells
(i)  High boiling point not boil connected in series
at high temperature  The voltage supplied in
 High resistivity // produced Figure 10.1(a) is smaller
more heat

 The ammeter reading in e.g. 15A (for 15A
Figure 10.2(a) is smaller mcb)
 The greater the voltage Earth connection Earth wire
supplied, the greater the to the metal case connected to
energy transferred to flow the of electrical earth, so that
electric charges around the appliances when a fault
circuit occurs and a
ii  The greater the current current flows
flowing around the circuit, the through the live
faster that the energy is wire and the
transferred earth wire, the
(b) Understanding fuse in the live
 Our bodies are at earth wire will blow and
potential (0V) cut off the
 If we touch the live wire, there supply. It will
will be a large potential protect a person
difference (p.d) the live wire who may touch a
and our body. A large faulty or live
current flow through it, appliance
probably fatal. Use low power To save the
 The neutral wire stays at lamps / install energy
earth potential (0V), roughly fluorescent lamp
at the same potential as our Regularly
bodies. cleaning and
 If we touch the neutral wire, removing dust
there is no potential from the air
difference across us and so filters of air
no current flows. conditioners
Do not put more
Qualitative: water in a kettle
Method Reason than needed for
The electric Allow each hot drinks
appliances are electric
connected in appliances to be
parallel//diagram switched on and 14. Section B: Trengganu 07
off independently (a) 1 The rate of charge flows.
Fit fuse at the live To stop the flow
wire in the fuse of current by (b)  Diagram 10.1 connected in
box //diagram// melting when a series and Diagram 10.2
Use miniature high voltage of connected in parallel.
circuit breakers electric current  The reading of ammeter in
(mcb’s) flows through Diagram 10.2 is greater
the circuit // than in Diagram 10.1.
switches itself off  The reading of voltmeter in
very quickly if the Diagram 10.1 > Diagram
current exceeds 10.2.

 The effective resistance in (ii)  The current through each
Diagram 10.2 < Diagram 10.1. electrical appliance is
 Effective resistance higher//The bulbs in the
increases, the current flows parallel circuit light up
decreases. brighter compared to the
 Circuit connected in parallel, same bulbs in series
the effective resistance circuit// Effective resistance
decreases. is much smaller when
(b) Understanding: connected in parallel circuit
 The ammeter reading  If any devices/components
increased broke down, others can still
 The voltmeter reading be used
decreased.  The circuit breaker / fuse
 Effective resistance in the can be connected to each
circuit decreased. path for safety
 Only certain devices that
are not in used can be
(c) Qualitative problem switched off. The current
Modification Reason can still flow through the
Attach one fuse To break/switch other path
to the live wire off the circuit when
in the consumer large current (c) Making Decision
unit/ fuse box. before the wire characteristic reason
become hotter and Low power Safe cost//electric
produce fire. lamp bill
Using the To prevent short High The room looks
insulating wires circuit // To reduce efficiency brighter//high output
// thicker wires resistance, power //less power
improve efficiency. wastage
Attach switch for To allows each Long life span No need to replace
each lamp. lamp to be often
switched on & off Low price Save money/cos
independently Choose Long Because has Low
Connect the To flows electron fluorescent power with highest
metal fitting (extra) to earth to efficiency, long
lamp to the earth avoid lethal shock. hours of life span
wire/ cable. and medium price
Using only 240 V To ensure the
light bulb. bulbs light up with (d) Quantitative problem
normal brightness. (i) 3.3 //3.33 
(ii) 9 = I x 5
= 1.8 A
15. Section C: Kedah 07 (iii) 9 2
(i) Three resistors are connected // (0.9)2 x 10
one after another
= 8.1 W

16. Understanding: Teknik 07 Melting point to prevent the
(a) ‘9 V’ means 9 J of energy is is high wire from
needed to move 1 C of charge melting
around a complete circuit. Density wire is to reduce the
(b)  The two dry cells are low mass of wire /
connected in parallel. too heavy
 The effective internal Rate of rusting to prevent it
resistance of the two batteries is low from rusting
is smaller easily
 So moreore current can flow Rate of to prevent
expansion of lengthening
wire is low
17. Section B: N9 08
(a) 1. Bulbs are connected in
(i) parallel – 1m 18. Section B: Johor 08
2. Switch and battery are (a) Work done in moving one
connected in series – 1m (i) coulomb of charge from one
Correct symbols for all point to another
components (a)

(a) When the bulb is connected to a

(ii) power supply of 1.5V, it will
produce 3J of energy in 1
(b)  The bulb in parallel circuit //
Diagram 10.2 is brighter than
(a) The brightness of bulb A is the
those in series circuit //
(iii) same as bulb B
Diagram 10.1
(a) I = P/V
 The potential difference
(iv) = 6/1.5
across each bulb in the
= 4A
parallel circuit is the same
(a) Energy = Pt
as that of the battery // dry
(v) = 6 x 3600
= 21 600 J
 The potentiall difference
across each bulb in the
Energy = VIt
series circuit is smaller than
= 1.5 x 4 x 3600
that of the battery // dry cell.
= 21 600 J
 The current flowing through
each bulb in the parallel
Modification explanations circuit is higher than the
Resistance of to prevent current flowing in the series
wire is low power loss due circuit.
to heat

 When the potential 19. Section C: Melaka 08
difference across each bulb (a) “240 V, 80 W” means the bulb
is higher, the current flowing (i) transforms energy of 80 J/s if
through it is also higher and connected to 240 V power
the bulb is brighter. supply.
(a)  the resistance of metal Z is
Suggestion explaination (ii) constant / The resistance of
Diameter of wire So that the metal Y is increasing
used as flexible resistance will be  The suitable material to be
cable must be reduced. A used as filament of the bulb
thicker thinner wire has a is metal Y
higher  resistance increases as the
resistance. If temperature increases
large current  the higher the resistance the
flows through it, brighter the bulb
it becomes (b) (i)
overheated and Characteristic Reason
may burn and The cross- because it can
cause a fire sectional area release more heat/
Length of cable is So that the is small resistance is
shorter resistance is higher
smaller Melting point so it cannot be
Heating element Can produce the is high melt easily at high
must made of higher heat temperature.
material with high energy with small The specific so it can release
resistivity such current. So that heat capacity heat in a shorter
as nichrome water will boil is low time
faster length of the it can be shaped
The kettle is So that the heat heating as a coil and
made of good will not loose to element is release more heat.
heat insulator the surroundings long
and water will The best heating element is L
boil faster. It is It has a small cross-sectional area,
safer to handle high melting point, low specific
Use a suitable If there is a short- heat capacity and long.
fuse. The current circuit, a very (c) 1 1 1
flow through the high current  
(i) R 3 3
cable is 8.33 A. flows and melt R  1.5
The suitable fuse the fuse wire. The (c) 6
is between 11 A kettle will not be I2   2A /
(ii) 3
to 13 A damaged
V= ( )6  4 V
2 1
V 2 42
P = I R  (2) (2) / P =
2 2

R 2

20. Section C: Trengganu 09 21. Section C: Johor 09
(a) Electric field is a region where a (a) E.m.f
m.f is the work done by a source
charge experiece electric force. in driving 1 C of charge around a
(b) complete circuit.
 Charges on the disc neutralize (b)(i)
the negative charges on the
ping pong ball.
 Like charges on the disc and
the ball repelled each other
 The ball attracted by the
positively charged disc. (b)(ii) Parallel connection
 The ball oscillates between the (b)(iii) Diagram 12.1(b)
(b) provides
two plates. higher current.
(c) Kilowatt hour meter installed near
main fuse
Properties explanation
Aspects explanation
Low power Consume
onsume less
Fuse for each Cut off current if rating electrical energy //
circuit overloaded save energy
Bulbs and power Other bulb or Low cost Save money / cheaper
sockets arrange power socket still
High Produce
roduce high power
in parallel working when
efficiency output // less energy
one bulb blows
Long lifetime Last longer / use for
Circuit for Supply different
longer period
lighting is in value of current
Lamp Q
parallel with
It has lower
ower power rating, low cost,
power circuit
high efficency and long lifetime
Kilowatt hour Record
ecord total
meter installed power usage and
(d)(i) Electrical energy to light energy
near main fuse prevent
+ heat energy
overloading of
(d)(ii) I = 200 = 0.83 A
Use circuit L
Has fuse for each circuit, bulbs and
R = V2 = (240)(240) = 288 Ω
power sockets arrange in parallel,
P 200
Circuit for lighting is in parallel with
power circuit, Kilowatt hour meter
installed near main fuse

(d)(i) fuse 10 – 13 A
(d)(ii) V = IR = 9 x 26.7 = 240.3 V
P = VI = 9 x 240.3 = 2162.7 W

22. Section C: Melaka 09 23. Section C: MRSM 09
(a) To control the current (a) (i) Direct current.
(b) Length of wire (a)(ii) Series circuit
 Current flow from A to B
through the slider
 Slider is moved to change the
length of wire
 Length of wire is directly
proportional to current.
(b) (i) power for washing machine:
Specification explanation
P = V = 2402 = 4800 W = 4.8 kW
Density of wire is so it is lighter R 12
small Energy for one day
Melting point is so the wire will (1 x 24) + (1.2 x 10) + (4.8 x 2)
high not melt = 45.6 units
oxidation rate is at high (b)(ii) energy for one month:
low temperature the 45.6 x 30 = 1,368 unit
wire can be used (b)(iii) total cost:
for a longer time 100 x 0.2 = 20.00
resistivity is high more heat energy 100 x 0.29 = 29.00
is produced 1168 x 0.25 = 292.00
The best wire is M Total = RM 341.00
Because the density is small, melting (c)(i) fuse label ‘8 A’ means the
point is high, oxidation rate is low normal current that flows in the
and resistivity is high power plug must be less than 8
A. If it exceeds 8 A, the fuse
(e)(i) Wire B will melt and the circuit will be
(e)(ii) convert 60 mA to 60 x 10-3 A broken.
R1 = 6 = 300 Ω (c)(ii)
20 x 10 Aspects Reason
R2 = 6 = 100 Ω Shorter length of Reduce
60 x 10 extension cord resistance / more
300 : 100 current flows
3:1 One fuse for each Can cut off the
socket plug circuit if current
Has power surge Protect the
protection extension cord if
Has head plug Prevent a person
earthing from electric
shock if he
touches the
faulty plug.

Choose S because has short
extension cord, has one fuse for each
socket plug, has power surge
protection and has head plug