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Introduction to Report

This report making of a certain selected organization is the requirement of internal marks; this report
contains a detailed overview of services and working of Zong Pakistan.
Zong is an international provider of high quality telecommunication, data and media communication
services. It is the subsidiary of China Mobile which is very large and well known. It’s basically referred to
as CM Pak i.e. China Mobile, world's largest telecom operator. Having a customer base of over 300
million customers, its network routes 700 million text messages every day and handles 250 million calls
every hour.Zong Pakistan launched its operations few years back & replaced Paktel, setting precedence
for further foreign investments in the telecom sector.
Every one knows the role of “Human Resource Management” in the life of any organization. As present
era is solely an era of Humanistic capital so the organizations focusing on people excellence are getting
the competitive edge over its rival in the modern market. So being a student of HR I have analyzed major
HR functions and policies of Zong Pakistan which includes:
1. Selection & recruitment.
2. Wages & incentives.
3. Performance management.
4. Career management.
5. Human resource planning.
6. Training & development.
7. Job Analysis & job description.
8. Orientation.
9. Human resource information system.
10. Operations and Security.

History of Zong
Paktel is a mobile telecommunication company in Pakistan. It was the first ever company granted
license to carry out cellular phone services in Pakistan, set up by Cable & Wireless. It carried out
AMPS services until 2004, when the company launched GSM services as well. Its main competitor
emerged in late 1990s as Instaphone and soon began to dominate the market. However after the
launch and rapid success of Mobilink in 1998, both services lost market share. In 2003, Millicom,

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bought Paktel. Millicom installed a new management team. In January 2007 Millicom sold Paktel
for $284 million to China Mobile.
Recently China mobile company in Pakistan after replacing the code 0304 with 0314 now
introduced its new brand called “ZONG”. With an introductory slogan “Say it all” or “Sub Keh
Du” & started its advertising campaign at popular print & electronic media outlets.

ZONG PAKISTAN
ZONG is the first International brand of China Mobile being launched in Pakistan. It is meant to empower
and liberate the people of Pakistan in every nook and corner of the country. It will become a part of their
hearts, their minds and bring about a change in their lives that every one desired but few thought would be
possible. The core essence of ZONG is to allow people to communicate at will.
Without worrying about tariffs, network coverage, capacity issues. ZONG will be supported by ground
breaking communications, trend setting customer service and an unmatched product offering which will
redefine rules of the game and establish ZONG as a serious contender for the number one spot.
ZONG would offer its customers with entertaining & innovative value added services and will empower
them by giving a wide variety of products, services & content to choose from. They are privileged to be
the pioneering country introducing this brand with others to follow. And God willing, together they will
also make ZONG a success story for others to try and replicate.

Zong Vision Statement


“Make communication exciting”
We will conduct ourselves with integrity and live our company values deliver continuous innovation and
exceptional quality services Foster an internal environment of innovation, collaboration and trust In doing
CM Pak will become our customer partner of choice, our industry employer of choice and our shareholder
investment of choice.

Zong Mission Statement


“To be leasing mobile operator in pak by continuously innovating and offering exceptional quality and
service , to be a good corporate citizen and envy of friendship between China and Pakistan.”

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Goals and Objectives
Mobile communication is now a utility. You need your mobile phone. Zong team seeks to
meet consumers all communication needs by providing the best technology at an
affordable price.

HR ZONG
“Listening to our employees attentively is the responsibility of ZONG HR. Your feedback will be kept in
absolute confidentially by being sent only to HR Operational Excellence Team. We ensure the
facilitation of the process in the best interest of the Company and the Employees!”

Human resources department


• Employee services:
• Payroll information
• Leave and medical record
• Final settlements and provident fund
• Policies and procedures
• Employees record and recreation
• OD and effectiveness
• Training plan
• Talent management
• Performance management
• Employees’ retention
• Orientation employee communication
• Staffing and compensation
• Staffing plan and HR budgeting
• Management trainee and internship program
• Interviewing and selection
• Headhunters
• Compensation, benefits and incentive

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Components of a HRM System

"Zong A multinational Telecom provider where people make the future"

Regardless of the size or type of the business, any organization’s most important asset is its Human
Resources. Human Resources management strives to achieve organizational goals and goals of the
employees through effective personnel programs, policies and procedures. Personnel management
program varies from organization to organization. If there is good performance of personnel department,
then the employees of the company will be motivated and satisfied. The department manages and
mobilized the human resources.

Functions of Human Resource Department:


Human Resource department of Zong Pakistan is termed as “Human Capital Division”. Commonly for the
human resource department the main functions are performed only the selection. Recruitment and
employee’s training. No doubt these practices are also performed by the human resource department, this
is not end of the game, and these functions are the part of the activities performed by the human resource
department. In Zong human resource department also performs various functions on its side. The main
functions of the human resource department are,
• Recruitment of the employees
• Selection of the employees
• Placement of the employees.
• Proper job planning for the employees
• Guidance for the current employees

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• Cultural Excellence (Training & Development)
• Compensation and benefits
• Operations department
• Organizational Development
• Making relationship within the organization among different department and out side the
organization
• Performance evaluation of the employees. These are few listed functions/activities performed by
the human resource department in Zong Pakistan. The further elaboration of these points will be in
next section.

HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING


Zong Pakistan has a skilled human resource planning department. As we know that each human resource
department in any organization play key role and operate like an eye of an organization, like wise in Zong
Pakistan they are performing their functions and fulfilling their requirement of the organization by
matching the organizational needs with the employee’s skill, knowledge and ability whether these needs
are identified or being demanded by any department of the Zong Pakistan. Human resource planning in
the Zong is basically performing different kind of functions which are as follows,
1. Whether there is need for recruitment in the organization.
2. If there is demand from any department, they (HR department) identify the need of the
Department.
3. Placement of their employees.
4. Convenience to their employees.
5. Work for employee’s motivation.
6. Check on employee’s performance
7. Developing career plans for their employees.
Zong is newly born baby in Pakistan market, they have had strong competitors in their fields, and they
entered in the market of telecom where already the price war (price competition) had been initiated among
three pioneer companies of Pakistan, including UFONE, MOBILINK and WARID. So the human
resource department has to play very important role in the Zong Pakistan in making itself a strong brand.
Human resource department will continue its effort towards nurturing a winning corporate culture and
building organizational capabilities by ensuring that its people will be able and willing to perform at

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consistently exceptional levels. Human resource department performs different kind of functions/practices
in this regard to make its effort more and more effective, are as follow:
• Recruitment & Selection process
• Performance appraisal
• Training & Development
• Reward Management

JOB ANALYSIS AND PREPARATION OF JOB DISCRIPTION

JOB ANALYSIS:
When hr department is asked or demand for more employees in any other department, the activity HR
department performs that first they compile the whole job duties, responsibility grade, work unit and
placement and afterwards they prepare the job description.
Job description:
A single job description is prepared for two purpose, first they use it to publish it in the local newspaper
which have a nationwide network and secondly they use the same job description for the website where
the online application facility for the new employment.
Job description they prepare for the newspaper has a slight difference from the job description they have
on their website. Job description they prepare for the newspaper is very simple but the components they
have in this job description are as follows:
Job title:
Includes the job title for which it is being advertised.
Department for which department the job is required:
Responsibilities Includes the key areas to perform, autonomy and power.
Specification:
Includes the basic skills, knowledge, ability, experience and educational background.
Gender:
They specify the gender for the particular.
Working location:
Sites where he/she has to place for job.

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At the end the HR department specifies the address of their particular regional head office and main head
offices for these advertisements where the candidates send their resumes.

Recruitment and Selection:


Group/organization always formed with two or more than two people. For this reason hiring of the people
from different sources is very necessary and important on its side. Because its (recruitment/selection
procedure) performance further leads the organization to success or failure that how they are recruiting
people whether it from within the organization or outside the organization. Every organization uses
different kind of methods and techniques for hiring the people. In human resource language we can say
that, People are most valuable assets for any organization.
Zong Pakistan as it is said that they are new here in Pakistan market and they are facing too many
challenges, in which the hiring of the people is very important still the activity of hiring the people is
going on, the most acceptable reason for this, it is on the growth stage of its product development, we
know that with the establishment of the its network they have to hire more and more workers/ executives
and managers on their side.
Different methods they are using for hiring their employees are as follows:

Internal recruitments:
Internal recruitment stands for the recruitment within the organization, as they are newly established
business they do not have any kind of internal recruitment still they are focusing on hiring the people from
outside.

External recruitment:
External recruitment stands for the recruitment of the employees from other source/externally. They
perform different kind of steps in this category, For the external recruitment first the need for the new
employment is created or if it is being demanded by any department. Human resource department first
identifies the need of that job, particular its expenses in hiring that employee(s), time required for its
training and orientation in Zong Pakistan. After the approval of the manager of human resource
department, different methods they adopt for the external recruitment are as follows.
• advertisement through news paper
• advertisement through net (official web site)

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1. Advertisement through news paper:
Zong Pakistan also has jobs advertisements through newspaper. In news paper they mention proper job
title, job descriptions, placement, experience required, educational requirement are also mentioned there
and time and date for leaving the required documents and place to where these documents are to leave.

2. Advertisement through official website:


Zong also gets the job applications from net through its official web site of organization. There is formal
network or database has been formed for online applications and people can leave their resumes their on
net .They are still working to improve their online recruitment system.

SELECTION PROCEDURES:
After a substantial amount of applications have been received, the HR managers again work together to
shortlist the applications. This is done by carefully going through all the application and by giving
different weight age to the following criteria
• Quality of early schooling
• Grade obtained
• Extra Curricular activities
• Overseas travel and education
• Age
• Target University
• Relevant experience
The HR Department then issue call letters to the short listed candidates along with blank application forms
by Date, time and venue for the preliminary interview is advised and candidates are asked to bring along
completed application forms. Panel of HR and line management carries out competency-based interviews
focusing on functional skills and managerial and supervisory skills. After the preliminary interview is
cleared people applying for different jobs are tested in different ways. The following management
competencies are assessed by a panel of cross functional assessors In the case of management selection:
• Communication skills
• Resource management
• Rational decision making

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• Creative thinking
• Business development
The HR department is responsible for overall administration of the assessment centre including training of
the assessors.

Orientation:
After the recruitment and selection of the employees socialization and orientation of the employees has
started firstly the new comers or new employees have to report to the line manager of their particular
department and he is then introduced with the current values, beliefs and code of the conduct of the
organization.
Code of conduct in Zong:
1. Zong has a professional and positive workplace with an inclusive working environment.
2. People have to behave with respect and integrity towards anyone comes into contact with through
your work.
3. They have to create an environment free from any discrimination, be it based on religion, skin
color, gender, sexual orientation, age, nationality, race or disability.
4. They also have to create a working environment free from bullying, harassment or similar. We do
not tolerate any behavior that can be perceived as degrading or threatening.
Human resource department also believe that most of the things employees learn with the passage of the
time, main reason for that is there is always problem in the adjustment at new place of employment.

Orientation of the employees:


Orientation of employees at Zong Pakistan includes with the introduction with the organization, a brief
introduction about organization and as well their placement, policies, rules, regulations, safety, health and
some other basic issues in the organization. During the orientation of the employees they are introduced
with the supervisors, coordinator and other employees working with him/her. They are introduced with
their job and working conditions and other initial information is delivered to them during orientation.

Equal opportunities:
Zong does not have a gender-divided labor market. As a result of the changing organizational structure,
specific equality initiatives by the company have been taken. Occupational groups with technological

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backgrounds (chartered engineers, engineers and technicians) have been dominant and there was a major
predominance of men with this education and these skills. At the same time, units such as the directory
enquiries services and customer services had a clear dominance of women.
During recent years, this has evened out, due to increased awareness in recruiting personnel in the various
disciplines and due to changes in the basis for recruitment. Zong's efforts to strengthen the Groups
position as an attractive employer have resulted in an increased recruitment of highly skilled women.
Customer Services, which was originally dominated by female employees, now has almost the same
number of men as women. The average salary for women has increased, and this unit now employs male
and female personnel on equal pay conditions. The average annual salary in the whole organization for
women is lower than for men. This is mainly due to the number of men in senior positions outweighing
the number of women.

Training Methods and Employee Development:


The principles relating to the development of the working environment are made available on the learning
portal Learn at Zong in the form of separate e-learning programs for both employees and managers. Zong
believes that each individual is attributed with potentials, which can be maximized by enabling conditions
favorable to their growth.
It is recommended that staff gets an opportunity to engage and learn through active involvement in HRD
interventions, which could include trainings, workshops, learning exposures, conferences, exchange visits
etc. The staff training needs will be identified through performance development program plans in
consultation with respective line managers and individual staff.
Line managers will be fully responsible for ensuring their staff receives access to training and
development events in areas that have been identified for them. The national HRD budget will be located.
The employee upon return form local HRD event will submit detail report outlining key learning’s and use
of training received in the organizational work set.
Zong Pakistan is providing the training to its employees at level where the organization feels about the
performance gaps especially in engineering department and IT division and level of technology does
matter too. Zong at present providing the training to its employees when they introduce any kind of new
technology and further more they also provide training to their employees in the call center division.
Most important thing to note that Zong Pakistan is still employing the experienced people for jobs and at
start they don’t have any kind of formal training.

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Planned process for training & development:
Training needs analysis:
Zong Pakistan identifies the training needs at different levels and provides them to their employees in
sense to enhance their skills, the training needs are provided at various levels like whenever they
introduced the new technology and when they entered in the new place, they provide training to them.

A. Training to new comers:


Zong provide the training not only to its employees but also to its new officers working outside the
organization like franchise workers, sales officers etc.

B. Training development phase:


Methods of training:
1. On job training:
Zong provide the on job training during the duty hours, which is totally about the job instructions.
2. Coaching :
Zong provide the coaching facility to its employees for their training like training in the call center and in
other official matters.

C. Training implementation:
During the training they are provided with the specific environment in which learning aspects are there.
Before providing them training one important element is considered that how much information these
people already have, whether the further information which will be given will be fruitful or not for
employees. They are first introduced with the training purpose and introduced more with the specific
environment they are being provided for the training mode.
The training rooms for the employees are located in the respective department and each training room is
U-shaped and equipped with the white board and multimedia. Sitting arrangement is very proper.

D. Training evaluation phase:

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After providing the sufficient training to employees they are evaluated on the basis of the different criteria,
first they are assessed through their behavior whether after providing the training they have any kind of
change in their behavior and along with the leaning purpose that whether they get the sufficient
information from their training and they also have to take tests through these training programs to confirm,
there must no any kind of performance gap after having the training particularly in their field. And
afterwards the employees are also evaluated through their output level.

Changes brought in Zong by HRM


• Employee development
• Employee appraisals

Compensation and benefits criteria in Zong


• Zong gives
• Medical
• Bonuses
• Allowances
• House rent allowance
• Utilities allowance
• Cost of living allowance
• Conveyance allowance

Packages & Products of Zong Pakistan:

Following are the packages being offered by zong which makes them distinctive and gives them edge over
the rest of their competitors

• ZONG Prepaid Packages

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• ZONG Postpaid Packages
• ZONG Internet Packages
• ZONG Mobile Number Portability
• ZONG SMS Packages
• Special Offers
• Recharge Options

Management and Administration of Zong (Headquarter):


Administration Coordination Team
• Coordination with regions & other departments
• Admin Budget Management
• Admin services staff management
• CMPak Residencies Management
• Courier Management
• Acquisition of landlines and UAN #s
• Utility Management
• Admin Agreements, legal notices Management
• Negotiations with vendors and landowners
Management of zong is basically divided into three basic heads or three departments nation wide and each
has their own work team for performing the designated tasks and functions.
The basic departments are as follows
• Operations Team
• Infrastructure Department
• Security Control Unit.
The detailed information about hierarchy, functions and operations that are to be performed by each
department is stated below with respect to the headquarter where the internship was performed. The
detailed description of their work teams are;

Operation & Services Team:

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Operations team is managed by Ms. Filza Arbab who designates further tasks and ensures smooth working
of the team. They have a number of operations that needed to be performed starting from looking after the
guests to how the visa processing is to be done and for whom is required, managing assets and verification
of assets nation wide.
Operations team even looks after the maintenance of the building and arranging all the events and national
festivals and arranging furniture etc when and where required by certain department of the organization.
Arrangement of meeting and conferences and making sure that everything starting from stationary to
water is available as and when required.
Most of their dealings with the staff and outsides take places using cell phone and internet as the mode of
communication as well as intranet for communicating and updating the staff with in the organization.

Scope/Area of responsibility
• Management VIPs Protocol.
• Travel and accommodation arrangements.
• Visa Processing.
• Payments nationwide.
• Handling petty cash
• Arrangement of meeting and conferences.
• Assets management and verification nationwide.
• Auction Nationwide
• Maintenance of Building
• Maintenance & Arrangements of Furniture
• Arrangement for special occasion and national festivals.
• Installation, examination and servicing of Genset along with ATS panel, UPS.
• Management of administer the admin portal of ZONG intranet.
• Store and warehouse
• Office supplies
• Cafeteria Management
• Management VIP Protocol

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Timely arrangement at VIP Rawal Lounge For the Host and Guests
Issuance of Entry Passes for Rawal Lounge
Timely arrangement for Petty Cash for any sort of expenses to be carried out on the spot.
Good relation building and understanding with the Airport Staff
In case of absence of staff, timely arrangement for supplement staff

Travel and accommodation arrangements


Only Computerized TAFs to be accepted before making the travel arrangement.
Negotiations with Air Travel Agents on Cost Reduction
More Agents to be on board on Merit & Reputation basis.
Monthly Cost Analyses for Air Travel & Hotel Accommodation, Departmental wise to be provided to
Heads
More Hotels to be registered on panel especially in Remote Areas.
More facilities to be included in the packages

Handling petty cash


Availability of Petty cash 24/7 to serve any urgent issues.
Strict surprise checks on issuance of Petty cash and items in hand.
Timely processing of Approvals.
Proper documentation to avoid any discrepancies.
Surprise internal deptt audits of petty cash.
Petty cash and advance issuance list to be kept updated all the time.
Petty cash utilization by deptts for each month to be forwarded to Heads to control extra expenses.

Arrangement of meeting and conferences


Timely issuance of meeting rooms to the requested departments. Meeting Arrangements form to be
provided by the requested department at least 1 week before the meeting for outside office arrangements.
Make sure Meeting rooms are ready and all the arrangements completed on time.
Food cost to be controlled up to the maximum possible.

Assets management and verification nationwide


Monthly Verification of Assets nationwide

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List to be circulated to all Regional heads by maximum every 1st week of a month.
Nationwide Auction to be processed from HQ.
Assurance of Full support to Regions in this regard.
Every month Auction report to be circulated Nationwide as an achievement.

Maintenance of Building
More vendors to get on panel for small works.
Timelines to be followed strictly.
Supplies to be purchased from market on survey basis.
Cross checks on prices of supplies.
Surprise visits of building after office hours to control extra usage of electricity.
Control on electric appliances during office hours.

Arrangement for special occasion and national festivals.


Preparations in advance for planned national festivals.
Responsibilities to be distributed among the staff on each and every step.
Cash advances to be issued.

Installation, examination and servicing of Gen set along with ATS panel, UPS
Smooth relations with FOPS deptt to do all the maintenance work of Gen sets under admin umbrella
nationwide.
Each month services and maintenance record and their cost to be circulated to Heads.
Management of administer the admin portal of ZONG intranet.
Store and warehouse
Regular updating on Intranet Portal for the upcoming events and new happenings.
Policies to be uploaded related to any field of admin deptt.
New & old forms to be available on Intranet.
Store and warehouse
Weekly visits of store.
Cost control up to best possible.
Distribution control and strict Checks.
Monthly Cost Report for North & HQ on all supplies.

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Surprise Quality checks and report to be submitted to Heads.

Cafeteria Management
2 or 3 Vendors to be checked for food and quality as back up options.
Price Checks.
Food quantity & quality checks.
Services checks.

Safety and Security Control Unit:


Security and Safety information flow

Functions of Safety and Security.


• Escort and Protocol Management
• Security Advisory
• Security Alerts

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• Security guards management
• Security Cameras management and monitoring
• Assets movement monitoring
• Fire alarm systems management
• Firefighting and safety arrangements
• Visitors management
• Security and safety equipment provision
• Management of legal matters related to security and safety
• Processing safety and security related payments
• Management of contracts with security and safety vendors
• Awareness/ Trainings regarding security and safety

Zong Pakistan Headquarters Islamabad

Human Resource Department:

• Scanning, Printing and Filing

I has the opportunity to learn how filing of important documents as well as scannig the hard copy of
record of employess important information is done and stored in a form of data base in order to keep a
record on the intrant is done . As well as printing of the important document and information takes place.

• Issuing of monthly checks to employees

Employees who are holding senir posts in the organzation and earning more then 1 lac etc their cheque
copy is kept with the compensation personal and the actual check is issues to them . The Hr personnal
keeps a file holding the photocoy erson of the cheque with large amounts.

• Documentation of employee information

Information starting from the C.V to the photocopy of the degrees of the employee as well as their
apprasial information, benefits given to them etc etc. In other words all the information relating to
particular employees is stored and documented. I had the responsibility of storing and arranging that.

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• Providing a helping hand to Recruitment, Compensation and benefits staff

Whenever the Human resource personnal needed assistance with their work I helped them out to increase
my own learning also and see how they work and what type of tasks they get to perform .

COMPETITORS OF ZONG PAKISTAN

 Mobilink

 Ufone

 Warid Telecom

 Telenor

References:
1. Gary Dessler (2003). Human Resource Management,
Florida International University, 10th Edition.

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2. Packages of Zong: http://www.zong.com.pk/packages.html
3. History: http://www.zong.com.pk/vas.html
4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/zong Pakistan
5. www.Scribd.com/mobilepolicy28012004.pdf
6. www.pta.gov.pk/index2.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=6
7. www.google.com
8. http://www.chinamobileltd.com/

GLOSSARY:
A
Analysis: The examination and evaluation of the relevant information to select the best course of action
from among various alternatives.
B
Business: Any lawful economic activity carried on by an individual or a group of people to earn profit
through satisfaction of human wants.
C
Customer Service: Where direct interaction with customer takes palce in order to solve their dilemmas.
Corporation It is an artificial person created by law having separate legal entity with perpetual succession
and common seal.
Contractual worker: Worker who is not permanent and on the basis of a contarct of a certain time period
D
Department: Sub divison of the company into different section on the basis of similarity of work that they
have to perform or do .
E
Employees: A person who is hired to provide services to a company on a regular basis in exchange for
compensation and who does not provide these services as part of an independent business.
External users: External users are existing or potential investors, creditors, analysts, financial advisers,
regulatory authorities, unions, and the general public. They use accounting information to make decisions
about whether to buy, hold, sell, lend, continue a relationship, or make an agreement.
F

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Forecasting: Planning tool which helps management in its attempts to cope with the uncertainty of the
future. It starts with certain assumptions based on the management's experience, knowledge, and
judgment.
G
Goal: A goal is a projected state of affairs that a person or a system plans or intends to achieve.
H
Human Resource Management: Human Resource Management is the organizational function that deals
with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization
development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and
training.
Human Resource Planning: Human resource plan is a systematic process of matching the interest, skills
and talents of individual community members with the long term goals and economic opportunities in the
community.
I
Internal users: Internal users are usually company managers who use accounting information to decide
how to plan and control operations on a daily and long-term basis.
IT: Information technology responsible for managing the intranet in zong
J
Job Analysis: A job analysis is the process used to collect information about the duties, responsibilities,
necessary skills, outcomes, and work environment of a particular job.
Job Description: Job descriptions are written statements that describe the: duties, responsibilities, most
important contributions and outcomes needed from a position, required qualifications of candidates, and
reporting relationship and coworkers of a particular job.
Job Specification: Personnel requirements of a particular job. A job specification sets forth the skills,
education, and experience required for a particular position
L
Low-cost Strategy: Under low-cost strategy business may design or produce its products and services
with acceptable quality at the cost lower than the competitors.
M
Management: It is the process of planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controling activities in an
organization in order to achieve a common goal.

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Motivation: Motivation is a word used to refer to the reason or reasons for engaging in a particular
behavior especially human behavior.
O
Organizational structure: Formal and informal framework of policies and rules, within which an
organization arranges its lines of authority and communications, and allocates rights and duties.
Owners: A person who owes the business and makes decisions about the future of the enterprise by using
its financial information.
P
PTA: Pakistan Telecommunication Authority.
Permanent Employees: Employees that are permanent members of the company and getting all the
decide benefits.
Q
Qualitative Forecasting: Estimating method that relies on expert human judgment combined with a
rating scale, instead of on hard (measurable and verifiable) data.
Quantitative Forecasting: Techniques used to forecast future trends, e.g. the demand for a product, based
on manipulation of historical data.
R
Recruitment: Process of identifying and hiring best-qualified candidate (from within or outside of an
organization) for a job vacancy, in a most timely and cost effective manner.

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