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SPE 36644
49 .

Societyof PetroleumEngineers

A Simulation Model for Three-Phase Gravity Separators

A. Hallanger, Christian Michelsen Research AS; F. Soenstaboe, Esso Norwa& T. Knutsen, Norsk Hydro

-t 19SS. SCICWY of Polrowum EngwWom, Inc

TfIIs IXPOI wm Prcxmd Ici grcsmlalIwI at lh* 19SS SPE #mnual Tochn!wl Cealorooco tnd Design of separators has up to now mainly been based on the
*iMkm MM h oNIVW, COkWakI Lt S A S-O OCIobof 1=
API design rules ‘. It is then assumed that the phases are
Thm paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Comnwtee (OI1OWIW review of separated and stratified in the separator with completely uniform
Inlormatum umtained man ab8f1 aci subm$tkd by the authcx(s) Contents of the paper have not
been rewewed by ihe Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subjecf fo mrmckm by fhe
flow in each phase. The residence time of the phases can then be
author(s), The material, as presented &es not necassar!ly reflect any pesltlon of the society of calculated together with cut-off drop sizes and K-factors for the
Petroleum Engineers, Its ofllcers, or members Pa&ws presentti at SPE meelings are $ub&t
to publcatikm review by Editorial Gammmees of the Scmety of Petroleum Engmeefs Permiss!M gas phase,
10 copy IS restrmled to an abstract o< not more than 30+3 words Illustrations may no! be copaed
The abstract should contain conspicuous ackn.mie@nent of Mere and by vAIcm the paper IS
The API rules are proven, but all effects from non-ideal flow
pmsmtwi Wnle Librarian, S?S, PO. Sax F&3836, Richardson, TX 7S3S3-S836, U S. A., lax 01. due to inlet/outlets and internal equipment used to enhance
separation are neglected. Considerable safety factors must
therefore be used in design work. When weight and space are
Abstract critical, as on offsbore platforms or in sub-sea applications, the
A CFD model for three-phase gravity separators has been
size of the vessel should be as small as possible. More accurate
developed. The mathematical basis is the two-fluid model
design methods are then required. One such tool is computational
ex[ended to three phases, The phases are taken to be
fluid dynamics (CFD), which has been used in single-phase
incompressible and isothermal, solutions are then found for simulations of separators ‘g. Several assumptions about the
volume fractions, phase velocities and pressure on the numerical positions of the phase interfaces and the inlet flow pattern must
grid. then be made. To fully exploit the power of CFD, a complete
The local values of volume fractions are used to select one multiphase separator model containing the fundamental physics
continuous and possibly two disperse phases in each control should be formulated.
volume. The dispersed particles are assumed to be spherical and In this paper such a computational model for three-phase gas,
follow the drag law for solid particles. A viscosity increase from oil and water flow in a gravity separator is described.
the collective influence of dispersed particles is included. A
mixture model is used for water drops dispersed in oi 1.The drops Theory
are divided into classes with different diameters, and continuity The mathematical basis for the simulation code is the two-fluid
equations solved for each class together with a momentum equations, which give the conservation of mass, momentum and
equation for the mixture phase. The water drops will either energy for each phase. These equations are derived through
coalesce with free water, or be entrained with tbe oil. Constant time-averaging of the Navier-Stokes equations for single-phase
turbulent viscosities are used taking the average internal flow, The subject is thoroughly treated by Ishii ‘‘. The averaging
velocities and heights of the of the stratification layers as the formalism for two phases can easily be extended to an arbitrary
scales for the fluctuating velocities and eddy length respectively. number of phases. Through the averaging, detailed information
A volumetric conservation law can be formulated for the total
about the shape and size of the fluid interfaces is lost and
flow. The global volumetric conservation law is exploited in the replaced by phase interactions terms. These terms are dependent
boundary conditions in order to maintain overall volume on the flow and need to be modelled (closure laws).
conservation. The flow splits between the outlets are specified We assume that the phases are incompressible, For high
initially, and corrected during the simulation to account for the
pressure separators the pressure differences are small compared
variations due to cross entrainment.
with the operating pressure, The variations in gas density are then
The model is applied on a first stage separator with a vertical negligible. For operating levels closer to atmospheric conditions,
inlet design and internal baffles to straighten the flow from the small compression effects are possible at inlet and outlets regions
norwegian Oseberg field. Field measurements of water and on bubbles in the liquid bulk. These effects are however
entrainment at different interface Ievels in the vessel are under most conditions of a small magnitude. If the gas/liquid
available. The correspondence between calculated and measured interface is displaced the density of the free gas phase in the
values are good.
vessel can vary. In the following such transients will be
Introduction We further assume that the flow in the separator is isothermal.

SPE 36644

This is a good approximation when the flow-rates through the force. The added mass and history force have been neglected in
vessel are high, with typical residence times for the oil in the the simulation code. This will tend to overestimate the slip
vessel of 2-3 minutes. velocities between oil and water in the inlets and outlets and
We also assume that the phases are close to thermodynamic where there are local accelerations. Elsewhere in the separator
equilibrium. Flashing will then not take place inside the they will be of less importance, For liquid drops in the gas phase,
separator, but is restricted to the inlet pipe. The validity of this added mass and the history term can safely be neglected
assumption will depend on the upstream geometry, i.e. distance compared with the drag force since PC<< p~ .
between choke and separator vessel.
Foam and emulsions can in some cases, depending on Models for the drag force
composition of the hydrocarbons, strongly influence the internal The drag force between a continuous and a disperse phase can be
flow (for a discussion of the basic see Ref. 4). In the following written as
these effects will be neglected, and the discussion restricted to
three phases - free gas, oil containing dispersed water and free
water. (5)
With the assumptions above the energy equations can be
neglected, and the flow in the separator is given by the continuity
and momentum equations together with closure relations and which gives the force from phase I on phase k. The force from
boundary conditions. The governing equations are then given by phase k on phase 1 will have the same magnitude, but with
different sign. The totaf dragon a continuous phase, in the three
~akp~ + V. (a,p,%) - r, k.1,.3 (1) phase model, is found by adding the contributions from the two
disperse phases. Interactions between disperse phases like
collisions and flotation are neglected.
CD is given by a standard correlation for solid spherical

C. - 24(1+ O.lN&n~~’ Nm<1000

CD-0.45 Nfi>l 000

In order to satisfy the conservation of volume, mass and

momentum the following constraints must be fulfilled
Eq.(6) is valid for thin dispersions. The effective viscosity will
(3) however increase with the volume fraction of the dispersion. A
mixture value ‘0 is therefore used for the viscosity in the
calculation of the Reynolds-number given by

Closure laws for phase interactions term
The interaction terms between the fluid phases in the momentum
equations consist of several forces. The relative strength of the
forces can be found from the equation of motion for one particle. aP. is the maximum volume fraction for the dispersed phase. For
This equation (Basset-Boussinesq-Oseen equation) can be fluid particles aP~ can be set to 1.0. A plot for an oil/water
written as 3 dispersion is shown in Figure 1. The effect of water fraction on
the mixture viscosity is seen to be considerable. In the plot the
J!.!j! . ;p#.ApcDla,l(iF tip) +I?vp(Pp- PF) inversion from an oil-continuous to a water-continuous mixture
is assumed to take place at a water fraction of 0.6. For most
crude oils the inversion point will be in the range from 0.55 to

The force terms on the right hand side represent drag, In the application of Eq. (5), it is necessary to distinguish
gravityhroyancy, pressure gradient, added mass and history between the continuous and disperse phases. In each control

A Simulation Modelfor Three-
SPE 36644 Phase GravitySeparators 3

volume it is assumed that one phase is continuous and the two the shape of the distribution of particles dispersed in the
other, if present, are dispersed. A phase is considered to be continuous phase. In Eq. (5) and (6) only average diameters were
dispersed when the value of the volume fraction in the control used for the particles. To have a better representation of the
volume is less than 0.4, Above 0.4 it is continuous in the control separation of water drops from oil we introduce a model where
volume, Control volumes containing a phase interface can also the shape of the distribution is inchrded.
contain two continuous phases, Eq. (5) is then applied twice, The particle distribution function will be approximated by a
switching between the continuous and dispersed phase, and the finite number of groups as shown in Figure 2. Each group is
results are averaged. represented by an average particle diameter and a volume
The particle diameter is present both in Eq. (5 ) and through the fraction giving the integrated volume of the particles in the
Reynolds-number in Eq. (6). Average diameters are used in the group.
calculations. Coalescence and break-up of fluid particles are The flow of oil and water drops is calculated using a mixture
neglected. The particle diameters are set al the inlet to the vessel. model, [t is assumed that [he mixture consists of niiisp parts, one
The size of liquid dispersions will be determined by a balance continuous fraction (oil) and rrdisp-1 groups of water drops, The
between break-up in the up-stream choke and coalescence in the following definitions are used:
inlet pipe. The coalescence process is in general a function of the Mixture density
water cut ‘i’. For liquid drops in the gas phase the particle sizes
are determined by the break-up of the liquid inlet flow on lhe
momentum deflector 9. (9)

Turbulence model
In the inlet the flow is turbulent due to high velocities and strong Mixture momentum
shear forces. In the bulk of the vessel the velocities are small and
relatively uniform, and the turbulence level will decay. The (lo)
presence of internal equipment such as vanes can however give
accelerations and a local increase in the turbulence level. The
turbulent stress tensor (Reynolds-stresses), is model led using the
eddy-viscosity concept. The turbulent viscosity is taken to be The mixture volume fraction is retained in Eq. (9) and (10)
constant ( we assume that the phases are Newtonian, this may not since both gas and free water can co-exist in a control VOIume
be true for heavy oils or at low temperatures). The stresses are with the mixture phase of oi 1and water drops. We will then have
then given by am <1,
The particle group velocity relative to the continuous fraction
Tti. p, (-. :) is defined by
ax, , (8)
P, - pcu’l’ (11)

The turbulent fluctuating velocity is set equal to the average If the relative velocities for the ndisp- 1 dispersed groups are
internal bulk velocity of the continuous fluid, while 10% of the known, the velocity of the continuous fraction can be found from
height of the stratification layer is used for the turbulent length the relation
scale. In a three-phase separator there are then three effective
viscosities, one for each stratification layer. The stress tensor is (12)
only applied for the continuous phase in the control volume, the
stresses on the disperse phases are set to zero. This model gives
a reasonable correspondence between calculated velocity profi Ies
and data from experimental air-water separators 2Y. These Using the definitions above the ndisp continuity equations and
separators are however in I/10 scale, data for velocity profiles the equation for mixture momentum can be written as
from full-scale separators are missing.

Particle distributions
The separation will depend both on the average value as well as


5)Solve for the volume fractions from the phase continuity


6)If not converged, advance the time and repeat from 2),

We have previously assumed that the phase densities are

where tt,~~isdetinedas
constant. For the mixture phase, however, this assumption must
U,,k =izm - Iiti be modified. Eq. (9) shows that the mixture density will change
k. I,ndip (15) as the particle groups separate from the continuous fraction. With
- rl-r7c~r7rM
this in mind the following solution algorithm has been applied for
the mixture model:

An expression for the relative velocity in Eq. (1 I ) cart be 1)Solve the multifluid equations Eq.( I ) and Eq. (2), using Eq,
found from the Basset-Boussinesq-Oseen equation. If the particle (14) with the extra source term for the momentum of the mixture
relaxation time is shorter than the characteristic time for change phase.
in the flow, the left hand side in Eq. (4) can be neglected.
Inserting the expression for the drag coet%cient Eq. (6) in Eq. (4) 2)Find the relative velocity of the particle groups using Eq.
we get (for N= < 1000) (16).
ri;g(Pp P.r)
r, = 3)Calculate the velocity of the continuous part, Eq. ( 12).
1f4sCf(~,J (16)
4) Solve the continuity equations for the ndisp parts of the
/(Nh) - (1 . o.lg’s) mixture, Eq. (13).

S)Find the new mixture density from Eq. (9) using the mixture
The factor f(NJ in the denominator is the deviation of the drag volume fraction from step 1),
coefficient from the Stokes drag law. ti, is implicitly defined
through the Reynolds number dependence on the right hand side, 6) Iterate from step 2) until convergence..
and Eq. (16) must be solved by iteration.

Solution algorithm Boundary conditions

The discretization of the equations follows Patarrkar ‘2.A control At inflow boundaries the values for the volume fractions and
volume approach with staggered grids for the velocities is used phase velocities are prescribed, The mass and momentum fluxes
with upstream differencing of the convective terms and central are then calculated. At outflow boundaries, extrapolation of the
differencing of the diffusion terms. The solution of the dependent variables in the flow direction (zero gradient) is used.
multiphase equations is based on the IPSA algorithm by Spalding Summation of the continuity equations for gas, free water, oil
‘3. To obtain a steady state solution for the equation set, a fraction and water drops in the mixture phase gives, using
sequential time-stepping procedure is applied. The steps are as incompressibility and the constraint on phase fractions

1)Initialize all variables, appIy initial conditions.

2:~~V.(a,r7,) .0 (17)

2)Apply the boundary conditions.

Integration of Eq. (17) over the separator shows that the total
3) Solve for the phase velocities from the momentum volumetric outflow will equal the total volumetric inflow at any
equations. time. This result is enforced on the computed outflow at every
iteration step to promote convergence and stability.
4) Solve for the pressure correction. Add the pressure For separators, the total volumetric split between the outlets
correction to the pressure and correct for the velocities. must be specified in order to get an unique solution. This can be
done either by fixing the outlet pressures or, as it has been done

A Simulation Model for Three-
SPE 36644 Phase GravitySeparators 5

here, specify the total volumetric flow through each outlet separator axis in Fig. 3. The vessel is 13.1 m long and with a
initialy. The total volumetric flow at the water , oil and gas diameter of 3.15 m. The inlet has a vertical orientation, The flow
outlets are set equal to the total inflow of dispersed water, oil and is deflected by a momentum breaker before it is diverted
gas respectively. Since there are some cross-entrainment, the downwards through a pallring box and into the main separator
volumetric split between the outlets must be corrected during the vessel. Downstream of the inlet is a flow straightener for the gas
iterations. If this is not done, the heights of the fluid interfaces phase. Further down there are two perforated plates to smooth
will not stay constant, and the separator can ultimately be the flow in the liquid phase. KJpstream of the gas outlet there is
emptied of one phase during the simulation. Due to this a demi ster. The weir plate reaches 1,0 m over the separator
correction, the height of the interfaces are in fact determined by bottom.
the initial phase fractions in the separator. A grid of 49 x 10 x 20 control volumes was used in the
At free water/oil-water mixture interfaces, consideration must simulations. Due to symmetry only half of the vessel was
be given to the coalescence of water drops with the free water included in the computational domain. This gave a spatial
phase. Thecoalescence or mass transfer from the mixture phase resolution of 0.27m in the axial direction and 0.1575 m in the
to the tlee water phase should be proportional to the mass of the transverse and vertical directions.
dispersions in the control volume It will also depend on the The process data for the fluid phases are given in Table 1. Six
particle diameter 4.The proportionality factor, or relaxation time, cases with different positions of the fluid interfaces were
is here set equal to 0.2 for all particle groups. The total mass considered. The values for NIL and NOL are given in Table 2
transfer at fluid interfaces is then given by together with the water cut and measured values for the
ermainment of water in oil. The inlet distribution of water is log-
r . r;’ 5’
UMPM (18) normal and found from a correlation based on data from some
North Sea oilfields 6.An average diameter of 0.25 mm was used
in the simulations with a normalized standard deviation of 3. The
distribution was divided into 7 particle groups. In order to
As long as the mass transfer rate is sufficiently high, integrated resolve the lower part of the distribution particles larger than 0.4
result such as entrainment of water in oil is not sensitive to the mm are lumped into one group.
exact value of the relaxation time. For gas bubbles in liquid and liquid particles in gas average
diameters of 1 mm were used. These values gave very good
Sub-grid models separation between liquid and gas, with negligible cross-
Some of the separator internals, like weir plates, can be resolved entrainment, Oil -drops in the free water phase should have
on the grid through the closing (blocking) of control volumes or diameters on the pm level, and with an entrainment on the ppm
the sides of control volumes to flrud flow. But internals like level. In the simulations we used a diameter of 1 mm, which gave
vanes, wire mesh and plate separators where the smallest internal an entrainment of the right order. A “correct” value for the drop
dimensions are on the cm or mm scale, cannot be resolved in the size would demand a physical model for the mixing rate of oil
simulation of a separator with a length scale in meter. These drops into the free water,
geometries must be modelled as porous regions where a fraction Simulation results for Case 1 are shown in Figure 4, giving
of the control volume is open to the flow through the use of area flow velocities and the positions of the fluid interfaces in the
and volume porosities. The resulting pressure drops in the symmeb-y plane for each of the three phases. The oil velocity in
internals due to the sub-grid obstructions are included in the a horizontal cut plane just below the oil/gas interface is given in
momentum equations as flow resistances. This is done using Fig. 5,
empirical formulas for single phase flow. The vahre of the drag The volume fractions of the smallest and largest drop classes
coefficient CD will depend on the geometry in the symmetry plane are shown in Fig, 6.
The specified distribution of water drops in the inlet and the
Fk - -CDai ptlrlkl aik (19) calculated distribution of drops in the oil outlet are shown in
Figure 7. The simulated results of water entrainment , together
with the measurements from Norsk Hydro, are given in Figure 8
plotted against the oil residence time. The residence time in the
Simulation results vessel is here an average time calculated from the volumetric
The multiphase model outlined above has been applied on a first flow rates, NIL and NOL using the methods from the API design
stage separator from Norsk Hydro’s Oseberg field. The geometry rules ‘,
of the separator is shown in the symmetry plane through the
SPE 36644

Discussion p = pressure, nr/Lt2, kg/ms2

hisseen from Fig. 4 that the phases separate very easily. Behind t = time, t,s
the first flow straightener the interfaces are well established. This u = velocity, L/t, rds
is not surprising since the oil viscosity is rather low. After the NIL = normal interface level oil/water, L, mm
first flow straightener the gas flow is homogeneous. The plots of NOL = normal oil level, L, mm
oil velocities show that the separator has a reasonably good Q = volumetric flowrate, L’/t, m3/h
hydraulic function. The flow is, besides the inlet region, rather a = vo]ume fraction.
uniform except for recirculation zones around the pallring box r = mass transfer rate, tmh, kg/s
and behind the first flow straightener. There is a flow of oil p = fluid density, m/L3, kglm3
below the two perforated plates in the middle. This could have p = dynamic viscosity, mfLt, kg/ins
been suppressed by moving the plates further down into the water T = stress tensor, m/Lt2, kg/tn.s2
phase. The acceleration of oil through the perforations is also
clearly seen. In the water phase there are a recirculation zone Subscripts
which is driven by the tliction from the moving oil layer above. c = continuous
The plots of the drop classes in Fig. 6 shows that most of the d = dispersed
smallest drops will be entrained with the oil, while nearly all of F = fluid
the largest drops will coalece with the free water. There is a small k,l = phase number, particle class
stagnant zone between the inlet and the end bottom where drops m = mixture
wilI agglomerate, n = number of phases
The plot of the inlet and outlet distribution of water drops in p= particle
Fig. 7 shows that most of the drops smaller than 0.15 mm are r= relative, relaxation
errtrained with the oil. Nearly aU of the drops larger than 0.5 mm I,J = space directions
will separate and coalesce with free water. t= turbulent
The correspondence between data and simulations in Fig.8 is
satisfying. The simulations represent the main trend of
decreasing entrainment with increasing recidence time. For the Acknowledgement
largest residence times there are some deviations between The field data have been made available through the courtesy of
simulations and measurements. It is not clear if this is due to a Norsk Hydro, Oseberg Production.
spread in data from small variations in oil composition during the
test period at the platform. References
1. API Specification 12J (SPEC 12J), Seventh Edition,
Conclusions October 1, 1989.
2. Bratseth, A. (1988) Studie av vaske/gass separasjon i en
There is a strong dependency of drop diameters on entrainment.
horizontal separator. Matematisk model] fors@k baser-t pa vann-hsft
Test simulations using different average drop diameters gave
separasjon. thesis, NTH Trondhei m
very different results, This is not surprising since the separation 3. C1ift, R,, Grace, J. R. and Webcr, M. E, (1 978). Bubbles,
velocity is approximate] y proportional with the square of the Drops and Particles. Academic Press.
particle diameter. 4. Davies, G.A. (1992). Mixing and coalescence phenomena
The mixture model for the water drops could also be used on in fiquid-liquid systems. In J,D. Thornton (cd): Science and Practice
the liquid drops in the gas phase. The entrainment of the liquid of Liquid-liquid Extraction. Oxford Engineering Science Series, 27.
in gas would however be most influenced by the efficiency of the Oxford University Press.
demister. 5. Fewel Jr., K. J,, Kean, J.A. Computer modelling aids
separator retrofit, Gas & Oil Journal, Juty 6, 1992,
6. Gramme, P. E,, Norsk Hydro Research Cerrtre Porsgrunn,
Private communication
C = drag coefficient 7. Hafskjold B., Morrow T,, Celius H.K, and Johnson D.R,
d = diameter of the dispersed particles, L, m Drop-drop Coalescence in OWWater Separation, SPE ATCE, New
f = friction factor Orleans, Sept. 1994
g = constant of gravity, g = 9.81 m/s2 8. Hinze, J.O. (1955) AIChE J. 1 (289-295).
m = mass, m, kg 9. ISEP (1988) Improved Separator Efficiency and
M = momentum source term, en/L2t2,kg/m2s2 Performance Study, Vol. 111
10. Ishii, M, and Zuber, N. ( 1979). Drag Coefficient and
N.= Reynolds number

A Simulation Model for Three.
SPE 36644 Phase Gravity Separatora 7

Relative Velocity in Bubbly, Droplet or Particulate Flows. AIChE

Journal Vol. 25, No. 5,843-855.
1I. lshii, M. (1975) Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Theory of Two
Phase Flow, Chapters IX and X, Eyrolles, Paris, or Scientific and
Medical Publication of France, N. Y.
12. Patankar, S. V., (1980) Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid
Flow, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, USA.
13. Spalding, D. B. (1983) Developments in the IPSA
procedure for numerical computation of multiphase flow
phenomena with interphase slip, unequal temperatures, etc. Irr Shih,
T, M,, cd.; Numerical prop. and methodologies in heat transfer,

Table 1. Process data

Phase Density Viscosity Q

(kg/m’) (CP) (m’/h)

Gas 48.0 0.014 2408

Oil 762.0 0.689 1398

Water 976.0 0.353 30.0 -35,6

Table 2. Interface levels and water cut

Case NIL NOL Water cut inlet WiO(entrained)

(mm) (mm) (%) (%)

1 620 1690 2.3 I .2

2 610 1740 2.5 1.4

3 620 1610 2.4 1.5

4 620 I61O 2.5 1.4

5 460 1630 2.4 0.6

6 270 1630 2. I 0.6

SPE 36644

Mixttm viscosity
Oil viscosity
,.. .....,
— 0.5CP ....”.

‘-- i::; I ,,
.. .......”
.,,, ...~
,. ...,,””
. . . ,. ...,”

. . . .. . . . /

-L. ..1 --- -.--J- .--_–. ..-1-.– --- — -- _

0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1
Water fraction

Fig. 1- Mixture viscosity as a function of water fraction. Water viscosity is 1.0 cP. The inversion from an oil-continuous to a water-
continuous mixture is assumed to take place at a water-cut of 0.6

A Simulation Model for Three.
SPE 36644 Phase Gravity Separators


I 1
,: --i

Fig. 2 Drop distribution and discrete representation. ‘l’he volume fraction of each particle class is equal to the area of the corresponding

Fig. 3 Geometry of Oseberg separator

SPE 36644


. . . . . .. . . . .

Fig. 4a Gas volumetric flow, average velocities 15 cmh

. .,” . . . .“ . . .
. . * . . . . .“

Fig. 4b Oil volumetric flow, average velocities 10 cmk

. -----
-, ..-
. ‘7

Fig. 4C Water volumetric flow, average velocities 0.5 cmk

A Simulation Model for Three.
SPE 36644 Phase Gravity Separators 11

---- -..- . . . . —- ------- --- - -------

. . . . . . . . . .* -.4
.. - ..- .- --- .- .... ..-.-. —* .
. ●
. .
----, . . . . ---- .,- --.:: -- _: .- ..-
. *,,+.,..- + .- +--- A . ..-+-—> \ . ,

,-- ---- -— ---

- * ++.-+

z --z-z- :::2 ~x:xz .?+ A


----- ~---
. .

Fig. 5 Oil flow velocities. Vector plot are shown in a horizontal cut plane below the gas/oil interface.

.......... .....................—

Fig 6a Contour plot of 60 pm water drop class

\ b
Fig. 6b Contour plot of 510 pm water drop class

12 SPE 36644

–~–- Otmet






0 /.. 1
0 lW 200 im 400 Jo SW
Dnp dmneter (pm)

Fig. 7 Volume fractions of water drops in inlet and oil outlet.


x x

x x

1 1 1 1 1
1,s 1,7 f,8 1,9 2 2, f 2,2
m mshimxw Oim (mill)

Fig. 8 Water entrainment in oil, simulated and measured values