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ROOT WORDS

Root Words Meaning Example


A
Abdomin abdomen abdominal
Acanth thorny, spiny acanthaceous
Acetabul acetabulum (hip socket) acetabulum
Acou hearing acoustic
Acr extremities; height acral
Actin ray; radius actinic
Aden gland adenocarcinoma
Adenoid adenoids adenoiditis
Adren adrenal gland adrenal
Adrenal adrenal gland adrenalectomy
Aer air; gas aerate
Albumin albumin albuminaturia
Algesi pain analgesia
Alveoli alveolus alveolitis
Ambly dull; dim amblyopia
Amni amnion amniocele
Amnion amnion amnionic
Amyl starch amylose
An anus anus
Andr male androgen
Angi vessel angina
Anis unequal; dissimilar anisothenic
Ankyl crooked; bent; fused ankylosed
Antr antrum (cavity, chamber) antrum
Aort aorta aortic
Aponeur aponeurosis aponeurotic
Appendic appendix appendicitis
Arche; Archi first; beginning archecentric
Arteri artery arteriography
Arteriol arteriole (small artery) arteriolosclerosis
Arthr joint arthritis
Articul joint articulation
Atel imperfect; incomplete atelectasis
Ather yellowish; fatty plaque atherosclerosis
Atri atrium (chamber) atrioventricular
Aur ear aural
Aut self autoantibody
Axill armpit axilla
Azot urea; nitrogen azotemia
B
Bacteri bacteria bacterial
Balan glans penis balanitis
Bi life biology
Bil bile biliary (duct)
Blast developing cell blastoctye
Blephar eyelid blepharoplasty
Brachi arm brachial (artery)
Bronch bronchus bronchitis
Bronchiol bronchiole bronchiole
Bucc cheek buccal
Burs bursa (cavity) bursitis
C
Calc calcium calcium
Cancer cancer cancer
Carcin cancer carcinoma
Cardi heart cardiac
Carp carpals (wrist bones) carpal tunnel
tail; toward the lower part of the
Caud body caudal
Cec cecum cecal
Celi abdomen (abdominal cavity) celioenterotomy
Cephal head cephalad
Cerebell cerebellum cerebellar
Cerebr cerebrum, brain cerebromedullary
Cerumin cerumen (earwax) ceruminal
Cervic cervix cervical
Cheil lip cheilitis
Chir hand chirality
Chol gall; bile cholecystectomy
Cholangi bile duct cholangitis
Choledoch common bile duct choledochitis
Chondr cartilage chondral
Chori chorion chorioretinal
Chrom color chromatogenous
Clavic clavicle (collarbone) clavicle
Clavicul clavicle (collarbone) clavicular
Col colon colonitis
Colp vagina colposcopy
Coni dust coniosis
Conjunctiv conjunctiva conjunctivitis
Cor pupil corectasis
Core pupil corectasis
Corne cornea corneal
Coron heart coronary
Cortic cortex (outer layer of body organ) cortical
Cost rib costicervical
Crani cranium (skull) cranial
Cry cold cryotherapy
Crypt hidden cryptic
Culd culdesac culdesac
Cutane skin subcutaneous
Cyan blue cyanotic
Cyes pregnancy cyesis
Cyst bladder; sac cystic
Cyt cell cytology
D
Dacry tear, tear duct dacryoadenitis
Dactyl fingers or toes dactylolysis
Dent tooth dentition
Derm skin dermis
Dermat skin dermatology
Dextr right ambidextrous
Diaphor sweat diaphoresis
Diaphragmat diaphragm diaphragmatitis
Dipl(o) two; double diploid
Dips thirst dipsosis
Disk intervertebral disk diskectomy
Diverticul diverticulum diverticulitis
Dors back (of the body) dorsal
Duoden duodenum duodenal
Dur hard; dura mater dural
Dynam power or strength dynamogenic
E
Ech sound echocardiogram
Ectop located away from usual place ectopic (pregnancy)
Electr electricity, electrical activity electrocardiogram
Embry embryo; to be full embryonic
Emmetr a normal measues emmetropia
Encephal brain encephalitis
Endocrin endocrine endocrinosis
Enter intestines enteritis
Epididym epididymis epididymal
Epiglott epiglottis epiglottiditis
Episi vulva episiotomy
Epitheli epithelium epithelial
Erythr red erythematous
Esophag esophagus esophagocele
Esthesi sensation, sensitivity, feeling anesthesia
Eti cause (of disease) etiology
F
Faci face facioplasty
Femor femur (upper leg bone) femoral
Fet fetus; unborn child fetal
Fibr fibrous tissue, fibers fibroma
Fibul fibula (lower leg) fibular
G
Gangli ganglion ganglia
Ganglion ganglion ganglionated
Gastr stomach gastritis
Ger old age; aged geriatric
Geront old age; aged gerontology
Gingiv gum gingivitis
Glomerul glomerulus glomerulonephritis
Gloss tongue glossoncus
Gluc sweetness; sugar glucose
Glyc sugar glycerin
Glycos sugar glycosamine
Gnath jaw gnathitis
Gnos knowledge gnosis
Gon seed gonad
Gravid pregnancy gravida
Gyn woman gynopathic
Gynec woman gynecology
H
Hem blood hemoglobin
Hemat blood hematocrit
Hepat liver hepatitis
Herni hernia herniated
Heter other heterosexual
Hidr sweat hidradenoid
Hist tissue histology
Hom same homogeneous
Home sameness; unchanging homeostasis
Humer humerus (upper arm bone) humerus
Hydr water hydrate, dehydrate
Hymen hymen hymen
Hypn sleep hypnogenic
Hyster uterus hysterectomy
I
Iatr medicine; physician iatrogenic
Ichthy fish icthyoid
Ile ileum ileotomy
Ili ilium iliosacral
Immune immune immunodeficiency
Iri iris iritoectomy
Irid iris iritis
Is(o) equal; same isocellular
Isch deficiency; blockage ischemia
Ischi ischium ischiorectal
J
Jejun jejunum jejunotomy
K
Kal potassium hypokalemia
Kary nucleus karyon
Kerat cornea keratotomy
Kerat horny tissue; hard keratosis
Kin movement kinesis
Kinesi movement; motion kinesiology
Kyph hump kyphosis
L
Labi lips labium
Labyrinth labyrinth labyrinthitis
Lacrim tear duct, tear lacrimal
Lact milk lactation
Lamin lamina (thin; flat plate or layer) laminar
Lapar abdomen laparoscopy
Laryng larynx laryngitis
Later side lateral
Lei smooth leiomyoma
Leuk white leukemia
Lingu tongue lingual
Lip fat lipid
Lith stone; calculus lithotripsy
Lob lobe lobular
Lord bent forward lordosis
Lymph lymph lymphoma
M
Macr abnormal largeness macromolecular
Mamm breast mammary
Mandibul mandible (lower jawbone) mandibular
Mast breast mastitis
Mastoid mastoid mastoidotomy
Maxilla maxilla (upper jawbone) maxillary
Meat meatus (opening) meatus
Melan black melanoma
Men menstruation menstrual
Mening meninges meningitis
Menisci meniscus (crescent) meniscus
Ment mind mental
Metr uterus metroptosis
Mon(o) one monoparesis
Morph(o) form; shape morphology
Muc mucus mucosal
My muscle myasthenia
Myc fungus mycete
Myel bone marrow; spinal cord myeloma
Myelon bone marrow; spinal cord myelonic
Myos muscle myostroma
N
Narc stupor narcotic
Nas nose nasal
Nat birth prenatal
Necr death (cells; body) necrosis
Nephr kidney nephritis
Neur nerve neuropathy
Noct night nocturnal
Nyct night nycterine
Nyctal night nyctalopia
O
Ocul eye ocular
Olig scanty; few oliguria
Omphal umbilicu; navel omphaloma
Onc tumor oncology
Onych nail onychogenic
Oo egg; ovum oocyte
Oophor ovary oophorectomy
Ophthalm eye ophthalmology
Opt vision optical
Or mouth oral
Orch testis; testicle orchilytic
Orchi testis; testicle orchiectomy
Orchid testis; testicle orchidoncus
Organ organ organic
Orth straight orthodontist
Oste bone osteoporosis
Ot ear otitis
Ov egg ovum
Ox oxygen oxidation
P
Pachy thick pachycephalic
Palat palate palatoplegia
Pancreat pancreas pancreatic
Papill nipple papillary
Par bear; give birth to; labor para
Parathyroid parathyroid gland parathyroidoma
Part bear; give birth to; labor postpartum
Patell patella (kneecap) patellectomy
Path disease pathology
Pector chest pectoralgia
Ped child; foot pediatrics/pedal
Pelv pelvis; pelvic bone pelvic
Perine perineum perineum
Peritone peritoneum peritoneal
Petr stone petrous
Phac lens of the eye phacolysis
Phag eat; swallow dysphagia
Phak lens of the eye phakomatosis
Phalang(o) pharynx phalangeal
Phas speech aphasia
Phleb(o) vein phlebitis
Phot light photokinetic
Phren mind phrenology
Physi nature physiology
Plasm plasma plasmacyte
Pleur pleura pleuracentesis
Pneum(o) lung; air pneumogastric
Pneumat lung; air pneumathemia
Pneumon lung; air pneumonia
Pod foot podiatry
Poikil(o) varied; irregular poikiloblast
Poli(o) gray matter polioclastic
Polyp polyp; small growth polypathia
Poster back (of body) posterior
Prim first primary
Proct rectum proctology
Prostat prostate gland prostatitis
Pseud fake; false pseudopolyp
Psych mind psychiatry
Pub pubis pubic
Puerper childbirth puerperal
Pulmon lung pulmonary
Pupil pupil pupil
Py pus empyema
Pyel renal pelvis pyelogram
Pylor pylorus (pyloric sphincter) pylorostomy
Pyr fever; heat pyrogenic
Q
Quadr four quadruplets
R

Rachi(o) vertebra; spinal or vertebral column rachiocentesis


Radi radius (lower arm bone) radius
Radic nerve root radiculopathy
Radicul nerve root radicular
Rect(o) rectum rectocele
Ren kidney renal
Retin retina retinosis
Rhabd rodshaped, striated rhabditis
Rhin(o) nose rhinitis
Rhiz(o) nerve root rhizoneure
Rhytid wrinkles rhytidoplasty
S
Salping(o) fallopian (uterine) tube salpingitis
Sarc(o) flesh; connective tissue sarcocele
Scapula scapula (shoulder bone) scapular
Sclera sclera sclerectomy
Scoli crooked, curved scoliosis
Seb sebum (oil) sebaceous
Sept(o) septum (dividing wall; partition) septum
Sial saliva salivary
Sigmoid sigmoid sigmoidoscopy
Sinus sinus sinusitis
Somat(o) body somatometry
Somn sleep insomnia
Son sound sonogram
Sperm spermatozoan; sperm spermiduct
Spermat spermatozoan; sperm spermatorrhea
Sphygm pulse sphygmomenometer
Spir breathe; breathing transpiration
Spleen spleen spleen

Spondyl(o) vertebra; spinal or vertebral column spondylosis


Staped stapes (middle ear bone) stapedial
Staphyl(o) grapelike clusters staphylococcus
Stern sternum (breastbone) sternal
Steth chest stethoscope
Stomat(o) mouth stomatoplasty
Strept(o) twisted chains streptococcus
Synovi synovia; synovial membrane synovial
System system systemic
T
Tars tarsals (ankle bones) metatarsal
Tars(o) edge of eyelid; tarsal (instep of foot) tarsitis
Ten tendon tendon
Tend tendon tendotomy
Tendin tendon tendinitis
Test testis; testicle testicular
Therm(o) heat thermal
Thorac thorax (chest) thoracic
Thromb(o) clot thrombus
Thym(o) thymus gland thymolysis
Thyr thyroid gland thyroid
Thyroid thyroid gland thyroiditis
Tibi tibia (lower leg bone) tibial
Tom(o) cut; section tomography
Ton tension, pressure tonicity
Tonsil tonsils tonsillitis
Top(o) place topographic
Toxic poison toxic
Trache(o) trachea tracheobronchial
Trachel(o) neck; necklike trachelitis
Trich hair trichoid
Tympan eardrum; middle ear tympanic membrane
U
Uln ulna (lower arm bone) ulnar
Ungu nail ungual
Ur urine; urinary tract urinary
Ureter(o) ureter ureteroplasy
Urethr urethra urethrectomy
Urin urine; urinary tract urinalysis
Uter uterus intrauterine
Uvul uvula uvuloptosis
V
Vagin vagina vaginal
Valv valve valvula
Valvul valve valvuloplasty
Vas(o) vessel; duct vasectomy
Ven vein venous
Ventricul ventricle ventricular
Vertebr(o) vertebra; (spinal column) costovertebral
Vesic(o) bladder; sac vesical
Vesicul(o) seminal vesicles vesiculation
Viscer(o) internal organs viscera
Vulv vulva vulvitis
X
Xanth yellow xanthoma
Xer(o) dry xerosis
Prefixes Meaning Example
A
A without or absence of ametria
Ab from; away from abduction
Ad to; toward adduction
An without or absence of anaerobic
Ana up; again; backward anaphoresis
Ante before anteflexion
Anti against antibacterial
Apo upon aponeurotic
B
Bi two bimanual
Bin two binary
Brady slow bradycardia
C
Cata down catabatic
Con together conjugal
Contra against contraceptive
D
De from; down from; lack of debride
Dia thorough; complete diameter
Dis to undo; free from dislocate
difficult; labored; painful;
Dys abnormal dysplasia
E
Ecto outside; outer ectocardia
Endo within endosalpinx
Epi on; upon; over epithelial
Eso inward esotropia
Eu normal; good eupepsia
Ex outside; outward excrete
Exo outside; outward exophthalmos
Extra outside of; beyond extracarpal
H
Hemi half hemidiaphragm
Hyper above; excessive hypertension

Hypo below; incomplete; deficient hypoglycemic


I
In in; into; not intubate
Infra under; below infraglottic
Inter between intercartilaginous
Intra within intravenous
M
Mal bad malabsorption
Meso middle mesocolon
Meta after; beyond; change metastatic
Micro small micronodular
Multi many multilobar
N
Neo new neonatal
Nulli none nulliparous
P
Pan all; total pancytopenia
Para beside; beyond; around paranormal
Per through percutaneous
Peri surrounding (outer) pericardium
Poly many; much polyopia
Post after postembryonic
Pre before; in front of preoperative
Pro before prodromal
R
Re back reflux
Retro back; behind retrograde
S
Semi half semirecumbent
Sub under; below subcutaneous
Super over; above superimpose
Supra above suprascleral
Sym together; joined symbiotic
Syn together; joined synergetic
T
Tachy fast; rapid tachycardia
Tetra four tetrameric
Trans through; across; beyond transurethral
Tri three trilocular
U
Ultra beyond; excess ultrasound
Uni one uniseptate
Suffixes Meaning Example
ac pertaining to cardiac
al pertaining to femoral
algia pain arthralgia
apheresis removal leukapheresis
ar pertaining to malar
ary pertaining to biliary

ase enzyme alkaline phosphatase


asthenia weakness myasthenia
C
capnia carbon dioxide hypocapnia
cele hernia; protrusion hydrocele
surgical puncture to aspirate
centesis fluid amniocentesis
cidal killing suicidal
berryshaped ( a form of
coccus (pl. cocci) bacterium) pneumococcus
crine separate; secrete endocrine
crit to separate hematocrit
cyte cell leukocyte
D
desis surgical fixation; fusion arthrodesis
E
eal pertaining to calcaneal
stretching out; dilatation;
ectasis expansion bronchiectasis

ectomy excision or surgical removal tonsillectomy


emesis vomiting hematemesis
emia blood condition anemia
esis condition diaphoresis
G
substance or agent that
gen produces or causes antigen
genesis origin; cause iatrogenesis
producing; originating;
genic causing organogenic
gram record; x-ray film echocardiogram
graph instrument used to record radiograph
process of recording; xray
graphy filming arteriography
I
condition of diseased or
ia abnormal state hypoxia
ial pertaining to arterial
iasis condition psoriasis
iatry physician; treatment psychiatry
ic pertaining to apneic
ician one who physician
ictal seizure; attack postictal
ism state of embolism
itis inflammation colitis
L
lepsy seizure epilepsy
loosening; dissolution;
lysis separating hydrolysis
lytic destroy; reduce thrombolytic
M
malacia softening chondromalacia
mania madness; insane desire pyromania
megaly enlargement hepatosplenomegaly

meter instrument used to measure thermometer


metry measurement oximetry
polymorph
morph form; shape (polymorphonuclear)
O
odynia pain arthrodynia
oid resembling hyoid
one who studies & practices
ologist (specialist) cardiologist
ology study of oncology
oma tumor; swelling hematoma
oorhagia rapid flow of blood menorrhagia
opia vision (condition) myopia
opsy to view biopsy
orrhaphy suturing; repairing herniorrhaphy
orrhea flow; excessive discharge menorrhea
orrhexis rupture capsulorrhexis
abnormal condition (means
increased when used with
osis blood cell word roots) dermatosis
creation of an artificial
ostomy opening colostomy
otomy cut into or incision craniotomy
ous pertaining to parous
oxia oxygen hypoxia
P
paresis slight paralysis hemiparesis
pathy disease neuropathy
abnormal reduction in
penia number cytopenia
pepsia digestion dyspepsia

pexy surgical fixation; suspension urethropexy


phagia eating; swallowing odynophagia

abnormal fear of or aversion


phobia to specific objects or things claustrophobia
phonia sound or voice hyperphonia
phoria feeling euphoria
physis growth hypophysis
formation; development; a
plasia growth hyperplasia

plasm growth; substance; formation cytoplasm


plasty plastic or surgical repair arthroplasty
plegia paralysis paraplegia
pnea breathing apnea
poiesis formation hematopoiesis
porosis passage osteoporosis
prandial meal postprandial

ptosis dropping; sagging; prolapse splanchnoptosis


ptysis spitting hemoptysis
S
salpinx fallopian tube hydrosalpinx
sarcoma malignant tumor angiosarcoma
sclerosis hardening atherosclerosis
instrument used for visual
scope examination endoscope
scopic visual examination arthroscopic
scopy visual examination colonoscopy
sepsis infection sepsis
sudden involuntary muscle
spasm contraction vasospasm
stalsis contraction peristalsis
stasis control; stop hemostasis
stenosis constriction; narrowing stenosis
T
thorax chest hemithorax
tocia birth; labor dystocia
tome instrument used to cut keratome
tripsy surgical crushing lithotripsy
trophy nourishment atrophy
U
ule little pustule
uria urine; urination pyuria