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ECCS EUROPEAN CONVENTION FOR CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELWORK

CECM CONVENTION EUROPEENNE DE LA CONSTRUCTION METALLIQUE


E K S EUROPAISCHE KONVENTION FUR STAHLBAU

ECCS - Joint Committee on Composite Structures

I1 Composite Structures

1981 No28
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,
without the prior permission of the Copyright owner:

ECCS General Secretariat


CECM AV. Louise, 326,bte 52
EKS B - 1050 BRUSSELS (Belgium)

ECCS assumes no liability with respect to the use for any application of the material and information
contained in this publication.
Composite
Structures
European Convention for Constructional Steelwork
Convention Europbenne de la Construction Mktallique
EuropaisctpKonventionfur Stahlbau
\ .

prepared by t h e Technical General Secretariat of t h e ECCS

THE CONSTRUCTION PRESS


LONDON AND NEWYORK
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be .
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the
Copyright owner :

ECCS' General Secretariat,


CECM A V . Louise 326, bte 5 2
EKS B - 1 0 5 0 Brussels (Belgium)

ECCS assumes no liability with respect to the use for any


application of the material and information contained in this
publication.
Contents

Introduction 5
Section 1 General 9
1.1 Scope; 1.2 Assessment of safety
Section 2 Definitions and symbols 11
2.1 Definitions; 2.2 Symbols
Section 3 Design - general 17
3.1 General; 3.2 Limit states; 3.3 Representative values of
actions; 3.4 Properties of materials; 3.5 Method of partial
coefficients - general; 3.6 Design for the ultimate limit
states; 3.7 Design-for the serviceability limit states; 3.8 Static
equilibrium; 3.9 Prestressed structures; 3.10 Design require-
ments for composite beams
Section 4 Analysis of structures 37
4.1 General; 4.2 Effective span; 4.3 Stability; 4.4 Distri-
bution of bending moments and vertical shear forces at the
serviceability limit state; 4.5 Distribution of bending

Section 5
.
moments and vertical shear forces at the ultimate limit state
Analysis of cross-sections 45
5.1 General; 5.2 Definitions; 5.3 Compact beams - ultimate
limit state; 5.4 Slender beams - ultimate limit state;
5.5 Serviceability limit state
Section 6 Design of the shear connection - general 61
6.1 General; 6.2 Limit state requirements; 63 Properties of
shear connectors; 6.4 Design strength of shear connectors;
6.5 Detailing of shear connection; 6.6 Tests on shear
connectors; 6.7 Friction grip bolts
Section 7 Design of the shear connection - ultimate limit state 95
7.1 Critical cross-sections; 7.2 Maximum loads per connector;
7.3 Longitudinal shear; 7.4 Complete shear connection;
7.5 Partial shear connection; 7.6 Transverse reinforcement
Section 8 Design of the shear connection - serviceability limit state 109
8.1 Longitudinal shear; 8.2 Maximum loads per connector
- static loading; 83 Design requirements - static loading;
8.4 Design for fatigue

3
Sectign 9 Temperature, shrinkage and creep 113
8
9.1 Temperature effects; 9.2 Shrinkage and creep;
Section 10 Control of cracking 117
10.1 General
Section 1 1 Deflections 119
1 1.1 General; 1 1.2 Calculation of deflections; 11.3
Deflections of simply supported beams with incomplete
connection; 1 1.4 Limitations on deflections
Section 12 Prestressing in composite construction 123 :
12.1 General; 12.2 Methods of prestressing; 12.3 Degree of
prestressing; 12.4 Limit state requirements; 12.5 Service-
ability; 12.6 Ultimate limit state; 12.7 Control of cracking
Section 13 Vibration 127
13.1 General; 13.2 Beams for buildings; 1 3 3 Beams for
bridges
Section 14 Composite beam with precast slab 129
14.1 General; 14.2 Joint between steel beam and concrete
slab; 143 Shear connection; 14.4 Transverse reinforcement;
14.5 Concrete deck as diaphragm; 14.6 Shrinkage and creep
Section 15 Composite floors with profiled steel sheet 133
15.1 Scope; 15.2 Materials; 15 3 Design methods -
shuttering; 15.4 Design and testing of composite slabs
Section 16 Composite columns 149
16.1 Scope; 16.2 Materials; 16.3 Composite column cross-
sections; 16.4 Loadcarrying capacity analysis; 16.5 Design
method; 16.6 The need to provide mechanical shear connec-
tion; 16.7 Serviceability limit state
Section 17 Framed structures for buildings 175
Section 18 Workmanship and construction 177
18.1 Responsibility; 18.2 Sequence of construction;
18.3 Stability of steelwork; 18.4 Support conditions during
construction; 18.5 Temperature effects during construction;
18.6 Anchorage of prestressing cables; 18.7 Construction
accuracy and quality control of materials; 18.8 Shear con-
nectors; 18.9 Recast concrete slabs forming the flanges of
composite beams; 18.10 Composite floors with profiled
steel sheets; 18.1 1 Construction of columns

4
‘ .

Introduction

The “Joint Committee on Composite Structures’’ was formed in 1971 under the
auspices of the Liaison Committee of International Associations for Civil Engineering,VV
with the active participation of the following organisations:
’ 3

- Euro-International Committee for Concrete (CEB)


- European Convention for Constructional Steelwork (ECCS)
- International Federation for Prestressing (FIP)
- International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE).
Its essential task was to prepare a technical document for the design of com-
posite (steel and concrete) structures and structural parts, apt to be used as a com-
mon basis or reference for national and international codes or specifications.
The activity of this Committee was first devoted to a preliminary examination
and discussion of the current situation and practice in the various countries and to
the survey of basic aspects of this technical field, with due consideration to recent
orientations and research findings. This activity has resulted in an (unpublished) in-
ternal report.
The second phase of the activity has been concentrated on the drafting of this
“Model Code”, which has been very carefully prepared thanks to the active partici-
pation of most Committee members, including leading authorities in this field with
similar responsibilities in their own countries.
The Committee has endeavoured to cover the basic aspects of the practical design
of composite structures in agreement with the latest knowledge resulting from re-
search and constructional practice, by constantly keeping in mind the need to pre-
serve an openness for further developments and progress in knowledge and practice.
This Model Code has been prepared in consistency with the Recommendations
of the participating international bodies for steel structures and for reinforced and
prestressed concrete structures, to the extent compatible with the specific character
and behaviour of the composite material.
Particular attention has been given to the application of the general principles of
structural safety in consistency with the provisions adopted for steel and concrete
structures separately, but by considering the composite material as a distinct one.

5
The code format chosen for this document is intended to facilitate its use for
and its conversion into national or international official rules, as well as to allow its
adoption as a basis for the practical design of composite structures for which this
may be authorised, eg, for certain international contests.
Thanks are due to the members of this Committee for the considerable work
performed in the full sessions held twice every year as well as in the Task Groups
formed for the drafting of various parts of this document. Special mention is due to
the members who have assumed responsibilities as Task Group Chairmen and/or as
reporters for specific chapters: Messrs Breitschaft, Dittmann, Dowling, Johnson,
O’Leary, Roik and Stark. These acknowledgements would be incomplete without a
mention of the outstanding contribution of Professor Johnson to the advancement
and the co-ordination of the whole work.
h s t but not least, homage must be expressed to the memory of two Committee
members, now deceased, who have significantly contributed to the success of this
action: Yves Guyon and Paul Lorin.
With the above remarks, the Draft Model Code for Composite Structures prepared
by the CEB-ECCS-FIP-IABSE Joint Committee is now released to the competent
bodies and professionals, as a step towards international unification and technical
I
progress, with the hope that it will meet the attention of code and specification-
making authorities and thus fulfil its role within the framework of documents
governing structural engineering practice.
Any possible comments and remarks on its contents will be welcomed by the
Committee.

D Sfintesco
Chairman, Joint Committee
on Composite Structures

6
.. .

JOINT COMMITTEE ON COMPOSITE STRUCTURES


Arch, W H United Kingdom
Avram, C* Rumania
Badoux, J C Switzerland
Batanero, J Spain
Breitschaft, G Germany
Buckby, R J United Kingdom
Chiorino, M A Italy
Crisinel, M Switzerland
Delesques, R France
Dittman, G Germany
Dobruszkes, A Belgium
Dowling, P J United Kingdom
Dubas, P Switzerland
Godfrey, G B United Kingdom
Huber, K Switzerland
Janss, J Belgium
Johnson, R P United Kingdom
Kakko, H Finland
Martinez Calz6n Spain
Meseguer, A G* - Spain
O'Leary, D C* United Kingdom
Roik, K Germany
Rowe, R E United Kingdom
Saillard, Y France
Sfin tesco , D (Chairman) France
Siebke, H Germany
Sontag, H Germany
Stark, J W Netherlands
Trost, H Germany
Winand, A Belgium
Walfel, E Germany
Yam,LCP United Kingdom
* = corresponding member.

7
COMMENTARY

I 1.1
I
I
I
I
The aim of these recommendations is to provide comprehensiv design meth d
~
for composite members in buildings and bridges. It is recognised that for certain
structures not all the recommendations are applicable. For beams, guidance is given
in Clause 3.10, in the form of Clause references, on the recommendations that
should be followed, depending on the type of structure and its intended use.

1.2
This semi-probabilistic approach, the Level 1 method of Volume I, is charac-
terised by the use of partial safety factors applying to actions, action effects, and
resistances.

8
I -

RECOMMENDATIONS

Section 1. General

1.1 SCOPE
These recommendations apply to structures and members (beams, slabs, or
columns) consisting of a steel component and a reinforced or prestressed concrete
component mechanically interconnected so as to act together to resist the load.
Recommendations are given for composite floors with profiled steel sheets and for
beams with haunches, but not for encased composite beams.
The steel component may be either a rolled or a fabricated section. Concrete
may have normal-density or lightweight aggregate.
The recommendations refer generally to concrete cast in situ. Composite beams
with precast concrete slabs are considered in Section 14, and prestressed composite
structures in Section 12.

1.2 ASSESSMENT OF SAFETY


Structural safety is treated according to Volume I of the Joint Committee on
Structural Safety (JCSS)of the International System of Unified Standard Codes,
which applies to all structural materials and all types of construction. It is referred
to here simply as ‘Volume I.’ Limit state design philosophy is used, ahd safety is
assessed by a semi-probabilistic approach.
To determine the numerical values, code-making authorities, master builders or
consulting engineers should consider each particular case, taking account of the
general principles given in Volume I and the more detailed recommendations of
Section 3.

9
COMMENTARY

..

Degree of interaction
In practice some slip will always occur and the term fill interaction is used
where it has been shown that the effects of slip between the concrete flange and
the steel beam can safely be neglected in the design.

Degree of shear connection


The term ‘partial’should not be considered to imply in any way that the con-
nectors are unsatisfactory for the purpose for which they are designed. The use of
partial connection is of interest where the full bending strength of the section need
not be fully utilised,for example where the size of the steel member is governed by
the load carried by the steel beam alone in unpropped construction, or where
the size of the member is determined by serviceability criteria rather than strength.
The definition of complete connection is equally applicable to slender or compact
beams, whether propped or unpropped during construction.

10
RECOMMENDATIONS

Section 2. Definitions and


symbols

2.1 DEFINITIONS
A limit state is a condition beyond which a structure or part of a structure ceases
to fulfil the function for which it was designed.
The ultimate limit state denotes the state at which any part of the structure is
unable to sustain any further increase in load.
The serviceability limit state denotes the state when remedial action is necessary
to enable the structure to continue to fulfil its design function.
Partial safety factors are the factors applied to the characteristic loads, prestress-
ing forces, imposed deformations and strengths and properties of materials to take
account of possible unusual increases in load or deformation beyond those con-
sidered in deriving the characteristic values and possible variations in material
strength between the characteristic strength and the strength of the material in the
actual structure.
The design actions and strengths shall be determined in accordance with Section
3 and international or national Codes for nominal or characteristic values of perma-
nent and variable actions and strengths of materials.
Degree of interaction
Full interaction implies that no slip occurs between the concrete slab and the
steel beam.
Partial interaction implies that slip occurs at the interface between the concrete
flange and the steel beam, and so causes a discontinuity of strain that has to be
taken into account in the analyses.
Degree of shear connection in compact beams
Complete shear connection is achieved in a beam that is compact (see 5.2.1)
throughout its length when the beam has a bending strength at critical cross-sections
(see 7.1) that would not be increased by the addition of further connectors.
Partial shear connection occurs when the number of shear connectors provided is
less than the number required for complete connection.

11
COMMENTARY

It is important to distinguish between the following properties of the shear


connection:
- strength Pu,
- deformation capacity Smm.

S
-sa,x-

Figure C2.1 Typical loadlslip relationship for connectors.

Where the shear connection is ‘%omplete’:failure will depend on the bending


strength a t sections I or II as shown in Figure C2.2. Only the strength of the
connectors - Pu - is of importance.
Where the number of connectors provided on plane 111 is not sufficient to
enable the beam to achieve its full bending strength, the connection is “partial’:
In this case, the ultimate bending strength depends essentially on the shape of
the load/slip diagram of the connectors, the span of the beam und the method
of construction.
Section IV will be critical for vertical shear in the case of short beams with rela-
tively high loads. A t section V, interaction will occur between vertical shear and
bending moment.

11 II IV I

Ill-- I !---Ill
I
A ’

Figure C2.2
COMMENTARY

Deformation capaciw of connectors


(1) For flexible connectors, the defomtion capacity must not on& satisfy (2)
below, but must also be higher, due to the additional slip that occurs before
failure in beams designed with partial connection.

(2) For all stiff connectors, the deformation capacity must be large enough to
permit redistribution of the longitudinal shear in beams with complete con-
nection to the extent that the mean load per connector at longitudinal shear
failure is not less than its design strength.
The deformation capacities required for both are different and it is important to
distinguish between the two requirements.

Load
pu
Flexible connector

Stiff connector

Figure C2.3 Typical load/slip relationship for flexible and stiff connectors.

Previous page
is blank
14
RECOMMENDATIONS

Deformation capacity of connectors


(1) Shear connectors may be considered as flexible if their deformation capacity is
such that at the ultimate limit state sufficient slip can occur between the con-
crete flange and the steel beam without reduction of shear strength to justify
the assumption that the connection behaves in an ideal elastic plastic manner.
Headed stud connectors of the proportions specified in Section 6.2.2 may
be considered as flexible.
(2) All other types of connector should be regarded as stiff unless shown by tests
or analysis to satisfy the definition of flexible connectors given above.

2.2 SYMBOLS
The symbols used in this draft are generally consistent with the recommenda-
tions given in Draft International Standard ISO/DIS 3890, August 1975.
Symbols concerning properties and behaviour of concrete, reinforcement and
prestressing steels are consistent with the Model Code for Concrete Structures, 3rd
Draft (Bulletin 117 E - CEB).
Symbols concerning properties and behaviour of structural steels are consistent
with the 1978 Europeah Recommendations for Steel Construction.

15
- - ~
~

_____ __

COMMENTARY

3.1
The recommendations refer to existing methods such as ‘elasticdesign ’and
‘plasticdesign They can be applied only by qualified engineers who know the
assumptions adopted in these methods, and can assess which sources of error can
safely be neglected.
Other approaches may also be used, such as direct experimentation or different
methods of calculation; but the engineer must then prove the reliability of the
safety assessment. This proof is not required when the present recommendations
are followed.

I
3.2.1
Established inelastic methods of checking the ultimate load caving capacity of
composite structures may be used. For example, they may be based on:
a ) a defined degree of redistribution of bending moments, or of bending and
shear stresses, due to yielding of some parts of the structure, or
b) attainment of the design strength of shear connectors, with or without redis-
tribution of longitudinal shear.
Local buckling or yielding has to be considered as an ultimate limit state on& i f
it leads to collapse.

16
RECOMMENDATIONS

Section 3. Design - general

3.1 GENERAL
This section gives general guidance on the application to composite structures of
the recommendations of Section 10 of Volume I, ‘The method of partial coeffi-
cients’.

The following Clauses are concerned with the limit state verifications, which are
based on design values of actions and combinations of actions, and of strengths of
materials and resistance of members, obtained by applying various rcoefficients
(partial safety factors) to representative values.

3.2 LIMIT STATES


According to Section 2 of Volume I, there are two categories of limit states:
ultimate limit states and serviceability limit states.

3.2.1 ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES


These limit states and typical events that cause them to be reached are defined in
Clause 2.2 of Volume I. They should be checked by elastic, inelastic, or plastic
analysis as appropriate.

3.2.1.1 Elastic analysis


The use of elastic analysis implies that an ultimate limit state can be reached due
to the attainment, even at a single point in the structure, of a defined level of stress.
Appropriate stress levels are given in these recommendations, for use in the calcula-
tion by elastic theory of the resistance of members and cross-sections.

17
COMMENTARY

3.2.1.3
Fatigue as a phenomenon affects the strength of materials and hence that of
cross-sections, and is due to repetitions of actions under serviceability conditions.
For practical reasons, it may be considered in design for the serviceability limit
state. The load factors for ultimate load given in Section 3 are not applicable,

3.2.2
Local buckling or yielding, perhaps in conjunction with fatigue failure, may lead
to a serviceability limit state, i f the consequence could be remedied by repair.

3.3.1
Most permanent actions may be represented by a unique value because one or
more of the following apply:
a) their variability is small,
b) their influence on the total action effect is small, and
c ) it is obvious which of two representative actions governs for all parts of the
structure.
There are some actions for which two representative values (maximum and
minimum) should be defined. For example:
a) non-structural permanent surfacing in certain bridges, where the minimum
weight may be taken as zero; and
b) earth or liquid pressure, in structures where use of a low value may increase
the severity of a limit state.
Restressing forces should normally be considered at two ages, by taking account
of time-dependent losses, but with only one value for each age.

3.3.2.1
The loading regulations are being worked out (see for example Appendix III of
Volume I). Meanwhile, national regulations can be applied, provided that they are
based on assumptions comparable with those of Appendix II of Volume I. Sug-
gested values for J/ are given in Section I0 of Volume I and in the ECCS Recom-
mendations for Steel Construction.

18
RECOMMENDATIONS

3.2.1.2 Order of verification


When it is assumed in analysis that loading causes no change in the geometry of
the structure, the procedure is known as first-order verification, and is acceptable
only if the possible errors due to change of geometry can be considered to be
negligible. Otherwise, second-order verification should be used, in which account is
taken of non-linear effects of loading due to displacement of the structure.

3.2.1.3 Fatigue
Fatigue may lead to an ultimate limit state, if the consequence should be
collapse. Design for fatigue in structural steel should be in accordance with the
ECCS Recommendations for Steel Construction. Commentary on the design of
shear connection for repeated loading is given in 8.4.

3.2.2 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES


Serviceability limit states are defined, with examples, in Clause 2.3 of Volume I.

3.3 REPRESENTATIVE VALUES OF ACTIONS

3.3.1 PERMANENT ACTIONS ~

Permanent actions can usually be represented by a single characteristic value


G; for example:
a) self weight of the structure (calculated from the nominal dimensions and the
mean density of concrete and steel, assuming a mean percentage of reinforce-
men t) ,
b) weight of non-structural permanent finishes;
c) actions resulting from a practically constant water level; and
d) imposed deformations due to shrinkage of concrete or unintended move-
ments of supports.

Prestress due to tendons or intended deformations imposed during construction,


as defined in 3.9.2, can be represented by a single characteristic value P.

3 3.2 VARIABLE ACTIONS

3.3.2.1 Representative values


The representative values , Q of variable actions and the combination factors
3/o, J I 1 , and J / z are defined in Section 10 of Volume I. Their numerical values are I

fixed by the loading regulations on the basis of experience and available statistical
information.

19
COMMENTARY

For indirect actions, the representative values are related to deformations which
give rise to internal forces in the structure.
In special cases, Q k and $& may also have to be considered at the ultimate
limit state.
Q, is the nominal maximum value associated with the serviceability limit state.
I t is frequently the same as Qk.
The definition of the frequent value depends on the type of structure. It is
suggested thatfor buildings it should be taken as that which is likely to be exceeded
during only S% of the design life of the structure, or which may occur at least
100 000 times during that life.
Unless a more precise estimate is made, the effects of creep (see Volume I I ) are
studied under permanent and quasi-permanent actions, considered as constant loads
of long duration.
For some loadings, such as wind, the minimum may be negative.

20
.
RECOMMENDATIONS

For the ultimate h i t state, the maximum representative values are normally:

- the characteristic Value, Qk


-the combination value, $, Qk.
For the serviceability limit state the maximum representative values are normally:
- the service value, Qsr
- the frequent value, $ Qk
- the quasi-permanent value, $2 Qk.

The minimum value of a variable action is in general zero. For some loadings,
such as water pressure, the minimum may be positive, and should then be considered
when the action is favourable. For simplification, it may be possible to define a
single minimum representative value.

3.3.2.2 Temperature effects .

For imposed strains and deformations due to temperature, the designer may use,
as representative values, nominal values agreed with the client.

3.3.2.3 Natural forces


For special structures, the designer may determine representative values of
natural forces from available statistical information, provided that this information
is considered to be sufficient by the competent public authority.

3.3.2.4 Erection loads


Where necessary, nominal values for erection loads should be determined in
consultation with the contractor and agreed with the client.

3.3.3 ACCIDENTAL ACTIONS


These values are normally defined by the competent public authority.

3.4 PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS


The characteristic properties of concrete, reinforcing steel, and prestressing steel
should be determined in accordance with the Model Code for Concrete Structures
(V.olume 11); and those for structural steel in accordance with the ECCS Recom-
mendations for Steel Construction.
Characteristic and design strengths of shear connectors are given in Section 6.

21
COMMENTARY

3.4.I
It may sometimes be necessary to use separate values for concrete and for steel,
because the coefficient of thermal expansion for lightweight concrete and limestone
aggregate concrete can be as low as 7 x 10" per "C

3.5
A general statement of this method is given in Section 10 of Volume I.

3.5.1
Behaviour is over-proportional when increase of an action results in a relatively
greater increase in the action effects (Figure C3.1). Superposition of effects is then
not possible, and Equation (3.I ) obviously applies.
Behaviour is under-proportional when increase of an action results in a relatively
smaller increase in the action effects (eg, rope net constructions, suspension bridges).
The partial safety factor rf Should then be sub-divided (Equation (3.3.)).
If both types of behaviour occur within a single system it may be necessary to
investigate both cases.

@ Linear
@ Overproportional
@ Underproportional
Figure C3.1

3.5.2
A n additive safety element 6 may be:
a) an additional action or geometrical imperfection, such as additive dead
weight or shifting of bearings; or
b) an additional action effect such as additive bending moment at a point o f

22
RECOMMENDATIONS

3.4.1 COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION


The coefficient of thermal expansion for both concrete and steel may normally
be taken as 10 x 10-6per "C.

3.5 METHOD OF PARTIAL COEFFICIENTS - GENERAL

3.5.1 DETERMINATION OF DESIGN ACTION EFFECTS


Account should be taken of the various combinations of actions when calcula-
ting the most unfavourable effect on each member and cross-section.
The use of the partial safety factors depends on the nature of the relationship
between action effects and actions. This may be over-proportional, linear, or under-
proportional. Design action effects Sd should be calculated from characteristic
actions Fk, partial safety factors yf,i, and combination factors J/i using the appro-
priate equation, as follows:;
for over-proportional or linear behaviour,
sd= s [g(Yf,i; J/i;6fyi;Fk,i)l (3.1)
which for linear behaviour can be used in the form
sd = [7fyiS(J/i;6f,i;Fk,i)l +6S, (3-2)
and for under-proportional behaviour,
Sd = [rf3,iS(yfi,i;J/i;6f,i;Fk,i)1+6S, (3 -3)
where
'Yf1.i 'Yf3,i = 'Yf,i

and the additive safety elements 6 f,i and 6 s are explained in 3.5.2.

3.5.2 ADDITIVE SAFETY ELEMENTS


If action effects are strongly influenced by external imperfections (eg, by un-
intended eccentricity relevant to buckling or overturning, or by variation of dead
weight exceeding the tolerance limits associated with the characteristic value),
additive safety elements (6f i and 6 s in Equations (3.1) to (3.3)) should be used
instead of (or in addition to) the coefficients yf.

23
COMMENTARY

contraflexure (relevant to minimum reinforcement)or additive shear force


where the calculated shear is zero (relevant to minimum shear connection).

3.6
The ultimate limit state of loss of static equilibrium is considered in Clause 3.8.

3.6.2
Various load cases are possible for an individual action;for example, the floor
loading in a multi-storey multi-bay structure.
A member in a building that canies the variable loads from a large area of floor,
whether at one or several levels; can normally be designed for a variable load less
than the total calculated from the unit variable load and the area of floor. This
reduction is not included in Equations (3.5) to (3.7).
Equation (3.5) should be used in design for stability, and may be used with
elastic or simple plastic analysis.
Equation (3.6) is suitable only for use with linear elastic analysis.
Equation (3.7) is used only for special structures, such as suspension bridges.
When maximum and minimum values of y, are given for a permanent action,
there are two possible methods for obtaining the most severe design condition:
a) The two values of y, are used in alternate spans. This can be done by treat-
ing as a free action that part of the permanent action that exceeds the level
corresponding to the minimum value of yr
b) The bending moment distribution is calculated with y, = 1, and factored by
the two values of y, in turn. At each cross-section,the more severe action
effect is used.
Both methods should be associated with appropriate detailing rules, particularly
in relation to points of contraflexure.
When action effects are strongly influenced by the difference between two
permanent actions of the same origin (eg, in balanced cantilever construction),
method ( a ) should be used. This always applies to checks on static equilibrium
(Clause 3.8).

24
RECOMMENDATIONS

3.6 DESIGN FOR THE ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES

3.6.1 DESIGN PRINCIPLE


At different cross-sections of the structural element under consideration, design
action effects Sd obtained in accordance with 3.5.1 should be compared with the
corresponding design resistance Rd of the member or section, obtained in accor-
dance with 3.6.4, and Equation (3.4) should be satisfied:
Sd < Rd. (3 -4)
3.6.2 FUNDAMENTAL COMBINATIONS OF ACTIONS
The symbolic Equations (3.5) to (3.7) give the combinations of actions of
different origin that should be considered. Checks on the static equilibrium of the
complete structure should be in accordance with 3.8.
Design action effects should be calculated as follows:
for over-proportional or linear behaviour,
Sd = s ['YgG t 'Ypp t Tq(Qi k t $oiQd I, (3.5)
i>i

which for linear behaviour can be used in the form


Sd = 'Ygs(G) t 'Yps@') + 'YqS(Qik t J/oiQik), (3 -6)
i>i
and for under-proportional behaviour,
Sd = 'Yf3 S [Ygi G t Ypi P + 'Yqi (Qi k t iF1J/oi Qik) I, (3.7)
where
Yf3 'Ygi
-- Tg, 7 f 3 7p1 = Yp,
-
and 'Yf3 'Yq1 - 'Yq,
P is as defined in 3.9.2, and
Ql k is the basic variable action in the combination.

Each variable action should be considered in turn as the basic action except those
I for which it is obvious that the resulting combination cannot be critical.

25
~~ ~~~

COMMENTARY

3.6.2.1
In design to Clause 3.6, method ( b )above is normally used for permanen t actions
of one origin, using the ‘unfavourable’or ‘faVourable’valueof 7, (Table 3.1) as
appropriate.
Using the values for yfi given in VolumeI and yf as given in Table 3.I , yf3 is
found to lie between I . 0 7 and 1.125, depending on the nature of the action.
The value yg = 1.35 is a mean value. Clause 10.3.1 of Volume I indicates when
variations from it may be justified.
For vectorial action effects, all y factors applied to any favourable component
should be reduced by 20%.
For the condition of erection, special consideration should be given to the choice
of partial safety factors.

3.6.2.2
It is normally obvious in design how many individualactions should be considered,
It will rarely be necessary to include more than two in addition to the permanent
action.
For floor loading in buildings it4s generally adequate to consider two cases on&:
adjacent spans loaded and alternate spans loaded. These are deemed to give the most
unfavourable conditions.
For Equations (3.6)and (3.7)the simplification is analogous.

3.6.3
For accidental combinations, the relevance of the $-values needs careful con-
sideration. Only that part of each variable action likely to be present at the same
time as the accidental action or situation needs to be included, so that engineering
judgement should be used.

26
.
RECOMMENDATIONS

3.6.2.1 Partial safety fictors


Values for the partial safety factors yg, y,, and yq are given in Table 3.1. These
include the factor yf3.

Effect of
Combination the action 'Ys
Fundamental Unfavourable 1.35 1.2 1.5
(Clause 3.6.2) Favourable 1.o 0.9 0 < rq< 0.9
Accidental Unfavourable 1.1 1.o As relevant
(Clause 3.6.3) Favourable 0.9 1.o As relevant

Table 3.1 Numerical values for 'yf.

3.6.2.2 Simplified method


For the majority of structures for buildings and for some bridges a simpler
method is possible, in which Equation (3.5) is replaced by:
n
sd = s (1 -35 G + Tq Qik) (3 -8)
i= I
and, when minimum dead load is more critical,
n
Sd = S (1.OG + yq I=1= 1 Qik) (3 -9)

where yq = 1.5 for n = 1 and ys = 1.35 for n 2 2.


Prestressing actions, when present, are treated as in Equations (3.5) to (3.7).

3.6.3 ACCIDENTAL COMBINATIONS OF ACTIONS AND ACCIDENTAL


SITUATIONS
An accidental combination consists of only one accidental action Qa, accom-
panied by the permanent actions and the appropriate variable actions. The design
values of these should be taken as $ Qlk for the basic variable action and J/zi Qik
for the others, thus:
Sd = SLY$ + TaQa + 'Yq ($1 Qlk + iFl 9 ~ i Q i k ) I (3.10)

Unless other values are specified, the partial safety factors should be:
rg= 1.1 or 0.9, whichever is the less favourable, and
'Ya -- Tq = 1.0.
This clause is applicable also to accidental situations in which there is no acci-
dental action.

27
COMMENTARY

3.6.4
The resistance R , can also be determined by direct experiment.
In Equation (3.11)f d designates equally the design strength of steel or concrete,
in tension or in compression.
The value yc = 1.5 is based on the assumption that the concrete is mixed on the
site or in the works, and that its production is controlled in accordance with
Section 23 of Volume II. If the standard of control is lower, yc should be increased
and if it is higher, 'yc may be reduced (note to Clause 6.4.2.3 of Volume II).
When assessing deformations of the structure as a whole to treat buckling, it may
be more accurate to use a stress-strain relation for concrete related to the mean
strength, as proposed in a note to Clause 6.4.1 of Volume II.
For firther information on ?a, particularly where there is danger of instability,
reference should be made to the European Recommendations for Steel Construc-
tion.
In the absence of better information, y m for profiled steel sheeting should be
taken as equal to ?a.

3.7.1
The funct,mal requirements can vary considerably depending upon the type of
structure. Appropriate requirements for each stmcture should be defined by the
engineer responsible for the design in agreement with the client (for example,
limiting crack widths or strain limits that allow for the behaviour of the finishes and
adjacent elements).
Wherecracking is to be prevented, a check in accordance with Equation (3.4)may
be appropriate, taking account of the partial safev factors given in 3.7.2 and 3.7.3.

3.7.2
The relevant combinations of actions are as follows:
infrequent -' G ' + P k + Qlk ( O r Qser) + x
r> 1
($ i i Qik) (3.12)

frequent (3.13)

quasi-permanent : G +pk + ($zi Qik) (3.14)


i> I

3.7.3
The value yc = 1.3 is used in calculations for cracking that take account of the
tensile strength of concrete;for example, in partially prestressed memben.

28
RECOMMENDATIONS

3.6.4 DESIGN RESISTANCE


The resistance Rd is determined as a function of the design stress-strain curves
obtained from the characteristic curves by dividing all stresses by rm. In particular,
the design strength of a material is defined by:
fd = f k / 7 m (3.1 1)

where fk is the characteristic strength of the material and Tm is the partial safety
factor given in Table 3.2. Values for shear connectors are given in 6.3.1 and 6.7.2.1.

Reinforcing steel and Structural


Combination Concrete prestressing steel steel
TC 7s Ta
~~ ~

Fundamental 1.5 1.15 1.o*


Accidental 1.3 1.o 1.o
*Provisional value, given in the European Recommendations for Steel
Construction, 1978.
Table 3.2 Numerical values for Tm.

3.7 DESIGN FOR THE SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES

3.7.1 DESIGN PRINCIPLE


The functional requirements are aimed principally at the limitation of cracking
and of strains in the elements of structures in service. Direct comparisons are made
between calculated values and the relevant criteria and associated limitations. Thus,
appropriate checks should be made that:
a) calculated stresses or crack widths in concrete do not reach certain specified
values, and
b) strains or deflections derived from analysis of the structure are less than
acceptable limiting values.

3.7.2 COMBINATION OF ACTIONS


The combinations of actions to be considered depend on the criterion being
assessed and on whether itis related to the service, frequent, or quasi-permanent
values of the various actions.
The coefficient rf should be taken as 1.O.

3.7.3 PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS


The design properties of materials are based, as appropriate, on mean values or
on characteristic values, with Y~ = 1.
In certain checks for the cracking of concrete, rCis taken as 1.3.

29
COMMENTARY

3.8
Prestress can normally be imored when checking equilibrium, except when
forces are induced by staticall’ indeterminate effects.
If second-order effects are important, strains of the ‘rigid’ body should be taken
into account.

3.9.I
Beams prestressed by method (a) are rarely subjected to statically indeterminate
actions due to prestressing (eg, changes in forces at supports). There are discontinui-
ties in strain in the section which should be considered as action effects in beanis
where the steel strain nowhere exceeds the yield strain (ie,for all beams at the
serviceability limit state, and for slender beams also at the ultimate limit state if
elastic analysis is used). In beams when the steel strain exceeds the design yield
strain, the strain distribution due to this method of prestressing should be con-
sidered - i f relevant - in the determinahbn of the resistance of the section.
The use of method ( b )creates statically indeterminate prestressing actions,
which have always to be considered as actions or action effects.
I The use of method ( c )always creates statically determinate effects (due to the
different strain in the tendons and in the concrete). Statically indeterminate
actions occur only in continuous beams and frames. The statically determinate part
should be treated as for method (a) and the statically indeterminate part as action
or action effect as for method (b).
The use of method ( d )creates statically indeterminate actions, which should be
treated as for method (b).

30
RECOMMENDATIONS

3.8 STATIC EQUILIBRIUM


The checking of static equilibrium relates to the stability of the whole structure
considered as a rigid body. The check can also be applied to a structure with some
elements removed, to test its stability in a simulated damaged condition.
The loads to be considered are the absolute values of:
a) permanent stabilising loads G, (and PS)¶
b) permanent non-stabilising loads Gn (and Pn), and
c) variable nonstabilising loads Qik.
The following condition should be satisfied:
Sd = S [0.9Gs- 1.1Gn- 1.5 (Q1k t Z 3/oi Qik)] 2 0 (3.15)
i >I

3.8.1 SIMPLIFIED METHOD


For the majority of structures for buildings and for some bridges a simpler
method is possible, in which Equation (3.1 5 ) is replaced by:
sd=s[0.9Gs- 1.1Gn- 1.SQIk- 1.35 Z: Qik] 2 0 (3.1 6)
i >I

3.9 PRESTRESSED STRUCTURES

3.9.1 SCOPE
Consideration is given to the following methods of prestressing composite
structures.
a) Stressing the steel beam by means of preliminary supports and removing
these supports after hardening of the concrete.

b) Raising the inner supports of a continuous beam before casting of the con-
crete¶and subsequently lowering them to their final level.
c) Prestressing the concrete part of a composite section by-tendons that are
bonded to the concrete by grouting after stressing.

d) Prestressing the structure by unbonded internal or external cables (eg, cable


. stayed bridges).

Each of these 'four methods of prestressing can be applied to a structure separ-


ately or in conjunction one with another.

31
COMMENTARY

3.9.2
Actions due to prestressing can be neglected if design is based on analysis by the
simple plastic theory. For inelastic analysis, actions due to prestressing may be
multiplied by 7,. For elastic analysis, the action effects may be multiplied by y p .
Loss of prestress is considered in 3.3. I .

3.9.3
No detailed values of partial safety factors for prestressing by method ( d )are
given in this code.
The prestress P is independent of the permanent load G, so it is possible that the
permanent load acts in an unfavourable way and the prestress in a favourable way,
and vice versa.
For simplicity, the same values of y p are given for prestressing by tendons and by
imposed deformations, although different factors affect the variation of prestress:
- for prestressing by tendons: deviations in the position of the tendons and in
their draw-in a t the anchorage, and variations in the stiffness of the coricrete
part of the section due to cracking;
.- for prestressing by imposed deformations: deviations in the deformation or in
the jacking force (depending on the method of control) and in the stiffness of
the composite member, and variations in the stiffness of the concrete part due
to cracking.
The values yp giben in Table 3.1 are primarily for trial and comparison calcula-
tions. Other values can be chosen, i f these are justified by more sophisticated
methods. Further study is needed for a better understanding of the real relation-
ships.

32
RECOMMENDATIONS

3.9.2 DEFINITION O F PRESTRESS


The symbol P in Equations (3.5) to (3.7) represents the characteristic value of
the statically indeterminate actions due to the prestressing of tendons and to
deformations imposed on the structure by jacking or by deliberate movement of
supports. The statically determinate part of prestressing should be considered as
action as well, if the strain in the steel does not exceed that corresponding to the
characteristic yield stress.

3.9.3 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTORS


Partial safety factors yp for the actions or action effects due to prestressing by
methods (a) to (c) are given in Table 3.1, for use in Equations (33) and (3.6).
Imposed deformations may or may not be relevant at the ultimate limit state,
depending on their origin or cause. If they are, the partial safety factors given in
Table 3.1 may be applied to their actions or action effects.

3.10 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPOSITE BEAMS


The entries in Table 3.3 refer to particular clauses in this Code of Practice which
must be considered in the design of composite beams whether propped or un-
propped during construction.
Where composite beams of compact cross-section are subject to repeated loading,
Clause 5.5 and Section 8 are applicable, in addition to those given in column (1) of
Table 3.3.
Where beams of slender cross-section are subject only to predominantly static
loading, the requirements of column (2) Table 3.3 are applicable but the require-
ments of Section 8 need not be considered.
All parts of steel structure, other than those which are prevented from buckling
by the shear connection to the concrete flange, should be checked for resistance to
buckling at all stages during construction (including prestressing where appropriate)
in accordance with the ECCS Recommendations for Steel Construction.

33
COMMENTARY ' I

34
RECOMMENDATIONS

Compact* beams
subject to Slender
subjectbeams
to
repeated loading
static loading
(1 1
Slendemess limitations 5.2.1 5.2.2
Distributions of bending moment and
vertical shear force at ULS 4.5.1 or 4.5.2 4.5.1
Distributions of bending moment and
vertical shear force at SLS - 4.4
Stability 3.6,4.3, 18.3 3.6,4.3, 18.3
Analysis of cross-section at ULS 5.3 5.4
Analysis of cross-section at SLS - 5.5
Shear connection - general 6 6
Design of shear connection at ULS 7 see 6.2.1
Design of shear connection at SLS - 8
Temperature, shrinkage and creep 9 9
Crack control 10 10
Deflections 11 11
Prestressing 12 12
Vibration 13 13
Workmanship and construction 18 18

Note: ULS denotes ultimate limit state.


SLS denotes serviceability limit state.
*As defined in 5.2.1.
Table 3.3 Design requirements for composite beams.

35
COMMENTARY

4.2
The effective span of a simply-supported or continuous beam may be taken as:
1. Longitudinal beams. The distance between the centres of bearing plates or
rocker pins.
2. Cantilevers. The effective length of a cantilever should be taken as its length
from the free end to the face of the support plus half its effective depth except
where it forms the end of a continuous beam, where the length to the centre of
the support should be used.

I
I 4.3.1
,
I The EECS Recommendations for elastic or for plastic design should be applied
I
I as appropriate.

36
RECOMMENDATIONS

Section 4.Analysis of structures

4.1 GENERAL
The concrete slab may be considered to act simultaneously as the flange of a
composite beam and as a slab spanning in a direction transverse to the axis of the
steel beam.

4.2 EFFECTIVE SPAN


In calculating the effective span of a member proper account should be taken of
the restraint (torsional or flexural) afforded to the ends of such members.

4.3 STAB1LITY

4.3. LATERAL BUCKLING


In a composite beam, lateral buckling of the upper flange of the steel beam is
effectively prevented by the shear connection to the concrete slab.
In negative (hogging) moment regions however, lateral torsional buckling of the
compression flange must be controlled in accordance with the European Recom-
mendations for Steel Construction.

4.3.2 COMPOSITE SECTIONS


Where a composite beam resists significant axial compression, the overall stability
should be investigated at the ultimate limit state by second order theory, taking
proper account of the rotational and directional restraint afforded at the ends of
the member.

37
COMMENTARY

4.4
Shear lag has little effect on the distribution of bending moments and vertical
shear forces in continuous beams, so it is permissible to use either the actual flange
breadth or the effective flange breadth (Clause 5.1.I)in stiffness calculations.
Clearly, the relative stiffness of adjacent spans does not change very much which-
ever value is used for the breadth of the concrete flange. Alternatively the values
given in CEBIFIP Recommendations may be used.

2. fck is the characteristic cylinder strength of the concrete in compression.

3. As an alternative, the maximum design sagging moments in each span adja-


cent to each support so affected may be increased by 30 fctlfc. per cent, to
allow for redistribution of moments caused by transverse cracking of the
concrete at the support. In this case the more unfavourable of the two
moment distributions at any section should be taken for the particular aspect
of serviceability being considered.

4.5.1
In analysis for the ultimate limit state it should be assumed that the whole of the
factored load (with yf > 1.P) is applied initially, as would occur (for example) i f
the actual density of a material were greater than expected. Use of yf = 1.1 for
weight of steel (for example) does not imply that an extra 10% of the weight of
the steel is added to the structure after it is in service.

38
RECOMMENDATIONS

4.4 DISTRIBUTION OF BENQINC MOMENTS AND VERTICAL SHEAR


FORCES AT THE SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE
For slender beams subject to repeated loading, the distributions of bending
moments and vertical shear forces due to loading on the composite member may be
calculated by elastic theory using the elementary theory of bending and the prop-
erties of the transformed composite cross-section obtained by considering a breadth
of concrete flange acting compositely with the steel section equal to either:
a) The actual breadth of the concrete flange, or
b) an appropriate effective breadth assumed constant along the span.
The concrete may be assumed to be uncracked and unreinforced, both longitu-
dinally and transversely.
'
'Account should be taken of the influence of significant transverse cracking of
the concrete over interior supports due to hogging bending moments in the longitu-
dinal direction of the beam. The following procedure may be used.
1. The maximum hogging bending moments over the interior supports are first
calculated assuming that the slab is uncracked.
2. At internal supports where the maximum tensile stress fct at the top of the
slab is less than 0.1 5 fck, the influence of cracking need not be taken into
account in the calculation of the bending moment distribution.
3. At each support where fct exceeds 0.15 fck, the region with fct > 0.15 fck
should be determined using the moment envelope calculated with the slab
assumed uncracked.
4 . In this region the stiffening effect of the concrete should be neglected, and
the new stiffness distribution should be used to recalculate the bending
moments for all kinds of loads.
For prestressed composite beams, see Section 12.

4.5 DISTRIBUTION OF BENDING MOMENTS AND VERTICAL SHEAR


FORCES AT THE ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE

4.5.1 SLENDER BEAMS

4.5.1 :1 General
In calculating the distribution of bending moments and vertical shear forces,
proper account has to be taken of:
1) isostatic and hyperstatic effects due to creep and shrinkage of concrete, pre-
stressing, and jacking; and

39
COMMENTARY

4.5.1.2
I f the steel beam is stressed by tendons, jacking, or loading before the develop-
ment of composite action, for example by the weight,of wet concrete in unpropped I

construction, then stress resultants and stresses have to be determined separately


for the steel beam, and added to those for the composite member.

4.5.I .3
Hyperstatic (secondaty) effects of shrinkage, temperature, prestressing,jacking
of supports, etc, may be taken into account as calculated using elastic analysis.
They may be assumed to decrease with the growth of plastified zones, and to
vanish when a plastic hinge mechanism forms. Thus they need not be considered
when plastic design is used.
I n general it is not required to carry out a non-linear analysis exactly. The
designer has to decide in each differentcase what to assume in order to get a solution
of the required accuracy. Reliable approximations may be used, as for example
moment-curvature relationships that include the influences of local buckling,
vertical shearing forces, etc.
Where the steel member carries loads prior to the development of composite
action, the resulting strains due to the factored loads should be assumed to be
already present in calculating the response of the composite member (of which the
steel member forms a part) to the loads applied to it.

4.5.2.2
Research has shown that the limitations on steel slenderness given in 5.2.1 may
not always ensure sufficient rotation capacity in continuous beams subject to heavy

40
RECOMMENDATIONS

2) the actual construction sequence and the particular loading history.


Methods of prestressing and jacking are considered in Section 12.2.
The analysis of the structure has to be carried out for the factored loads and the
factored actions due to prestress (as defined in 3.9.2), with respect to the most
unfavourable load combinations, without any safety factors associated with creep,
shrinkage and loss of prestress.

4.5.1.2 Elastic analysis


The envelopes of longitudinal moments, vertical shear forces and axial loads due
to the whole of any particular combination of design loads applied to the composite
section may be found by elastic analysis using the elementary theory of bending
and the stiffness of the full composite section, assuming an uncracked slab of effec-
tive breadth determined in accordance with 4.4 (a) or (b).
This applies also to prestressed continuous composite beams with class I and I1
concrete members according to the CEB/FIP Recommendations; no moment redis-
tribution due to concrete cracking in hogging moment regions need be considered.

4.5.1 3 Inelastic analvsis


Inelastic behaviour arises mainly from cracking of the concrete flange in hogging
moment regions, yielding in the steel beam, and local buckling of compressed parts
of the steel beam. Whether a linear elastic or inelastic analysis has t o be carried out
depends mainly on how the strengths of cross-sections are determined (Clause 5.4.1)
l and to what extent cross-sections are stressed.
Alternatively, for non-prestressed continuous composite beams, a linear elastic
analysis may be carried out in which the stiffening effect of the concrete over 15
per cent of the span on each side of each internal support is neglected. The rein-
forcement may be taken into account.
Determination of bending moment envelopes should be based on nearly the
same model of analysis as that used in calculating stresses and strains at cross-
sections. For example, redistribution of bending moments should be taken into
account, when strength calculations are based on a partially or fully plastified
cross-section.

4.5.2 COMPACT BEAMS

4.5.2.1 General
For beams with compact cross-sections, elastic or plastic design may be used.
For elastic analysis, 4.5.1.1 and 4.5.1.2 apply.

4.5.2.2 Simple plastic analysis


The distribution of bending moments at the ultimate limit state may be chosen
arbitrarily in continuous beams, provided :

41
COMMENTARY

concentrated loads or where the end span differs significantly in length from the
adjacent span (Johnson, R P,and Hope-Gill, M C Ypplicabili@ of simple plastic
theory to continuous composite beams’: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil
Engineers, Part 2, Volume 61, March 1976).

42
RECOMMENDATIONS

the internal force resultants are in equilibrium with the most unfavourable
combination of factored loads,
the steel section is compact as defined in 5.2.1, or if slender can still develop
adequate rotation without loss of strength due to local buckling,
3) no two adjacent internal spans differ in length by more than 45% of the
shorter one,
the end span is not less than 70% and not more than 115% of the adjacent
span9

not more than half of the design ultimate load for any space is concentrated
within any length of Q/S,where P is the effective span.

43
COMMENTARY

5.1.1
The use of effective breadths of concrete flanges derived by elastic theory is
conservative at load levels approaching collapse. A simpler alternative,for positive
moment regions only, Is to use effective breadths of flange equal to L/6 on each
side of thesteel web, but notgreater than half thedistance to the next adjacent web,
nor, for edge beams greater than the projection of the cantilever slab ( L is equal to
the length of the positive moment region and may be taken as two-thirds of the span
of continuous beams). Otherwise, reference should be made to the CEBIFIP
Recommendations.

5.I .2
Methods of designing composite members composed of steel beanis and solid
concrete slabs are well established. There are, however, additional considerations
which arise when profiled steel sheets are employed. These considerations may
depend upon the directions in which the ribs run relative to the steel beam.
A
b L
b b

I”
Case 1 Deck ribs parallel to the beam
I”
Case 2 Deck ribs perpendicular to the beam
Figure C 5.1

kl-
e = depth of ribs
w = mean width of concrete ribs
Figure C5.2

44 I
RECOMMENDATIONS

Section 5.. Analysis of


cross-sections

5.1 GENERAL
5.1.1 EFFECTIVE BREADTH
The effects of shear lag should be considered in calculations of flexural stress
and strength; for example, by the use of an effective flange breadth less than the
actual breadth.

5.1.2 CONCRETE SLAB CONSTRUCTED USING PROFILED STEEL SHEETING


Tbe recommendations may be applied to composite construction of concrete
slab on profiled steel sheeting connected to steel beams provided the following con-
di tions are met :

5.1.2.1 General limitation


- The nominal depth of ribs shall be not greater than 80 mm.
- The mean width of concrete rib or haunch w shall be not less than 50 mm, but
shall not be taken in calculations as more than the minimum clear width near
the top of the steel deck.
--Cover over the ribs shall be not less than 50 mm.
- The concrete slab shall be connected to the steel beam with welded stud shear
connectors with a diameter not greater than 19 mm.
- The shear connection should be designed in accordance with 6.3.2.5 and 6.4.4.

5.1.2.2 Deck ribs oriented parallel to the supporting beams


- Concrete below the top of the steel deck may be included in determining
section properties.
- Steel deck ribs over supporting beams may be split longitudinally and
separated to form a concrete haunch.
- Wien the nominal depth of steel deck is 40 mm or greater the mean width w
of the supported haunch or rib shall be not less than 50 mm for the first stud
in the transverse row plus 4 stud diameters for each additional stud.

45
COMMENTARY

5.2.I

ey = # =yield strain of steel.

For the use of plastic design the bmcing requirements for compressed flanges
are more restrictive than for elastic design.

46
RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1.2.3 Deck ribs oriented transverse to the supporting beams


- Concrete below the top of the steel deck shall be neglected in determining
section properties.

I
5.1.3 COMPOSITE ACTION
I

I Where the cross-section is compact as defined in 5.2.1, composite action may be


I assumed to exist for the whole of the loading at the ultimate limit state, even when
the steel section is unpropped during pouring of the concrete slab, provided that
the shear connection is designed for the corresponding shear.
Where the cross-section is slender and therefore does not satisfy the requirements
of 5.2.1 account should be taken of the effects of loads applied to the steel section
prior to the development of composite action. This applies equally at the service-
ability and ultimate limit states.

5.2 DEFINITIONS

5.2.1 COMPACT CROSS-SECTIONS


Cross-sections may be considered as compact when the web and compression
flange possess sufficient stiffness to enable full plasticity and adequate rotation to
be developed without loss of strength due to local buckling. Sections which satisfy
the requirements of 1) or 2) following may be considered as compact:
(1) in simply-supported composite beams and positive (sagging) moment regions
of continuous composite beams, provided the plastic neutral axis does not lie
within the web of the steel section, or
(2) when the slenderness of all steel plates or sections that contribute to the
strength of the members is less than the relevant limiting values for plastic
design as follows:
a) the portion of the web subjected to longitudinal compression, ie, the depth
of the web between the plastic neutral axis and the extreme compressive
edge of the web, shall not exceed 1.1 5 f i times the web thickness.
b) the overhang of the compression flan e of an I or [ section beyond the
sp
web surface shall not exceed 0.25 ey times the flange thickness.
c) the width of the compression flange of rectangular hollow sections or
boxes and the width of reinforcing plates between longitudinal bolt lines
or weld seams shall not exceed 0 . 8 6 times the plate thickness.
d) the unbraced length of the compression flanges in hogging moment regions
shall be not less than required for use of plastic design for steel structures
as given in the section on plastic design in the ECCS Recommendations.

5.2.2 SLENDER CROSS-SECTIONS


Slender cross-sections are those in which the steel section is not compact, as
defined in 5.2.1.

47
COMMENTARY

3) This method differs from the rectangular stress block method given in the
CEBIFIP Recommendations, which for normal-density concrete uses a uni-
form compressive stress in the concrete of 0.85 fcklym but over a depth of
0.8 x, where x is the neutral axis depth determined from equilibrium consi-
derations based on the strain distribution through the section. For light-
weight concrete, 0.75 f&l’)in and 0.75 x are proposed.

5.3.3
Tests on compact composite beams have shown that the longitudinal slab rein-
forcement can increase the shear strength of the negative (hogging)moment region
above the ultimate shear strength of the web even when simultaneously subjected
to negative (hogging)bending moments exceeding the ultimate moment of the
resistance of the composite section calculated by simple plastic theory. When the
amount of slab reinforcement satisfies the condition given, no reduction need there-
fore be made for the effects of vertical shear in calculating the ultimate moment of
resistance of the composite section in negative (hogging)bending, provided the
vertical shear does not exceed the design ultimate shear strength of the web. Further
research is needed to determine whether this assumption is applicable also in positive
(sagging)moment regions, and to beams where the steel section is not symmetrical.
The bendinglshear interaction diagram proposed for negative moment regions is
shown below with the test results plotted (Johnson,R Pand Willimington,R T,
“Verticalshear in continuous composite beams’: Proceedings of the Institution of

48
RECOMMENDATIONS

5.3 COMPACT BEAMS’- ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE

5.3.1 ULTIMATE MOMENT OF RESISTANCE WITH COMPLETE SHEAR


CONNECTION
Where the shear connection is ‘completey,as defined in 2.1 ,the ultimate
moments of resistance in both positive (sagging) bending, Mu ,and negative (hogging)
bending, M; ,may be determined by simple plastic theory assuming full interaction
between the concrete slab and steel beam and in accordance with the following:
Subject to the requirements of 4) below, the whole of the area of the steel
member and of the longitudinal reinforcement within the effective breadth
of the concrete flange is stressed to the design yield strength in tension or
compression.
The strength of the concrete on the tension side of the plastic neutral axis is
neglected.
The area of concrete on the compression side of the plastic neutral axis is
stressed uniformly to its design compressive strength, which may be taken
as 0.8 fck/’Ym,where fck is the characteristic 28day cylinder strength.
Where necessary, allowance should be made for the influence of vertical
shear on the ultimate moment of resistance by the method given in 5.3.3.

VERTICAL SHEAR
The design ultimate shear strength of a compact composite section in the absence
of bending moment should be calculated on the assumption that the effective area
of the web of the steel section is stressed uniformly to its design yield strength in
shear, (ie, fyk/rmd3). The effective area of the web may be taken as the product
of the overall depth of the steel section and the thickness of the web. The contri-
bution of the concrete slab and any concrete haunch should be neglected.

5.3.3 INFLUENCE OF VERTICAL SHEAR ON ULTIMATE MOMENT OF


RESISTANCE
In members where the steel cross-section is symmetrical about both axes, no
reduction for the effects of vertical shear need be made in calculating the ultimate
moment of resistance of a composite section:
a) if the vertical shear at the ultimate limit state is less than 30%of the design
ultimate shear strength of the web, or
b) in negative (hogging) moment regions when the design ultimate shear strength
of the web is not exceeded, and the cross-sectional area of the longitudinal
reinforcement within the effective breadth of the slab exceeds 0.1 5 times the
.
total cross-sectional area of the steel member and the design yield stress for
this reinforcement is not less than that for the steel member.
If these provisions are not met allowance should be made for the influence of
vertical shear on the ultimate moment of resistance.

49
COMMENTARY

Civil Engineers, London, 53,'189-205, September 1972). The ultimate shear


strength of the web in the absence of bending moment, Vo,has been calculated in
accordance with 5.3.2.
If 5.3.3(b) is not satisfied, and for plain steel I-sections

M
-
MO t AA

1
A y A ~ If 5.3.3(b) is satisfied

1.o

I
, 1-
\
-

I I
I
I

I
1 1 ! 1
I 1 -V

0.33 1.o vo

Figure CS.3 Bending shear interaction for negative moment regions.

5.4.1.1
Special attention should be paid to the isostatic (primary)effects of shrinkage,
temperature, prestressing, jacking of supports, etc. In linear elastic calculations,
they are fully effective. In fully plastified cross-sections they may be assumed to be
zero.

50
RECOMMENDATIONS

Normal and shear stresses may be assumed to be distributed over the section in
any conventional manner that is statically admissible and does not violate the von
Mises yield criterion.

5.3.4 ULTIMATE MOMENT OF RESISTANCE OF COMPACT BEAMS WITH


PARTIAL SHEAR CONNECTION
Where the design loadings are such that the required design ultimate bending
moment for a sagging (positive) moment region, M,, is less than the ultimate mo-
ment of resistance Mu calculated in accordance with 5 3.l,partial shear connection
can be used provided that the conditions given in 7.5 are satisfied. The degree of
shear connection provided can be so chosen, in accordance with 7.5, that the calcu-
lated ultimate moment of resistance is greater than or equal to M,.

5.4 SLENDER BEAMS - ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE

5.4.1 ULTIMATE MOUENT OF RESISTANCE

5.4.1.1 General
In calculating section properties, the effective breadth of the concrete flange
may be determined in accordance with 4.4(b). The modulus of elasticity should be
in accordance with 3.4, and the tensile strength of concrete should be neglected.
Fully anchored reinforcement and prestressing steel fully bonded to the concrete
member, placed within the effective breadth, may be taken into account when
calculating section properties.

51
I

COMMENTARY

5.4.1.3
The reference to the ECCS Recommendations for limiting compressive strains
and stress-strain relationships for shuctural steel applies also to structures pre-
stressed by tendons or jacking, in which loads act before the development of com-
posite action.

52
RECOMMENDATIONS

5.4.1.2 Elastic analysis


The ultimate moment of resistance of a slender cross-section, as defined in 5.2.2,
may be determined by elastic theory assuming full interaction between the concrete
slab and the steel beam, and plane sections to remain plane.
The strains (or stresses) in the structural steelwork should nowhere exceed the
limits given in the ECCS Recommendations for Steel Construction, having due
regard to the possibility of buckling of unrestrained members in compression. The
maximum compressive stress in the concrete due to flexure should not exceed the
design cylinder strength, fed.
The stresses in the reinforcement should not exceed the design yield strength in
tension or compression given in the CEB/FIP Recommendations.

5.4.1.3 Inelastic analysis


The cross-section strength may be calculated by means of a non-linear elastic-
plastic analysis, provided the influence on the bending moment distribution (4.5.1.3)
has been accounted for. Whether and to what extent the cross-section considered
can be assumed to be plastified, depends mainly on the local stability of compressed
parts of the steel member.
The ultimate moment of resistance of a slender cross-section may be determined
by assuming full interaction between the steel and concrete and a linear strain varia-
tion across the section with the stresses in the concrete in compression derived from
either of the stressstrain curves given in Figure 5.1. The compressive strain in the
outermost fibre, ec, should not be less than -0.0035, except that where the com-
posite section is wholly under compression,
ec <-0.0035- 0.75 ea
where ea is the strain at the least compressed edge of the composite member, com-
pressive strains being taken as negative.
To ensure adequate shear transfer, the tensile strain in the concrete should no-
where exceed 0.01.
The stress-strain relationship for reinforcement and prestressing steel may be
taken from the CEB/FIP Recommendations.
For structural steel, reference should be made to the ECCS Recommendations
for Steel Construction for limiting compressive strains (having due regard to buckling
under the actual stress state) and stress-strain relationships.

53
COhWENTARY

5.4.2
Where the plastic neutml axis lies in the web of the steel section, a possible
ultimate strength method of design which is being considered is to assume that the
depth of web in compression and an equal area in tension on the other side of the
plastic neutral axis are ineffective. The resulting cross-section is shown below:

.Figure CS.4
d Stress diagram

Recommendations on the use ofplastic designfor beams where some cross-sections


are slender are given for simply-supported beams only. However, under certain con-
ditions (forexample, spans equal or nearly equal, and a high ratio of moving loads
to fmed loads) the ultimate moment of resistance of a composite section in positive
(sagging)moment regions of continuous beams may be calculated using simple
plastic analysis of the cross-section.

I 54
RECOMMENDATIONS

. 7Second degree parabola fc = 850 f,dE (2506, -1 I


A
f Jfcd
0.85 -

i
I

-0.001 35 -0.002 -0.0035


*EC

Figure 5.1 Design stress-strain curve for concrete in compression.

5.4.2 ULTIMATE STRENGTH OF SLENDER BEAMS BASED ON SIMPLE


PLASTIC THEORY
In simply-supported beams, the ultimate moment of resistance Mu of a slender
beam may be determined by simple plastic theory in accordance with 5.3.1 or 5.3.4
provided the plastic neutral axis does not lie within the web of the steel beam.

5.4.3. VERTICAL SHEAR


Vertical shear should be assumed to be resisted by the steel section alone in
accordance with the ECCS Recommendations for Steel Construction:

5.4.4' COMBINATION OF VERTICAL SHEAR AND BENDING MOMENT


In regions subject to combinations of vertical shear and bending moment,
reference should be made to the ECCS Recommendations for Steel Construction.

55
COMMENTARY

5.5.
The requirements of this clause need not be considered for compact beams sub-
ject to predominantly static loading (see Table 3, p 35).

5.5.3
The procedure of superimposing stresses calculated on an elastic basis due to
global and local wheel load effects is conservative. Can this be improved? The
question of whether local wheel load effects should be considered to coexist with
theglobal effects of vehicle loading depends on whether the magnitude of the speci-
fied wheel load is a true representation of the wheel loads that would occur in the
actual vehicle loading. In some countries wheel loads and vehicle loads are not con-
sidered to coexist, presumably because the magnitude of the specified wheel loads
has been artificially increased to allow this.
When considering the coexistent stresses in a deck slab, which also forms the
flange of a composite beam, account may be taken of the effects of shear lag to re-
duce the longitudinal bending stress in regions of the flange remote from the web/
flange junction. The stress f x , at any point in the flange may be calculated from:
f x =fnlax [ k4 + 15J,- 1 ) (1 - k4M1
where

J, = be/bfor portions between webs, or bClO.85bfor cantilever projections,


be is the effective breadth of flange determined in accordance with the CEBIFIP
Recommendations and Supplement and the remaining terms are as defined
in Figure C5.5.
If the calculated value of fx is negative, it should be taken as zero, if its effect is
to reduce the coexistent stresses in the flange.

56
RECOMMENDATIONS

5.5. SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE

5.5.1 CALCULATION OF STRESSES ,

Stresses due to bending moments, prestressing and vertical shear forces may be
calculated by elastic theory, using the elastic properties given in 3.4 as appropriate,
assuming full interaction between the steel beam and concrete in compression.
Vertical shear should be assumed to be resisted by the steel section alone and the
tensile strength of concrete should be neglected except as provided in Section 12
for prestressed composite beams.

5.5.2 EFFECTNE BREADTH OF CONCRETE FLANGE I


In the absence of a rigorous analysis, allowance for in-plane shear flexibility in
the flange (shear lag effects) should be made in stress calculations based on the
elementary theory of bending by replacing the actual flange breadth by an effective
breadth of flange determined in accordance with the CEB/FIP Recommendations
and Supplements.

5.5.3 COEXISTENT STRESSES


Where a deck slab is required to resist the effects of local wheel loading acting
directly on it and the effects of loading the composite beam of which it forms a
part, the effects should be considered separately and where they arise together, in
conjunction.

57
COMMENTARY

Centreline between
adjacent webs,
or free edge of slab
1I /f

I I 1

Figure C5.5 Distribution of longitudinal stress in the concrete flange of a com-


posite beam.
RECOMMENDATIONS

5.5.4. STRESS LIMITATIONS AT SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE


1. For beams subject to repeated loading, where the fatigue life is based on stress
(or load) range, the static stresses at the serviceability limit state should comply
with the following limitations:
a) the maximum tensile stress in the structural steel should not exceed 0.9
times the characteristic yield strength divided by rm,nor should the maxi-
mum equivalent stress in the steel exceed the chracteristic yield strength
divided by rm,residual stresses due to welding or rolling being neglected;
b) the stress in the reinforcement, whether in tension or compression should
not exceed the characteristic yield strength divided by rm ;
c) the calculated compressive stress in the concrete due to flexure should not
exceed 0.6 fck where fck is the characteristic cylinder strength of the con-
crete.
In the absence of more precise methods of analysis, eg, yield line theory, the
limitation in (lc) above may be applied to elastic methods of analysis when con-
sidering the effects discussed in 5 .S 3.
2. Stress limitations for prestressed composite beams are given in Section 12.

59
COMMENTARY

6.2.1
Dependent on the slenderness of the beam, type of loading, and the ductility of
the shear connectors, different design methods for shear connection are recommen-
ded. A schematic presentation of these methods is given in the following diagrams.

I .

ULTIMATE
LIMIT Flexible connectors Stiff connectors
STATE

Complete Partial Complete Partial


connection h.
connection . connection b . connection
I I I

Ultimate strength Simple method Ultimate General


analysis. Connec: based on full strength method
tors to develop interaction analysis. (7.5.2.3)
longitudinal force (7.5.2.1 1 or Connectors and 7.5.3
in slab at Mu plastic partial- to develop
(7.4) interaction force in
method (7.5.2.21 slab a t MU
and 7.5.3
- (7.4)
-

STATE No check necessary for beams subjected to static loading only.


For beams subject to repeated loading, check shear connection
for static loading and for fatigue in accordance with Section 8.

60
RECOMMENDATIONS

Section 6. Design of the shear


connection - general

6.1 GENERAL
Shear connectors and transverse reinforcement should be provided throughout
the length of the beam to transmit the longitudinal shear force between the concrete
slab and the steel beam, ignoring the effect of bond between the two. I

The shear connection should be designed to satisfy the limit state requirements
given in 6.2.
Recommendations for high strength friction grip bolts used as shear connectors
are given in 6.7.

6.2. LIMIT STATE REQUIREMENTS

6.2.1 SHEAR CONNECTION


(a) In compact beams (see 5.2.1) subject to predominantly static loading, the
shear connection should be designed to satisfy the requirements at the
ultimate limit stage given in Section 7.
Where a compact beam is subject to repeated loading the recommendations of
Section 8 on design for both static loading and for fatigue should also be considered.
(b) In slender beams, shear connectors should be designed initially to satisfy
the requirements for static loading at the serviceability limit state given in
Section 8.
In beams subject to repeated loading, the recommendations of Section 8 on
design for fatigue should also be considered.
Where appropriate, the shear connection should also be checked at the ultimate
limit state in accordance with Section 7.

6.2.2 TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT


Transverse reinforcement provided to prevent longitudinal shear failure of the
slab in the vicinity of the shear connectors should be designed for the ultimate limit
state in accordance with 7.6.

61
COMMENTARY

ULTIMATE
LIMIT [ SLENDERBEAMS 1 ,
..
4%,S
STATE
e .

Predominantly static loading and repeated loading 1


I
Simplyiwpported
beam with neutral other

I axis that satisfies


5.4.2 I A check o n the
shear connection
may be necessary,
as discussed below

connection onlv, to 7.4

SERVICEABILITY
LIMIT STATE t o 8.4

Elastic analysis at serviceability limit state, as in Section 8.


Effects of temperature, shrinkage, creep, and method o f
construction t o be considered.

In slender beams in bridges the connectors are usually spaced in proportion to


the elastic distribution of shear ( V%y/I).This gives structures which perform satis-
factorily in service, and usually it gives sufficient shear strength at ultimate loads.
But in some circumstances a check on the shear connection at the ultimate limit
state should be made;for example, when unpropped construction is used or when
the strength of a cross-section is checked using the plastic theory.

6.3
Further commentary on the significance of the two properties of shear con-
I nectors relevant for design, strength and deformation capacity, is given in 2.1.

6.3.I I

The characteristic strength of connectors can be given in terms of both the con-
crete cylinder strength f c k and the yield strength f y of the steel o f which the con-
nector is made or of the weld.
The design strength can therefore be obtained by inserting appropriate values of
y m for concrete and steel in the expression. However, since local crushing of con-

62
RECOMMENDATIONS

6.3 PROPERTIES OF SHEAR CONNECTORS

6.3.1 STRENGTH OF CONNECTORS


The strength of a connector is the maximum load in the load direction considered
(in most cases parallel to the interface between concrete flange and steel beam) that
can be carried by the connector before failure.
The characteristic strength is the specified strength below which not more than
5% of test results may be expected to fall. When a guranteed minimum value of
strength is specified this may be considered as the characteristic strength.
The design strength is the characteristic strength divided by the partial safety
factor 7,.

63
COMMENTARY. ’
t ,

Crete around one connector would not cause failure of the beam the value of Y,,
for concrete is taken less than the value 1.5 given in 3.6.4 for normal use.

6.3.2 DEFORM TION CAPACITY OF CONNECTORS


The deformation capacity of a connector (maximum slip at characteristic
strength) is important:
(a) in beams where connectors are spaced not exactly in accordance with the
shear force distribution, and
(b) in beams with incomplete connection where the connection is designed by 1
ultimate strength methods assuming that the shear connectors behave in an
1
ideal plastic manner (flexible connectors).
The deformation capacity required in both cases is different as has been stated in
commentary 2.1.
In the requirementsfor flexible connectors an - upper limit for the characteristic
cylinder strength of concrete is given because with increasing concrete strength the
deformation capacity decreases.

. .

., .
. . . . . .. , .
.. .

64
RECOMMENDATIONS

- For the serviceability limit state the value of 7, may be taken as 1.O.
- For the ultimate limit state the value of 7, depends on the failure mode, and
should be taken as 1.3 for crushing of concrete and as 1 .O for yielding of steel.

6.3.2 DEFORMATION CAPACITY OF CONNECTORS


Connectors may be considered as flexible provided:
- The shear connectors are headed studs with a diameter not exceeding 22 mm
and an overall length not less than 4 times the diameter.
- The specified characteristic 28-day cylinder strength of the concrete is not
greater than 30 N/mm2.

All othe;types of connectors should be considered as stiff unless it has been


proved by tests that the deformation capacity is satisfactory for the assumption of
ideal plastic behaviour.

6.4 DESIGN STRENGTH OF SHEAR CONNECTORS

6.4.1 GENERAL
The strength of shear connectors may be determined either by calculation
(Clauses 6.4.4 to 6.4.7) or experimentally by push-out tests (Clause 6.6), subject to
the following conditions:

6.4.2 STATIC STRENGTH


(a) Where the concrete slab is unhaunched, or the haunch satisfies the requirements
of 6.5. l , the design static strength of shear connectors embedded in normal
density or lightweight aggregate concrete (density greater than 1400 kg/m3)
may be calculated from the equations given in Clauses 6.4.4 t o 6.4.7.
Alternatively, the design static strength may be determined in accordance with
6.3.1 using characteristic strengths determined experimentally from standard
push-out tests in accordance with 6.6.1 and 6.63.
(b) Where the concrete density or haunch dimensions do not satisfy the require-
ments of 6.4.2(a),the design strength should be determined in accordance with
6.3.I using characteristic strengths determined from special push-out tests in
accordance with 6.6.2 and 6.6.3.

65
F..

COMMENTARY

6.4.4
The relation between connector strength and concrete strength is shown in the
subjoined graph (Figure C6.1). A t higher concrete strength the ultimate strength of
the connector is constant and not dependent on concrete quality. The strength is .
,
then equal to the pure shear strength of the connector material (or of the weld) and
should therefore be Pw = A s (0.7 fu). However, for design purposes the value is
equalised to the design value of a normal bolt in shear in accordance with the ECCS
Recommendations for Steel Construction.
So& is replaced with fr. The partial safety factory,,, may then be taken as unity.
It has been shown that the great scatter in test results is to some extent caused
by the influence of the dimensions of the weld and its strength. So it is possible
that with certain welding procedures higher values are obtained than specified in
the recommendations.
If the welding procedure is well specified and the dimensions and properties of
the weld are guaranteed by the manufacturer the characteristic strength may alter-
natively be based upon experimental data of standard push-out tests (see Clause
6.4.2).

- f, NJmrn'

0 -*- 10 40
f, Nlmm'

Figure C6.1 Qualitative presentation of Equation (6.1).


RECOMMENDATIONS

6.4.3 FATIGUE STRENGTHS


Design fatigue strengths for headed stud connectors set in concrete slabs that are
in accordance with 6.4.2(a) are given in 6.4.4.4. For other connectors and other
types of slab, the characteristic ranges of shear load AV should be determined for
different numbers of cycles N from constant-amplitude alternatingload push-out
tests, in accordance with the appropriate recommendations of 6.6.

6.4.4. STUD CONNECTORS

6.4.4.1 Headed studs - static shear load


The design shear strength Pd of headed stud connectors may be calculated from
the following equations:

h
a= 3.0
where
ymcis the partial factor of safety on concrete strength, taken as 1.3 at the ulti-
mate limit state and 1.O at the serviceability limit state, and
rms is the partial factor of safety on steel strength, taken as 1.O as both the ulti-
mate and serviceability limit states.
Between h/d = 4.2 and h/d = 3 .O linear interpolation is permitted,
where
h = overall length of the stud,
d = diameter of the stud,
f d = characteristic cylinder strength of concrete at age considered,
E, = short-term modulus of elasticity of concrete,
fy = design yield strength of the connector material (= fo.2.) but not greater
than 0.8 fu.
-
If spirals with dimensions as specified in 6.5.2 are placed round the studs the
design shear strength according to formulae 6.1 and 6.2 may be multiplied by a
factor 1.15, provided:

67
COMMENTARY

I
I
6.4.4.3
Formula 6.3 is based on tests reported by McKackin and others (Fritz Engineer-
ing Laboratoly Report 200.71.438.2, Lehigh University 1971). Values of the ,.
characteristic tensile strength of concrete as a function of the characteristic com-
pressive strength are given in the CEBIFIP Recommendations.

The expression for C, is based on the assumption that for QQ 2 2h no inter-


action occurs.
Furthermore a linear interpolation between,Q = 0 and Qsp = 2h as shown in
Figure C6.2 is assumed.

&in = 4d or 5d (Clause 6.5.2)


Figure C6.2

68
RECOMMENDATIONS

Suitable tests should be made to ensure that the concrete can be adequately
compacted into the space between spiral and stud.

6.4.4.2 Studs without head - static shear load


Equations (6.1) and (6.2) may also be used for studs without heads, provided
uplift pf the slab is prevented. The ties which resist uplift should be designed at the
ultimate limit state for a tension force I '
of at least 0.1 Pd,

6.4.43 Headed studs - static tensile load


Where the shear connectors are subject to direct tension then additional ties suit-
ably anchored should be provided to resist these forces or alternatively headed
studs may be used. These should be checked for the ultimate limit state. The design
tensile strength Td should be calculated from the following equation:

where
rmc = material safety factor for concrete, taken as 1.3,
rms = material safety factor for steel, taken as 1.O,
h, d, fy = as defined in 6.4.4.1,
fct = characteristic tensile strength of concrete,
C = 3.0 for normal density concrete,
= 2.25 for lightweight aggregate concrete,
= reduction factor when the connector spacing is less than 2h:
c, 1 1P
= 2+4f G1.0.
When both the longitudinal and transverse connector spacing is less
than 2h a further reduction is necessary. The reduction value should
then be based on suitable tests.
If the connector is loaded by combined tension and shear, the worst combina-
tion of coexistent forces at the ultimate limit state should satisfy the following
equation:

where
P actual shear load,
Pd = the design shear strength in the absence of a tensile load,
T = actual tensile load,
T d = the design tensile strength in the absence of shear load.
The effect of axial tension may be neglected if the reduction in P is less than
10%.
69
COMMENTARY

Where headed studs are used primarily to resist direct tension, appropriate local
reinforcement should be provided.
. . . . _..
, .

4. .. . .

. .
I .

.. . j:. '

70
RECOMMENDATIONS

6.4.4.4 Headed studs - alternating load


Table 6.1 gives design ranges of mean shear strew AT for different numbers of
cycles N, or conversely gives values of N for different shear ranges AT where:
AT is the difference between the maximum and minimum mean shear stress
(4P/nd2) during any given load cycle,
N is the maximum allowable number of occurrences of that cycle.
-
Number of cycles, N 104 105 s x 105 2x106 107 108 ,
Shear range AT in N/mm2 160 1 15 90 70 60 50

Table 6.1 Fatigue strength of stud shear connectors.

The fatigue life of a connector subject to random loading may be determined


from Miner’s linear cumulative damage rule:

where
ni = number of cycles applied at a given stress range,
Ni = allowable number of cycles for which the given stress range would be
allowed.

6.4.4.5 Headed studs used with profiled steel sheeting


Deck ribs oriented Darallel to the sumortinr! beams
The design shear strength of a stud connector shall be the value stipulated in
Clause 6.4.4.1 except that when w/e is less than 1 .5, the design shear strength
shall be multiplied by the following reduction factor:
0.6-(-)<l.O
W hd-e
e e
where
w = mean width of concrete ribs (see Clause 5.1.2),
e = depth of ribs (see Clause S.1.2),
hd = overall length of the stud but not greater than e + 75 mm.
Deck ribs oriented transverse to the supporting beams
The design shear strength of a stud connector shall be the value given in
Clause 6.4.4.1 multiplied by the following reduction factor:

71
COMMENTARY

6.4.5 BLOCK-TYPECONNECTORS
A bar is beyond doubt a block-type connector but also the T,the [ and the
horseshoe may be considered as so, when the plate components are thick enough.

Bar connector Tconnector [-connector Hor sashoe

1:5 Af
I I

Figure C6.3

Forces on the welds:


Shear force: Smax = Pu
Moment: M = Pu E
2
Figure C6.4

12
I RECOMMENDATIONS

where
n, = number of stud connectors in one rib at a beam intersection, not to
exceed 3 in computations, although more than 3 studs may be installed.
When the shear connectors are provided to produce composite action both for the
beam and for the deck the resultant ultimate force acting on the stud shall be calcu-
lated using the following equation:
P = & F
where
P = resulting force on the connector,
PQ= longitudinal force caused by beam composite action,
P, = transverse force caused by deck composite action (see Section 15).
6.4.5 BLOCK-TYPE CONNECTORS
Connectors may be designed as block-type connectors when the front is so stiff
that it can reasonably be assumed that the concrete pressure in front of the con-
nector at failure is uniformly distributed.
The characteristic strength may be taken as:
. P,=fblAs
where
A,- = the area of the front surface,
fbl = the characteristic value of the contact pressure in rront of the connector

Af = the area of the front surface of the connector enlarged at a slope of


1:5 to the back side of the adjacent connector (Figure C6.3). Only
the parts of Af falling within the concrete section may be taken into
account.
The design shear strength of the connector is therefore: .

The welds between the connector and the steel beam should be designed for a
shear force and a moment due to the force P, acting at the centre of gravity of the
front surface. To prevent uplift on the connectors additional ties suitably anchored
should be provided. These ties should be designed for a tension force T of at least
0.1 P,.

73
COMMENTARY

6.4.6
The shear force working on the inclined anchor bar can be resolved into a tensile
force T and a shear force D.
The design strength of a round solid bar loaded in tension and shear follows
from tests on bolts and can be calculated from:
d m 2= A f y
with
T = Pu cos a
D = Pu sin a 1 Porn which Equation (6.9) can easily be derived.

Detail

PU
-T=P, cos,a
D = P, sin a /
Figure C6.5

6.4.7

,
L - . __ . . -_. - . -. - . .... . .- . - I . 1 __ - ._.. . _. - . -- I-

I
Block type connector Block type connector
. with anchor bar with hoop
/ Figure C6.6

The characteristic strength of block type connectors and anchors may not simpb
beadded up because of the essential difference of deformation capacity between
the two types.

74
RECOMMENDATIONS

6.4.6 ANCHORS AND HOOPS


The characteristic strength of an anchor may be taken as:
Pu = AfY
<
Jmm
where
A = the area of the cross-section of the bar,
f y = the design yield strength of the connector material,
a = the angle between the anchor bar and the flange of the beam.
If a does not exceed 45" the value of Pu may arbitrarily be calculated from:
Af
PU =d (6.10)

If fillet welds are used, these should be designed for the shear force Pu.

6.4.7 BLOCK TYPE CONNECTORS COMBINED WITH ANCHORS OR HOOPS


If block type connectors are used in combination with anchors or hoops the
characteristic strength of the combination follows from:
- block type connector with anchor bars:
pu comb = pu block t-0.5 pu anchors
- block type connector with hoop:
pu comb = pu block +os7 pu hoop

The welds however, should be designed for the full value of the characteristic
strength.

75
COMMENTARY

t
"U block

'U anchor

Slip

t 'U comb < 'U block + 'U anchor

Figure C6.7

6.5.1
(a) These recommendations should also be adopted when using (for example)
hollow planks or other prefabricated floor components. When studs are
used this leads to the following design rules.
The underside of the stud should extend not less than 30 mm above the
reinforcement in the concrete cover. The distance between the edge of the
hollow plank and the stud should be sufficient to allow the placing of good
quality concrete in between.

Reinforcement

. .
Figure C6.8

76
RECOMMENDATIONS

6.5 DETAILING OF SHEAR CONNECTION

6.5.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


(a) The surface of a connector that resists separation forces (ie, the inside of a
hoop or the underside of the head of a stud) should extend not less than 30 mm
clear above the bottom reinfdrcement. The concrete cover over the connector
should be not less than 20 mm. If concrete cover is not required as protection
against corrosion the top of the connector may be flush with the upper surface
of the concrete slab.

(b) Where a concrete haunch is used between the steel girder and the soffit of the
slab, the sides of the haunch should lie outside a line drawn at 45" from the
outside edge of the connector (Figure C6.9). Transverse reinforcing bars
sufficient to satisfy the requirements of 7.6 should be provided in the haunch
at least 40 mm clear below the surface of the connector that resists uplift.
(c) Where the shear connection is adjacent to a longitudinal edge of a concrete
slab, transverse reinforcement provided in accordance with 7.6 should be fully
anchored in the concrete between the edge of the slab and the adjacent row of
connectors.
(d) The detailing of shear connectors should be such that concrete can be
adequately compacted around the base of the connector.
(e) At the end of a cantilever, as for example in a cantilever and suspended span
structure, sufficient transverse and longitudinal reinforcement should be
positioned adjacent to the free edge of the concrete slab t o transfer the longi-
tudinal shear connector loads back into the slab.

77 ' .
COMMENTARY

Figure C6.9 Dimensions of haunches.

65.2
(g) Spirals need not be welded to the steel flange.

78

,
RECOMMENDATIONS

(0 The longitudinal spacing of the connectors should be no greater than 600 mm


or four times the thickness of the slab, whichever is the lesser. Alternatively,
connectors may be placed in groups, with the group spacing greater than that
specified for individual connectors, provided consideration is given in design to
the non-uniform flow of longitudinal shear and of the greater possibility of slip
and vertical separation between the slab and the steel member.
(g) Where it is assumed in design that the stability of either the steel or the con-
crete member is ensured by the connection between the two, the spacing of
the shear connectors should be sufficiently close for this assumption to be
valid, and appropriate resistance to uplift should be provided.
(h) The distance between the edge of a connnector and the edge of the flange of
the beam to which it is welded, should be not less than 20 mm.
(i) The material of the connector used should be of a good weldable quality. It
has to be proved by proof-welding that the applied welding technique is suit-
able to guarantee reliable welds.

6.5.2 HEADED STUD CONNECTORS


(a) The overall length of the studs should be not less than 3 times the diameter.
(b) The thickness of the steel plate to which a connector is welded should be
sufficient to allow proper welding and proper transfer of load from the con-
nector to the plate without local failure or excessive deformation.
(c) Where the flange is subject to tensile stresses, the diameter of studs should not
exceed 1.5 times the plate thickness. Where the flange plate is not subjected to
tensile stresses, the diameter of the stud should not exceed 2.5 times the plate
thickness.
(d) The dimension of the head should not be less than:
- diameter of head = 1.5 x diameter of shaft,
- height of load = 0.4 x diameter of shaft.
(e) The spacing of the connectors Qmin may not be less than:
- in direction of shear force: Qmin= 5d;
- transverse to direction of shear force: Qmin = 4d.
If the transverse spacing is less than 4d the bearing capacity is to be proved.
( f ) Welding of stud connectors should be carried out in accordance with Clause
18.8.
(g) Where spirals round the studs are used, the dimensions should be as shown in
Figure 6.2.

79
COMMENTARY

6.5.5
I I

!. !.
t
Recommended direction of thrust -
b
Figure C6.10

80
RECOMMENDATIONS

7- E
E
0

4 Figure 6.2

(h) To ensure proper filling and compacting of concrete between the spiral and the
stud the space between the spiral and the edge of precast concrete slabs or
other solid objects must be not less than 50 mm.

6.5.3 STUD CONNECTORS WITHOUT HEADS


Suitable ties should be provided to resist separation forces (see 6.4.4.2).

6.5.4 HEADED STUDS USED WITH PROFILED STEEL SHEETING


General
(a) The concrete slab shall be connected to the steel beam with welded stud shear
connectors with a diameter not greater than 19 mm.
Studs may be welded either through the deck or directly to the steel beam.
(b) Stud shear connectors, after installation, shall extend not less than 35 mm
above the top of the steel deck.
Deck ribs oriented transverse to the supporting beams
(c) The maximum longitudinal spacing of connectors should be in accordance
with 6.5.l(f).
(d) To resist uplift, the steel decking shall be anchored to all compositely designed
steel beams at a spacing not exceeding 400 mm. Such anchorage may be pro-
vided by stud connectors, a combination of stud connectors and arc spot
(puddle) welds, or other devices specified by the designer.

6.5.5 BLOCK-TYPE CONNECTORS


(a) The connectors should not be wedge shaped. Care should be taken for a
suitable placing in relation to the direction of thrust (see Figure C6.10).
(b) Suitable ties should be provided to resist separation forces (see 6.4.5).

81
COMMENTARY

6.5.6
Anchorage length

------- -I
Figure C6.11

Direction of thrust

F
I
-----
Figure C6.12

82
RECOMMENDATIONS

6.5.6 ANCHORS AND HOOPS


(a) Anchors and hoops may be either butt welded or bent and fillet welded. When
fillet welding is used the bend adjacent to the weld should be made in red hot
condition. Special care should be taken that the material of the bar is of a
good weldable quality.
(b) The anchorage length and the concrete cover should be in accordance with the
relevant clauses in the CEB Recommendations. A hoop may be assumed tot be
sufficiently anchored when the following conditions are met:
R > 7.5 4 I 0
gd> 4 R
concrete cover 2 3 4.

Figure 6.3

c) The anchors and hoops should point in the direction of thrust. At midspan
where the direction of thrust changes the connectors must be placed in both
directions.

83
COMMENTARY

6.6.1
a, b) . LOAD LOAD

254 X146 X 43 UB
or IPE 270
5:
c

-
0 e

-
-
e e
- 15 mm cover
0
cn
d

-
0
m L- Bedded in mortar 300 ~

or solid base
. I

Note: Reinforcement to be 10 mm diameter


mild steel

Figure C6.13

d ) This requirement can simply be met by taking the specified concrete grade,
but testing earlier than 28 days after manufacturing the specimens.
RECOMMENDATIONS

6.6 TESTS ON SHEAR CONNECTORS

6.6.1 STANDARD PUSH-OUTTEST


The static strength of shear connectors that comply with 6.4.2(a) may be
determined by standard push-out tests made in accordance with the following
requirements :
a) The dimensions of the test specimens must be as given in Figure C6.13.
b) The steel section and the reinforcement must be as given in Figure C6.13.
I

c) Bond at the interface of the flanges of the steel beam and the concrete must
be prevented by greasing the flange or by other suitable means.
d) The strength of the concrete at the time of testing must be 70%f 10% of the
specified cylinder strength of the concrete in the beams for which the test is
designed. Curing of the cylinders or cubes should be in accordance with CEB
Recommendations. The push-out specimens should be air-cured.
e) The yield stress of the connector material must be determined.
f ) The rate of application of load must be uniform and such that failure is
reached in not less than 15 minutes.

85
COMMENTARY.

86
RECOMMENDATIONS,

6.6.2 PUSH-OUT TEST FOR CHECKING UNUSUAL SITUATIONS


If the conditions of 6.3.1 are not met, the characteristic static strength of a shear
connector may be determined by push-out tests, in accordance with the following
requirements:
a) The push-out tests should be carried out on test specimens generally as
shown in Figure 6.4.

IF IF

in
Steel section

Concrete slab

A d ~ y p s u mmortar
,
or solid base

Figure 6.4

b) The slab and reinforcement should be suitably dimensioned in comparison


with the beams for which the test is designed. The following conditions
should be met:
- the length of the slab shall not exceed the minimum longitudinal spacing
of connectors on the beam;
- the width of the slab shall not exceed the effective width of the slab of the
the beam;
--the thickness of the slab shall not exceed the minimum thickness of the
slab in the beam;
- where a haunch in the beam does not comply with 6.3, the slab of the
push-out specimen should have the same haunch and reinforcement as the
beam.
c) Provisions of 6.6.1(c), (d), (e) and (f)apply.

6.6.3 EVALUATION OF TEST RESULTS


Not less than three tests on nominally identical specimens must be carried out.
When the deviation of any individual test result from the mean value obtained
from all tests does not exceed lO%, the lowest test result must be taken as the
ultimate load P,.

87 .
COMMENTARY ’

The reduction factor 0.8 in Formula (6.11) is in theory only required when
strength of steel governs the failure. Sometimes the failure mode is so complicated
that it is difficult to decide whether the steel or the concrete governs the failure
condition. In that case Formula (6.11) should conservatively be adopted.

. .
i

6.7.2
(a) Connection by friction may be relied upon only under service conditions. At
the ultimate limit state, for simplification it may be assumed that the bolts
alone are carrying the shearing forces with a strength according to that of
headed studs.
This simplification is based on the assumption that any clearance between
the bolt and the surrounding concrete is small enough to ensure that sufficient
redistribution of shear can take place due to slip without causing premature
shearfailure of the bolts. Where this cannot be assured, the calculated frictional
resistance must be sufficient to resist the shear at the ultimate limit state. No
check is then needed under service conditions. -

6.7.2.1
In the case of uniformly distributed loads, thehorizontal shear force in regions
near supports may be assumed to be unifonnlj distributed over a length of Q = 3d,

88
RECOMMENDATIONS

If such deviation from the mean exceeds 10% at least three more tests of the
same kind shall be made and the lowest result of these six tests must be taken as the
ultimate load P,.
Alternatively, when at least 10 tests are carried out, the ultimate load may be
determined as the load corresponding to a probability of 5% of results being less
than P, . The value of the design strength can be calculated from the value so found
of the ultimate load by:
Pd = 0.8 ue Pu (6.1 1)
ue actud.
where
ue actual = actual yield stress of the connector in the test specimen determined
according to 6.6.l(e),
ut2 = minimum specified yield strength of the connector material.
Where the connector is composed of two separate elements, one to resist longitu-
dinal shear and the other to resist forces tending to separate the slab from the steel
beam, the ties which resist the forces of separation may be assumed to be sufficiently
stiff and strong if this separation in push-out tests, measured when the connectors
are loaded to 80 per cent of their ultimate load, is less than half of the longitudinal
movement of the slab relative to the beam.

6.7 FRICTION GRIP BOLTS

6.7.1 GENERAL
. High strength friction grip bolts may be used to provide the shear connection
between the steel member and the concrete slab forming the flange of the composite
beam. Unless otherwise stated the Clauses on high strength preloaded bolts in the
ECCS Recommendations apply.
6.7.2 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS: STATIC LOADING

6.7.2.1 Serviceability limit state


(a) The longitudinal shear resistance per unit length developed by friction alone
between the concrete flange and steel beam should not be less than longitu-

89
~

COMMENTARY *

where d is the depth of the'steel beam.

Figure C6.14

Where the connection is subject to external tensile forces in addition to shear 2

(for example, where there is a tendency for uplift between the slab and the steel I
beam or where loads are suspended from the steelwork), it may also be necessary to
take account of the reduction in effective clamping force in the bolt.

90
RECOMMENDATIONS

dinal shear force per. unit length at the serviceability limit state calculated in
accordance with 8.1.
The mamimum load per connector should not exceed
U x net tensile force in the bolt
Ym
where
ym = the materials safety factor for the shear resistance per bolt, which
may be taken as 1.2, and
p = the coefficient of friction at first slip, which may be taken as:
0.50 when t m e 2 10 mm,
0.55 when t m e 2 15 ~TUTI.
Where the slab is cast in situ, the friction coefficient may be increased by 10%.
(b) In determining the net tensile force in bolts account should be taken of the
loss of tension due to shrinkage and creep of the concrete. Unless a more exact
calculation according to CEB/FIP Recommendations is made loss of tensile
force due to creep and shrinkage should be taken as not less than 30% of the
preloading force. The loss of tensile force can be reduced by re-tightening after
an interval of time. Loss of prestress in this case should be calculated in accor-
dance with the CEB/FIP Recommendations.

6.7.2.2 Ultimate limit state


(a) Between any pair of adjacent critical cross-sections as defined in 7.1 the sum
of the longitudinal forces built up by friction and/or shear must be not less
than the change in the longitudinal force in the concrete flange over that
length. The effects of slip between the concrete slab and the steel beam should
be taken into account.
(b) Where the shear resistance is assumed to be developed by the strength of the
bolts alone in shear and bearing, the maximum load per bolt should not exceed
the value obtained from Equation (6.1), but with:
d taken as the diameter of the shank of the bolt when there is no thread at
the shear plane, or
d taken as the diameter of the ‘stress area’ (dm) when the bolt is threaded at
the shear plane.
Alternatively, where the shear resistance is assumed to be developed by fric-
tion alone, the maximum load per bolt at the ultimate limit state should not
exceed the value given in 6.7.2.1. No check need then be made at the service-
ability limit state.

6.7.3 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS - FATIGUE


For connections subject only to shear in the plane of the friction interface no
account need be taken of the effects of repeated loading. This applies also to con-
nections subject to external tensile forces in addition to shear, provided 6.7.2.l(b)
is considered.

91
COMMENTARY

92
& RECOMMENDATIONS

6.7.4 DETAILING OF FRICTION GRIP BOLTS


The method of tightening should comply with the requirements of the ECCS
Recommendations.
The design of the connection must ensure that there is a uniform bearing sur-
face between the steel beam and the concrete flange.
The interface should be free of paint or other applied finishes, oil, dirt, loose
rust, loose mill scale, burrs and other defects which would prevent a uniform
seating between the two elements or would interfere with the development of
friction between them. Tight mill scale is not detrimental.
The washer under the head of each bolt should be of sufficient stiffness to
ensure that the bearing stress on the concrete is uniform.
Adequate reinforcement, in spiral or other form, should be provided to ensure
that the load is transferred from the bolt to the interface without local split-
ting or crushing of the concrete, unless tests show it to be unnecessary. Con-
sideration shall be given to local splitting particularly where the slab is deeply
recessed around a bolt.
COMMENTARY

I
7.I
Due to the problem of uniquely defining points of contrajlexure in continuous
beams, these are not considered to be critical cross-sections. It is therefore con-
venient to use a design strength for shear connectors (given in 7.2)that is applicable
for the entire length of a continuous beam, rather than to use different values in
regions of positive and negative bending moment.
Wherethe concrete fzange of a composite beam ends at a cross-section other than
a support (critical section of type (e)),the effectivebreadth of this flange may be
assumed to vary linearly from zero at its end to the full effective breadth over a
length of at least the total effective breadth. Within this length, connectors may be
spaced uniformly.

m Elevation

Figure C7.1 Effective breadth of composite slab ending within region of sagging
moments.

7.2
Maximum loads for connectors in continuous beams and cantilevers are reduced
below Pd to compensate for the reduction in the stiffnessand strength of shear con-
nectors due to flexural cracking where the concrete slab is in tension.

94
RECOMMENDATIONS

Section 7. ‘Design of the shear


connection - ultimate limit state

7.1 CRITICAL CROSSSECTIONS


In beams of compact cross-section and in beams designed for flexure in accord-
ance with 5.4.2, shear connectors provided to resist static loading may be spaced
uniformly between adjacent critical cross-sections.
Critical cross-sections of composite beams are:
a) allsupports;
b) all cross-sections of maximum sagging (positive) moment;
c) free ends of cantilevers;
d) points of application of heavy concentrated loads, for example, from
columns;
e) points where there is a sudden change in the cross-section of the member;
and
f ) in tapering members, points so chosen that the ratio of the greater to the
lesser second moment of area at any pair of adjacent points does not exceed
two.

7.2’ MAXIMUM LOADS PER CONNECTOR


At the ultimate limit state, all the connectors between an adjacent pair of critical
ctoss-sections may be assumed to resist the same proportion of their design static
strengths, Pd.The maximum load per connector should not exceed:

95
COMMENTARY

7.4
When the bending strength of the steel beam alone is much less than that of the
composite member (for example, when the steel flange which is connected to the
concrete is much smaller than the other steel flange), shear-flexural failuve on a
surface such as ABC iri Figure C7.2becomes possible. A check should then be
made that the shear connection is sufficient to develop the forces in the slab re-
quired at all cross-sections, not just at critical sections.
Centre line

I_
A - B !
1

1
I
I
Steel beam

I
C

Figure C7.2

7.5.1
When partial shear connection is used, the deformation capacity required of a
connector, before it begins to lose strength, increases with increase in the span of
the beam. There is at present no experimental evidence to validate the use of
partial shear connection in long-span beams. The limiting span of 20 m is given for
this reason.
I t is thought that the use of partial shear connection is not common enough to
justify the inclusion of design methods for members carrying concentrated loads or
of non-uniform section.

96
RECOMMENDATIONS

Pd in simply supported beams and Class I or I1 prestressed continuous


beams and cantilevers;
0.93 Pd in other continuous beams;
0.80 Pd in other cantilevers;
where Pd is the design strength determined in accordance with 6.4.

7.3 LONGITUDINAL SHEAR


The ultimate longitudinal force Fu at each critical cross-section is the total longi-
tudinal force in the concrete slab when the section resists a bending moment or
M’,,as appropriate, calculated in accordahce with 5.3.1.
The length of beam between any pair of adjacent critical cross-sections is a shear
span. I

7.4 COMPLETE SHEAR CONNECTION


For complete shear connection, the product of the maximum load per connector
(as given in 7.2) and the number of connectors provided in each shear span must be
not less than the change in longitudinal force F, (as given in 7.3) over the length of
that span.

7.5 PARTIAL SHEAR CONNECTION

7.5.1 SCOPE
I
The design methods of 7.5 are applicable only to simply-supported and con-
tinuous beams that are subjected to predominantly static loading and not to heavy
concentrated loads, such as loads from columns. Also, the methods of 7.5.2.1 and
7.5.2.2 are applicable only t o beams of span not exceeding 20 m, that have steel
members of uniform crosssection.

97
COMMENTARY

7.5.2
Further research is needed before the methods of 7.5.2.1 and 7.5.2.2 can be
used for types of shear connector other than headed studs in accordance with 6.3.2.

7.5.2.I
The limit N Q: 0.5 Nf in this and the following methods is arbitrary. Results of
short-term labomtory tests suggest that the limit could be reduced to about 0.4 N f ,
L,
but there is no evidence of satisfactory long-term behaviour of beams with so low a
degree of shear connection (Johnson, R P, and May, I M, ‘Fartial-interaction
design of composite beams ’; Structural Engineer, 53,305-11, August 1975).
Figure C7.3 shows that the method of 7.5.2.1 is a conservative approximation to
the results of partial-interaction analyses for the ultimate strength of beams with
partial shear connection.

M/M,
Partial-interaction analysis
/
1.0-. -

0 1.o N/Nf
Figure C7.3

7.5.2.2
Figure C7.4 shows the stress distributions given by the method of 7.5.2.2for
values of N/Nf corresponding to points A , B, and Con Figure C7.3.
The moment of resistance Mr calculated by this method relies on ideal plastic
behaviour of the shear connectors. Where the degree of shear connection or the
deformation capacity of the connector is low, or the span of the beam is long,
premature failure of the shear connectors may occur before M, is reached.

98
RECOMMENDATIONS

7.5.2 SIMPLYSUPPORTED BEAMS


Three methods are available for beams where the design bending moment at a
critical crosssection in the midspan region, M,, is less than the ultimate moment of
resistance M, given by the method of 5.3.1. The methods of 7.5.2.1 and 7.5.2.2 are
applicable only to beams with shear connectors that are flexible in accordance with
2.1 and 6.3.2. The method of 7.5.2.3 is applicable to beams with either flexible or
stiff connectors.

7.5.2.1 Simple method


In each shear span (as defined in 7.3) adjacent to the cross-section considered,
the number of shear connectors N must be such that:
NQNf(M,-Mp)/(MU-Mp) and N Q 0 . 5 N f
where
M, and Mu are as defined in 7.5.2,
M, is the plastic moment of resistance of the steel section alone, and
Nf is the number of connectors required for complete shear connection,
calculated in accordance with 7.4.

7.5.2.2 Partial-interaction analysis


The ultimate moment of resistance Mu,, not exceeding MU, may be calculated
by simple plastic theory in accordance with 1) to 4) of 5.3.1 and the following
assumptions :
1 . The compressive force in the reinforced concrete slab is equal to the lesser of
the sums of the design strengths of the shear connectors in the two shear
spans adjacent to the critical section considered.
P COMMENTARY

'Vd

fyd
I
Point A Point B Point C

Figure C7.4

7.5.2.3
This is the only method of design with partial shear connection that is given for
use when the shear connectors are not 'flexible'in accordance with 2.1 and 6.3.2.
I t corresponds to the straight lines OD and DC in Figure C7.5. The curve ABC is
copied from Figure 7.3, to show that this method requires the use of more con-
nectors than the method of 7.5.2.1.MDL is the bending moment in the steel sec-
tion alone (Stark,J W B, "Simply supported steel and concrete composite beams",
Netherlands Committee for Concrete Research, and Steel Constructional Associa-
tion, Waltman,Devt, I 9 74).

I ,N/Nf
I
: - N/Nf NJNU 1.o
NJN" 1.o
(a) Unpropped construction (b) Propped construction

Figure C7.5

7.5.3
I It is usually possible to so choose the quantity of top longitudinal reinforcement
in the slab above an internal support, that M u does not greatly exceed M;.
The longitudinal shear in a hogging (negative)moment region may exceed the
value calculated from the yield strength of the reinforcement, due both to the ten-

100
RECOMMENDATIONS

2. The shear connectors behave in an ideal plastic manner.


3. Slip occurs at the steelconcrete interface, so that the steel beam and the con- '

Crete slab have different neutral axes.

7.5.2.3 General method


This method requires the calculation of Mu, Mr, and Nf (as defined in 7.5.2 and
7.5.2.1) for the critical section considered, and also Me and Ne,
where
Me is the sum of the bending moment in the steel section and the bending
moment given by full-interaction elastic analysis of the composite section,
at which the design yield stress in an extreme fibre of the steel beam or a
flexural compressive stress of 0.6 f d in the concrete slab is first reached, f d
being the design cylinder strength; and
Ne is the number of shear connectors required in the shear span considered (in
accordance with 7.4) when the compressive force in the slab at the critical
cross-section is that corresponding to Me.
The minimum numbers of shear connectors N that must be provided in each
shear span adjacent to the cross-section considered are as follows:
When Mr < Me,
N Q. Ne Mr/Me and N 4 0.5 Nf.
When Me < Mr 4 M U ,
Mr- Me
NQ:Ne+ (Nf- Ne) and N 4 0 . 5 Nf.
Mu - Me

7.5.3 CONTINUOUS BEAMS


This design method is applicable only to a shear span (as defined in 7.3) that
extends from an internal support to a critical cross-section in a sagging (positive)
moment region, for which the design ultimate bending moments are M'r at the
internal support and M, in the midspan region.

101
COMMENTARY

sile strength of concrete and to strain hardening of the reinforcement, which is


likely to occur before jlexural failure of the beam.
For these reasons no provision is made for the use of partial shear connection in
hogging moment regions. The spacing of shear connectors in such a region should
not exceed that in the adjacent sagging moment region.

7.6
These rules are based on the results of research on shear transfer in reinforced
concrete (Mattock,A H, and Hawkins, N M, 'Shear transfer in reinforced concrete
- recent research': Journal of Prestressed Concrete Institute, MarchlAprill9 72).
The method enables the interaction between transverse slab bending (negative or
positive)and longitudinal shear to be taken into account.
It should be noted that Equations (7.1) and (7.2) are independent of longitu-
dinal stress and consequently independent of a favourable state of longitudinal
compression due to prestressing if there is such a state at all.
The question of whether the state of longitudinal compression can be taken into
account in Equations (7.1) and (7.2) or by some other method requires consi-
deration.
The transfer of longitudinal shear in a composite beam is more severe than in a
concrete tee-beam, but in regions remote from the connectors, the CEB/FIP
Recommendations on this subject may be appropriate.
The simple method of providing sufficient transverse reinforcement to develop
the design strength of the connectors is conservative in beams subject to repeated
loading where the connector spacing is determined by fatigue rather than static
strength, but it avoids the problems of defining critical cross-sections in beams
where bending moment envelopes have to be considered. Alternatively, the shear
force per unit length may be determined by elastic analysis.

102
RECOMMENDATIONS

The ultimate longitudinal force in the slab at the internal support, F'", due to
the moment of resistance M'u (which may exceed M'r) given by 5.3 .l, is calculated
in accordance with 73. Let N'f be the number of shear connectors required for this
force, in accordance with 7.4.
The number of connectors N corresponding to the bending moment M, is calcu-
lated in accordance with 7.5.2, as if the sagging moment region of the shear span
considered were part of a simply-supported beam.
The number of connectors provided must be not less than N'f t N. They may be
uniformly spaced over the length of the shear span.
I

7.5.3.1 Shear span adjacent to a simple end support


When the method of 7.5.3 is used for internal shear spans, end shear spans
should be designed in accordance with 7.5.2.

7.6 TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT

7.6.1 LONGITUDINAL SHEAR


The total longitudinal shear force per unit length of beam should be taken as the
design maximum load per connector at the ultimate limit state (Clause 7.2)multiplied
by the number of connectors per unit length. The shear force per unit length acting
on any plane through the concrete, vg, should satisfy the following:
VQ > kl sLS t 0.7Ae fyf (7.1)
k2 Lsfck (7.2)
where
kl is a constant equal to 0.9 for normal density concrete and 0.7 for light-
weight aggregate concrete.
k2 is a constant equal to 0.19 for normal density concrete and 0.1 5 for light-
weight aggregate concrete.
Ls is the length of the shear plane under consideration. Typical shear planes are
shown in Figure 7.1.
s is a constant stress of 1 N/mm2, reexpressed where necessary in units con-
sistent with those used for other quantities.
Ae is the sum of the cross-sectional areas of transverse reinforcement per unit
length of beam'crossing a shear plane that can be assumed to be effective in
resisting shear failure on that plane.
fyr is the characteristic yield strength of the reinforcement.
fk is the characteristic 28day cylinder strength of the concrete.
If f k is less than 16 N/mm2, the term kl sLs in Equation (7.1) should be
replaced by k3fckLs,where k3 is a constant equal to 0.05 for normal den-
sity concrete and 0.04 for lightweight aggregate concrete.

103
COMMENTARY ’

104
RECOMMENDATIONS

a a
I I I r A t

I I
I I 1-m- Ell I' I

I I

I
I I I I 1
1
I * I t 1
1
I

a b' a

Fl c-c

Figure 7.1 Shear planes.

105
COMMENTARY

7.6.2
The values of the constant terms and coefficients used in 7.6.1 and 7.6.2are
subject to revision when the partialfactors of safety on loads and material strengths
have been established.

106
RECOMMENDATIONS

7.6.2 INTERACTION. BETWEEN LONGITUDINAL SHEAR, TRANSVERSE


PRESTRESSING AND TRANSVERSE BENDING
The effect of interaction between longitudinal shear and transverse bending or
transverse prestressing of the slab may be taken into account by replacing Equation
(7.1) by the following:
VQ P k I sL,t 0.7Aefyr - 1.6F

where F is the nett force per unit length of beam acting normal to the shear plane
under consideration due to transverse bending of the slab and/or transverse pre-
stressing; taken as negative (minimum compression) or positive (maximum tension),
as appropriate. In assessing F no account shall be taken of transverse bending of the
slab due to loads of a non-permanent nature, such as imposed loads or partitions
that may be subsequently removed, if their effect is to increase the ultimate shear
strength .

7.6.3 MINIMUM TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT


The cross-sectional area of transverse reinforcement per unit length of beam that
crosses a possible plane of shear failure and which can be considered as effective in
resisting shear should be not less than the amount given by the following equation:
A, fyr4 O.75sLs t 1.lF
where the terms are as defined in 7.6.1 and 7.6.2.

7.6.4 SPACING OF TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT


Transverse reinforcement may be uniformly distributed over any length where
the shear connectors are uniformly spaced. The spacing of bottom transverse bars,
if provided to satisfy the requirements of 7.6, should not exceed four times the pro-
jection of the connectors (including any hoop which forms an integral part of the
connector) above the bars, nor 600 mm, whichever is the lesser.

107
COMMENTARY

For compact beams subject to predominantly static loading the requirements of


Section 8 need not be considered. (See Table 3.3 in Section 3.)

I 8.2
I
I The load is limited to 0.6 Pd to ensure that slip at the steel-coricrete interface is
not high enough to invalidate calculations for stresses and deflections based on full-
interaction theory.

8.4
I n composite 'beams where the shear connection has sufficient static strength to
satisfy the requirements of 8.3 the influence of maximum stress on fatigue behaviour
may be neglected. The shear connection required a t any cross-section is governed by
the range of longitudinal shear per unit length, AV,where AV = U l n a - Vlnin and
vmax and vmi, are calculated from the maximum and minimum vertical shears at
that section due to the loading cycle considered.
For the.fatigue limit state, the design ranges of loads and stress for shear con-
nectors may be assumed to be equal to the characteristic ranges AVas given in
Section 6 (ie, T~ = 1.0).
For fatigue investigations, the design loading should be taken as the load spec-
trum specified in National Codes.

108
RECOMMENDATIONS

Section 8. Design of the shear


connection - serviceability limit
state

8.1 LONGITUDINAL SHEAR


Longitudinal shear per unit length of beam, whether simply supported or con-
tinuous, should be calculated on the basis of elastic theory, using the properties of
the cross-section determined in accordance with 4.4, and assuming the concrete to
be uncracked.

8.2 MAXIMUM LOADS PER CONNECTOR - STATIC LOADING


The maximum load per connector at the serviceability limit state should not
exceed 0.6 Pd, where Pd is the design strength ,determined in accordance with
Section 6.

8.3 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS - STATIC LOADING


The size and spacing of the connectors at each end of each span should be not
less than that required for the maximum loading considered. This size and spacing
should be maintained for at least 10 per cent of the length of that span. Elsewhere,
the size and spacing of connectors may be kept constant over any length where,
under the maximum loading considered ,the maximum shear force per unit length
does not exceed the design shear flow by more than 10 per cent. Over every such
length the total longitudinal shear force must not exceed the product of the number
of connectors and the design static strength per connector.

8.4 DESIGN FOR FATIGUE

109
COMMENTARY

The size and spacing of the connectors at each end of each span should be not
less than that required for the calculated shear range; This size and spacing-should
be maintained for at least 10 per cent of each span. Elsewhere, the size and spacing
of connectors may be kept constant over any length where the calculated shear
range does not vary by more than 10 per cent from the design stress range.
Over every such length the spacing should be such that the longitudinal shear
ranges per unit length multiplied by the connector spacing, ie, the shear ranges
per connector, satisfv the following requirements for the design spectrum of load-
ing:
1. For stud connectors, the allowable number of occurrences N for each cycle
of service loading giving a shear range A V expressed as a percentage of the
Characteristic static strength should be derived in accordance with Section 6
and using graphical interpolation where necessary. The summation of the
ratios of the design number of cycles n for each service loading to the corres-
ponding allowable number of cycles N should not exceed unity.
2. For other types of connector, the allowable number of occurrences N for
each cycle of service loading giving a nominal shear-stress range on the weld
throat.should be derived in accordance with Section 6 and using graphical
interpolation where necessary. The summation of the ratios of the design
number of cycles n to the corresponding allowable number of cycles N
should not exceed unity.
RECOMMENDATIONS

111
, ~~

COMMENTARY,
" 3
~I .

9.1.1
For the purpose of calculating the restraint force in the concrete slab due to
temperature effects, the strain should be assumed to act over the full breadth
of flange, but in stress calculations, the effective breadth of flange should be
used.
In continuous beams, in addition to the primary (statically determinate) effects
of temperature, the calculation o f moments and reactions should take account of
the secondary (parasitic) effects that occur in statically indeterminate structures
subject to internal strains.

9.1.2 I

The following assumptions may be made when calculating the loads of con-
nectors due to the longitudinal force VQ:
a) for flexible connectors, that the load is transferred uniformly at a rate V@,
over a length Qs measured from each end of the beam, where Qs is taken as
the effective breadth of the concrete flange, or is as defined in national
codes; and
b ) for rigid connectors, that the rate of transfer of load varies linearly from a
maximum o f 2 VdQ, at each end of the beam to zero at a distance Qs from
each end of the beam, where Qs is as defined in a) above.

'I12
RECOMMENDATIONS

Section 9. .Temperature,
shrinkage and creep

9.1 TEMPERATURE EFFECTS

9.1.1 GENERAL
It is normally not necessary to consider the effects of temperature on composite
beams in buildings. Elsewhere the effects of temperature should be considered as
follows.
1. Longitudinal shear forces due to temperature effects should be considered
during construction and at the serviceability limit state.
2. In stress calculations for beams where the cross-section is slender, tempera-
ture effects need only be considered at the ultimate limit state and during
construction.
3. In stress calculations in beams where the cross-section is compact (see 5.2),
the effects of temperature need only be considered during construction and
at the serviceability limit state.

9.1.2 LONGITUDINAL SHEAR


Longitudinal shear forces may occur in a composite beam either due to the tem-
perature of the concrete slab being different from that of the steel beam or due to
a temperature gradient through the cross-section. They may also occur where the
concrete has a coefficient of linear thermal expansion significantly different from
that of the structural steel section, in which case, differential expansion will occur
under a uniform change of temperature.
The longitudinal shear force Vg due to primary effects of temperature should be
assumed to be transmitted from the concrete to the steel beam by shear connectors
at the ends of the beam, ignoring the effect of bond.
In the absence of more precise information, these concentrated shear forces may
be calculated by an elastic analysis assuming full interaction, using the properties of
the crosssection as defined in 4.4, and assuming the concrete to be uncracked. The
modulus of elasticity of concrete, E,, should be that value appropriate to short-term
loading.

113
I
9.2.I
In continuous composite beams in addition to the redistribution of stresses that
occurs in simply supported beams (primary effects), shrinkage and creep will also
cause a redistribution of the bending moments and support reactions, which should
be taken into account.

9.2.2 and 9.2.3


The conditionsfor maximum shrinkage (very dry environments)also correspond
to the conditionsfor mdximum creep.

* I

114
RECOMMENDATIONS

9.1 3 LONGITUDINAL'STRESSESAND STRAINS


Longitudinal stresses and strains in the concrete slab and steel beam due to any
of the effects described in 9.1.2 may be calculated from simple elastic theory,
assuming full interaction between the concrete slab and the steel beam.
The concrete slab should be assumed to be uncracked with the effective breadth
of concrete flange determined in accordance with the CEB/FIP Recommendations
for concrete structures. The modulus of elasticity of concrete, E,, should be that
value appropriate to short-term loading.

9.2 SHRINKAGE AND CREEP I

9.2.1 GENERAL
Shrinkage and creep should be determined in ,ccordance with the CEB/FIP '
Principles and Recommendations, except that where the flange of the steel beam is
completely encased in concrete, reference should be made to specialist literature.

9.2.2 LONGITUDINAL SHEAR


The longitudinal shear force due to shrinkage modified by creep may be assumed
to be transmitted from the concrete slab to the steel beam in the manner described
in 9.1.2 and may be calculated using the assumptions given in 9.1.2 but using the
free shrinkage strain and a modulus of elasticity for concrete appropriate to long-
term loading determined in accordance with CEB/FIP Recommendations.

9.2 3 LONGITUDINAL STRESSES AND STRAINS


The longitudinal stresses and strains due to shrinkage modified by creep may be
calculated using the assumptions given in 9.1.3, but using the free shrinkage strain
and a modulus of elasticity for concrete appropriate to long-term loading determined
in accordance with the CEB/FIP Recommendations.

115
COMMENTARY

I
s
.
. .
. v

10.1
Methods for calculating crack width differfrom country to country, but most are
based on the results of research on reinforced concrete rectangular beams and slabs.'
Until the application of such methods to composite beams has been thoroughly
assessed, no detailed method of calculating crack width is given in this Section.

..
. -

116'
RECOMMENDATIONS

Section 10. Control of cracking

10.1 GENERAL
(1) In concrete elements designed for Class N verification (reinforced concrete)
adequate reinforcement should be provided to prevent cracking from adversely
affecting the appearance or durability of the structure. b i t i n g crack widths
and the principles on which methods for calculating crack widths are based
should be in accordance with the CEBIFIP Recommendations.
(2) For prestressed beams see Section 12.

I 117
COMMENTARY I

11.1 i

ECCS Advisory Committee I I is preparing Recommendations on deformations


of structures.

11.2
( I ) Provided the stresses in the steel or concrete due to any combination of design
loads at the serviceability limit state or during construction do not exceed the
limits given in 5.5.4 deflections may be calculated by elastic theory using the
elastic properties given in 3.4 assuming fill interaction between the steel beam
and the concrete slab, and neglecting concrete in tension in hogging (negative)
moment regions, in accordance with 4.4.
For prestressed composite beams see Section 12.
In the absence of a rigorous analysis, allowance for in-plane shear flexibility
(shear lag effects)may be made in calculations based on elementary theory of
bending, by using an appropriate effective breadth of jlunge.
Consideration should be given to the effects of shrinkage and creep. Where
appropriate the CEBIFIP Recommendationsfor Structural Concrete may be
used.
Alternatively, the deflectionsdue to permanent loading may be calculated
by using a modulus of elasticity of concrete appropriate to long-term loading,
determined in accordance with 3.4. Where appropriate, proper account should
be taken of the deflections of the steel section due to loads applied to it prior
to the development of composite action.
(2) Where it is necessary to determine the deflections of a composite beam due to
loadings which cause the stresses in the steel or concrete to exceed the limits
given in 5.5.4 the deflection should be calculated using non-linear elastic
plastic theory. The stress-strain relationship for structural steel should be that
specified in the ECCS Recommendations. The stress-strain relationships for
concrete and reinforcement should be those specified in the CEBJFIPRecom-
mendations.

118
I

RECOMMENDATIONS

Section I 18 Deflections

11.1 GENERAL
Where it is necessary to check deflections, the distribution of bending moments
shall be determined in accordance with 4.4, with rf taken as 1.O, as proposed in the
Commentary to Clause 3.7.2.

11.2 CALCULATION OF DEFLECTIONS


Criteria for limiting deflections depend on the functional criteria for the structure
considered, to such an extent that no specific recommendations can be given.

I /
I

119
,

COMMENTARY

11.3
When according to 7.5.2 or 7.5.3it is required that N 2 0.5 Nf(or even N > 0.4
Nf)then the deflectiongenerally may 'be calculated according to 11.2 (1) assuming
f i l l interaction. Supporting evidence from results of tests by Baldwin (USA) and
Stark (Holland)is shown below.

Beams with stud connectors

0.3 c
0.2 -

0.1 -

L
0 0.1! 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 .o

' Not permitted ' 6, - 6f " 0 , so 6


, = 6f .
Figure C11.1 Short-termdeflection of beams with partial shear connection
'
(Johnson, R P, and May,T M,"Partial interaction design of
composite beams", Structural Engineer, Volume 53,305-31 1 ,
August 1975).

120
RECOMMENDATIONS

11.3 DEFLECTIONS OF SIMPLY-SUPPORTED BEAMS WITH INCOMPLETE


CONNECTION
The deflection 6 of simply supported composite beams with flexible connectors
designed in accordance with 7.5.2 should be determined taking into account the
effect of slip at the serviceability limit state.

11.4 LIMITATIONS ON DEFLECTIONS


(1) In bridges, no limitations are normally imposed other than to require that the
deflection of the superstructure or any part of it should not adversely affect
the appearance or efficiency of the structure. The calculation of deflections
will normally only be necessary where:
a) specified minimum clearances may be exceeded,
b) the surface water drainage would be impaired,
c) the method of construction requires careful control of profde.
In buildings in addition to the reasons given in (1) limitations on the deflec-
tions may be required to enable other elements of the structure, eg, claddings,
glazing, to be positioned and to function correctly. In the absence of further
information, deflections should not exceed the limits specified in national
codes.
COMMENTARY .

. ..

12.1
I
I
The effect of prestressing isgenerally important in the elastic range. This effect
is reduced by high inelastic deformations, cracking of concrete, or plastic deforma-
tions up tofailure. Compact composite beams are thereforegenerallynot prestressed.
The instantaneous losses of tension or prestressing (losses in jacks or at anchor-
ages, frictional forces in the ducts or between the concrete part and the steel beam,
reductions in the lengths'of members at tensioning) should be taken into account as
appropriate, according to the CEBIFIP Recommendations. The same applies to the
deferred losses of tension due to relaxation of the prestressing steel and due to
creep and shrinkage of the concrete.

12.2.
The stress state due to the weight of wet concrete in the steelwork of a com-
posite beam which is unpropped during construction, should not be regarded as a
stage of prestressing.

I 12.3
Regions near end supports may be in a different class from the rest of the beam,
due to the location of anchorages for tendons. Temperature differences and shrink-
age cause concentrated anchorageforces and tensile stresses at the ends of composite
beams. These tensile stresses cannot in general be eliminated by the addition of com-
pressive stresses due to prestressing. Therefore the end regions may belong to class
IV members even when the Composite beam should meet the requirements of class
I or 11 concrete members.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Section 12. Prestressing in


composite construction

Prestressing can reduce, or in some circumstances prevent the cracking of con-


crete under service conditions, so increasing stiffness and improving the protection
of steel and reinforcement from corrosion.

12.2 METHODS OF PRESTRESSING


Prestressing may be achieved mainly:
1) by means of imposed deformations, for example by jacking of the supports;
2) by means of prestressing tendons, tensioned before or after connecting the
concrete flange to the steel beam, and bonded to the structure;
3) by means of a combination of both above-mentioned methods.
Special consideration should be given to composite beams which are prestressed
by an external system or by tendons not directly bonded to the concrete (tendons
in ungrouted internal ducts, or external tendons even when grouted in ducts). In
these circumstances, the calculation of the prestressing forces must take account
of the deformation of the whole structure.

12.3 DEGREE OF PRESTRESSING


The degree of prestressing in composite beams shall be classified in accordance
with the CEB/FIP Recommendations for concrete structures, with the exception of
the end regions of beams.

123
COMMENTARY

12.5
Care must be taken of shear lag effects, which may be different for certain load-
ing conditions, for example for dead load and jacking.
For long-term loading, the effects of creep may be taken into account in calcula-
tions based on elastic theory, by using a modulus of elasticity of concrete, E*c,
given by: I
EC
E'c = I + $ &
where E, is the short-term modulus of elasticity and & is the creep coefficient
obtained from the CEBfFIPPrincipes and Recommendations and J/ takes account
of the properties of the composite cross-sectionand the type of loading.

12.6
The mc thod of all( wing for creep given in Commer tary 12.5 is also applicable at
the ultimate limit state.

12.6.1
For example, yp should be taken as 1.2 where local effects of prestressing are
unfavourable, as where prestressing tendons are anchored and concentrated forces
have to be transmitted from the concrete part to the steel beam.

12.7 .

Delayed strains in the concrete lead to stress redistributions from the concrete
flange to the steel beam, thereby causing earlier crack formation under increased
loading which results in reduced stiffnesses.

124
RECOMMENDATIONS

12.4 LIMIT STATE REQUIREMENTS


Composite members, which are prestressed, should be designed for the service-
ability and ultimate limit states in accordance with the general requirements of this
Code.

12.5 SERVICEABILITY
Stress limitations in the tension zone of the concrete part should comply with
the appropriate CEB/FIP Recommendations for concrete members.
In order to determine the distribution of bending moments and shearing forces a
linear elastic anlysis assuming an uncracked slab should be carried out.
The compressive stresses in the concrete part due to flexure, including stresses
due to imposed deformations and prestressing forces, should not exceed 0.6 fck.
The stresses in prestressing tendons are limited as in the appropriate CEB/FIP
Recommendations.
The stresses in the steel beam are limited in accordance with 5.5.4, except that
before creep and shrinkage have taken place, the maximum tensile stress in the
structural steel should not exceed 0.95 times the characteristic yield strength divided
by rm.
12.6 ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE

12.6.1 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTORS


The partial safety factors for prestressing forces and imposed deformations
should be in accordance with Section 3.9, taking account of the various combina-
tions with other actions.

12.6.2 SLENDER COMPOSITE BEAMS


The appropriate clauses of this Code on slender beams apply.

12.6 3 COMPACT COMPOSITE BEAMS


The definition of compact beams in 5.2.1 refers to the depth of the web in com-
pression. In calculating this depth, account should be taken of prestressing tendons,
at the appropriate yield stress, provided that the tendons are prestressed as appro-
priate and directly bonded to the concrete part.

12.7 . CONTROL OF CRACKING


Requirements with regard to the durability of composite structures, particularly
the choice of appropriate limit states of crack width, should comply with the CEB/
FIP Recommendations. Special consideration should be given to the partial coeffi-
cient rc as given in Section 3.7 3.

125
13.2
Methods of checking for vibration serviceability are available:
Mason, D, “Testingand design for vibrations of office floors with composite
construction”. Proceedings of Conference on Steel Structures, p p 140- 148,
Monash University,Australia, May 1977.
Johnson, R P, ‘X‘omposite structures of steel and concrete’: Volume 1, p p
96- 100, Oosby Lockwood Staples, London, I9 75.
13.3
Vibration serviceability requirements for footways and cycle tracks are given in
Appendix D of British Standard 5400, “Steel,concrete, and composite bridges”,
Part 2, ‘Zoads’: British Standards Institution, 1978.
More detailed information is available: “Symposiumon dynamic behaviour of
bridges’; Supplementary Report 275, I I6 pp, Transport and Road ,Research
Laboratoty, Crowthome,England, May 1977.

I 126
RECOMMENDATIONS

Section 13. Vibration

13.1 GENERAL
Consideration should be given to the possibility that in structures subjected to
fluctuatingloadsin service, the frequency or amplitude of vibration may be sufficient
to cause distress to users or local damage to the structure.

13.2 BEAMS FOR BUILDINGS


Vibration should be considered in the design of composite floor structures of
high span-to-depth ratio that may be subjected to dynamic or impact loading, for
example from machinery or fork-lift trucks.

13.3 BEAMS FOR BRIDGES


In highway bridges, the effects of vibration due to traffic need not be considered.
In footbridges and cycle track bridges, consideration should be given to the
vibration which can be induced by resonance with the movement of users.

127
COMMENTARY

14.2
In geneml the following tolerances are realistic for construction without a mortar
bed:

Length of surface
Shear connection Tolerance considered

Studs 1.0
0.3
Friction grip 1.0
bolting 0.3

128
RECOMMENDATIONS

Section 14. Composite beam


with precast slab

14.1 GENERAL
For the design of the concrete slab, its reinforcement, the beams, and the shear
connectors the same rules have to be applied as for concreteaslabscast in situ, unless
stated otherwise in this Section.

14.2 JOINT BETWEEN STEEL BEAM AND CONCRETE SLAB


The application of a mortar bed generally requires a steel flange not less than
300 mm wide.
If the slab is laid without a mortar bed, the vertical tolerances of the flatness of
the bearing surface between the concrete slab and the steel flange must be small
enough to avoid excessive local stress in the concrete slab, especially in case of
friction grip-bolting according to 14.4.3.
Care has to be taken to protect the upper flange of the steel beam against cor-
rosion.

14.3 SHEAR CONNECTION


If shear connectors welded to the steel beam fit into joints and/or recesses of the
concrete slabs which are filled with concrete after erection, the size and shape of
recess and quality and method of compacting of concrete in-fill should be checked
by tests in accordance with 6.5.
'If shear connectors are embedded in the concrete of the slab and connected with
the steel beam after erection of the slab, care has to be taken to avoid damage to
the concrete by excessive heat, if welding is used.

14.4 TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT


Where a joint between the concrete slabs is parallel to the steel beam and above
the steel beam, continuous transverse reinforcement is not required, but the require-
ments of 7.2 have to be fulfilled for each of the two slabs independently.
COMMENTARY

14.5
Tension member required

1-
-
I I

Columns
\r
+ i

Ii
Joints between deck slabs, + Region of increased pressure
above steel beams of stud against slab
- Region of decreased pressure
of stud against slab

Figure C14.1

130
RECOMMENDATIONS

14.5 CONCRETE DECK AS DIAPHRAGM


If the concrete deck of a composite structure is designed to resist lateral forces,
account should be taken of the interaction between the resulting horizontal shear
forces and those due to the effects of the composite action, as these may add up in
the joints between the concrete slabs parallel to the steel beam.
Tension forces in the edges of the concrete deck may require additional transverse
reinforcement in the slabs or tension members connecting the steel beams.

. .

14.6 SHRINKAGE AND CREEP


Reduced values for shrinkage and creep of the concrete slab may be introduced
by considering the age of the precast slabs at the time of erection. Appropriate
values should be used for a slab composed of a precast slab and a layer of in-situ
concrete.

131
COMMENTARY

I '
15.1.1 I
For designs involving the composite action between a profired steel sheetlcon-
Crete slab with the supporting beams, see Section 6 for shear connector design and
5.1.2 for effective thickness of flange.

Figure C15.1 Typical floor with profiled steel sheets: (1) floor finish; (2) profded
sheet; (3) structural concrete, (4) mesh reinforcement; (5) topping.

( 6 ) - deformations

Embossments Indentations
Figure C 15.2
RECOMMENDATIONS

Section 15. Composite floors


with profiled steel sheet'

15.1 SCOPE

1 5.1 .l COMPOSITE FLOORS


The design of these floors is based on the composite action which occurs between
profiled steel sheeting and concrete when spanning in the direction of the ribs.
Designs may be carried out on slabs for which the composite behaviour has been
established by test referred to in 15.4.2. Pure bond between steel sheet and concrete
is not considered effective for composite action which must be achieved by positive
mechanical interlock. This interlock may be ensured by one or more of the following
means:
a) the profde shape (with reentrant form),
b) deformation of the profile (indentation or embossment),
c) end anchorage.

133
15.1.2
For structures where the imposed load is largely repetitive or applied abruptly
in such a manner as to produce dynamic effects profiled steel sheet is permitted
provided the engineer gives careful consideration to its detailed design and use with
especial regard to maintaining the structural integn'ty of the composite action.
Treatment of vibration is covered in Section 13.

15.2.2
Depending on service conditions a coating class ranging from 100 g/m2 to 2 7.5
g/m2 has been found satisfactory.

15.2.3
For design calculations based on the guaranteed minimum yield stress the bare
metal thickness of the sheet shall be used. Where the yield stress is based on coupon
tests carried out on the galvanised material then it shall be made clear in calculations
that this is the effective yield stress of the material based on the total sheet thick-
ness.
15.2.4
The requirements for slab thickness and cover derive from consideration of
aggregate size and the structural integrity of composite slabs using certain profiled
steel sheets in a transverse direction.

Figure C 15.3

Minimurn thickness Maximum diameter of aggregate


of slab d-e
D G 3
d - e 2 50mm
d 3 90mm D < 30mm
D < w'/3
--

134
RECOMMENDATIONS

15.1.2 CLASSES OF STRUCTURE


This section applies to designs for building structures where the imposed loads
are predominantly static. Other applications are not excluded provided an appro-
priate design method is presented.

15.2 MATERIALS
15.2.1 STEEL
The basic material should be mild steel in accordance with Euronorms 25 - 1972
and 32 - 1966, with a minimum grade of Fe 360.

15.2.2 COATING
Galvanising should be in accordance with the IS0 standard on galvanising:
“Continuous hot-dip coated carbon steel sheet of structural quality, IS0 4998 -
1977”, (IS0 TC 17), or to National Standards.

15.2.3 MINIMUM SHEET THICKNESS


For floors where the profiled sheet constitutes the loadcarrying element as the
reinforcement the bare nominal metal thickness of sheet should not be less than
0.70 mm.

15.2.4 MINIMUM SLAB THICKNESS


The overall thickness of the slab shall not be less than 90 mm and cover over the
ribs not less than 50 mm.

135
COMMENTARY

15.3.3
In cases where the deflection is not greater than 20 mm it may be assumed that
the yonding effect is covered by the uniformly distributed construction load of
1.0 kN/m’. For deflections greater than 20 m m the ponding effect may be

136
RECOMMENDATIONS

15.2.5 TOLERANCE
Dimensions of a profiled steel sheet which is to be used compositely shall not
differ from the specified dimensions by more than the tolerance listed below.
Overall depth of deck t 4%
- 1%
Sheet thickness + 10%
- 5%
Dimension of shear transfer devices 4- 20%
- 10%
1 Spacing of shear transfer devices + 10%
Due to the variations in types of embossment and indentation the manufacturer
shall specify each form in an acceptable manner referring to depth, length, radii and
slopes and shall further maintain this form during manufacture within the above
tolerances.

I 15.3 DESIGN METHODS - SHUTTERING

15.3.1 LOADS
I The following loads shall be taken into consideration in calculations for the steel
deck as shuttering:
dead load of the deck,
dead load of the wet concrete,
construction loads.
The construction loads represent the weight of tradesmen and concreting plant
and take into account any impact or vibration which may occur during construction.
The construction loads shall be taken as the worst case of either a) a uniformly dis-
tributed design service load of 1.O kN/m2 or b) a knife edge service load of 1.5 kN/m
parallel to the supporting beam, placed in the most unfavourable position.
Wherever possible unsupported edges to the steel deck should be avoided other-
wise particular care should be taken during design and construction as unsupported
edges may suffer gross deformations when subjected to concentrated loads.

15.3.2 CALCULATIONS FOR STEEL DECKING


Design calculations should generally be in accordance with the European Recom-
mendations for steel structures. Decking may also be designed on an experiemental
basis in appropriate cases.

15.3 3 DEFLECTION
The requirements of IS0 proposal TC 98 SE 4 shall be observed. For deflections
greater than 20 mm the ‘ponding’ effect (increased concrete depths due to the
deflection of the sheeting) should be considered.

137
COMMENTARY

allowed for by considering'an extra uniformly distributed load of 0.7 x specific


weight of concrete (kN/m3)x central deflection (m) klV/m2 in addition to the
construction load.

r 0.7 x 6 x weight of concrete

Concrete to allow
for ponding effect

I
Deflection neglecting ponding effect

Figure C15.4 Ponding effect.

15.4.1

( 1 ) Effective bond ensured by profile shape. The interaction between profiled


steel decking and concrete in surface bond is complex. The bond developed
between a hardened concrete slab and a completely flat steel sheet is random
and may easily be destroyed by slight impact or by shrinkage of the concrete.
For this reason composite designs for plain open profiled sheets are not recom-
mended unless some form of positive interlock is employed. Plain profiled
sheets with some form of re-entrant angle develop a more reliable effective
bond with the concrete due to the interlocking shape.
(2) Deformations, anchor straps or other mechanical connections. Composite slabs
in this category rely on some form of discrete mechanical connection between
sheet and concrete slab.
For profiled sheets with deformations the composite action is dependent on
the type feg, inclined ribs or lugs, cusps, dimples, etc), depth and number of
deformations, and the span of the slab. Failure of the composite slab using this
type of sheet is generally by longitudinal shear. Design based on longitudinal
shear capacity is semi-empirical as referred to in Section 15.4.
Slabs with profiled sheets with anchor straps at discrete spacings throughout
the slab span may be designed on the same basis as composite beams with
shear connectors. With a known value of anchor strap shear strength the design
load m y be calculated.
The use of other types of mechanical connection will generally require tests
to establish the shear capacity of the connection, and to show an adequate
deformation capacity.

138
RECOMMENDATIONS

15.4 DESIGN AND TESTING OF COMPOSITE SLABS

15.4.1 COMPOSITE ACTION


The composite action which can occur between a profiled steel sheet and a con-
crete slab depends on the degree of connection present at the interface between the
concrete and steel. Composite action may be achieved in at least one of the follow-
ing ways:
1) by effective bond ensured by the profile shape (with a re-entrant form);

2) by deformations in the profiled sheet, anchor straps or other mechanical


connections positioned throughout the span;

3) by anchorages at the ends of each span of the slab preventing slip between
the concrete and the profiled sheet.
The ultimate load at the limit state of collapse is identified by two main failure
modes (see also 2.1), which are as follows.
a) Longitudinal shear in slabs with incomplete shear connection. The behaviour
of such slabs under test is characterised by slip failure.
b) Flexure in slabs with complete shear connection. The slab is able to develop
full flexural strength.
Either failure mode is possible for a composite slab using a particular profiled
steel sheet. The mode is primarily dependent on the span and depth of the slab.
Design for longitudinal shear shall be based on test information for each type of
profiled steel sheet. The tests should provide data for the ultimate strength design
equations and are referred to in 15.4.2 and 15.4.3.
Design for flexure may be based on conventional reinforced concrete theory for
the ultimate state provided tests carried out initially for each type of profiled steel
sheet have confirmed that failure is by flexure. The tests are referred to in 15.4.2
and 15.4.3.

139
COMMENTARY

(3) Anchorages. Composite action between the steel decking and concrete slab can
be ensured by the use of anchorages at the ends of the span which prevent slip
between the concrete slab and the profiled sheet. Anchorages of this type m y
be provided to produce composite action with plain profiled sheets or to
enhance the load-caving capacity of a composite floor slab. The anchorages,
which may take the form illustrated in Figure C15.5,are required at end sup-
ports for simply supported slabs and at the ends of each span for continuous
slabs.
Tests must be carried out to indicate that:
I ) the anchorage is effective, and
2) the proposed design method for the slab is satisfactoty. I
If it is proposed to omit anchorage at internal supports this must be justified
by test.

d
Figure C15.S Anchorage at end support.

Design for flexure. Propping during the construction stage has no effect on the ulti-
mate strength of the composite slab.

15.4.2

I f type I tests are made over a sufficient range of parameters, information may
be obtained on the effective bond or anchorage force which may then be inserted
into appropriate design expressions to give an approximate general method of
calculation.
If type 2 tests are made, the test must be full gcale and must simulate the actual
site conditions and the results obtained may not be interpolated or extrapolated for
other cases.
Type 3 tests are for composite slabs with an abnormal structural form (eg, skew-
slabs) or for special loadings (eg,fork-lift trucks).

140
RECOMMENDATIONS

15.4.2 THE USE OF TEST RESULTS


For each of the three forms of composite action considered in 15.4.1, three
types of test may be carried out, as follows.
1. Tests carried out to establish a semiempirical basis for design (15.4.3).

2. Tests carried out on a particular structural application in accordance with


standard test procedures (1 5.4.4).

3. Tests carried out to establish a design for a specific structural application


using non-standard test procedure.
In general, every application of test results to a structure should take account of
the current building and safety regulations.

141
COMMENTARY

15.4.3
A typical graph of longitudinal shear failure is shown in Figure C1.5.6.

V€ maximum experimental shear (NI


=I

s = spacing of shear transfer device


(mm)
b = slab width (mm)
fc = concrete cylinder strength
i (N/mm* 1
m = slope of 15% reduction line
d = effective depth (mm)
k = intercept on 15% reduction line 1
Lv = distance from support to nearer
point load in a symmetrical two
point loading system (shear
length).
P = reinforcement ratio.

Figure C15.6

To establish the design relationship for longitudinal shear capacity, tests are
required on specimens in regions A and B indicated in Figure C15.6. Region A
includes specimens with small slab depths and region B with larger depths and small
shear lengths. A minimum number of three tests in each region is sufficient pro-
vided the variation from the mean of the three results is not greater than 2795%.
When the variation is greater than +7%%three further tests should be carried out
and the six test results may be used to obtain the regression line. The regression line
is reduced by up to 15% to ensure that the experimental value willgenerally fall
above the reduced line and to account for some minor variations in the test results,
profile thickness and dimensions. When eight or more tests are carried out the
reduction line may be taken as 10% below the regression line.

15.4.4
A minimum of three full-scale tests shall be carried out on the proposed floor
construction using actual loading, or, in the case of uniformly distributed loads,
a close simulation of the loadingas shown in Figure C15.7.In the case of continuous
spans, either multiple spans shall be tested or the support moments simulated on a
single span.
The width of the slab should have a value not less than each ofi
i) three times the overall depth
ii) 600 mm, and
iii) width of the profiled sheet.
Thin steel-plate crack inducers extending to the full depth of the slab and coated
with a debonding agent shall be placed across the full width of the test slab. Alter
natively, the crack inducer may be limited to the tensile zone of the concrete. In

142
RECOMMENDATIONS

15.4.3 TESTING. SEMI-EMPIRICAL BASIS OF DESIGN (TYPE 1, 15.4.2)

15.4.3.1 General
The variables to be investigated include the type of steel decking, steel deck
properties, loading arrangement, concrete properties and shear lengths. From these
tests the ultimate applied load, the mode of failure and the load/deflection and
load/slip performance is obtained.

15.4.3.2 Design load - longitudinal shear mode


To derive a representative linear relationship for the ultimate longitudinal shear
capacity the full practical range of values of slab depth and shear lengths should be
covered in the tests.
The design load is determined from the test information using the coefficients
~

derived from a reduction of the regression line (see Figure C15.6). Typically, the
calculated ultimate shear capacity is:

(15.1)
where 9 is a capacity reduction factor (= 0.8) based on the mode of failure and the
behaviour prior to,failure. Some adjustment to Vu may be necessary to allow for
the dead load resulting from propping.

15.4.3.3 Design load - flexural mode


To establish that design can be based on flexural capacity, tests should be carried
out. Generally three tests shall be performed at the minimum span and three tests
at the maximum span of the range, for different slab thicknesses.
Provided the ultimate experimental failure load is greater than the calculated
ultimate flexural design load then conventional reinforced concrete theory may be
used.

15.4.4 TESTING. FULL SCALE SLAB (TYPE 2,15.4.2)

15.4.4.1 General
This type of test is carried out for a particular structural application where the
test arrangement simulates the actual site conditions. The result obtained shall not
be extrapolated for other cases and careful consideration shall be given to any
interpolation of these results. The test procedure is intended to represent load-
ing over a period of time. Crack inducers are used to ensure that cracks form in the
tensile zone of the slab.

15.4.4.2 Design load


For a proposed design imposed load P the slab should be subjected to 10 000
cycles of load between approximately 0.3P and 1.5P followed by loading to failure
under static load P,. The design load is the minimum value from three tests of:

143
COMMENTARY

the case of four-point loading these shall be positioned under the central point
loads as shown in Figure Cl5.7.
Concrete and outline
of crack inducers

Figure C 15.7
I
The surface of the steel decking shall be used in the ‘asrolled’ condition, no
attempt being made to improve adherence of the concrete by degreashg the sur-
face of the sheets.

I 144
RECOMMENDATIONS

a) from dynamic loading - P


b) from static loading with complete shear connection, ie, no excessive slip -
PU/2.
c) from static loading with incomplete shear connection, ie, sudden excessive
slip - Pu/3.
d) from deflection - one half of the load at a deflection of span/50.

15.4.5 LOADING
The loads to be taken into consideration for the design of the steel deck have
been given in 15.3.1.
The following loads shall be taken into consideration in the design of the com-
posite slab:
prop reactions,
dead loads (topping, insulation, false ceilings, services, etc),
live loads.
The structural system is in general that of a beam continuous over several spans.

15.4.6 NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT


The negative support moments should be taken by top reinforcement designed
in accordance with normal reinforced concrete practice.
When the slab is designed as a series of simply supported beams there is a risk
that cracks will develop over the supports under working loads. In order to reduce
this form of cracking, the following minimum percentage of top reinforcement
should be used:

145
COMMENTARY

15.4.7

I I

I' -1

Figure C15.8 Distribution of concentrated loads: (1) transverse reinforcement;


(2) durable topping.

Effective load width (measured in the concrete immediately above the ribs):
bm=b,+2a+2(d-e)
Effective breadth of the slab:

Bending: simple beam:

continuous beam: bt = bm +
4
(I - 5)
x'

Shear: bt'= bm + (I-%)Y


where
x' = the distance from the support to the load,
Q = the span of the deck.

146
RECOMMENDATIONS

15.4.7 DISTRIBUTION OF CONCENTRATED LOADS


When point or line loads are considered in the calculations, an effective breadth
of the slab may be assumed.
If point or line loads are the design criterion, the distribution of these loads
should be ensured by the use of transverse reinforcement in this region. This shoulc
be placed on the deck and its section should be at least 0.2% of the gross concrete
section.

147
~- -__ ___

COMMENTARY

16.1
Composite columns may be used not on& as columns for buildings and bridges,
but they may be used also for load-bearing stmctures exposed to fire, transmission
towers, temporary structures, etc. I
I

16.2.1
The mild and high yield structural steel should conform with accepted European
grades or corresponding national grades with a yield strain not exceeding 0.2%
unless test results show that methods contained herein can be applied to higher
yield steels. The structural steel components may be either rolled or fabricated
sections.
16.2.2
The concrete should be a normal density or lightweight concrete with a charac-
teristic cylinder strength of not less than 20 Nlmm’ and with a maximum aggregate
size not exceeding u/3 for concrete encased steel sections, d/6 for concrete filled
steel tubes, and in no case greater than specified in the Model Code for Concrete
Structures. The concrete of encased sections must have longitudinal and transverse
reinforcement. No reinforcement is needed for concrete filled steel hollow sections,
however additional reinforcement can be used for fire protection requirements.
Note: U and d are as shown in Figure 16.I .

16.3.1
The structural steel members should be encased in, or filled with concrete over
the whole column length if the simplified methods given in this commentary are to
be used. The major and minor axes of composite column sections should be taken
as the major and minor axes of the structural steel section.

Figure C 16.1 Encased composite columns, additional cross-sections.

148
RECOMMENDATIONS

Section 16. Composite columns

16.1 SCOPE
This section applies to composite columns of buildings and bridges, which may
be either concrete encased steel sections or concrete filed steel tubes in which con-
crete and steel interact completely to resist the load. The columns may be either
statically determinate, or rigidly connected to other members at one or both ends.

16.2 MATERIALS

16.2.1 STRUCTURAL STEEL


The characteristic values of properties are given in Recommendations for Steel
Construction - European Convention for Constructional Steelwork - Sections 2
and 3.

16.2.2 CONCRETE AND REINFORCEMENT STEEL


The characteristic values of properties are given in the CEB/FIP Model Code for
Concrete Structures, Sections 2 , 3 , 4 , 1 0 and Appendix C.

16.3 COMPOSITE COLUMN CROSS-SECTIONS

16.3.1 GENERAL
The design of composite columns with cross-sections of the following type
(Figure 16.l)is based on fully composite action up to failure between the structural
steel elements and the concrete elements including reinforcement.

I
I Figure 16.1 Composite column cross-sections.

149
COMMENTARY

16.3.2
The symmetrical built-up sections with open webs of the types shown in Figure
C16.1, eg, double-channels or four angles, with intermediate and end battens may
also be used in encased columns (see R Q Bridge and J W Roderick, ‘Behaviourof
built-up composite columns ”, ASCE, St 7,July I 9 78).
In the case of unsymmetdcal structural steel sections encased in concrete, or
steel columns which are partially encased in concrete insufficient test results are
available, so that further considerations will be needed before their use in design.

16.3.3
b is the external dimension at the wall of a rectangular hollow section.
d is the outside diameter ofa circular hollow section.
Es is Young’s modulus of elasticity of steel.
f r is the characteristic yield strength of the steel.
The limitations on wall thickness are needed to control local buckling. Where
these limitations are not met it is possible to allow for the reduced effectivenessof
the steel in column strength calculations (see J P Grimault and J Janss, ‘Xeduction
of the bearing capacity of concrete filled hollow sections due to local buckling”,
Prelim Report, Stability of Steel Structures, Liege, I9 77).

16.3.4
In Equation (16.3)h, = the height of the structural steel section. Nearly all test
specimens had a concrete cover of 2 40 mm. For larger cross-sections the coverlh,
ratio must be geometrically similar to that ratio adopted in the test specimens.
The limits for encased I-sections may be the same as for concrete filled sections:
0.1 < a C 0.8and are based on parameter ranges studied at Imperial College. (See
A K Basu and W Sommerville, “Derivation of formulae for the design of rectangular
composite columns’: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers Supplemen-
tary Volume,Paper 7206S,1969.)

In the formulae from (16.6) to ( I 6.13) the symbols have the following meaning:
Ac, As, Ar : ,The area of the concrete cover or core, area of the structural
steel section and the area of reinforcement respectively.
f c k , f s k , frk : The characteristic strengths of concrete, structural steel and
reinforcement respectively. The values must be taken according
to the recommendations of Clause 16.2.
Tmc, YmS, Tmr : Material partial safety factors of concrete, structural steel and
reinforcement respectively. The values must be taken according
to the recommendations of Clause 16.2.
0
For the purpose of comparisons between short-term test results and calculated
load-canying capacities, fck should be taken as fck = 0.83fa.

150
RECOMMENDATIONS

16.3.2 STRUCTURAL STEEL SECTIONS


The steel sections used in encased columns can be standard rolled I or H sections
or any symmetrical fabricated sections of solid web construction. The minimum
height of section h, must be not less than 100 mm.

16.3.3 STEEL HOLLOW SECTIONS


Steel tubes used in concrete filled tubular construction may be hot-rolled or fab-
bricated rectangular or circular sections. The steel hollow sections should have a
wall thickness of not less than:
w m -. for rectangular hollow sections (16.1)
or
d d m s - for circular hollow sections (16.2)
The minimum outside diameter of circular hollow sections must be not less than
100 mm. The minimum dimensions of rectangular hollow sections must be not less
than 100 x 80 mm and square hollow sections not less than 100 x 100 mm.

16.3.4 CONCRETE COVERING, FILLING AND REINFORCEMENT


The concrete cover which may be taken into account, should have a depth U
(Figure 16.1) of:
40 mm < U < 0.3hS. (16.3)
The cross-section property, given by the concrete contribution parameter a, as
defined below, should lie between the following limits:
0.2 < a < 0.8 - for concrete encased sections, and (16.4)
0.1 < a < 0.8 - for concrete filled steel hollow sections (16.5)
The concrete contribution parameter a is given by:
N", (16.6)
a=Fq
where (16.7)
and (16.8)
where (16.9)
and (16.10)
where (16.1 1)
(16.12)
and (1 6.13)

151
COMMENTARY

A suggested minimum diameter for the four longitudinal bars is 8 mm. It is also
possible to provide suitable steel mesh to prevent concrete spalling.
A limit of 3% is placed on ArlAc as this corresponds to the maximum percentage
used in tests on composite columns to date. This figure may be increhsed if test
results show the methods described herein to be applicable to design.

16.3.5
It is assumed that composite action between structural steel section and concrete
including reinforcement takes place u p to failure. This provides uniform loading of
the whole cross-section;I t must be ensured by adequate detailing of connections
and joints. ,

16.3.6
The lengths used in slender column tests reported to date did not exceed forty-
five times the least laterd dimension of the column cross-section. Converted into
x
the slenderness ratio this Q/dratio gives about h = 2.0. In cases where Q/d> 30 or
Q > 12 m it will be necessary to ensure that special instructions are given so that
the concrete filling operation can be carried out adequately.

16.4.I
A non-linear stress-strain curve for concrete is given in Figure 5.I , Clause 5.4.1.3.
Design tables and charts which have been obtained by an analytical method
using these basic principles may be safely used for the design of composite columns:
for example, Monographie No 5,fascicule I et 2, Talcul des poteaux en profils
crew remplis de beton. Methode de calcul et technologie de mise en oeuvre”
(French, German and English version) edited by CIDECT, I9 79. The background is
explained by R Anslijn, J Janss, in Tomputation of the ultimate loads of steel
columns encased with concrete ” (in French), CRIF Report MT89, April 1974.
Comments on the theoretical and experimental background to Clause 16.4 are con-
tained in the Manual on Stability of Steel Structures, Appendix A (ECCS, 1976).

152
RECOMMENDATIONS

where f d , f d , frd = design strength of concrete, structural steel and reinforcement


respectively.
To prevent local spalling of the concrete in a concrete encased section, reinforce-
ment should be provided in concrete encased sections. Stirrups of an appropriate
diameter should be provided throughout the length of the column at a spacing not
exceeding 20 mm. At least four longitudinal bars should be provided, capable of
supporting the reinforcing cage during concreting.
Longitudinal bars included in the calculation of column strength should have
cross-sectional area given by the limit:

(1 6.14)

The concrete cover to the reinforcement should not be less than the minimum
permitted in the CEB/FIP Model Code for Concrete Structures, nor less than
25 mm for longitudinal bars.

16.3.5 COMPOSITE ACTION


If the shear stresses at the steel-concrete interface are excessive, then mechanical
shear connectors are needed. They should be designed in accordance with the recom-
mendations of Sections 6 , 7 and 8 of this Code.

16.3.6 SLENDERNESS LIMITATION


The column length should be such that the slenderness ratio h as defined in
Clause 16.5 should not exceed 2.0.

16.4. LOAD-CARRYING CAPACITY ANALYSIS

16.4.1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES


Any inelastic column analysis which complies with the principles listed below
may be applied:
. - There exists complete interaction between steel and concrete up to collapse.
- Sections which are plane before bending remain plane after bending.
- A non-linear stress-strain curve for concrete according to the CEB/FIP Model
Code for Concrete Structures should be used. Concrete in tension should be
assumed to have zero strength.
- Ideal elastic - ideal plastic stress-strain curves for structural steel and reinfor-
cing bars may be used, which comply with the ECCS European Recommen-
dations for Steel Construction and the CEB/FIP Model Code for Structures
respectively.

153
COMMENTARY

Generally it is more convenient to assume only representative geometrical im-


perfections, which may be chosen according to the ECCS European Recommen-
dations for Steel Construction. They should be consistent with those adopted for
assessing the strength of axially loaded bare steel columns.

16.4.2
Alternatively,empirical methods which have been shown to lead to safe designs
may be used. One &ch method is the equivalent pin-ended column approach in 1
which the restrained column is replaced by a pin-ended column of length equal to
the effective length of the restrained column and having end eccentricities propor-
tional to its stiffitess as determined by a linear elastic analysis of the restrained
column as a frame with joint moments.

16.5.I
In the Equations (16.35) - ( I 6.19) the symbols have the following meanings:
N = normal force acting in the column;
Nu = as is given in Equation ( I 6.8) of Clause 16.3.4;
Qk = effective column length which should be determined as given for bare
steel columns in ECCS European Recommendationsfor Steel Construc-
tion;
I,, Is, I, = second moment of the total area of the concrete part assumed to be
uncracked, the steel section, and the reinforcement respectively;
E, = as is defined in Clause C16.3.3;
E, = elastic modulus of longitudinal reinforcement.
The application of the ECCS column curves for bare steel columns to the predic-
tion of composite column strength is discussed in the Manual of Stability of Steel
Structures and by K S Virdiand P J Do wling in '2unified design method for com-
posite columns 7 ISBSE Publications, Volume 3644 Zurich, 1976.
In the case of concrete filled steel hollow sections, the tubes retard the concrete
curing. As a result the influence of long-term loading on the time-dependent con-
crete strains is smaller than in the core concrete casing.

154
RECOMMENDATIONS

The applied forces, bending moments, resulting stresses etc should be calculated
using second order theory (p - A effects). Proper account has to be taken of the
decrease in stiffness due to the spread of plastified and cracked zones.
Geometrical and structural imperfections of materials, including residual stresses
in rolled or welded sections have to be assumed as appropriate. Creep and shrinkage
parameters for the concrete part have to be chosen in accordance with the CEB/FIP
Model Code for Concrete Structures.

16.4.2 MOMENTS AND FORCES IN COLUMNS


The moments and forces acting in the two principal planes of the column at the
ultimate limit state should be determined by an appropriate inelastic analysis in
which due account has been taken of the end restraints afforded by members
framing into the ends of columns.

16.5 DESIGN METHOD

16.5.1 GENERAL
The composite column should be designed so that:
i) the maximum factored moment on each axis is not greater than the design
ultimate moment of resistance of the section about the corresponding axis
M < Mu (16.15)
where MU is defined as appropriate in the two hand methods given in the
commentary ;
ii) the factored load on the column is not greater than the ultimate loadcarry-
ing capacity of the composite column about the appropriate axis
N < Nk (1 6.1 6)
The design ultimate moment of resistance of the section Mu depends on the type
and properties of the composite cross-section and the location of its principal axis.
The ultimate load-carrying capacity of the composite column is given by:
Nk = KN, (1 6.1 7)
K = reduction factor dependent on the equivalent slenderness ratio x,the
effective buckling curves for bare steel columns according to the ECCS
European Recommendations for Steel Construction, materials and cross-
sectional properties, shape and ratios of bending moment distribution in
column.
= equivalent slenderness ratio as given by:

N U
(1 6.1 8)
x=JNa

155
COMMENTARY

K1l Squash load

Euler critical load

0.5

I
I I
I w
0.5 1.o 1.5 2.0 x I
Figure C16.2 European buckling curves for bare steel columns.

Shape of steel section Curve K 1 for column curves


Rolled tubes
x a b c
Welded tubes a 0 1.000 1,000 1.000
0.1 1.000 1.000 1.000
Nelded box sections 0.2 1.000 1.000 1.000
X- x=h, 0.3 0.978 0.965 0.951
y-y=by 0.4 0.954 0.925 0.900
0.5 0.923 0.885 0.844
0.6 0.884 0.838 0.783
0.7 0.845 0.785 0.719
0.8 0.796 0.727 0.654
['and H rolled sections - buck,ing about 0.9 0.739 0.663 0.593
the x x axis 1.0 0.675 0.599 0.537
h/b> 1.2 1.1 0.606 0.537 0.486

.! 1'
h/b< 1.2 1.2 0.542 0.480 0.438
- buckling about
the y y axis 1.3 0.480 0.429 0.395
h/b 1.2 1.4 0.427 0.383 0.357
Y hlb 1.2
1.5 0.381 0.343 0.323
I and H welded sections '

- buckling about 1.6 0.341 0.307 0.293


x x axis 1.7 0.306 0.277 0.265
e) flame cut flanges 1.8 0.277 0.250 0.241
b) rolled flanges 1.9 0.251 0.227' 0.220
- buckling about 2.0 0.228 0.207 0.202
y y axis
a) flame cut flanges b I

.I and H sections stress


rdieved by heat treatment
- buckling about x x axis
i
r{ a
- bxkling about y y axis b
V

Table C16.1 Strut curve selection chart and values of coefficient K I for column
curves.

156
RECOMMENDATIONS

N, = Euler critical load


lr2
N, = 2 (E,Ic t EsIs t ErIr) (16.19)
l k
E, = effective concrete elastic modulus
E, = 6 0 0 f d (16.20)
A discussion of the value of Ec to be adopted for strength predictions is con-
tained in the previously quoted reference. Subsequent numerical studies showed
that the value given by (16.20) was satisfactory for design purposes.
In the absence of more exact information it is permissible to account for the
effects of the timedependent strains of concrete on the carrying capacity of
encased structural steel sections by reducing the elastic modulus of concrete to:
E, = 300fk (16.2 1)
If only part of the load acting on the column is permanent, then linear inter-
polation is permitted between the values of Equations (16.20) and (16.21):
N permanent
E,, = E, ,1 - 0.5 (16.22)
N
A reduction of concrete elastic modulus is not required for concrete filled steel
hollow sections except in the case of very slender columns with large values of the
concrete contribution parameter.
In the case of short axially loaded composite columns consisting of concrete
filled circular steel tubes, provided d/t exceeds twenty, a higher concrete strength
due to the beneficial effects to the confinement and a lesser steel strength may be
taken into account. Then the squash load Nu is given by:
NU = NUC + NUS,
where Nu, = Ac fcd; (1 6.23)
NUS = As fsd; (16.24)
fcd = [fck + 771 fsyI/rmc; (16.25)
fsd = r)2fsy/rms. (16.26)
r), and q2 are constants where values are listed in the table below for different
values of Q/d.

Q/d r)l r)2

0 9.78 0.76
5 6.60 0.80
10 3.94 08 5
15 1.86 0.90
20 0.49 ' ' 0.95
25
~
0.00- 1.oo
Table 16.1 The values of factors q l and 772.

157
COMMENTARY

16.5.2
The value of coefficient K l may be taken either from Figure Cl 6.2 or Table
C16.1 taking due account of the steel section involved and the value of slenderness
ratio given by Equation (16.18).I t may also be calculated by the formula

where i
6 = 0.158 for curve a,
= 0.281 for curve b,
= 0.384 for curve c.

16.5.3 and 16.5.4


Two methods are given here.that comp& with these Clauses.

Method A

(Cl 6.2)

where
K 1 is derived as in Clause 16.5.2,
K 2 and K 3 are determined as below,
M = maximum factored moment acting about the appropriate axis, calculated
in accordance with clause 16.4.2,
Mu = design ultimate moment of resistance calculated about the appropriate
axis as given later in the Commentary.
Equation (C16.2)governs for columns subjected to uniaxial bending about the
minor axis. Columns subjected to major axis moments, but unrestrained from fail-
ing about the minor axis are likely to fail in biaxial bending and the requirements of
Clause 16.5.4 should be met.
Coefficient K 2 : Values of the coefficient K 2 about each axis may be calculated as
follows between the limits:
OGK2 GK2 ( ~ ~ 0 )
and
K2 (Q = 0 ) Q 0.75
except that if K 2 is calculated to be negative it should be taken as zero.
K 2 (Q = o)= 0.9a2 + 0.2

158
RECOMMENDATIONS
I 1

In cases where a column carries loads before the composite action has taken
place, this column has to meet the requirements for bare steel columns. In calcula-
ting the loadcarrying capacity of the composite column the preloading of the steel
section should be considered as appropriate.

16.5.2 AXIALLY LOADED COLUMNS


For axially loaded columns expression (1 6.16) should be satisfied by using the
value of K1which depends on the equivalent slenderness X about the appropriate
axis and is based on the buckling curves for bare steel columns given in the ECCS
Recommendations for Steel Construction.

16.5.3 COMBINED AXIAL COMPRESSION AND UNIAXIAL BENDING


Any inelastic beam-column design method which complies with the principles
set out in Clause 16i4.1, conforms to the preceding Clauses 16.2 and 16.3, and
which can be shown to produce safe results (for example, by testing) may be used
to design composite columns subjected to combined axial compression and bending.
Two methods which are acceptable are given in the Commentary. In each case the
interaction curves generated by validated beamcolumn analyses have been used as
bases for design.

16.5.4 COMBINED AXIAL COMPRESSION AND BIAXIAL BENDING


Design methods derived from inelastic analyses based on the same principles are
referred to in the preceding Clause may be used to determine the strength of columns
failing in a biaxial mode. Approximations of biaxial interaction surfaces are used in
the two methods presented in the Commentary. A more accurate design approach is
available and referred to in the Commentary.

159
COMMENTARY

For concrete encased steel sections and concrete filled rectangular tubes
Kz = K ~ ( =Q0) {I90 - 25 (2P - 1) (1.8 - a) - ijx] 1/30 (2.5 - P)J/
while for concrete filled circular tubes:
K z = Kz+o) { [ l l s - 30(2fl- 1)(1.8- a ) - iix]l[SO(2.1- fl)]]
where
6 = the ratio of the smaller to the larger of the two end moments acting about
each axis, used with the additional subscripts x and y to denote the plane
of bending under consideration, the sign convention being such that (3 is
positive for single curvature bending; I
Q = 100 for columns designed to curve a,
= 120 for columns designed to curve b,
= 135 for columns designed to curve c.

Coefficient K3: Values of the coefficient K 3 m y be calculated as follows for con-


crete encased steel sections and concrete filled rectangular steel tubes:
For major axis bending, K3X= 0
For minor axis bending,
= 0.425 - 0.07Sfly - 0.005 $,but should be within the limits,
(0.2 - 0.25a)2 2 0.03 ( 1 +fly).
In the case of concrete filled circular steel tubes,
-
K J = K J ( g= 0) + { [ ( O S 6 + 0.4)(a' 0.5) + O.l5]X/(l +I3)/
where K 3 (g = 0) = 0.04 - ails and should never be taken as less than zero.

Calculation of Mu for composite sections


The design ultimate moment of resistance of the concrete encased stmctural steel
and concrete filled hollow sections about the appropriate axis may be given as
Mu = e,
NUS

where NUSis determined from Equation ( I 6.9) or ( 1 6.24).


eu is the design ultimate eccentncity of the composite section and may be taken:
for concrete encased steel section whose plastic axis is outside the steel section -
major and minor axis bending (Figures C16.3 and Cl 6.4) - as
- -1 -
(Ash-- + frdAr dr),.
-2As bP fsd
for concrete encased steel sections whose plastic neutral axis is within the top
flange - .major axis bending (Figure Cl 6.5)- as

160
RECOMMENDATIONS

161
COMMENTARY

r *
C16.3 C16.4 C16.5
b
I
b
t I 1

C16.6 C16.7 C16.8

t b

C16.9
VI

I- d

Figures C16.3 - C16.9 The dimensions of concreteencased and concrete-filled


steel sections and location of plastic neutral axis in bending.

162
RECOMMENDATIONS

163
COMMENTARY

for concrete-encased steel section whose plastic neutral axis is in web - major axis
bending (Figure Cl 6.6) - as:
- [Ash + 2t,dL - 2bftf(dS- d,) - ht,
(As + 2twdw) jfrd
- 2As pb + 2t, fsd
for concrete-encased steel section whose plastic neutral axis is in flanges - minor
axis bending (Figure C16.7) - as:

e, = - 1
2AS IASh + 4tfd3 -
u
pb + 4tf
2
+‘4t ) +f*d
fsd
Add,.

for concrete filled rectangular hollow section (Figure Cl 6.8) - as:

pb + 4tf
for concrete filled circular hollow section (Figure C16.9) - as:

e, = ec +-29
n (es - e,);
where

e = [I-
2(t+tX)

tx = % (d - 2t) (1 - J T p )
d 1 AS
‘OStx(d-2t- tx)+2t(d- t )

2 ( d - 2t) sin3 9
e, =
3(2e - sin’ 9 )

e, = sin 9 [d3 - ( d - 2t)3/


39 [d2 - ( d - t ) 2 ]
p = the concrete to structural steel strength ratio as given by
0.48 f a d
= rmcfsd
fed, f d , f d = design values of concrete, structural steel and reinforcement
strengths respectively as defined in Equations ( 16.1 I ) , ( 16.12) and ( 16.13) of
Clause 16.3.4.
As, Ar = area of structural steel section and reinforcement respectively.

16.5.4
For columns failing in biaxial bending conditions ( I 6.15) and ( I 6.16) should be
satisfied by taking the coefficient K as Kxr as given by
- 1
Kxy - -1+ - + -1 1
Kx Ky KlX

164
RECOMMENDATIONS

165
COMMENTARY

I
I where
K 1x = the K 1coefficientfor the column with no end moments constrained
to bend about the major axis only as determined from clause 16.5.2.
K x , Ky coefficientfor the column bending about the major and minor axes
respectively as determined from Equation (Cl 6.2).

Method B
16.5.3
To design columns subjected to axial compression and uniaxial bending, the
forces have to be calculated using second oder theory ( p - A effects). These fac- I
toted moments should not exceed the ultimate cross-sectional strength at any
position along the column length. The design procedure is illustrated graphically
below:

-.N
NU

Figure C16.10

The limiting axial load capacity, Nk,can be determined from Clause 16.5.2 as point
B in the above figure. A t this load level no additional bending moment can be
applied to the composite column. The accompanying bending moment, denoted by
Point A on the interaction curve is due solely to geometrikal imperfections and resi-
dual stresses.
The distance between the straight line 0 - A and the interaction curve denotes
the moment caving capacity:
Mk < 0.9sMu.
The following diagrams are presented to facilitate the use of this method:

166
RECOMMENDATIONS

167

I
.,-
A
COMMENTARY

1 .o

ae

0.6
Parameter -
a4 0.8

0.2

0 d

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 M


1.8 -
M"

Figure C16.12

Nu 1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

n
0.2 014 0.6 0.8 l'.O 1:2 1:s 1.6 1.8 E
M"
Figure C16.13

168
RECOMMENDATIONS

169
~

COMMENTARY

" t
N"
1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

U --- 0.2 0:s 0.6 018 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 .-


M
I
M"
Figure C16.14

16.5.4
For composite columns subjected to biaxial bending a three dimensional sur-
face instead of the above simple interaction curves should be used.
Onesimpleapproach which may be used is to calculate both moment carrying
capacities separately for each axis
Mk,x = 0.9& Mu,x
Mk,r = 0.9Sy Mu,y
Linear interpolation between the two uniaxiul moment carrying capacities
gives an interaction function for biaxial bending as shown graphically below.

Figure C16.15

170
i
RECOMMENDATIONS

171
COMMENTARY .

166.1
Composite columns subjected to transverse shear forces, V,may be designed
by assuming that the shear is resisted by the steel web alone for strong axis bend-
ing and the steel flanges alone for weak axis bending, Shear and noma1 stresses
should be combined and must not exceed the equivalent yield as given by the
von Mises yield criterion.

172
RECOMMENDATIONS

16.6 THE NEED TO PROVIDE MECHANICAL SHEAR CONNECTION

16.6.1 PROVISION OF SHEAR CONNECTORS ALONG COLUMN LENGTH


No mechanical shear connectors need be provided to either type of composite
column provided that at the factored ultimate load the shear at the interface
between steel and concrete complies with the following limitations:
T < 0.4 N/mm2 for concrete filled tubes,
T < 0.6 N/mm2 for concrete encased sections.
Where these limits are exceeded adequate shear connectors must be provided
unless it can be demonstrated by tests that no such connectors are needed to
achieve full interaction up to collapse.

16.6.2 SHEAR CONNECTORS AT BEAM-COLUMN INTERSECTIONS


Special attention should be paid to the way in which forces are transferred from
beams to columns to ensure that the basic principles outlined in Clause 16.4.1 are
applicable. A clearly defined load path which does not involve significant interface
slip between concrete and steel should be identified. In certain cases it may be
necessary to provide some form of mechanical shear connector in such regions to
ensure that the concrete and steel are equally strained to comply with the basic
assumptions of the design approach outlined within Clause 16.5.

16.7 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE

16.7.1 GENERAL
As well as conforming with the ultimate limit state columns must also be designed
to behave satisfactorily at the serviceability limit state. Two readily identifiable
serviceability limit states are excessive cracking and excessive deflections.

16.7.2 TENSILE CRACKMG OF CONCRETE


No check for crack control need be made for:
- concrete filled hollow steel sections,
- concrete encased steel sections in which the design axial load is greater than
N, = 0.23 uu A,.
Where the design axial load in concrete encased steel sections is less than the
value of N, given above the column should be considered as a beam for the purpose
of checking crack widths. Reinforcement should be provided in accordance with
the CEB/FIP Recommendations.

173
COMMENTARY

The number of possible combinations of different types of beam, column and


joint is so great that it is considered to be impracticable to give specific recom- I
mendations for composite frames for buildings. It is envisaged that appropriate
Clausesfiom the CEBIFIP and ECCS Recommendations will be used. 6

174
RECOMMENDATIONS.. .

Section 17. Framed structures


for buildings

175
COMMENTARY

If experimental evidence is not available on the cement which it is proposed to use,


it can be assumed for normal concretes that the values of the ratios between the
compressive strength at an age of j days and the compressive strength a t an age of
28 days are in accordance with the following table, which is valid for normal
temperatures (15-20°C).
Age of concrete (days) 3 7 28 90 360
Normal 0.40 0.65 1.00 1.20 1.35
Portland cement
Rapid-
hardening 0.55 0.75 1.00 1.15 1.20

I 176
RECOMMENDATIONS

Section 18. Workmanship and


construction

18.1 RESPONSIBILITY
Where several parties are involved in the design and construction of a composite
structure the responsibilities of the individuals or organisations appointed to under-
take the design, co-ordination, satisfactory completion and safe execution of the
works should be clearly defined at the start of the project.
18.2 SEQUENCE OF CONSTRUCTION I

The sequence of construction should be considered as an integral part of the


design process, for example, when calculating the stresses or deflections in a com- ~

posite section, and should be clearly indicated and described on the final design
plans and instructions to site.
I
Consideration should be given to the speed and sequence of concreting to I

prevent damage to partly matured concrete as a result of limited composite action


occurring from deformation of the steel beams under subsequent concreting
operations.
Where the composite section carries load before the concrete has attained its 28-
day cylinder strength, Pc, the basic strengths of shear connectors and elastic pro-
perties and limiting compressive stresses in the concrete should be based upon the
cylinder strength at the time considered, f,, except that no reduction in stiffness of
the concrete need be made if:
0.75,'f < f, < .,'f
Where the cylinder strength of the concrete at the time considered is not less
than 15 N/mm2, the basic strengths of shear connectors may be determined from
Section 6.
In prestressed composite beams, it is recommended that partial prestressing as
well as full prestressing of the concrete slab should not take place until the concrete
has reached the required compressive strength. To ensure this precondition tests
should be carried out, otherwise the procedure should be chosen in accordance
with CEB/FIP Recommendations.
Where a partially cast slab is assumed to act compositely the shear connection
must be designed for this condition as well as for the final condition.
The time-dependent effects of creep and shrinkage should be considered for all
stages of erection.

177
COMMENTARY

178
RECOMMENDATIONS

18 3 STABILITY OF STEELWORK
Usually stiffeners or cross-frames are required in order to ensure stability of the
steelwork, particularly before the section acts compositely. The stiffness of shutter-
ing or other similar formwork material is not sufficient to provide the necessary
lateral support.
The same attention to detail should be given to the calculations for safety against
buckling if jacking down of supports is used as the method of prestressing either the
steelwork or the composite structure. In this context, it may be advisable under
certain circumstances to measure the induced reactions and to compare them with
the calculated values, furthermore special consideration should be given to the
stability of lifting frames, jacks, packing materials etc. Horizontal forces caused by
bearing friction or resistance to longitudinal support movements should also be con-
sidered.

1 8.4 SUPPORT CONDITIONS DURING CONSTRUCTION


All support movements which occur during the various stages of construction
should be calculated in advance and carefully controlled on the site. Upon com-
pletion of the structure it is essential that a detailed check be made of all support
conditions, with particular emphasis given to any deviations from the planned
erection procedure which may have taken place. Careful consideration should be
given to the effects of future creep and shrinkage when predicting final support
conditions.

18.5 TEMPERATURE EFFECTS DURING CONSTRUCTION


Due to heat of hydration produced during the concrete setting process, loading
are induced into the structure, the magnitude and nature of which are not normally
covered by Code recommendations. If temperature load cases of this nature are not
adequately investigated in design calculations,the concreting sequence as well as the
measures taken to protect the fresh concrete from the weather should be so chosen
that the structure does not suffer damage as a result of overstressing.

18.6 ANCHORAGE OF PRESTRESSING CABLES


Special care should be exercised in the choice of both tensioning and anchorage
locations when concentrated prestressing forces are t o be increased or decreased. If
the tensioning locations are actually in the concrete flange, undesirably large pre-
stressing recesses in the form of notches or holes become necessary in order to
facilitate positioning of stressing jacks and to provide sufficient leeway for cable
extensions. This type of tensioning arrangement should only be chosen when the
resultant disruptive influence on the stress distribution within the flange can be
distributed over a relatively wide area. In other cases the cables should be drawn
out of the flange into built-up sections or ribs on the underside of the flange.

18.7 CONSTRUCTION ACCURACY AND QUALITY CONTROL OF


MATERIALS
The CEB/FIP Recommendations for structural concrete and the ECCS Recom-
mendations for Steel Construction apply t o composite construction.
179
18.8
i
a) : b)

Figure C18.1 a) Tension test; b) Bending test, c) Reversal bending test, d) Hammer
blow bending test.

180
RECOMMENDATIONS

If deflections of the steel beam by pouring of the concrete are significant their
values shall be given in the design calculation and on the drawings. Generally this
may not be necessary for beams in buildings of conventional structures but will
usually be necessary for bridges or similar structures. Sometimes it may be of a
certain importance to take into account the influence of an eventual slip in joints,
possible effects of residual mill stresses or welding stresses or other causes of
increased or reduced deflections.
The measured actual deflections shall be compared with the theoretical values.
Deviations from the desired form may be compensated by thicker dimensions of
concrete or wearing coat only if the additional loading is considered in the statical
analysis.

18.8 SHEAR CONNECTORS


The welding of block-type connectors, anchors and hoops should be in accor-
dance with the relevant Clauses of the ECCS Recommendations for Steel Construc-
tion. I
With regard to friction grip bolting the necessary measures to be taken during
the construction have already been described in Section 6.
The following recommendations are made for the welding of the stud connectors.
The proper values of the current strength and welding period should be determined
on the basis of trial weldings, supplemented by one or more of the following tests:
tension test,
bending test,
reversal bending test,
hammer blow bending test.
Only after these tests is it recommended to start welding on the steel structure.
The quality of the stud-welding there should be checked by visual inspection. Any
defective studs shall be replaced. In addition up to about 5% of the studs should be
bent by hammer blow over 15". Neither the noise made by the blow, nor visual
inspection shall indicate any crack in the welding. The studs may be left in the bent
position.
At the beginning of each new shift and after long interruptions it is advisable to
pay attention to the proper working of the welding equipment.

181
COMMENTARY

182
RECOMMENDATIONS

18.9 PRECAST CONCRETE SLABS FORMING THE FLANGES OF COMPOSITE


BEAMS
The necessary measures to be taken during the construction have already been
described in Section 14.

18.10 COMPOSITE FLOORS WITH PROFILED STEEL SHEETS


During construction steel sheets should be fixed in order to ensure connection
between the slab and beam, to keep them in position after laying and to transmit
horizontal forces. The sheets should be connected together with seam fasteners at a
maximum of 500 mm centres. Sheet edges should also preferably be fixed at the
same centres.
The minimum bearing of the profiled steel sheet shall be 40 mm along the edge
beams and 50 mm over intermediate beams.
Where shear stud connectors are to be welded through the sheet to the supporting
beams the following conditions shall apply:
1. The thickness of paint on the joist shall not exceed 50 microns.
2. When the sheet is ungalvanised the gross thickness shall not exceed 1.5 mm
and any corrosion present shall be minimal.
3. The overall thickness of a galvanised sheet shall not exceed 1.25 mm and
galvanising shall not exceed 30 microns on each face of the sheet.
4. The paint or the plastic coating underneath the sheet shall be removed
5. Wet conditions shall be avoided.
To avoid the corrosion of the steel decking all surface damage shall be made good.
Corrosion protection shall be generally increased when steel decking is to be used in
a highly humid atmosphere.

18.1 1 CONSTRUCTION OF COLUMNS


The concrete must be carefully chosen and its quality controlled. Material
property tests should be carried out under representative conditions at all stages of
preparation and casting. Special attention needs to be paid to the achievement of
satisfactory compaction particularly in the case of concrete-filled hollow steel tubes.
Vent holes should be provided at the base of concrete filled composite columns
as a precaution against fire. The use of steel fibre-reinforced concrete as a filling for
such columns is acceptable as a means of providing adequate fire protection provided
that sufficient evidence exists to substantiate its fire resistance. Where a substantial
amount of reinforcing bars are used in either type of column, consideration should
be given to the use of small size aggregate.

183