I1 Composite Structures
1981 No28
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without the prior permission of the Copyright owner:
ECCS assumes no liability with respect to the use for any application of the material and information
contained in this publication.
Composite
Structures
European Convention for Constructional Steelwork
Convention Europbenne de la Construction Mktallique
EuropaisctpKonventionfur Stahlbau
\ .
Introduction 5
Section 1 General 9
1.1 Scope; 1.2 Assessment of safety
Section 2 Definitions and symbols 11
2.1 Definitions; 2.2 Symbols
Section 3 Design  general 17
3.1 General; 3.2 Limit states; 3.3 Representative values of
actions; 3.4 Properties of materials; 3.5 Method of partial
coefficients  general; 3.6 Design for the ultimate limit
states; 3.7 Designfor the serviceability limit states; 3.8 Static
equilibrium; 3.9 Prestressed structures; 3.10 Design require
ments for composite beams
Section 4 Analysis of structures 37
4.1 General; 4.2 Effective span; 4.3 Stability; 4.4 Distri
bution of bending moments and vertical shear forces at the
serviceability limit state; 4.5 Distribution of bending
Section 5
.
moments and vertical shear forces at the ultimate limit state
Analysis of crosssections 45
5.1 General; 5.2 Definitions; 5.3 Compact beams  ultimate
limit state; 5.4 Slender beams  ultimate limit state;
5.5 Serviceability limit state
Section 6 Design of the shear connection  general 61
6.1 General; 6.2 Limit state requirements; 63 Properties of
shear connectors; 6.4 Design strength of shear connectors;
6.5 Detailing of shear connection; 6.6 Tests on shear
connectors; 6.7 Friction grip bolts
Section 7 Design of the shear connection  ultimate limit state 95
7.1 Critical crosssections; 7.2 Maximum loads per connector;
7.3 Longitudinal shear; 7.4 Complete shear connection;
7.5 Partial shear connection; 7.6 Transverse reinforcement
Section 8 Design of the shear connection  serviceability limit state 109
8.1 Longitudinal shear; 8.2 Maximum loads per connector
 static loading; 83 Design requirements  static loading;
8.4 Design for fatigue
3
Sectign 9 Temperature, shrinkage and creep 113
8
9.1 Temperature effects; 9.2 Shrinkage and creep;
Section 10 Control of cracking 117
10.1 General
Section 1 1 Deflections 119
1 1.1 General; 1 1.2 Calculation of deflections; 11.3
Deflections of simply supported beams with incomplete
connection; 1 1.4 Limitations on deflections
Section 12 Prestressing in composite construction 123 :
12.1 General; 12.2 Methods of prestressing; 12.3 Degree of
prestressing; 12.4 Limit state requirements; 12.5 Service
ability; 12.6 Ultimate limit state; 12.7 Control of cracking
Section 13 Vibration 127
13.1 General; 13.2 Beams for buildings; 1 3 3 Beams for
bridges
Section 14 Composite beam with precast slab 129
14.1 General; 14.2 Joint between steel beam and concrete
slab; 143 Shear connection; 14.4 Transverse reinforcement;
14.5 Concrete deck as diaphragm; 14.6 Shrinkage and creep
Section 15 Composite floors with profiled steel sheet 133
15.1 Scope; 15.2 Materials; 15 3 Design methods 
shuttering; 15.4 Design and testing of composite slabs
Section 16 Composite columns 149
16.1 Scope; 16.2 Materials; 16.3 Composite column cross
sections; 16.4 Loadcarrying capacity analysis; 16.5 Design
method; 16.6 The need to provide mechanical shear connec
tion; 16.7 Serviceability limit state
Section 17 Framed structures for buildings 175
Section 18 Workmanship and construction 177
18.1 Responsibility; 18.2 Sequence of construction;
18.3 Stability of steelwork; 18.4 Support conditions during
construction; 18.5 Temperature effects during construction;
18.6 Anchorage of prestressing cables; 18.7 Construction
accuracy and quality control of materials; 18.8 Shear con
nectors; 18.9 Recast concrete slabs forming the flanges of
composite beams; 18.10 Composite floors with profiled
steel sheets; 18.1 1 Construction of columns
4
‘ .
Introduction
The “Joint Committee on Composite Structures’’ was formed in 1971 under the
auspices of the Liaison Committee of International Associations for Civil Engineering,VV
with the active participation of the following organisations:
’ 3
5
The code format chosen for this document is intended to facilitate its use for
and its conversion into national or international official rules, as well as to allow its
adoption as a basis for the practical design of composite structures for which this
may be authorised, eg, for certain international contests.
Thanks are due to the members of this Committee for the considerable work
performed in the full sessions held twice every year as well as in the Task Groups
formed for the drafting of various parts of this document. Special mention is due to
the members who have assumed responsibilities as Task Group Chairmen and/or as
reporters for specific chapters: Messrs Breitschaft, Dittmann, Dowling, Johnson,
O’Leary, Roik and Stark. These acknowledgements would be incomplete without a
mention of the outstanding contribution of Professor Johnson to the advancement
and the coordination of the whole work.
h s t but not least, homage must be expressed to the memory of two Committee
members, now deceased, who have significantly contributed to the success of this
action: Yves Guyon and Paul Lorin.
With the above remarks, the Draft Model Code for Composite Structures prepared
by the CEBECCSFIPIABSE Joint Committee is now released to the competent
bodies and professionals, as a step towards international unification and technical
I
progress, with the hope that it will meet the attention of code and specification
making authorities and thus fulfil its role within the framework of documents
governing structural engineering practice.
Any possible comments and remarks on its contents will be welcomed by the
Committee.
D Sfintesco
Chairman, Joint Committee
on Composite Structures
6
.. .
7
COMMENTARY
I 1.1
I
I
I
I
The aim of these recommendations is to provide comprehensiv design meth d
~
for composite members in buildings and bridges. It is recognised that for certain
structures not all the recommendations are applicable. For beams, guidance is given
in Clause 3.10, in the form of Clause references, on the recommendations that
should be followed, depending on the type of structure and its intended use.
1.2
This semiprobabilistic approach, the Level 1 method of Volume I, is charac
terised by the use of partial safety factors applying to actions, action effects, and
resistances.
8
I 
RECOMMENDATIONS
Section 1. General
1.1 SCOPE
These recommendations apply to structures and members (beams, slabs, or
columns) consisting of a steel component and a reinforced or prestressed concrete
component mechanically interconnected so as to act together to resist the load.
Recommendations are given for composite floors with profiled steel sheets and for
beams with haunches, but not for encased composite beams.
The steel component may be either a rolled or a fabricated section. Concrete
may have normaldensity or lightweight aggregate.
The recommendations refer generally to concrete cast in situ. Composite beams
with precast concrete slabs are considered in Section 14, and prestressed composite
structures in Section 12.
9
COMMENTARY
..
Degree of interaction
In practice some slip will always occur and the term fill interaction is used
where it has been shown that the effects of slip between the concrete flange and
the steel beam can safely be neglected in the design.
10
RECOMMENDATIONS
2.1 DEFINITIONS
A limit state is a condition beyond which a structure or part of a structure ceases
to fulfil the function for which it was designed.
The ultimate limit state denotes the state at which any part of the structure is
unable to sustain any further increase in load.
The serviceability limit state denotes the state when remedial action is necessary
to enable the structure to continue to fulfil its design function.
Partial safety factors are the factors applied to the characteristic loads, prestress
ing forces, imposed deformations and strengths and properties of materials to take
account of possible unusual increases in load or deformation beyond those con
sidered in deriving the characteristic values and possible variations in material
strength between the characteristic strength and the strength of the material in the
actual structure.
The design actions and strengths shall be determined in accordance with Section
3 and international or national Codes for nominal or characteristic values of perma
nent and variable actions and strengths of materials.
Degree of interaction
Full interaction implies that no slip occurs between the concrete slab and the
steel beam.
Partial interaction implies that slip occurs at the interface between the concrete
flange and the steel beam, and so causes a discontinuity of strain that has to be
taken into account in the analyses.
Degree of shear connection in compact beams
Complete shear connection is achieved in a beam that is compact (see 5.2.1)
throughout its length when the beam has a bending strength at critical crosssections
(see 7.1) that would not be increased by the addition of further connectors.
Partial shear connection occurs when the number of shear connectors provided is
less than the number required for complete connection.
11
COMMENTARY
S
sa,x
11 II IV I
Ill I !Ill
I
A ’
Figure C2.2
COMMENTARY
(2) For all stiff connectors, the deformation capacity must be large enough to
permit redistribution of the longitudinal shear in beams with complete con
nection to the extent that the mean load per connector at longitudinal shear
failure is not less than its design strength.
The deformation capacities required for both are different and it is important to
distinguish between the two requirements.
Load
pu
Flexible connector
Stiff connector
Figure C2.3 Typical load/slip relationship for flexible and stiff connectors.
Previous page
is blank
14
RECOMMENDATIONS
2.2 SYMBOLS
The symbols used in this draft are generally consistent with the recommenda
tions given in Draft International Standard ISO/DIS 3890, August 1975.
Symbols concerning properties and behaviour of concrete, reinforcement and
prestressing steels are consistent with the Model Code for Concrete Structures, 3rd
Draft (Bulletin 117 E  CEB).
Symbols concerning properties and behaviour of structural steels are consistent
with the 1978 Europeah Recommendations for Steel Construction.
15
  ~
~
_____ __
COMMENTARY
3.1
The recommendations refer to existing methods such as ‘elasticdesign ’and
‘plasticdesign They can be applied only by qualified engineers who know the
assumptions adopted in these methods, and can assess which sources of error can
safely be neglected.
Other approaches may also be used, such as direct experimentation or different
methods of calculation; but the engineer must then prove the reliability of the
safety assessment. This proof is not required when the present recommendations
are followed.
I
3.2.1
Established inelastic methods of checking the ultimate load caving capacity of
composite structures may be used. For example, they may be based on:
a ) a defined degree of redistribution of bending moments, or of bending and
shear stresses, due to yielding of some parts of the structure, or
b) attainment of the design strength of shear connectors, with or without redis
tribution of longitudinal shear.
Local buckling or yielding has to be considered as an ultimate limit state on& i f
it leads to collapse.
16
RECOMMENDATIONS
3.1 GENERAL
This section gives general guidance on the application to composite structures of
the recommendations of Section 10 of Volume I, ‘The method of partial coeffi
cients’.
The following Clauses are concerned with the limit state verifications, which are
based on design values of actions and combinations of actions, and of strengths of
materials and resistance of members, obtained by applying various rcoefficients
(partial safety factors) to representative values.
17
COMMENTARY
3.2.1.3
Fatigue as a phenomenon affects the strength of materials and hence that of
crosssections, and is due to repetitions of actions under serviceability conditions.
For practical reasons, it may be considered in design for the serviceability limit
state. The load factors for ultimate load given in Section 3 are not applicable,
3.2.2
Local buckling or yielding, perhaps in conjunction with fatigue failure, may lead
to a serviceability limit state, i f the consequence could be remedied by repair.
3.3.1
Most permanent actions may be represented by a unique value because one or
more of the following apply:
a) their variability is small,
b) their influence on the total action effect is small, and
c ) it is obvious which of two representative actions governs for all parts of the
structure.
There are some actions for which two representative values (maximum and
minimum) should be defined. For example:
a) nonstructural permanent surfacing in certain bridges, where the minimum
weight may be taken as zero; and
b) earth or liquid pressure, in structures where use of a low value may increase
the severity of a limit state.
Restressing forces should normally be considered at two ages, by taking account
of timedependent losses, but with only one value for each age.
3.3.2.1
The loading regulations are being worked out (see for example Appendix III of
Volume I). Meanwhile, national regulations can be applied, provided that they are
based on assumptions comparable with those of Appendix II of Volume I. Sug
gested values for J/ are given in Section I0 of Volume I and in the ECCS Recom
mendations for Steel Construction.
18
RECOMMENDATIONS
3.2.1.3 Fatigue
Fatigue may lead to an ultimate limit state, if the consequence should be
collapse. Design for fatigue in structural steel should be in accordance with the
ECCS Recommendations for Steel Construction. Commentary on the design of
shear connection for repeated loading is given in 8.4.
fixed by the loading regulations on the basis of experience and available statistical
information.
19
COMMENTARY
For indirect actions, the representative values are related to deformations which
give rise to internal forces in the structure.
In special cases, Q k and $& may also have to be considered at the ultimate
limit state.
Q, is the nominal maximum value associated with the serviceability limit state.
I t is frequently the same as Qk.
The definition of the frequent value depends on the type of structure. It is
suggested thatfor buildings it should be taken as that which is likely to be exceeded
during only S% of the design life of the structure, or which may occur at least
100 000 times during that life.
Unless a more precise estimate is made, the effects of creep (see Volume I I ) are
studied under permanent and quasipermanent actions, considered as constant loads
of long duration.
For some loadings, such as wind, the minimum may be negative.
20
.
RECOMMENDATIONS
For the ultimate h i t state, the maximum representative values are normally:
The minimum value of a variable action is in general zero. For some loadings,
such as water pressure, the minimum may be positive, and should then be considered
when the action is favourable. For simplification, it may be possible to define a
single minimum representative value.
For imposed strains and deformations due to temperature, the designer may use,
as representative values, nominal values agreed with the client.
21
COMMENTARY
3.4.I
It may sometimes be necessary to use separate values for concrete and for steel,
because the coefficient of thermal expansion for lightweight concrete and limestone
aggregate concrete can be as low as 7 x 10" per "C
3.5
A general statement of this method is given in Section 10 of Volume I.
3.5.1
Behaviour is overproportional when increase of an action results in a relatively
greater increase in the action effects (Figure C3.1). Superposition of effects is then
not possible, and Equation (3.I ) obviously applies.
Behaviour is underproportional when increase of an action results in a relatively
smaller increase in the action effects (eg, rope net constructions, suspension bridges).
The partial safety factor rf Should then be subdivided (Equation (3.3.)).
If both types of behaviour occur within a single system it may be necessary to
investigate both cases.
@ Linear
@ Overproportional
@ Underproportional
Figure C3.1
3.5.2
A n additive safety element 6 may be:
a) an additional action or geometrical imperfection, such as additive dead
weight or shifting of bearings; or
b) an additional action effect such as additive bending moment at a point o f
22
RECOMMENDATIONS
and the additive safety elements 6 f,i and 6 s are explained in 3.5.2.
23
COMMENTARY
3.6
The ultimate limit state of loss of static equilibrium is considered in Clause 3.8.
3.6.2
Various load cases are possible for an individual action;for example, the floor
loading in a multistorey multibay structure.
A member in a building that canies the variable loads from a large area of floor,
whether at one or several levels; can normally be designed for a variable load less
than the total calculated from the unit variable load and the area of floor. This
reduction is not included in Equations (3.5) to (3.7).
Equation (3.5) should be used in design for stability, and may be used with
elastic or simple plastic analysis.
Equation (3.6) is suitable only for use with linear elastic analysis.
Equation (3.7) is used only for special structures, such as suspension bridges.
When maximum and minimum values of y, are given for a permanent action,
there are two possible methods for obtaining the most severe design condition:
a) The two values of y, are used in alternate spans. This can be done by treat
ing as a free action that part of the permanent action that exceeds the level
corresponding to the minimum value of yr
b) The bending moment distribution is calculated with y, = 1, and factored by
the two values of y, in turn. At each crosssection,the more severe action
effect is used.
Both methods should be associated with appropriate detailing rules, particularly
in relation to points of contraflexure.
When action effects are strongly influenced by the difference between two
permanent actions of the same origin (eg, in balanced cantilever construction),
method ( a ) should be used. This always applies to checks on static equilibrium
(Clause 3.8).
24
RECOMMENDATIONS
Each variable action should be considered in turn as the basic action except those
I for which it is obvious that the resulting combination cannot be critical.
25
~~ ~~~
COMMENTARY
3.6.2.1
In design to Clause 3.6, method ( b )above is normally used for permanen t actions
of one origin, using the ‘unfavourable’or ‘faVourable’valueof 7, (Table 3.1) as
appropriate.
Using the values for yfi given in VolumeI and yf as given in Table 3.I , yf3 is
found to lie between I . 0 7 and 1.125, depending on the nature of the action.
The value yg = 1.35 is a mean value. Clause 10.3.1 of Volume I indicates when
variations from it may be justified.
For vectorial action effects, all y factors applied to any favourable component
should be reduced by 20%.
For the condition of erection, special consideration should be given to the choice
of partial safety factors.
3.6.2.2
It is normally obvious in design how many individualactions should be considered,
It will rarely be necessary to include more than two in addition to the permanent
action.
For floor loading in buildings it4s generally adequate to consider two cases on&:
adjacent spans loaded and alternate spans loaded. These are deemed to give the most
unfavourable conditions.
For Equations (3.6)and (3.7)the simplification is analogous.
3.6.3
For accidental combinations, the relevance of the $values needs careful con
sideration. Only that part of each variable action likely to be present at the same
time as the accidental action or situation needs to be included, so that engineering
judgement should be used.
26
.
RECOMMENDATIONS
Effect of
Combination the action 'Ys
Fundamental Unfavourable 1.35 1.2 1.5
(Clause 3.6.2) Favourable 1.o 0.9 0 < rq< 0.9
Accidental Unfavourable 1.1 1.o As relevant
(Clause 3.6.3) Favourable 0.9 1.o As relevant
Unless other values are specified, the partial safety factors should be:
rg= 1.1 or 0.9, whichever is the less favourable, and
'Ya  Tq = 1.0.
This clause is applicable also to accidental situations in which there is no acci
dental action.
27
COMMENTARY
3.6.4
The resistance R , can also be determined by direct experiment.
In Equation (3.11)f d designates equally the design strength of steel or concrete,
in tension or in compression.
The value yc = 1.5 is based on the assumption that the concrete is mixed on the
site or in the works, and that its production is controlled in accordance with
Section 23 of Volume II. If the standard of control is lower, yc should be increased
and if it is higher, 'yc may be reduced (note to Clause 6.4.2.3 of Volume II).
When assessing deformations of the structure as a whole to treat buckling, it may
be more accurate to use a stressstrain relation for concrete related to the mean
strength, as proposed in a note to Clause 6.4.1 of Volume II.
For firther information on ?a, particularly where there is danger of instability,
reference should be made to the European Recommendations for Steel Construc
tion.
In the absence of better information, y m for profiled steel sheeting should be
taken as equal to ?a.
3.7.1
The funct,mal requirements can vary considerably depending upon the type of
structure. Appropriate requirements for each stmcture should be defined by the
engineer responsible for the design in agreement with the client (for example,
limiting crack widths or strain limits that allow for the behaviour of the finishes and
adjacent elements).
Wherecracking is to be prevented, a check in accordance with Equation (3.4)may
be appropriate, taking account of the partial safev factors given in 3.7.2 and 3.7.3.
3.7.2
The relevant combinations of actions are as follows:
infrequent ' G ' + P k + Qlk ( O r Qser) + x
r> 1
($ i i Qik) (3.12)
frequent (3.13)
3.7.3
The value yc = 1.3 is used in calculations for cracking that take account of the
tensile strength of concrete;for example, in partially prestressed memben.
28
RECOMMENDATIONS
where fk is the characteristic strength of the material and Tm is the partial safety
factor given in Table 3.2. Values for shear connectors are given in 6.3.1 and 6.7.2.1.
29
COMMENTARY
3.8
Prestress can normally be imored when checking equilibrium, except when
forces are induced by staticall’ indeterminate effects.
If secondorder effects are important, strains of the ‘rigid’ body should be taken
into account.
3.9.I
Beams prestressed by method (a) are rarely subjected to statically indeterminate
actions due to prestressing (eg, changes in forces at supports). There are discontinui
ties in strain in the section which should be considered as action effects in beanis
where the steel strain nowhere exceeds the yield strain (ie,for all beams at the
serviceability limit state, and for slender beams also at the ultimate limit state if
elastic analysis is used). In beams when the steel strain exceeds the design yield
strain, the strain distribution due to this method of prestressing should be con
sidered  i f relevant  in the determinahbn of the resistance of the section.
The use of method ( b )creates statically indeterminate prestressing actions,
which have always to be considered as actions or action effects.
I The use of method ( c )always creates statically determinate effects (due to the
different strain in the tendons and in the concrete). Statically indeterminate
actions occur only in continuous beams and frames. The statically determinate part
should be treated as for method (a) and the statically indeterminate part as action
or action effect as for method (b).
The use of method ( d )creates statically indeterminate actions, which should be
treated as for method (b).
30
RECOMMENDATIONS
3.9.1 SCOPE
Consideration is given to the following methods of prestressing composite
structures.
a) Stressing the steel beam by means of preliminary supports and removing
these supports after hardening of the concrete.
b) Raising the inner supports of a continuous beam before casting of the con
crete¶and subsequently lowering them to their final level.
c) Prestressing the concrete part of a composite section bytendons that are
bonded to the concrete by grouting after stressing.
31
COMMENTARY
3.9.2
Actions due to prestressing can be neglected if design is based on analysis by the
simple plastic theory. For inelastic analysis, actions due to prestressing may be
multiplied by 7,. For elastic analysis, the action effects may be multiplied by y p .
Loss of prestress is considered in 3.3. I .
3.9.3
No detailed values of partial safety factors for prestressing by method ( d )are
given in this code.
The prestress P is independent of the permanent load G, so it is possible that the
permanent load acts in an unfavourable way and the prestress in a favourable way,
and vice versa.
For simplicity, the same values of y p are given for prestressing by tendons and by
imposed deformations, although different factors affect the variation of prestress:
 for prestressing by tendons: deviations in the position of the tendons and in
their drawin a t the anchorage, and variations in the stiffness of the coricrete
part of the section due to cracking;
. for prestressing by imposed deformations: deviations in the deformation or in
the jacking force (depending on the method of control) and in the stiffness of
the composite member, and variations in the stiffness of the concrete part due
to cracking.
The values yp giben in Table 3.1 are primarily for trial and comparison calcula
tions. Other values can be chosen, i f these are justified by more sophisticated
methods. Further study is needed for a better understanding of the real relation
ships.
32
RECOMMENDATIONS
33
COMMENTARY ' I
34
RECOMMENDATIONS
Compact* beams
subject to Slender
subjectbeams
to
repeated loading
static loading
(1 1
Slendemess limitations 5.2.1 5.2.2
Distributions of bending moment and
vertical shear force at ULS 4.5.1 or 4.5.2 4.5.1
Distributions of bending moment and
vertical shear force at SLS  4.4
Stability 3.6,4.3, 18.3 3.6,4.3, 18.3
Analysis of crosssection at ULS 5.3 5.4
Analysis of crosssection at SLS  5.5
Shear connection  general 6 6
Design of shear connection at ULS 7 see 6.2.1
Design of shear connection at SLS  8
Temperature, shrinkage and creep 9 9
Crack control 10 10
Deflections 11 11
Prestressing 12 12
Vibration 13 13
Workmanship and construction 18 18
35
COMMENTARY
4.2
The effective span of a simplysupported or continuous beam may be taken as:
1. Longitudinal beams. The distance between the centres of bearing plates or
rocker pins.
2. Cantilevers. The effective length of a cantilever should be taken as its length
from the free end to the face of the support plus half its effective depth except
where it forms the end of a continuous beam, where the length to the centre of
the support should be used.
I
I 4.3.1
,
I The EECS Recommendations for elastic or for plastic design should be applied
I
I as appropriate.
36
RECOMMENDATIONS
4.1 GENERAL
The concrete slab may be considered to act simultaneously as the flange of a
composite beam and as a slab spanning in a direction transverse to the axis of the
steel beam.
4.3 STAB1LITY
37
COMMENTARY
4.4
Shear lag has little effect on the distribution of bending moments and vertical
shear forces in continuous beams, so it is permissible to use either the actual flange
breadth or the effective flange breadth (Clause 5.1.I)in stiffness calculations.
Clearly, the relative stiffness of adjacent spans does not change very much which
ever value is used for the breadth of the concrete flange. Alternatively the values
given in CEBIFIP Recommendations may be used.
4.5.1
In analysis for the ultimate limit state it should be assumed that the whole of the
factored load (with yf > 1.P) is applied initially, as would occur (for example) i f
the actual density of a material were greater than expected. Use of yf = 1.1 for
weight of steel (for example) does not imply that an extra 10% of the weight of
the steel is added to the structure after it is in service.
38
RECOMMENDATIONS
4.5.1 :1 General
In calculating the distribution of bending moments and vertical shear forces,
proper account has to be taken of:
1) isostatic and hyperstatic effects due to creep and shrinkage of concrete, pre
stressing, and jacking; and
39
COMMENTARY
4.5.1.2
I f the steel beam is stressed by tendons, jacking, or loading before the develop
ment of composite action, for example by the weight,of wet concrete in unpropped I
4.5.I .3
Hyperstatic (secondaty) effects of shrinkage, temperature, prestressing,jacking
of supports, etc, may be taken into account as calculated using elastic analysis.
They may be assumed to decrease with the growth of plastified zones, and to
vanish when a plastic hinge mechanism forms. Thus they need not be considered
when plastic design is used.
I n general it is not required to carry out a nonlinear analysis exactly. The
designer has to decide in each differentcase what to assume in order to get a solution
of the required accuracy. Reliable approximations may be used, as for example
momentcurvature relationships that include the influences of local buckling,
vertical shearing forces, etc.
Where the steel member carries loads prior to the development of composite
action, the resulting strains due to the factored loads should be assumed to be
already present in calculating the response of the composite member (of which the
steel member forms a part) to the loads applied to it.
4.5.2.2
Research has shown that the limitations on steel slenderness given in 5.2.1 may
not always ensure sufficient rotation capacity in continuous beams subject to heavy
40
RECOMMENDATIONS
4.5.2.1 General
For beams with compact crosssections, elastic or plastic design may be used.
For elastic analysis, 4.5.1.1 and 4.5.1.2 apply.
41
COMMENTARY
concentrated loads or where the end span differs significantly in length from the
adjacent span (Johnson, R P,and HopeGill, M C Ypplicabili@ of simple plastic
theory to continuous composite beams’: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil
Engineers, Part 2, Volume 61, March 1976).
42
RECOMMENDATIONS
the internal force resultants are in equilibrium with the most unfavourable
combination of factored loads,
the steel section is compact as defined in 5.2.1, or if slender can still develop
adequate rotation without loss of strength due to local buckling,
3) no two adjacent internal spans differ in length by more than 45% of the
shorter one,
the end span is not less than 70% and not more than 115% of the adjacent
span9
not more than half of the design ultimate load for any space is concentrated
within any length of Q/S,where P is the effective span.
43
COMMENTARY
5.1.1
The use of effective breadths of concrete flanges derived by elastic theory is
conservative at load levels approaching collapse. A simpler alternative,for positive
moment regions only, Is to use effective breadths of flange equal to L/6 on each
side of thesteel web, but notgreater than half thedistance to the next adjacent web,
nor, for edge beams greater than the projection of the cantilever slab ( L is equal to
the length of the positive moment region and may be taken as twothirds of the span
of continuous beams). Otherwise, reference should be made to the CEBIFIP
Recommendations.
5.I .2
Methods of designing composite members composed of steel beanis and solid
concrete slabs are well established. There are, however, additional considerations
which arise when profiled steel sheets are employed. These considerations may
depend upon the directions in which the ribs run relative to the steel beam.
A
b L
b b
I”
Case 1 Deck ribs parallel to the beam
I”
Case 2 Deck ribs perpendicular to the beam
Figure C 5.1
kl
e = depth of ribs
w = mean width of concrete ribs
Figure C5.2
44 I
RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 GENERAL
5.1.1 EFFECTIVE BREADTH
The effects of shear lag should be considered in calculations of flexural stress
and strength; for example, by the use of an effective flange breadth less than the
actual breadth.
45
COMMENTARY
5.2.I
For the use of plastic design the bmcing requirements for compressed flanges
are more restrictive than for elastic design.
46
RECOMMENDATIONS
I
5.1.3 COMPOSITE ACTION
I
5.2 DEFINITIONS
47
COMMENTARY
3) This method differs from the rectangular stress block method given in the
CEBIFIP Recommendations, which for normaldensity concrete uses a uni
form compressive stress in the concrete of 0.85 fcklym but over a depth of
0.8 x, where x is the neutral axis depth determined from equilibrium consi
derations based on the strain distribution through the section. For light
weight concrete, 0.75 f&l’)in and 0.75 x are proposed.
5.3.3
Tests on compact composite beams have shown that the longitudinal slab rein
forcement can increase the shear strength of the negative (hogging)moment region
above the ultimate shear strength of the web even when simultaneously subjected
to negative (hogging)bending moments exceeding the ultimate moment of the
resistance of the composite section calculated by simple plastic theory. When the
amount of slab reinforcement satisfies the condition given, no reduction need there
fore be made for the effects of vertical shear in calculating the ultimate moment of
resistance of the composite section in negative (hogging)bending, provided the
vertical shear does not exceed the design ultimate shear strength of the web. Further
research is needed to determine whether this assumption is applicable also in positive
(sagging)moment regions, and to beams where the steel section is not symmetrical.
The bendinglshear interaction diagram proposed for negative moment regions is
shown below with the test results plotted (Johnson,R Pand Willimington,R T,
“Verticalshear in continuous composite beams’: Proceedings of the Institution of
48
RECOMMENDATIONS
VERTICAL SHEAR
The design ultimate shear strength of a compact composite section in the absence
of bending moment should be calculated on the assumption that the effective area
of the web of the steel section is stressed uniformly to its design yield strength in
shear, (ie, fyk/rmd3). The effective area of the web may be taken as the product
of the overall depth of the steel section and the thickness of the web. The contri
bution of the concrete slab and any concrete haunch should be neglected.
49
COMMENTARY
M

MO t AA
1
A y A ~ If 5.3.3(b) is satisfied
1.o
I
, 1
\

I I
I
I
I
1 1 ! 1
I 1 V
0.33 1.o vo
5.4.1.1
Special attention should be paid to the isostatic (primary)effects of shrinkage,
temperature, prestressing, jacking of supports, etc. In linear elastic calculations,
they are fully effective. In fully plastified crosssections they may be assumed to be
zero.
50
RECOMMENDATIONS
Normal and shear stresses may be assumed to be distributed over the section in
any conventional manner that is statically admissible and does not violate the von
Mises yield criterion.
5.4.1.1 General
In calculating section properties, the effective breadth of the concrete flange
may be determined in accordance with 4.4(b). The modulus of elasticity should be
in accordance with 3.4, and the tensile strength of concrete should be neglected.
Fully anchored reinforcement and prestressing steel fully bonded to the concrete
member, placed within the effective breadth, may be taken into account when
calculating section properties.
51
I
COMMENTARY
5.4.1.3
The reference to the ECCS Recommendations for limiting compressive strains
and stressstrain relationships for shuctural steel applies also to structures pre
stressed by tendons or jacking, in which loads act before the development of com
posite action.
52
RECOMMENDATIONS
53
COhWENTARY
5.4.2
Where the plastic neutml axis lies in the web of the steel section, a possible
ultimate strength method of design which is being considered is to assume that the
depth of web in compression and an equal area in tension on the other side of the
plastic neutral axis are ineffective. The resulting crosssection is shown below:
.Figure CS.4
d Stress diagram
I 54
RECOMMENDATIONS
i
I
55
COMMENTARY
5.5.
The requirements of this clause need not be considered for compact beams sub
ject to predominantly static loading (see Table 3, p 35).
5.5.3
The procedure of superimposing stresses calculated on an elastic basis due to
global and local wheel load effects is conservative. Can this be improved? The
question of whether local wheel load effects should be considered to coexist with
theglobal effects of vehicle loading depends on whether the magnitude of the speci
fied wheel load is a true representation of the wheel loads that would occur in the
actual vehicle loading. In some countries wheel loads and vehicle loads are not con
sidered to coexist, presumably because the magnitude of the specified wheel loads
has been artificially increased to allow this.
When considering the coexistent stresses in a deck slab, which also forms the
flange of a composite beam, account may be taken of the effects of shear lag to re
duce the longitudinal bending stress in regions of the flange remote from the web/
flange junction. The stress f x , at any point in the flange may be calculated from:
f x =fnlax [ k4 + 15J, 1 ) (1  k4M1
where
56
RECOMMENDATIONS
Stresses due to bending moments, prestressing and vertical shear forces may be
calculated by elastic theory, using the elastic properties given in 3.4 as appropriate,
assuming full interaction between the steel beam and concrete in compression.
Vertical shear should be assumed to be resisted by the steel section alone and the
tensile strength of concrete should be neglected except as provided in Section 12
for prestressed composite beams.
57
COMMENTARY
Centreline between
adjacent webs,
or free edge of slab
1I /f
I I 1
59
COMMENTARY
6.2.1
Dependent on the slenderness of the beam, type of loading, and the ductility of
the shear connectors, different design methods for shear connection are recommen
ded. A schematic presentation of these methods is given in the following diagrams.
I .
ULTIMATE
LIMIT Flexible connectors Stiff connectors
STATE
60
RECOMMENDATIONS
6.1 GENERAL
Shear connectors and transverse reinforcement should be provided throughout
the length of the beam to transmit the longitudinal shear force between the concrete
slab and the steel beam, ignoring the effect of bond between the two. I
The shear connection should be designed to satisfy the limit state requirements
given in 6.2.
Recommendations for high strength friction grip bolts used as shear connectors
are given in 6.7.
61
COMMENTARY
ULTIMATE
LIMIT [ SLENDERBEAMS 1 ,
..
4%,S
STATE
e .
SERVICEABILITY
LIMIT STATE t o 8.4
6.3
Further commentary on the significance of the two properties of shear con
I nectors relevant for design, strength and deformation capacity, is given in 2.1.
6.3.I I
The characteristic strength of connectors can be given in terms of both the con
crete cylinder strength f c k and the yield strength f y of the steel o f which the con
nector is made or of the weld.
The design strength can therefore be obtained by inserting appropriate values of
y m for concrete and steel in the expression. However, since local crushing of con
62
RECOMMENDATIONS
63
COMMENTARY. ’
t ,
Crete around one connector would not cause failure of the beam the value of Y,,
for concrete is taken less than the value 1.5 given in 3.6.4 for normal use.
. .
., .
. . . . . .. , .
.. .
64
RECOMMENDATIONS
 For the serviceability limit state the value of 7, may be taken as 1.O.
 For the ultimate limit state the value of 7, depends on the failure mode, and
should be taken as 1.3 for crushing of concrete and as 1 .O for yielding of steel.
6.4.1 GENERAL
The strength of shear connectors may be determined either by calculation
(Clauses 6.4.4 to 6.4.7) or experimentally by pushout tests (Clause 6.6), subject to
the following conditions:
65
F..
COMMENTARY
6.4.4
The relation between connector strength and concrete strength is shown in the
subjoined graph (Figure C6.1). A t higher concrete strength the ultimate strength of
the connector is constant and not dependent on concrete quality. The strength is .
,
then equal to the pure shear strength of the connector material (or of the weld) and
should therefore be Pw = A s (0.7 fu). However, for design purposes the value is
equalised to the design value of a normal bolt in shear in accordance with the ECCS
Recommendations for Steel Construction.
So& is replaced with fr. The partial safety factory,,, may then be taken as unity.
It has been shown that the great scatter in test results is to some extent caused
by the influence of the dimensions of the weld and its strength. So it is possible
that with certain welding procedures higher values are obtained than specified in
the recommendations.
If the welding procedure is well specified and the dimensions and properties of
the weld are guaranteed by the manufacturer the characteristic strength may alter
natively be based upon experimental data of standard pushout tests (see Clause
6.4.2).
 f, NJmrn'
0 * 10 40
f, Nlmm'
h
a= 3.0
where
ymcis the partial factor of safety on concrete strength, taken as 1.3 at the ulti
mate limit state and 1.O at the serviceability limit state, and
rms is the partial factor of safety on steel strength, taken as 1.O as both the ulti
mate and serviceability limit states.
Between h/d = 4.2 and h/d = 3 .O linear interpolation is permitted,
where
h = overall length of the stud,
d = diameter of the stud,
f d = characteristic cylinder strength of concrete at age considered,
E, = shortterm modulus of elasticity of concrete,
fy = design yield strength of the connector material (= fo.2.) but not greater
than 0.8 fu.

If spirals with dimensions as specified in 6.5.2 are placed round the studs the
design shear strength according to formulae 6.1 and 6.2 may be multiplied by a
factor 1.15, provided:
67
COMMENTARY
I
I
6.4.4.3
Formula 6.3 is based on tests reported by McKackin and others (Fritz Engineer
ing Laboratoly Report 200.71.438.2, Lehigh University 1971). Values of the ,.
characteristic tensile strength of concrete as a function of the characteristic com
pressive strength are given in the CEBIFIP Recommendations.
68
RECOMMENDATIONS
Suitable tests should be made to ensure that the concrete can be adequately
compacted into the space between spiral and stud.
where
rmc = material safety factor for concrete, taken as 1.3,
rms = material safety factor for steel, taken as 1.O,
h, d, fy = as defined in 6.4.4.1,
fct = characteristic tensile strength of concrete,
C = 3.0 for normal density concrete,
= 2.25 for lightweight aggregate concrete,
= reduction factor when the connector spacing is less than 2h:
c, 1 1P
= 2+4f G1.0.
When both the longitudinal and transverse connector spacing is less
than 2h a further reduction is necessary. The reduction value should
then be based on suitable tests.
If the connector is loaded by combined tension and shear, the worst combina
tion of coexistent forces at the ultimate limit state should satisfy the following
equation:
where
P actual shear load,
Pd = the design shear strength in the absence of a tensile load,
T = actual tensile load,
T d = the design tensile strength in the absence of shear load.
The effect of axial tension may be neglected if the reduction in P is less than
10%.
69
COMMENTARY
Where headed studs are used primarily to resist direct tension, appropriate local
reinforcement should be provided.
. . . . _..
, .
4. .. . .
. .
I .
.. . j:. '
70
RECOMMENDATIONS
where
ni = number of cycles applied at a given stress range,
Ni = allowable number of cycles for which the given stress range would be
allowed.
71
COMMENTARY
6.4.5 BLOCKTYPECONNECTORS
A bar is beyond doubt a blocktype connector but also the T,the [ and the
horseshoe may be considered as so, when the plate components are thick enough.
1:5 Af
I I
Figure C6.3
12
I RECOMMENDATIONS
where
n, = number of stud connectors in one rib at a beam intersection, not to
exceed 3 in computations, although more than 3 studs may be installed.
When the shear connectors are provided to produce composite action both for the
beam and for the deck the resultant ultimate force acting on the stud shall be calcu
lated using the following equation:
P = & F
where
P = resulting force on the connector,
PQ= longitudinal force caused by beam composite action,
P, = transverse force caused by deck composite action (see Section 15).
6.4.5 BLOCKTYPE CONNECTORS
Connectors may be designed as blocktype connectors when the front is so stiff
that it can reasonably be assumed that the concrete pressure in front of the con
nector at failure is uniformly distributed.
The characteristic strength may be taken as:
. P,=fblAs
where
A, = the area of the front surface,
fbl = the characteristic value of the contact pressure in rront of the connector
The welds between the connector and the steel beam should be designed for a
shear force and a moment due to the force P, acting at the centre of gravity of the
front surface. To prevent uplift on the connectors additional ties suitably anchored
should be provided. These ties should be designed for a tension force T of at least
0.1 P,.
73
COMMENTARY
6.4.6
The shear force working on the inclined anchor bar can be resolved into a tensile
force T and a shear force D.
The design strength of a round solid bar loaded in tension and shear follows
from tests on bolts and can be calculated from:
d m 2= A f y
with
T = Pu cos a
D = Pu sin a 1 Porn which Equation (6.9) can easily be derived.
Detail
PU
T=P, cos,a
D = P, sin a /
Figure C6.5
6.4.7
,
L  . __ . . _.  . .  . .... . . .  I . 1 __  ._.. . _.  .  I
I
Block type connector Block type connector
. with anchor bar with hoop
/ Figure C6.6
The characteristic strength of block type connectors and anchors may not simpb
beadded up because of the essential difference of deformation capacity between
the two types.
74
RECOMMENDATIONS
If fillet welds are used, these should be designed for the shear force Pu.
The welds however, should be designed for the full value of the characteristic
strength.
75
COMMENTARY
t
"U block
'U anchor
Slip
Figure C6.7
6.5.1
(a) These recommendations should also be adopted when using (for example)
hollow planks or other prefabricated floor components. When studs are
used this leads to the following design rules.
The underside of the stud should extend not less than 30 mm above the
reinforcement in the concrete cover. The distance between the edge of the
hollow plank and the stud should be sufficient to allow the placing of good
quality concrete in between.
Reinforcement
. .
Figure C6.8
76
RECOMMENDATIONS
(b) Where a concrete haunch is used between the steel girder and the soffit of the
slab, the sides of the haunch should lie outside a line drawn at 45" from the
outside edge of the connector (Figure C6.9). Transverse reinforcing bars
sufficient to satisfy the requirements of 7.6 should be provided in the haunch
at least 40 mm clear below the surface of the connector that resists uplift.
(c) Where the shear connection is adjacent to a longitudinal edge of a concrete
slab, transverse reinforcement provided in accordance with 7.6 should be fully
anchored in the concrete between the edge of the slab and the adjacent row of
connectors.
(d) The detailing of shear connectors should be such that concrete can be
adequately compacted around the base of the connector.
(e) At the end of a cantilever, as for example in a cantilever and suspended span
structure, sufficient transverse and longitudinal reinforcement should be
positioned adjacent to the free edge of the concrete slab t o transfer the longi
tudinal shear connector loads back into the slab.
77 ' .
COMMENTARY
65.2
(g) Spirals need not be welded to the steel flange.
78
,
RECOMMENDATIONS
79
COMMENTARY
6.5.5
I I
!. !.
t
Recommended direction of thrust 
b
Figure C6.10
80
RECOMMENDATIONS
7 E
E
0
4 Figure 6.2
(h) To ensure proper filling and compacting of concrete between the spiral and the
stud the space between the spiral and the edge of precast concrete slabs or
other solid objects must be not less than 50 mm.
81
COMMENTARY
6.5.6
Anchorage length
 I
Figure C6.11
Direction of thrust
F
I

Figure C6.12
82
RECOMMENDATIONS
Figure 6.3
c) The anchors and hoops should point in the direction of thrust. At midspan
where the direction of thrust changes the connectors must be placed in both
directions.
83
COMMENTARY
6.6.1
a, b) . LOAD LOAD
254 X146 X 43 UB
or IPE 270
5:
c

0 e


e e
 15 mm cover
0
cn
d

0
m L Bedded in mortar 300 ~
or solid base
. I
Figure C6.13
d ) This requirement can simply be met by taking the specified concrete grade,
but testing earlier than 28 days after manufacturing the specimens.
RECOMMENDATIONS
c) Bond at the interface of the flanges of the steel beam and the concrete must
be prevented by greasing the flange or by other suitable means.
d) The strength of the concrete at the time of testing must be 70%f 10% of the
specified cylinder strength of the concrete in the beams for which the test is
designed. Curing of the cylinders or cubes should be in accordance with CEB
Recommendations. The pushout specimens should be aircured.
e) The yield stress of the connector material must be determined.
f ) The rate of application of load must be uniform and such that failure is
reached in not less than 15 minutes.
85
COMMENTARY.
86
RECOMMENDATIONS,
IF IF
in
Steel section
Concrete slab
A d ~ y p s u mmortar
,
or solid base
Figure 6.4
87 .
COMMENTARY ’
The reduction factor 0.8 in Formula (6.11) is in theory only required when
strength of steel governs the failure. Sometimes the failure mode is so complicated
that it is difficult to decide whether the steel or the concrete governs the failure
condition. In that case Formula (6.11) should conservatively be adopted.
. .
i
6.7.2
(a) Connection by friction may be relied upon only under service conditions. At
the ultimate limit state, for simplification it may be assumed that the bolts
alone are carrying the shearing forces with a strength according to that of
headed studs.
This simplification is based on the assumption that any clearance between
the bolt and the surrounding concrete is small enough to ensure that sufficient
redistribution of shear can take place due to slip without causing premature
shearfailure of the bolts. Where this cannot be assured, the calculated frictional
resistance must be sufficient to resist the shear at the ultimate limit state. No
check is then needed under service conditions. 
6.7.2.1
In the case of uniformly distributed loads, thehorizontal shear force in regions
near supports may be assumed to be unifonnlj distributed over a length of Q = 3d,
88
RECOMMENDATIONS
If such deviation from the mean exceeds 10% at least three more tests of the
same kind shall be made and the lowest result of these six tests must be taken as the
ultimate load P,.
Alternatively, when at least 10 tests are carried out, the ultimate load may be
determined as the load corresponding to a probability of 5% of results being less
than P, . The value of the design strength can be calculated from the value so found
of the ultimate load by:
Pd = 0.8 ue Pu (6.1 1)
ue actud.
where
ue actual = actual yield stress of the connector in the test specimen determined
according to 6.6.l(e),
ut2 = minimum specified yield strength of the connector material.
Where the connector is composed of two separate elements, one to resist longitu
dinal shear and the other to resist forces tending to separate the slab from the steel
beam, the ties which resist the forces of separation may be assumed to be sufficiently
stiff and strong if this separation in pushout tests, measured when the connectors
are loaded to 80 per cent of their ultimate load, is less than half of the longitudinal
movement of the slab relative to the beam.
6.7.1 GENERAL
. High strength friction grip bolts may be used to provide the shear connection
between the steel member and the concrete slab forming the flange of the composite
beam. Unless otherwise stated the Clauses on high strength preloaded bolts in the
ECCS Recommendations apply.
6.7.2 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS: STATIC LOADING
89
~
COMMENTARY *
Figure C6.14
(for example, where there is a tendency for uplift between the slab and the steel I
beam or where loads are suspended from the steelwork), it may also be necessary to
take account of the reduction in effective clamping force in the bolt.
90
RECOMMENDATIONS
dinal shear force per. unit length at the serviceability limit state calculated in
accordance with 8.1.
The mamimum load per connector should not exceed
U x net tensile force in the bolt
Ym
where
ym = the materials safety factor for the shear resistance per bolt, which
may be taken as 1.2, and
p = the coefficient of friction at first slip, which may be taken as:
0.50 when t m e 2 10 mm,
0.55 when t m e 2 15 ~TUTI.
Where the slab is cast in situ, the friction coefficient may be increased by 10%.
(b) In determining the net tensile force in bolts account should be taken of the
loss of tension due to shrinkage and creep of the concrete. Unless a more exact
calculation according to CEB/FIP Recommendations is made loss of tensile
force due to creep and shrinkage should be taken as not less than 30% of the
preloading force. The loss of tensile force can be reduced by retightening after
an interval of time. Loss of prestress in this case should be calculated in accor
dance with the CEB/FIP Recommendations.
91
COMMENTARY
92
& RECOMMENDATIONS
I
7.I
Due to the problem of uniquely defining points of contrajlexure in continuous
beams, these are not considered to be critical crosssections. It is therefore con
venient to use a design strength for shear connectors (given in 7.2)that is applicable
for the entire length of a continuous beam, rather than to use different values in
regions of positive and negative bending moment.
Wherethe concrete fzange of a composite beam ends at a crosssection other than
a support (critical section of type (e)),the effectivebreadth of this flange may be
assumed to vary linearly from zero at its end to the full effective breadth over a
length of at least the total effective breadth. Within this length, connectors may be
spaced uniformly.
m Elevation
Figure C7.1 Effective breadth of composite slab ending within region of sagging
moments.
7.2
Maximum loads for connectors in continuous beams and cantilevers are reduced
below Pd to compensate for the reduction in the stiffnessand strength of shear con
nectors due to flexural cracking where the concrete slab is in tension.
94
RECOMMENDATIONS
95
COMMENTARY
7.4
When the bending strength of the steel beam alone is much less than that of the
composite member (for example, when the steel flange which is connected to the
concrete is much smaller than the other steel flange), shearflexural failuve on a
surface such as ABC iri Figure C7.2becomes possible. A check should then be
made that the shear connection is sufficient to develop the forces in the slab re
quired at all crosssections, not just at critical sections.
Centre line
I_
A  B !
1
1
I
I
Steel beam
I
C
Figure C7.2
7.5.1
When partial shear connection is used, the deformation capacity required of a
connector, before it begins to lose strength, increases with increase in the span of
the beam. There is at present no experimental evidence to validate the use of
partial shear connection in longspan beams. The limiting span of 20 m is given for
this reason.
I t is thought that the use of partial shear connection is not common enough to
justify the inclusion of design methods for members carrying concentrated loads or
of nonuniform section.
96
RECOMMENDATIONS
7.5.1 SCOPE
I
The design methods of 7.5 are applicable only to simplysupported and con
tinuous beams that are subjected to predominantly static loading and not to heavy
concentrated loads, such as loads from columns. Also, the methods of 7.5.2.1 and
7.5.2.2 are applicable only t o beams of span not exceeding 20 m, that have steel
members of uniform crosssection.
97
COMMENTARY
7.5.2
Further research is needed before the methods of 7.5.2.1 and 7.5.2.2 can be
used for types of shear connector other than headed studs in accordance with 6.3.2.
7.5.2.I
The limit N Q: 0.5 Nf in this and the following methods is arbitrary. Results of
shortterm labomtory tests suggest that the limit could be reduced to about 0.4 N f ,
L,
but there is no evidence of satisfactory longterm behaviour of beams with so low a
degree of shear connection (Johnson, R P, and May, I M, ‘Fartialinteraction
design of composite beams ’; Structural Engineer, 53,30511, August 1975).
Figure C7.3 shows that the method of 7.5.2.1 is a conservative approximation to
the results of partialinteraction analyses for the ultimate strength of beams with
partial shear connection.
M/M,
Partialinteraction analysis
/
1.0. 
0 1.o N/Nf
Figure C7.3
7.5.2.2
Figure C7.4 shows the stress distributions given by the method of 7.5.2.2for
values of N/Nf corresponding to points A , B, and Con Figure C7.3.
The moment of resistance Mr calculated by this method relies on ideal plastic
behaviour of the shear connectors. Where the degree of shear connection or the
deformation capacity of the connector is low, or the span of the beam is long,
premature failure of the shear connectors may occur before M, is reached.
98
RECOMMENDATIONS
'Vd
fyd
I
Point A Point B Point C
Figure C7.4
7.5.2.3
This is the only method of design with partial shear connection that is given for
use when the shear connectors are not 'flexible'in accordance with 2.1 and 6.3.2.
I t corresponds to the straight lines OD and DC in Figure C7.5. The curve ABC is
copied from Figure 7.3, to show that this method requires the use of more con
nectors than the method of 7.5.2.1.MDL is the bending moment in the steel sec
tion alone (Stark,J W B, "Simply supported steel and concrete composite beams",
Netherlands Committee for Concrete Research, and Steel Constructional Associa
tion, Waltman,Devt, I 9 74).
I ,N/Nf
I
:  N/Nf NJNU 1.o
NJN" 1.o
(a) Unpropped construction (b) Propped construction
Figure C7.5
7.5.3
I It is usually possible to so choose the quantity of top longitudinal reinforcement
in the slab above an internal support, that M u does not greatly exceed M;.
The longitudinal shear in a hogging (negative)moment region may exceed the
value calculated from the yield strength of the reinforcement, due both to the ten
100
RECOMMENDATIONS
101
COMMENTARY
7.6
These rules are based on the results of research on shear transfer in reinforced
concrete (Mattock,A H, and Hawkins, N M, 'Shear transfer in reinforced concrete
 recent research': Journal of Prestressed Concrete Institute, MarchlAprill9 72).
The method enables the interaction between transverse slab bending (negative or
positive)and longitudinal shear to be taken into account.
It should be noted that Equations (7.1) and (7.2) are independent of longitu
dinal stress and consequently independent of a favourable state of longitudinal
compression due to prestressing if there is such a state at all.
The question of whether the state of longitudinal compression can be taken into
account in Equations (7.1) and (7.2) or by some other method requires consi
deration.
The transfer of longitudinal shear in a composite beam is more severe than in a
concrete teebeam, but in regions remote from the connectors, the CEB/FIP
Recommendations on this subject may be appropriate.
The simple method of providing sufficient transverse reinforcement to develop
the design strength of the connectors is conservative in beams subject to repeated
loading where the connector spacing is determined by fatigue rather than static
strength, but it avoids the problems of defining critical crosssections in beams
where bending moment envelopes have to be considered. Alternatively, the shear
force per unit length may be determined by elastic analysis.
102
RECOMMENDATIONS
The ultimate longitudinal force in the slab at the internal support, F'", due to
the moment of resistance M'u (which may exceed M'r) given by 5.3 .l, is calculated
in accordance with 73. Let N'f be the number of shear connectors required for this
force, in accordance with 7.4.
The number of connectors N corresponding to the bending moment M, is calcu
lated in accordance with 7.5.2, as if the sagging moment region of the shear span
considered were part of a simplysupported beam.
The number of connectors provided must be not less than N'f t N. They may be
uniformly spaced over the length of the shear span.
I
103
COMMENTARY ’
104
RECOMMENDATIONS
a a
I I I r A t
I I
I I 1m Ell I' I
I I
I
I I I I 1
1
I * I t 1
1
I
a b' a
Fl cc
105
COMMENTARY
7.6.2
The values of the constant terms and coefficients used in 7.6.1 and 7.6.2are
subject to revision when the partialfactors of safety on loads and material strengths
have been established.
106
RECOMMENDATIONS
where F is the nett force per unit length of beam acting normal to the shear plane
under consideration due to transverse bending of the slab and/or transverse pre
stressing; taken as negative (minimum compression) or positive (maximum tension),
as appropriate. In assessing F no account shall be taken of transverse bending of the
slab due to loads of a nonpermanent nature, such as imposed loads or partitions
that may be subsequently removed, if their effect is to increase the ultimate shear
strength .
107
COMMENTARY
I 8.2
I
I The load is limited to 0.6 Pd to ensure that slip at the steelcoricrete interface is
not high enough to invalidate calculations for stresses and deflections based on full
interaction theory.
8.4
I n composite 'beams where the shear connection has sufficient static strength to
satisfy the requirements of 8.3 the influence of maximum stress on fatigue behaviour
may be neglected. The shear connection required a t any crosssection is governed by
the range of longitudinal shear per unit length, AV,where AV = U l n a  Vlnin and
vmax and vmi, are calculated from the maximum and minimum vertical shears at
that section due to the loading cycle considered.
For the.fatigue limit state, the design ranges of loads and stress for shear con
nectors may be assumed to be equal to the characteristic ranges AVas given in
Section 6 (ie, T~ = 1.0).
For fatigue investigations, the design loading should be taken as the load spec
trum specified in National Codes.
108
RECOMMENDATIONS
109
COMMENTARY
The size and spacing of the connectors at each end of each span should be not
less than that required for the calculated shear range; This size and spacingshould
be maintained for at least 10 per cent of each span. Elsewhere, the size and spacing
of connectors may be kept constant over any length where the calculated shear
range does not vary by more than 10 per cent from the design stress range.
Over every such length the spacing should be such that the longitudinal shear
ranges per unit length multiplied by the connector spacing, ie, the shear ranges
per connector, satisfv the following requirements for the design spectrum of load
ing:
1. For stud connectors, the allowable number of occurrences N for each cycle
of service loading giving a shear range A V expressed as a percentage of the
Characteristic static strength should be derived in accordance with Section 6
and using graphical interpolation where necessary. The summation of the
ratios of the design number of cycles n for each service loading to the corres
ponding allowable number of cycles N should not exceed unity.
2. For other types of connector, the allowable number of occurrences N for
each cycle of service loading giving a nominal shearstress range on the weld
throat.should be derived in accordance with Section 6 and using graphical
interpolation where necessary. The summation of the ratios of the design
number of cycles n to the corresponding allowable number of cycles N
should not exceed unity.
RECOMMENDATIONS
111
, ~~
COMMENTARY,
" 3
~I .
9.1.1
For the purpose of calculating the restraint force in the concrete slab due to
temperature effects, the strain should be assumed to act over the full breadth
of flange, but in stress calculations, the effective breadth of flange should be
used.
In continuous beams, in addition to the primary (statically determinate) effects
of temperature, the calculation o f moments and reactions should take account of
the secondary (parasitic) effects that occur in statically indeterminate structures
subject to internal strains.
9.1.2 I
The following assumptions may be made when calculating the loads of con
nectors due to the longitudinal force VQ:
a) for flexible connectors, that the load is transferred uniformly at a rate V@,
over a length Qs measured from each end of the beam, where Qs is taken as
the effective breadth of the concrete flange, or is as defined in national
codes; and
b ) for rigid connectors, that the rate of transfer of load varies linearly from a
maximum o f 2 VdQ, at each end of the beam to zero at a distance Qs from
each end of the beam, where Qs is as defined in a) above.
'I12
RECOMMENDATIONS
Section 9. .Temperature,
shrinkage and creep
9.1.1 GENERAL
It is normally not necessary to consider the effects of temperature on composite
beams in buildings. Elsewhere the effects of temperature should be considered as
follows.
1. Longitudinal shear forces due to temperature effects should be considered
during construction and at the serviceability limit state.
2. In stress calculations for beams where the crosssection is slender, tempera
ture effects need only be considered at the ultimate limit state and during
construction.
3. In stress calculations in beams where the crosssection is compact (see 5.2),
the effects of temperature need only be considered during construction and
at the serviceability limit state.
113
I
9.2.I
In continuous composite beams in addition to the redistribution of stresses that
occurs in simply supported beams (primary effects), shrinkage and creep will also
cause a redistribution of the bending moments and support reactions, which should
be taken into account.
* I
114
RECOMMENDATIONS
9.2.1 GENERAL
Shrinkage and creep should be determined in ,ccordance with the CEB/FIP '
Principles and Recommendations, except that where the flange of the steel beam is
completely encased in concrete, reference should be made to specialist literature.
115
COMMENTARY
I
s
.
. .
. v
10.1
Methods for calculating crack width differfrom country to country, but most are
based on the results of research on reinforced concrete rectangular beams and slabs.'
Until the application of such methods to composite beams has been thoroughly
assessed, no detailed method of calculating crack width is given in this Section.
..
. 
116'
RECOMMENDATIONS
10.1 GENERAL
(1) In concrete elements designed for Class N verification (reinforced concrete)
adequate reinforcement should be provided to prevent cracking from adversely
affecting the appearance or durability of the structure. b i t i n g crack widths
and the principles on which methods for calculating crack widths are based
should be in accordance with the CEBIFIP Recommendations.
(2) For prestressed beams see Section 12.
I 117
COMMENTARY I
11.1 i
11.2
( I ) Provided the stresses in the steel or concrete due to any combination of design
loads at the serviceability limit state or during construction do not exceed the
limits given in 5.5.4 deflections may be calculated by elastic theory using the
elastic properties given in 3.4 assuming fill interaction between the steel beam
and the concrete slab, and neglecting concrete in tension in hogging (negative)
moment regions, in accordance with 4.4.
For prestressed composite beams see Section 12.
In the absence of a rigorous analysis, allowance for inplane shear flexibility
(shear lag effects)may be made in calculations based on elementary theory of
bending, by using an appropriate effective breadth of jlunge.
Consideration should be given to the effects of shrinkage and creep. Where
appropriate the CEBIFIP Recommendationsfor Structural Concrete may be
used.
Alternatively, the deflectionsdue to permanent loading may be calculated
by using a modulus of elasticity of concrete appropriate to longterm loading,
determined in accordance with 3.4. Where appropriate, proper account should
be taken of the deflections of the steel section due to loads applied to it prior
to the development of composite action.
(2) Where it is necessary to determine the deflections of a composite beam due to
loadings which cause the stresses in the steel or concrete to exceed the limits
given in 5.5.4 the deflection should be calculated using nonlinear elastic
plastic theory. The stressstrain relationship for structural steel should be that
specified in the ECCS Recommendations. The stressstrain relationships for
concrete and reinforcement should be those specified in the CEBJFIPRecom
mendations.
118
I
RECOMMENDATIONS
Section I 18 Deflections
11.1 GENERAL
Where it is necessary to check deflections, the distribution of bending moments
shall be determined in accordance with 4.4, with rf taken as 1.O, as proposed in the
Commentary to Clause 3.7.2.
I /
I
119
,
COMMENTARY
11.3
When according to 7.5.2 or 7.5.3it is required that N 2 0.5 Nf(or even N > 0.4
Nf)then the deflectiongenerally may 'be calculated according to 11.2 (1) assuming
f i l l interaction. Supporting evidence from results of tests by Baldwin (USA) and
Stark (Holland)is shown below.
0.3 c
0.2 
0.1 
L
0 0.1! 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 .o
120
RECOMMENDATIONS
. ..
12.1
I
I
The effect of prestressing isgenerally important in the elastic range. This effect
is reduced by high inelastic deformations, cracking of concrete, or plastic deforma
tions up tofailure. Compact composite beams are thereforegenerallynot prestressed.
The instantaneous losses of tension or prestressing (losses in jacks or at anchor
ages, frictional forces in the ducts or between the concrete part and the steel beam,
reductions in the lengths'of members at tensioning) should be taken into account as
appropriate, according to the CEBIFIP Recommendations. The same applies to the
deferred losses of tension due to relaxation of the prestressing steel and due to
creep and shrinkage of the concrete.
12.2.
The stress state due to the weight of wet concrete in the steelwork of a com
posite beam which is unpropped during construction, should not be regarded as a
stage of prestressing.
I 12.3
Regions near end supports may be in a different class from the rest of the beam,
due to the location of anchorages for tendons. Temperature differences and shrink
age cause concentrated anchorageforces and tensile stresses at the ends of composite
beams. These tensile stresses cannot in general be eliminated by the addition of com
pressive stresses due to prestressing. Therefore the end regions may belong to class
IV members even when the Composite beam should meet the requirements of class
I or 11 concrete members.
RECOMMENDATIONS
123
COMMENTARY
12.5
Care must be taken of shear lag effects, which may be different for certain load
ing conditions, for example for dead load and jacking.
For longterm loading, the effects of creep may be taken into account in calcula
tions based on elastic theory, by using a modulus of elasticity of concrete, E*c,
given by: I
EC
E'c = I + $ &
where E, is the shortterm modulus of elasticity and & is the creep coefficient
obtained from the CEBfFIPPrincipes and Recommendations and J/ takes account
of the properties of the composite crosssectionand the type of loading.
12.6
The mc thod of all( wing for creep given in Commer tary 12.5 is also applicable at
the ultimate limit state.
12.6.1
For example, yp should be taken as 1.2 where local effects of prestressing are
unfavourable, as where prestressing tendons are anchored and concentrated forces
have to be transmitted from the concrete part to the steel beam.
12.7 .
Delayed strains in the concrete lead to stress redistributions from the concrete
flange to the steel beam, thereby causing earlier crack formation under increased
loading which results in reduced stiffnesses.
124
RECOMMENDATIONS
12.5 SERVICEABILITY
Stress limitations in the tension zone of the concrete part should comply with
the appropriate CEB/FIP Recommendations for concrete members.
In order to determine the distribution of bending moments and shearing forces a
linear elastic anlysis assuming an uncracked slab should be carried out.
The compressive stresses in the concrete part due to flexure, including stresses
due to imposed deformations and prestressing forces, should not exceed 0.6 fck.
The stresses in prestressing tendons are limited as in the appropriate CEB/FIP
Recommendations.
The stresses in the steel beam are limited in accordance with 5.5.4, except that
before creep and shrinkage have taken place, the maximum tensile stress in the
structural steel should not exceed 0.95 times the characteristic yield strength divided
by rm.
12.6 ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE
125
13.2
Methods of checking for vibration serviceability are available:
Mason, D, “Testingand design for vibrations of office floors with composite
construction”. Proceedings of Conference on Steel Structures, p p 140 148,
Monash University,Australia, May 1977.
Johnson, R P, ‘X‘omposite structures of steel and concrete’: Volume 1, p p
96 100, Oosby Lockwood Staples, London, I9 75.
13.3
Vibration serviceability requirements for footways and cycle tracks are given in
Appendix D of British Standard 5400, “Steel,concrete, and composite bridges”,
Part 2, ‘Zoads’: British Standards Institution, 1978.
More detailed information is available: “Symposiumon dynamic behaviour of
bridges’; Supplementary Report 275, I I6 pp, Transport and Road ,Research
Laboratoty, Crowthome,England, May 1977.
I 126
RECOMMENDATIONS
13.1 GENERAL
Consideration should be given to the possibility that in structures subjected to
fluctuatingloadsin service, the frequency or amplitude of vibration may be sufficient
to cause distress to users or local damage to the structure.
127
COMMENTARY
14.2
In geneml the following tolerances are realistic for construction without a mortar
bed:
Length of surface
Shear connection Tolerance considered
Studs 1.0
0.3
Friction grip 1.0
bolting 0.3
128
RECOMMENDATIONS
14.1 GENERAL
For the design of the concrete slab, its reinforcement, the beams, and the shear
connectors the same rules have to be applied as for concreteaslabscast in situ, unless
stated otherwise in this Section.
14.5
Tension member required
1

I I
Columns
\r
+ i
Ii
Joints between deck slabs, + Region of increased pressure
above steel beams of stud against slab
 Region of decreased pressure
of stud against slab
Figure C14.1
130
RECOMMENDATIONS
. .
131
COMMENTARY
I '
15.1.1 I
For designs involving the composite action between a profired steel sheetlcon
Crete slab with the supporting beams, see Section 6 for shear connector design and
5.1.2 for effective thickness of flange.
Figure C15.1 Typical floor with profiled steel sheets: (1) floor finish; (2) profded
sheet; (3) structural concrete, (4) mesh reinforcement; (5) topping.
( 6 )  deformations
Embossments Indentations
Figure C 15.2
RECOMMENDATIONS
15.1 SCOPE
133
15.1.2
For structures where the imposed load is largely repetitive or applied abruptly
in such a manner as to produce dynamic effects profiled steel sheet is permitted
provided the engineer gives careful consideration to its detailed design and use with
especial regard to maintaining the structural integn'ty of the composite action.
Treatment of vibration is covered in Section 13.
15.2.2
Depending on service conditions a coating class ranging from 100 g/m2 to 2 7.5
g/m2 has been found satisfactory.
15.2.3
For design calculations based on the guaranteed minimum yield stress the bare
metal thickness of the sheet shall be used. Where the yield stress is based on coupon
tests carried out on the galvanised material then it shall be made clear in calculations
that this is the effective yield stress of the material based on the total sheet thick
ness.
15.2.4
The requirements for slab thickness and cover derive from consideration of
aggregate size and the structural integrity of composite slabs using certain profiled
steel sheets in a transverse direction.
Figure C 15.3
134
RECOMMENDATIONS
15.2 MATERIALS
15.2.1 STEEL
The basic material should be mild steel in accordance with Euronorms 25  1972
and 32  1966, with a minimum grade of Fe 360.
15.2.2 COATING
Galvanising should be in accordance with the IS0 standard on galvanising:
“Continuous hotdip coated carbon steel sheet of structural quality, IS0 4998 
1977”, (IS0 TC 17), or to National Standards.
135
COMMENTARY
15.3.3
In cases where the deflection is not greater than 20 mm it may be assumed that
the yonding effect is covered by the uniformly distributed construction load of
1.0 kN/m’. For deflections greater than 20 m m the ponding effect may be
136
RECOMMENDATIONS
15.2.5 TOLERANCE
Dimensions of a profiled steel sheet which is to be used compositely shall not
differ from the specified dimensions by more than the tolerance listed below.
Overall depth of deck t 4%
 1%
Sheet thickness + 10%
 5%
Dimension of shear transfer devices 4 20%
 10%
1 Spacing of shear transfer devices + 10%
Due to the variations in types of embossment and indentation the manufacturer
shall specify each form in an acceptable manner referring to depth, length, radii and
slopes and shall further maintain this form during manufacture within the above
tolerances.
15.3.1 LOADS
I The following loads shall be taken into consideration in calculations for the steel
deck as shuttering:
dead load of the deck,
dead load of the wet concrete,
construction loads.
The construction loads represent the weight of tradesmen and concreting plant
and take into account any impact or vibration which may occur during construction.
The construction loads shall be taken as the worst case of either a) a uniformly dis
tributed design service load of 1.O kN/m2 or b) a knife edge service load of 1.5 kN/m
parallel to the supporting beam, placed in the most unfavourable position.
Wherever possible unsupported edges to the steel deck should be avoided other
wise particular care should be taken during design and construction as unsupported
edges may suffer gross deformations when subjected to concentrated loads.
15.3 3 DEFLECTION
The requirements of IS0 proposal TC 98 SE 4 shall be observed. For deflections
greater than 20 mm the ‘ponding’ effect (increased concrete depths due to the
deflection of the sheeting) should be considered.
137
COMMENTARY
Concrete to allow
for ponding effect
I
Deflection neglecting ponding effect
15.4.1
138
RECOMMENDATIONS
3) by anchorages at the ends of each span of the slab preventing slip between
the concrete and the profiled sheet.
The ultimate load at the limit state of collapse is identified by two main failure
modes (see also 2.1), which are as follows.
a) Longitudinal shear in slabs with incomplete shear connection. The behaviour
of such slabs under test is characterised by slip failure.
b) Flexure in slabs with complete shear connection. The slab is able to develop
full flexural strength.
Either failure mode is possible for a composite slab using a particular profiled
steel sheet. The mode is primarily dependent on the span and depth of the slab.
Design for longitudinal shear shall be based on test information for each type of
profiled steel sheet. The tests should provide data for the ultimate strength design
equations and are referred to in 15.4.2 and 15.4.3.
Design for flexure may be based on conventional reinforced concrete theory for
the ultimate state provided tests carried out initially for each type of profiled steel
sheet have confirmed that failure is by flexure. The tests are referred to in 15.4.2
and 15.4.3.
139
COMMENTARY
(3) Anchorages. Composite action between the steel decking and concrete slab can
be ensured by the use of anchorages at the ends of the span which prevent slip
between the concrete slab and the profiled sheet. Anchorages of this type m y
be provided to produce composite action with plain profiled sheets or to
enhance the loadcaving capacity of a composite floor slab. The anchorages,
which may take the form illustrated in Figure C15.5,are required at end sup
ports for simply supported slabs and at the ends of each span for continuous
slabs.
Tests must be carried out to indicate that:
I ) the anchorage is effective, and
2) the proposed design method for the slab is satisfactoty. I
If it is proposed to omit anchorage at internal supports this must be justified
by test.
d
Figure C15.S Anchorage at end support.
Design for flexure. Propping during the construction stage has no effect on the ulti
mate strength of the composite slab.
15.4.2
I f type I tests are made over a sufficient range of parameters, information may
be obtained on the effective bond or anchorage force which may then be inserted
into appropriate design expressions to give an approximate general method of
calculation.
If type 2 tests are made, the test must be full gcale and must simulate the actual
site conditions and the results obtained may not be interpolated or extrapolated for
other cases.
Type 3 tests are for composite slabs with an abnormal structural form (eg, skew
slabs) or for special loadings (eg,forklift trucks).
140
RECOMMENDATIONS
141
COMMENTARY
15.4.3
A typical graph of longitudinal shear failure is shown in Figure C1.5.6.
Figure C15.6
To establish the design relationship for longitudinal shear capacity, tests are
required on specimens in regions A and B indicated in Figure C15.6. Region A
includes specimens with small slab depths and region B with larger depths and small
shear lengths. A minimum number of three tests in each region is sufficient pro
vided the variation from the mean of the three results is not greater than 2795%.
When the variation is greater than +7%%three further tests should be carried out
and the six test results may be used to obtain the regression line. The regression line
is reduced by up to 15% to ensure that the experimental value willgenerally fall
above the reduced line and to account for some minor variations in the test results,
profile thickness and dimensions. When eight or more tests are carried out the
reduction line may be taken as 10% below the regression line.
15.4.4
A minimum of three fullscale tests shall be carried out on the proposed floor
construction using actual loading, or, in the case of uniformly distributed loads,
a close simulation of the loadingas shown in Figure C15.7.In the case of continuous
spans, either multiple spans shall be tested or the support moments simulated on a
single span.
The width of the slab should have a value not less than each ofi
i) three times the overall depth
ii) 600 mm, and
iii) width of the profiled sheet.
Thin steelplate crack inducers extending to the full depth of the slab and coated
with a debonding agent shall be placed across the full width of the test slab. Alter
natively, the crack inducer may be limited to the tensile zone of the concrete. In
142
RECOMMENDATIONS
15.4.3.1 General
The variables to be investigated include the type of steel decking, steel deck
properties, loading arrangement, concrete properties and shear lengths. From these
tests the ultimate applied load, the mode of failure and the load/deflection and
load/slip performance is obtained.
derived from a reduction of the regression line (see Figure C15.6). Typically, the
calculated ultimate shear capacity is:
(15.1)
where 9 is a capacity reduction factor (= 0.8) based on the mode of failure and the
behaviour prior to,failure. Some adjustment to Vu may be necessary to allow for
the dead load resulting from propping.
15.4.4.1 General
This type of test is carried out for a particular structural application where the
test arrangement simulates the actual site conditions. The result obtained shall not
be extrapolated for other cases and careful consideration shall be given to any
interpolation of these results. The test procedure is intended to represent load
ing over a period of time. Crack inducers are used to ensure that cracks form in the
tensile zone of the slab.
143
COMMENTARY
the case of fourpoint loading these shall be positioned under the central point
loads as shown in Figure Cl5.7.
Concrete and outline
of crack inducers
Figure C 15.7
I
The surface of the steel decking shall be used in the ‘asrolled’ condition, no
attempt being made to improve adherence of the concrete by degreashg the sur
face of the sheets.
I 144
RECOMMENDATIONS
15.4.5 LOADING
The loads to be taken into consideration for the design of the steel deck have
been given in 15.3.1.
The following loads shall be taken into consideration in the design of the com
posite slab:
prop reactions,
dead loads (topping, insulation, false ceilings, services, etc),
live loads.
The structural system is in general that of a beam continuous over several spans.
145
COMMENTARY
15.4.7
I I
I' 1
Effective load width (measured in the concrete immediately above the ribs):
bm=b,+2a+2(de)
Effective breadth of the slab:
continuous beam: bt = bm +
4
(I  5)
x'
146
RECOMMENDATIONS
147
~ __ ___
COMMENTARY
16.1
Composite columns may be used not on& as columns for buildings and bridges,
but they may be used also for loadbearing stmctures exposed to fire, transmission
towers, temporary structures, etc. I
I
16.2.1
The mild and high yield structural steel should conform with accepted European
grades or corresponding national grades with a yield strain not exceeding 0.2%
unless test results show that methods contained herein can be applied to higher
yield steels. The structural steel components may be either rolled or fabricated
sections.
16.2.2
The concrete should be a normal density or lightweight concrete with a charac
teristic cylinder strength of not less than 20 Nlmm’ and with a maximum aggregate
size not exceeding u/3 for concrete encased steel sections, d/6 for concrete filled
steel tubes, and in no case greater than specified in the Model Code for Concrete
Structures. The concrete of encased sections must have longitudinal and transverse
reinforcement. No reinforcement is needed for concrete filled steel hollow sections,
however additional reinforcement can be used for fire protection requirements.
Note: U and d are as shown in Figure 16.I .
16.3.1
The structural steel members should be encased in, or filled with concrete over
the whole column length if the simplified methods given in this commentary are to
be used. The major and minor axes of composite column sections should be taken
as the major and minor axes of the structural steel section.
148
RECOMMENDATIONS
16.1 SCOPE
This section applies to composite columns of buildings and bridges, which may
be either concrete encased steel sections or concrete filed steel tubes in which con
crete and steel interact completely to resist the load. The columns may be either
statically determinate, or rigidly connected to other members at one or both ends.
16.2 MATERIALS
16.3.1 GENERAL
The design of composite columns with crosssections of the following type
(Figure 16.l)is based on fully composite action up to failure between the structural
steel elements and the concrete elements including reinforcement.
I
I Figure 16.1 Composite column crosssections.
149
COMMENTARY
16.3.2
The symmetrical builtup sections with open webs of the types shown in Figure
C16.1, eg, doublechannels or four angles, with intermediate and end battens may
also be used in encased columns (see R Q Bridge and J W Roderick, ‘Behaviourof
builtup composite columns ”, ASCE, St 7,July I 9 78).
In the case of unsymmetdcal structural steel sections encased in concrete, or
steel columns which are partially encased in concrete insufficient test results are
available, so that further considerations will be needed before their use in design.
16.3.3
b is the external dimension at the wall of a rectangular hollow section.
d is the outside diameter ofa circular hollow section.
Es is Young’s modulus of elasticity of steel.
f r is the characteristic yield strength of the steel.
The limitations on wall thickness are needed to control local buckling. Where
these limitations are not met it is possible to allow for the reduced effectivenessof
the steel in column strength calculations (see J P Grimault and J Janss, ‘Xeduction
of the bearing capacity of concrete filled hollow sections due to local buckling”,
Prelim Report, Stability of Steel Structures, Liege, I9 77).
16.3.4
In Equation (16.3)h, = the height of the structural steel section. Nearly all test
specimens had a concrete cover of 2 40 mm. For larger crosssections the coverlh,
ratio must be geometrically similar to that ratio adopted in the test specimens.
The limits for encased Isections may be the same as for concrete filled sections:
0.1 < a C 0.8and are based on parameter ranges studied at Imperial College. (See
A K Basu and W Sommerville, “Derivation of formulae for the design of rectangular
composite columns’: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers Supplemen
tary Volume,Paper 7206S,1969.)
In the formulae from (16.6) to ( I 6.13) the symbols have the following meaning:
Ac, As, Ar : ,The area of the concrete cover or core, area of the structural
steel section and the area of reinforcement respectively.
f c k , f s k , frk : The characteristic strengths of concrete, structural steel and
reinforcement respectively. The values must be taken according
to the recommendations of Clause 16.2.
Tmc, YmS, Tmr : Material partial safety factors of concrete, structural steel and
reinforcement respectively. The values must be taken according
to the recommendations of Clause 16.2.
0
For the purpose of comparisons between shortterm test results and calculated
loadcanying capacities, fck should be taken as fck = 0.83fa.
150
RECOMMENDATIONS
151
COMMENTARY
A suggested minimum diameter for the four longitudinal bars is 8 mm. It is also
possible to provide suitable steel mesh to prevent concrete spalling.
A limit of 3% is placed on ArlAc as this corresponds to the maximum percentage
used in tests on composite columns to date. This figure may be increhsed if test
results show the methods described herein to be applicable to design.
16.3.5
It is assumed that composite action between structural steel section and concrete
including reinforcement takes place u p to failure. This provides uniform loading of
the whole crosssection;I t must be ensured by adequate detailing of connections
and joints. ,
16.3.6
The lengths used in slender column tests reported to date did not exceed forty
five times the least laterd dimension of the column crosssection. Converted into
x
the slenderness ratio this Q/dratio gives about h = 2.0. In cases where Q/d> 30 or
Q > 12 m it will be necessary to ensure that special instructions are given so that
the concrete filling operation can be carried out adequately.
16.4.I
A nonlinear stressstrain curve for concrete is given in Figure 5.I , Clause 5.4.1.3.
Design tables and charts which have been obtained by an analytical method
using these basic principles may be safely used for the design of composite columns:
for example, Monographie No 5,fascicule I et 2, Talcul des poteaux en profils
crew remplis de beton. Methode de calcul et technologie de mise en oeuvre”
(French, German and English version) edited by CIDECT, I9 79. The background is
explained by R Anslijn, J Janss, in Tomputation of the ultimate loads of steel
columns encased with concrete ” (in French), CRIF Report MT89, April 1974.
Comments on the theoretical and experimental background to Clause 16.4 are con
tained in the Manual on Stability of Steel Structures, Appendix A (ECCS, 1976).
152
RECOMMENDATIONS
(1 6.14)
The concrete cover to the reinforcement should not be less than the minimum
permitted in the CEB/FIP Model Code for Concrete Structures, nor less than
25 mm for longitudinal bars.
153
COMMENTARY
16.4.2
Alternatively,empirical methods which have been shown to lead to safe designs
may be used. One &ch method is the equivalent pinended column approach in 1
which the restrained column is replaced by a pinended column of length equal to
the effective length of the restrained column and having end eccentricities propor
tional to its stiffitess as determined by a linear elastic analysis of the restrained
column as a frame with joint moments.
16.5.I
In the Equations (16.35)  ( I 6.19) the symbols have the following meanings:
N = normal force acting in the column;
Nu = as is given in Equation ( I 6.8) of Clause 16.3.4;
Qk = effective column length which should be determined as given for bare
steel columns in ECCS European Recommendationsfor Steel Construc
tion;
I,, Is, I, = second moment of the total area of the concrete part assumed to be
uncracked, the steel section, and the reinforcement respectively;
E, = as is defined in Clause C16.3.3;
E, = elastic modulus of longitudinal reinforcement.
The application of the ECCS column curves for bare steel columns to the predic
tion of composite column strength is discussed in the Manual of Stability of Steel
Structures and by K S Virdiand P J Do wling in '2unified design method for com
posite columns 7 ISBSE Publications, Volume 3644 Zurich, 1976.
In the case of concrete filled steel hollow sections, the tubes retard the concrete
curing. As a result the influence of longterm loading on the timedependent con
crete strains is smaller than in the core concrete casing.
154
RECOMMENDATIONS
The applied forces, bending moments, resulting stresses etc should be calculated
using second order theory (p  A effects). Proper account has to be taken of the
decrease in stiffness due to the spread of plastified and cracked zones.
Geometrical and structural imperfections of materials, including residual stresses
in rolled or welded sections have to be assumed as appropriate. Creep and shrinkage
parameters for the concrete part have to be chosen in accordance with the CEB/FIP
Model Code for Concrete Structures.
16.5.1 GENERAL
The composite column should be designed so that:
i) the maximum factored moment on each axis is not greater than the design
ultimate moment of resistance of the section about the corresponding axis
M < Mu (16.15)
where MU is defined as appropriate in the two hand methods given in the
commentary ;
ii) the factored load on the column is not greater than the ultimate loadcarry
ing capacity of the composite column about the appropriate axis
N < Nk (1 6.1 6)
The design ultimate moment of resistance of the section Mu depends on the type
and properties of the composite crosssection and the location of its principal axis.
The ultimate loadcarrying capacity of the composite column is given by:
Nk = KN, (1 6.1 7)
K = reduction factor dependent on the equivalent slenderness ratio x,the
effective buckling curves for bare steel columns according to the ECCS
European Recommendations for Steel Construction, materials and cross
sectional properties, shape and ratios of bending moment distribution in
column.
= equivalent slenderness ratio as given by:
N U
(1 6.1 8)
x=JNa
155
COMMENTARY
0.5
I
I I
I w
0.5 1.o 1.5 2.0 x I
Figure C16.2 European buckling curves for bare steel columns.
.! 1'
h/b< 1.2 1.2 0.542 0.480 0.438
 buckling about
the y y axis 1.3 0.480 0.429 0.395
h/b 1.2 1.4 0.427 0.383 0.357
Y hlb 1.2
1.5 0.381 0.343 0.323
I and H welded sections '
Table C16.1 Strut curve selection chart and values of coefficient K I for column
curves.
156
RECOMMENDATIONS
0 9.78 0.76
5 6.60 0.80
10 3.94 08 5
15 1.86 0.90
20 0.49 ' ' 0.95
25
~
0.00 1.oo
Table 16.1 The values of factors q l and 772.
157
COMMENTARY
16.5.2
The value of coefficient K l may be taken either from Figure Cl 6.2 or Table
C16.1 taking due account of the steel section involved and the value of slenderness
ratio given by Equation (16.18).I t may also be calculated by the formula
where i
6 = 0.158 for curve a,
= 0.281 for curve b,
= 0.384 for curve c.
Method A
(Cl 6.2)
where
K 1 is derived as in Clause 16.5.2,
K 2 and K 3 are determined as below,
M = maximum factored moment acting about the appropriate axis, calculated
in accordance with clause 16.4.2,
Mu = design ultimate moment of resistance calculated about the appropriate
axis as given later in the Commentary.
Equation (C16.2)governs for columns subjected to uniaxial bending about the
minor axis. Columns subjected to major axis moments, but unrestrained from fail
ing about the minor axis are likely to fail in biaxial bending and the requirements of
Clause 16.5.4 should be met.
Coefficient K 2 : Values of the coefficient K 2 about each axis may be calculated as
follows between the limits:
OGK2 GK2 ( ~ ~ 0 )
and
K2 (Q = 0 ) Q 0.75
except that if K 2 is calculated to be negative it should be taken as zero.
K 2 (Q = o)= 0.9a2 + 0.2
158
RECOMMENDATIONS
I 1
In cases where a column carries loads before the composite action has taken
place, this column has to meet the requirements for bare steel columns. In calcula
ting the loadcarrying capacity of the composite column the preloading of the steel
section should be considered as appropriate.
159
COMMENTARY
For concrete encased steel sections and concrete filled rectangular tubes
Kz = K ~ ( =Q0) {I90  25 (2P  1) (1.8  a)  ijx] 1/30 (2.5  P)J/
while for concrete filled circular tubes:
K z = Kz+o) { [ l l s  30(2fl 1)(1.8 a )  iix]l[SO(2.1 fl)]]
where
6 = the ratio of the smaller to the larger of the two end moments acting about
each axis, used with the additional subscripts x and y to denote the plane
of bending under consideration, the sign convention being such that (3 is
positive for single curvature bending; I
Q = 100 for columns designed to curve a,
= 120 for columns designed to curve b,
= 135 for columns designed to curve c.
160
RECOMMENDATIONS
161
COMMENTARY
r *
C16.3 C16.4 C16.5
b
I
b
t I 1
t b
C16.9
VI
I d
162
RECOMMENDATIONS
163
COMMENTARY
for concreteencased steel section whose plastic neutral axis is in web  major axis
bending (Figure Cl 6.6)  as:
 [Ash + 2t,dL  2bftf(dS d,)  ht,
(As + 2twdw) jfrd
 2As pb + 2t, fsd
for concreteencased steel section whose plastic neutral axis is in flanges  minor
axis bending (Figure C16.7)  as:
e, =  1
2AS IASh + 4tfd3 
u
pb + 4tf
2
+‘4t ) +f*d
fsd
Add,.
pb + 4tf
for concrete filled circular hollow section (Figure C16.9)  as:
e, = ec +29
n (es  e,);
where
e = [I
2(t+tX)
tx = % (d  2t) (1  J T p )
d 1 AS
‘OStx(d2t tx)+2t(d t )
2 ( d  2t) sin3 9
e, =
3(2e  sin’ 9 )
16.5.4
For columns failing in biaxial bending conditions ( I 6.15) and ( I 6.16) should be
satisfied by taking the coefficient K as Kxr as given by
 1
Kxy  1+  + 1 1
Kx Ky KlX
164
RECOMMENDATIONS
165
COMMENTARY
I
I where
K 1x = the K 1coefficientfor the column with no end moments constrained
to bend about the major axis only as determined from clause 16.5.2.
K x , Ky coefficientfor the column bending about the major and minor axes
respectively as determined from Equation (Cl 6.2).
Method B
16.5.3
To design columns subjected to axial compression and uniaxial bending, the
forces have to be calculated using second oder theory ( p  A effects). These fac I
toted moments should not exceed the ultimate crosssectional strength at any
position along the column length. The design procedure is illustrated graphically
below:
.N
NU
Figure C16.10
The limiting axial load capacity, Nk,can be determined from Clause 16.5.2 as point
B in the above figure. A t this load level no additional bending moment can be
applied to the composite column. The accompanying bending moment, denoted by
Point A on the interaction curve is due solely to geometrikal imperfections and resi
dual stresses.
The distance between the straight line 0  A and the interaction curve denotes
the moment caving capacity:
Mk < 0.9sMu.
The following diagrams are presented to facilitate the use of this method:
166
RECOMMENDATIONS
167
I
.,
A
COMMENTARY
1 .o
ae
0.6
Parameter 
a4 0.8
0.2
0 d
Figure C16.12
Nu 1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
n
0.2 014 0.6 0.8 l'.O 1:2 1:s 1.6 1.8 E
M"
Figure C16.13
168
RECOMMENDATIONS
169
~
COMMENTARY
" t
N"
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
16.5.4
For composite columns subjected to biaxial bending a three dimensional sur
face instead of the above simple interaction curves should be used.
Onesimpleapproach which may be used is to calculate both moment carrying
capacities separately for each axis
Mk,x = 0.9& Mu,x
Mk,r = 0.9Sy Mu,y
Linear interpolation between the two uniaxiul moment carrying capacities
gives an interaction function for biaxial bending as shown graphically below.
Figure C16.15
170
i
RECOMMENDATIONS
171
COMMENTARY .
166.1
Composite columns subjected to transverse shear forces, V,may be designed
by assuming that the shear is resisted by the steel web alone for strong axis bend
ing and the steel flanges alone for weak axis bending, Shear and noma1 stresses
should be combined and must not exceed the equivalent yield as given by the
von Mises yield criterion.
172
RECOMMENDATIONS
16.7.1 GENERAL
As well as conforming with the ultimate limit state columns must also be designed
to behave satisfactorily at the serviceability limit state. Two readily identifiable
serviceability limit states are excessive cracking and excessive deflections.
173
COMMENTARY
174
RECOMMENDATIONS.. .
175
COMMENTARY
I 176
RECOMMENDATIONS
18.1 RESPONSIBILITY
Where several parties are involved in the design and construction of a composite
structure the responsibilities of the individuals or organisations appointed to under
take the design, coordination, satisfactory completion and safe execution of the
works should be clearly defined at the start of the project.
18.2 SEQUENCE OF CONSTRUCTION I
posite section, and should be clearly indicated and described on the final design
plans and instructions to site.
I
Consideration should be given to the speed and sequence of concreting to I
177
COMMENTARY
178
RECOMMENDATIONS
18 3 STABILITY OF STEELWORK
Usually stiffeners or crossframes are required in order to ensure stability of the
steelwork, particularly before the section acts compositely. The stiffness of shutter
ing or other similar formwork material is not sufficient to provide the necessary
lateral support.
The same attention to detail should be given to the calculations for safety against
buckling if jacking down of supports is used as the method of prestressing either the
steelwork or the composite structure. In this context, it may be advisable under
certain circumstances to measure the induced reactions and to compare them with
the calculated values, furthermore special consideration should be given to the
stability of lifting frames, jacks, packing materials etc. Horizontal forces caused by
bearing friction or resistance to longitudinal support movements should also be con
sidered.
Figure C18.1 a) Tension test; b) Bending test, c) Reversal bending test, d) Hammer
blow bending test.
180
RECOMMENDATIONS
If deflections of the steel beam by pouring of the concrete are significant their
values shall be given in the design calculation and on the drawings. Generally this
may not be necessary for beams in buildings of conventional structures but will
usually be necessary for bridges or similar structures. Sometimes it may be of a
certain importance to take into account the influence of an eventual slip in joints,
possible effects of residual mill stresses or welding stresses or other causes of
increased or reduced deflections.
The measured actual deflections shall be compared with the theoretical values.
Deviations from the desired form may be compensated by thicker dimensions of
concrete or wearing coat only if the additional loading is considered in the statical
analysis.
181
COMMENTARY
182
RECOMMENDATIONS
183