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Radu Dogaru

University Politehnica of Bucharest

ETTI, Dept. of Applied Electronics and Info. Eng., Natural Computing Laboratory

Bucharest, Romania

e-mail: radu_d@ieee.org

Abstract This paper reviews the properties of a novel chaotic attractive for these systems was the property of generating

map based on hybrid cellular automata (HCA101 map) and orthogonal sequences at each site of the cellular automaton.

compares them against the widely known logistic map with finite One such widely cited HCA is the HCA90/150 using cells

precision implementation, from the perspective of their use as belonging to the rules 90 and 150 respectively [7]. In some

PN-sequences in communication systems. It turns out that our

HCA-map is superior in any respect to the logistic map and in

recent works [8][9] we investigate the possibility to achieve

addition posses the binary synchronization property allowing to binary synchronization in CA, i.e. the possibility to reconstruct

dramatically simplify acquisition circuits needed to reconstruct and track the entire CA state in the receiver while sending only

the phase of the PN-sequence in the receiver. one part of the transmitter state (a single bit corresponding to

one cell, in fact the serial bit defining the PN-sequence). The

Keywords-chaotic maps; cellular automata; pseudo noise result was a hybrid cellular automata based on rule 101, called

sequences; synchronization here a HCA101 map. Systems with binary synchronization

property eliminate the need for a sophisticated PN-acquisition

I. INTRODUCTION since they allow the reconstruction of the entire transmitted

Pseudo random sequences (PN-sequences) are widely used state solely as a nonlinear dynamics effect and without any

in communication systems. They are often generated by need to calculate correlation functions. In [10] it is shown that

discrete time binary automata like the LFSR (linear feedback a very low complexity image transmission system with

shift register) and must posses certain properties. Among these compression and ciphering features is obtained solely as an

we mention: i) a very long period of the generated sequence; effect of using the HCA101 map. Binary synchronization is not

ii) good randomness properties; iii) a certain kind of correlation present in the LFSR or other previously introduced CA (like

function that allows synchronization (called PN code aquisition HCA90/150), nor is present in the logistic map (although there

in communications parlance) and iv) convenient complexity for a form of synchronization can be achieved but in the case of

hardware implementation. Recently, chaotic maps were sending the whole state resulting in a low immunity to noise).

considered as an alternative for generating PN-sequences, This paper reviews the major properties of the HCA101

[1][2][3]. One specific motivation for this choice is the maps in comparison to other chaotic map (e.g. the logistic map)

theoretically infinite state space expected to produce infinitely and concludes that in any respect HCA101 is superior

long periods and the existence of the chaos synchronization providing: i) a much compact hardware implementation; ii)

properties which opens a novel perspective to otherwise maximal length sequence for a given size n; iii) binary

complex and power consuming PN-acquisition schemes based synchronization property; iv) orthogonal PN-sequences from

on correlating the received sequence with a local reference. all CA cells [11]; v) no-transient time until reaching the PN-

Various chaotic maps were proposed in the literature but so far cycle.

the logistic map [4] is the most popular [5][6]. Still, in Section II reviews the specificity of chaotic maps, while a

dealing with real world digital implementations of chaotic detailed analysis of their properties follows in Section III.

Concluding remarks and discussions are given in Section IV.

systems one needs to consider that state variables will be

implemented as binary words of finite size n with dramatic

effects over such properties as the length of the PN sequence. II. CHAOTIC MAPS AS PN-SEQUENCES GENERATORS

Another approach to increase the state space as much as needed In what follows we consider finite precision

(and generate very long sequences) is to build cellular automata implementations of chaotic maps, i.e the state variable x is

capable to produce PN-sequences. To date, certain hybrid represented using n bits. The general formula for a nonlinear

cellular automata (HCA) gained interest and were proposed to map in discrete time t is: x t 1 F x t , where F is a

replace the LFSR in communication systems. Particularly nonlinear function and x is a state variable, here considered to

No. 12079/2008, CNMP.

be a finite size n binary vector. As shown next, F may be where is the logical XOR operator and

specified analytically via a relatively simple formulae (like in Cell u1, u 2, u3, ID is a Boolean function with 3 binary inputs

the case of the logistic map) but it can be also the result of (u1,u2, and u3). For the HCA101 map, the Boolean function

applying a transform to the digital word representing the state corresponds to rule ID=101 in Wolfram s notation [13]. In its

vector. Such an approach is exemplified for the recently binary representation, the most significant bit of ID

introduced HCA101-map. corresponds to the cell output when [u 3, u 2, u1] [1,1,1] .

A. The logistic map

This map resulted from a refined model of reproduction in

species [4] where the state variable x t represents the number

of individuals in a population and is a prolific coefficient

no larger than 4. It is known that for large valued of (i.e.

3.6 ) the dynamics of the logistic map: F ( x) x 1 x is

chaotic. For a finite word implementation the same as above

arithmetic is considered but the operators (such as

multiplication, addition/subtraction) are implemented with n-

bit width operators. An FPGA implementation is reported in

[12]. Due to the existence of a multiplier the hardware

complexity is O(n2).

Figure 2. HCA101 verus Logistic maps (for a finite precision representation

The HCA map results from the implementation of a chaotic with n=13).

counter. Such chaotic counters were already used to replace

normal counters in addressing images with surprising positive A periodic boundary condition is assumed i.e. the leftmost

effects in performing compression in image transmission [10]. cell (i=1) is connected to the rightmost one (i=n).). Assuming

In the following we will briefly compare chaotic counters such a binary representation (fixed point, 0 x 1 ) such that x n is

as the Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR) and the novel the most significant bit of the state variable x and x1 is the

Hybrid Cellular Automaton (HCA) [8][9] The schematic

diagram of both systems is provided in Fig.1. least significant bit of the same state variable, equation (1) may

be rewritten in the standard map formulation with

x t 1 FHCA101 x t . A similar idea was exploited in [14] to

simplify the FPGA implementation of tent maps. Two plots of

the HCA101 and logistic map respectively (for n=13 and

m 0 0 111 0 11 0 0 1 0 1 ) are given in Fig.2. It is interesting

to note the complex nonlinear mapping FHCA101 is obtained

with a very simple arithmetic (defined by the set of n feedback

gates with 3 inputs each, as shown in Fig.1) while a simple

mapping (in the case of logistic function) require some

hardware inefficient arithmetic.

Any finite automaton (including the logistic map in a finite

precision n) has a finite number of states. From this perspective

complex behaviors are associated with the existence of

attractors with very long periods (Fig.3). In addition to long

Figure 1. Two types of chaotic counters and their properties: While both

have similar properties of the generated pseudo-random sequence, they have

periods an additional measure for the degree of chaos is

different synchronization properties. The autonomous (A) mode is used in the needed and was introduced in [8] to differentiate between

sensor (transmitter) while the synchronous (S) mode is used in the receiver. traditional counters (also generating maximal length sequences,

but with no chaotic behaviors) and chaotic counters to be used

The discrete-time dynamics of the HCA101 is given by the as PN-sequence generators.

next equation, which applies synchronously to all cells (a cell In the case of the HCA101 map the binary mask vector

is identified by an index i 1,2,..n ): m m1 , m2 ,.., mn (see Fig.1 and eq. (1)) is optimized [9] for

x i (t 1) mi Cell x i 1 t , x i (t ), x i 1 t ) , ID (1) any odd size up to n 29 such that r L / 2 n 1 (maximal

cycle length). For instance, in the case of n=13 the length of

the man cycle is L 8191 213 1 , i.e. very close to the

maximal length cycle. Moreover, the mask is designed such For instance, the largest cycle for n=13 is obtained for

that the state 0 (all bits in 0) is included in the maximal cycle 3.9 but its length L=83 is almost 100 times smaller than

generating the PN-sequence thus ensuring a simple reset of the the maximal cycle length (8192). Instead, the HCA101 map

PN-sequence generator. In HCA101 maps with odd n provides the longest cycle with L=8191 at the highest degree of

transients (see Fig.3) are reduced to 0 (i.e. in order to enter the chaos. Consequently we conclude that although both systems

cycle generating the PN-sequence, there is no additional are chaotic, the HCA101 map provides the best (near to

transient state since all states belong to the PN-cycle). A maximal) PN-sequence length for a given n. The LFSR also

detailed study of the chaotic properties is given in [8] which provides near maximal length sequence but unlike HCA101 it

shows maximal degree of chaos for the sequence of states is not capable of binary synchronization. The same stands for

generated by the HCA101 maps. The degree of chaos was other known CA PN-sequence generators.

found better than for CA with rule 30, previously known as the

most representative example of a CA based PN-sequence B. Transients

generator.

As seen from Fig. 4 (upper table), in the case of logistic

map the total number of states in cycles (i.e. belonging to a

loop as represented in Fig.3) is much smaller than the entire

number of possible states. It follows that all these states belong

to transients , with a negative impact over the functioning of

the logistic map as a PN-sequence generator. It means that a

number of cycles should be wasted until we are sure that the

logistic maps enters the useful long cycle providing the PN-

sequence. Moreover, the transient length is difficult to

anticipate and it depends on the initial state. Instead, the HCA

has no transients, and all states are included in one ore more

cycles. HCA101 systems are designed such that the state 0 is

always included in the longest cycle thus providing a sure

functioning as PN-sequence via a simple reset of all cells

before running.

Figure 3. State profile and attractors for the dynamics of a finite precision C. FPGA implementation (hardware complexity)

nonlinear map In [12] FPGA implementations are provided for different

In the case of the logistic map, although the measures in chaotic maps. The logistic map although having a simple and

[8] indicate a high degree of chaos for long cycles, simulations elegant formulae requires a multiplier and other arithmetic

for different precisions n indicate that the lengths of the longest operators which are rather complex. Instead, cellular automata

cycles L are very small compared to the maximal length (i.e. with their regular structure are well suited for FPGA

implementations. In a companion paper [15] we provide an

L 2 n ). These results are summarized in two tables in Fig.4. FPGA implementation for the HCA101 map. While [12]

reports 923 slices and 1317 LUTs for a logistic map with n=32

bits resolution, the implementation of a HCA101 map with

the same size (n=32 CA cells) require almost 50 times less

resources i.e. 18 slices and 32 LUTs.

Chaos synchronization was since its discovery in the late

1980 s considered a phenomenon with a lot of potential. The

general diagram of a transmission system employing chaos

synchronization is provided in Fig. 5.

Figure 4. Attractor profile for the logistic map. Note the very short largest

n

cycle ( L 2 ) . Also most of the states are not useful (i.e. included in Figure 5. Chaos synchronization model

cycles generating the PN-sequence) but are rather transient states.

So far, although chaos synchronization is widely present, (functional capability)/(implementation complexity). Two such

very few systems have been reported so far as being capable of successful examples are detailed in [10][11] They can be

binary synchronization. As already described in [8][9] the easily extended to other less conventional applications such as

nonlinear system described by the HCA101 map has this very sonar exploration, and in building mobile and low power

useful property. It means that m=1 in Fig.5. i.e. only 1 bit per sensing-nodes of sensors networks or for other low power

clock cycle suffices to ensure that after a finite period of time communication applications. The in-depth investigation of the

( Tsync or PN-acquisition time) the receiving system (with an cryptographic properties for this chaotic map is a subject of

internal register of n bits) recovers entirely the state of the further research.

transmitter. Extensive simulations with many random initial

conditions provided an estimate for the synchronization time in REFERENCES

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