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MARITIME SAFETY

Results from
the transport research programme

EUROPEAN
COMMISSION
This brochure was produced by the EXTRA consortium for DG Energy and Transport and represents
the consortium’s views on research relating to maritime safety. These views have not been adopted or in
any way approved by the Commission and should not be relied upon as a statement of the Commission's
or DG Energy and Transport's views.

The European Commission does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this brochure,
nor does it accept responsibility for any use made thereof.

Frequently used acronyms


FSA Formal Safety Assessment
ISC Integrated Ship Control
ISM International Safety Management [code]
MET Maritime Education and Training
RIS River Information Services
STCW 95 Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers – 1995
VTMIS Vessel Traffic Management and Information Services
VTS Vessel Traffic Services

Additional information on the transport research programme is available on the Internet.


The programme’s Knowledge Centre (http://europa.eu.int/comm/transport/extra/home.html)
provides:
• structured guides to the results and projects for particular topics;
• summaries and final reports of individual projects;
• access to project web sites and other contact details.

References to some projects are included in this brochure, to help the reader access
further information quickly through the Knowledge Centre.

Information on the wider transport activities of the European Union is also available
on the Internet. It can be accessed through the Europa server
(http://europa.eu.int/comm/dgs/energy_transport/index_en.html).
Manuscript completed in August 2001.
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2001
ISBN 92-894-1551-7
© European Communities, 2001
Cover pictures: Eureka Slide
Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged.
Printed in Belgium.
MARITIME SAFETY

THE NEED FOR RESEARCH


In this brochure, discover how research can contribute
to safer waterborne transport operations, and identify
topics worth investigating further on the web.

W
aterborne transport is a key player
in worldwide economics and
a fundamental tool in the shaping of
global society. More than 70 percent of
the European Union's external trade and
some 30 percent of the internal trade is
today handled by maritime transport.
It certainly represents an alternative to
congested road or delayed rail traffic.

But growth in waterborne traffic has to be


supported by more efficient transport
chains, linking shipping to its ultimate
destinations onshore. In addition,
the tendency towards non-EU low cost flags
with far less stringent requirements has led
to growing concerns about ship safety,
environmental protection and the declining hazardous or polluting freight, through
employment opportunities in the industry. the use of electronic data interchange
(EDI);
In the 21st century it is clear that the quality • the mandatory use of voyage data recorders
of waterborne operations has to keep up (maritime black boxes) and automatic
and even improve its record on safety and identification systems to facilitate accident
protection of the environment1. A continuous investigation and traffic monitoring and
dialogue with the maritime industry is control;
needed on voluntary measures to promote • the establishment of common databases
safety, together with the creation of and methodologies for maritime safety
a business environment in which and accident investigation
quality-minded operators are rewarded.
Supporting research has concentrated on
The framework for maritime safety research2 developing operational and technological
has been established through a number of concepts capable of meeting the changing
policy communications and legal instruments. needs of the demand side while enhancing
In the wake of the Erika accident, the safety and the protection of the environment.
European Commission proposed recently a In parallel, networking activities have
number of more detailed actions to improve spread knowledge to interested parties all
the safety of maritime oil transport. Some of over Europe and this has facilitated the
the measures advocated by the European innovation process. This brochure highlights
Commission for which research plays an some of the key results in this area.
important role are: Its purpose is to raise awareness of
the information and decision support that
• improved identification and monitoring of is now available, and to encourage readers
all ships approaching and sailing in to obtain further details through
European waters and ports; a web-based Knowledge Centre
• simplified and harmonised procedures for (http://europa.eu.int/comm/transport/
the provision and use of information on extra/home.html).

2 3
KEY RESULTS
Research projects have a significant impact on
the design and implementation of maritime safety policy.
Some of the success stories are highlighted here.

User friendly and safe centres, paying special attention to layout,


ship control centres ergonomics and human factors. This has
contributed significantly to the enhanced
design of ship control centres from both

A
dvanced Integrated Ship Control the safety and the efficiency viewpoint.
(ISC) systems are seen as vital in It has also fostered the establishment of
improving the competitiveness and a common European industrial platform
safety of ship operations. Research in support of an open systems’ architecture
and development has been carried out into for ships.
the design requirements of ship control

Maritime Black Box

Marine accidents continue to result in "black boxes" on board ships will greatly
heavy loss of life and serious damage to improve the supply of reliable information.
the environment. One important aspect Research in this area has contributed
in the investigation, hence in significantly not only in developing
the prevention of accidents is the concept but also in specifying the
the identification and analysis of the testing standards of such equipment.
causal chain. The installation of maritime

Casualty analysis of a European-wide networking action on


casualty analysis. The network established
Improving the consistency and collection of the basis for a common European approach
maritime accident data has been the target to the investigation of accidents and incidents.

Vessel Traffic Management and


Information Services (VTMIS)
A research network on Vessel Traffic
Management and Information Services
(VTMIS) has established a consensus at
European level on the concept of VTMIS.
The action identified to what extent the
development of information interchanges
and value-added services beyond the well-
known Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) is likely
to enhance the safety and efficiency of
waterborne traffic as well as the protection
of the environment.
© Eureka Slide
MARITIME SAFETY

AREAS OF RESEARCH

T
he main aim of research into
waterborne transport has been to
help policy-makers and to provide
the industry with safe, efficient and
competitive ways to carry freight and
passengers. In total, 55 research projects
and concerted actions were commissioned,
with a total EU contribution of 50 million
Euro. The research actions were divided into
five clusters:
• development of logistic concepts
and systems;
• introduction of innovative designs,
technologies and working practices for
safer ship operations;
• development of efficient traffic management
systems for sea and river operations;
• education, human factors and improvements
to the working environment; and © Eureka Slide, Louagie

• reduction in environmental risks and


the promotion of environmentally friendly The research results are progressively
operations. providing stakeholders with a greatly
improved basis for decision-making, in
Safer and more efficient shipping operations particular contributing to policy development
have been a constant issue in waterborne and implementation in four main areas:
transport research. This has been addressed
pro-actively by elaborating concepts and Integrated ship control
tools based on risk analysis, formal safety
Developing a standard and recommendations
assessment and accident investigation;
on layout for future ship bridges, tactical
proposing and demonstrating concepts
information displays and more user-friendly
and standards in areas such as Integrated
working environments, based on an open
Ship Control; developing an enhanced
and interoperable architecture.
approach to coastal traffic management and
ship monitoring; as well as conducting
extensive research on the human element Safety in ship operations and
as an essential factor in maritime safety. environmental protection
Assessing safety risks related to operational
shortcomings, human failure, vessel design
deficits and the transport of dangerous cargo.

The human element in safety


Addressing the need for harmonised
education of seafarers, common curricula,
the optimum use of simulators and
modern training tools.

Enhanced information services


Promoting interconnected and interoperable
© Eureka Slide, M. Merne

vessel traffic management and information


services that will help to establish
a competitive waterborne transport
infrastructure.

4 5
INTEGRATED
SHIP CONTROL

R
esearch has contributed paying special attention to the integration
significantly to the enhanced design of information, ergonomics and human
of ship control centres in terms of factors.
both safety and efficiency, while

User-friendly and safe ship sea and weather routing and anti-collision
control centres 3 information tools. This conceptual
standard has been subjected to cost-
A conceptual standard has been benefit and safety analyses, including
produced for the design of ship control a risk assessment for collision and fire
centres, based on an open architecture. ignition scenarios. The ISC (Integrated
This includes recommendations on the Ship Control) concept has been
layout of future ship bridges, human- evaluated and confirmed against
machine interface considerations, and specific considerations of interoperability.
a so-called "tactical display" combining

As mentioned previously, the transport "black boxes" for recording data on board
research programme has played an important ships, and in particular in the specification
role in developing the concept of maritime and testing of such devices.

 a recording unit,
The Maritime Black Box 4
 an accident parameter acquisition
Based on an inventory of international unit, and
accident statistics, contributory factors,  land-based evaluation software for
and the performance requirements for the recovery and interpretation of
voyage data recorders, the concept of recorded data.
a Maritime Black Box has been defined.
The system has been tested and validated
The modular black box concept
in a dedicated research project. Its
encompasses:
performance in meeting the specifications
was confirmed through scenario-based
simulations and laboratory tests. Sea
trials on a medium-size passenger liner
have further underlined the operational
suitability and robustness of the
prototype. The results obtained in the
tests and sea trials strongly contributed
to the definition of testing standards for
these devices.
Courtesy of Thomson CSF Detexis

In addition a legal framework for


the implementation of the concept was
elaborated, including the analysis of
unresolved questions such as certification
and periodic inspection.
MARITIME SAFETY

Research has also established a common architecture for complete ship systems.
European approach in support of an open

Implementing a European standard for ship control systems 5

The foundation has been laid for a single,


open European standard for Integrated
Ship Control. This concept – anticipated
to be later adopted world-wide –
encompasses marine automation
hardware, advanced software and
human factor issues associated with
maritime transport. It follows a user-
centred design approach towards the
command and control of vessels, and
integrates comprehensive requirements
for the validation of Ship Control Centre
layout and functions. It needs to be
stressed that ISC will define and reflect
the information strategy for human
operators.

The long-term prospects for introducing


© Eureka Slide, Michaux

the ISC standard at European and


international levels have been assessed.
In particular, the commercial viability of
the concept, its benefits to the shipping
industry and its technical feasibility have
been demonstrated. Most importantly,
Research showed that the design and spin-off effects from the implementation
use of an Integrated Ship Control (ISC) of ISC have been confirmed, in that
system cannot be separated from the the system provides the required
specification, design, construction and infrastructure for additional technological
operation of the entire ship. The ISC aid to ship operations such as the
system needs to be customised for each maritime black box or cargo tracking
specific type and size of vessel, as well as and tracing applications.
for typical operational tasks. Hence its
design needs to start very early in the
overall ship design process, as it will
define the global information system’s
architecture.

6 7
SAFETY IN SHIP OPERATIONS
AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

S
chemes for analysing common
accidents and incidents in maritime
operations have been lacking
adequate attention to human and
organisational errors. Hence research has
developed methodologies for unbiased
data compilation and assessment with
the aim of a better integration of human
factors into accident investigations.

Casualty analysis 6

A coherent approach towards Best practice examples of methodologies


a harmonised methodology for the for accident investigation were identified
investigation of incidents and accidents, and synthesised into a set of guidelines,
as well as general safety and risk comparing the opinions of experts from
considerations, have been elaborated around Europe. In addition, best practice
in two research activities. examples of training for accident
investigators were collected.
A networking activity has assessed current
working practices and methodologies Subsequently, a framework was developed
for accident investigation. These are to adopt the principles of the confidential
commonly based on the creation of self- hazardous incident reporting scheme –
standing accident and incident databases. CHIRP – applied in the aviation sector
for the investigation of maritime
incidents. This includes guideline
documents addressing the requirements
for accident data gathering and obtaining
vessel and traffic statistics.

In parallel, an improved accident


investigation methodology has been
developed, building on lessons from
previous investigations, and in particular
emphasising the human and
organisational errors. A methodology for
accident recording and analysis was
formulated, as well as a structure for
encoding information in a database.
The new approach was tested on a set
of typical accident scenarios and
real-life cases, and evaluated by
cost-benefit analysis.

© Central Audio-visual Library, European Commission


MARITIME SAFETY

The promotion of a safety culture based on the adoption of the International Safety
a pro-active approach is considered essential Management (ISM) code and the use of
to improve safety in maritime transport. safety assessment techniques in the
This approach has been pursued through development of new rules and regulations.

Formal Safety and


Environmental Assessment (FSA) 7
A networking action was initiated to
establish a common knowledge of
methods for assessing the safety and
environmental impacts of ships, and a
shared understanding of how to apply
the different methods.The action focused
on the following areas:
 data availability and suggestions
for an accident/incident reporting
scheme;
 the integration of human and
organisational factors in safety and
environmental assessment methods;

© Eureka Slide, Van Loo


 the regulatory requirements and
techniques for rule-making; and
 factors related to the environmental
sensitivity of marine areas.
in particular in the areas of risk
The work showed that a common acceptance criteria, risk management
approach to safety and environmental and communication, organisational
assessment requires further refinement, changes, human factors and databases.

Extensive international efforts have been for selected cases of dangerous cargo
made to improve the safety of ship transport, hence improving the knowledge
operations and prevent maritime pollution. base to help prevent future operational and
Research has supported these efforts accidental pollution.
through applying formal safety assessment

Applying Formal Safety the transport of liquefied petroleum


Assessment and preventing gas in the Mediterranean Sea, and
the shipment of containers in
environmental damage 8 the North Sea;
 a safety assessment for these three
A set of case studies on the
transportation of dangerous goods led case studies;
 a model for quantitative risk
to the following results:
 an elaborated safety assessment evaluation for the transport of
philosophy which makes it possible to dangerous goods in the categories
consider individual ships and their crude oil, liquefied petroleum gas and
installations when developing tailored container service; and
safety management systems, in  recommendations for the use of
accordance with the ISM Code; safety assessment in generating risk
 lessons from the "Amoco Cadiz" crude control measures.
oil tanker accident,

8 9
© Eureka Slide, S. Domelounksen

The majority of shipping accidents and operations. To improve this situation,


related environmental damage can be maritime policies, rules and regulations
attributed to operational procedures and have to be reconsidered in order to ensure
human factors. Safety regulations are not a uniform safety level.
always addressing all risks of maritime

Risk assessment 9

The assessment of the levels of risk of Subsequent work used these risk
maritime accidents in busy coastal models to improve bridge and ship
waters, like the North Sea, as well as communications and data interpretation,
the identification of adequate control and provided:
options, have been addressed  a review of problems with maritime
extensively. Based on the evaluation of communication and information
historical accident data, a Marine exchange;
Accident Risk Calculation System  a structured hazard identification
(MARCS) was developed that enables process for the evaluation of risk
the quantification of risk levels for specific control measures;
maritime operations and the effect of  test runs with maritime simulators to
risk control measures. A set of specific assess risk control measures, leading
risk models is now available that cover to improved training schemes for
aspects ranging from communication crew members; and
with Vessel Traffic Services (VTS), ship  fault tree models for assessing
manoeuvring capabilities and navigational the effectiveness of risk control
aids, to human and organisational factors, measures and quantifying related
such as training schemes for crews. implementation costs.
MARITIME SAFETY

THE HUMAN ELEMENT


IN SAFETY

T
he European maritime industry is New technologies such as advanced
facing various difficulties. information systems could radically change
The reduction in European flagged operations and improve safety and efficiency,
tonnage has reduced career while creating a need for changes in
opportunities in the industry, consequently management in a sector that is strongly
recruitment has been difficult and insufficient influenced by tradition. Research has
to meet industry needs. There has been identified new ways of working that
strong price competition leading to an address these problem areas.
emphasis on cost reduction, which puts at
risk current efforts to improve safety, quality
and environmental performance.

Management, organisation and working environment 10

Research efforts have addressed  improve training systems and actions


management aspects and better to increase staff recruitment.
interaction on board vessels.
Among the outputs have been: The defined educational framework –
 the specification of advanced establishing syllabi for courses in the
management tools for specific types management of change in the shipping
of vessels; industry – has increased the ability to
 the development of guidelines for the adapt to new technologies, management
creation of effective procedures for concepts and regulations. Anticipated
use on board as well as by the shore- overall cost savings of these new
based organisation; structures in seaboard management
 the definition of practical tools for the were estimated to be up to 25%, due
shipping industry to facilitate the to reduced manpower and the use of
implementation of the ISM Code; information technology.
 the definition of practical handbooks
providing guidance on managing Future efforts in integrated ship design
multi-cultural and small ship crews; and management could improve
 specific training on human behaviour working conditions on-board ships if
in emergency situations. the influence of human behaviour is
considered at an early stage. Noise,
Based on a survey of over 950 members vibration, climate and severe motions
of the Baltic and International Maritime can significantly interfere with work
Council, representing prominent world efficiency and well-being. A better
shipping companies, it was recommen- control of these factors should therefore
ded that shipping companies should: markedly improve task performance at
 improve processes for operating ships sea, hence improving safety and
and managing business operations; efficiency. For this purpose, highly
 improve risk management innovative design tools have been
procedures; developed that replicate both human
 enhance the use of information behaviour and the impact of ship
systems, particularly web-based design on human performance.
applications and systems to help
implement the ISM Code; and

10 11
Around 70% of maritime accidents are caused A comprehensive approach to the human
by human error and related organisational element is essential for safe ship operations.
procedures. Strong competition and high The declining number of well-qualified EU
social costs have led to the situation where seafarers is recognised as a problem,
merchant ships are frequently manned by particularly in terms of the loss of knowledge
less expensive crews, often with limited to the maritime industry as a whole.
education and training. In addition, adverse This needs to be tackled by increasing job
working conditions on board vessels can attractiveness.
reduce human performance, hence efficiency
and safety.

Maritime Education and Training (MET) 11

Training of ship crews can be done reliably exercises, addressing STCW 95 and other
for certain situations using ship or ship training objectives (e.g. for high-speed
bridge simulators. Research has identified vessels), management aspects, and
a wide variety of existing systems across the introduction of advanced tactical
Europe, covering both full mission and bridge displays. A comprehensive
component task types, with differing catalogue of scenarios is available as
features. Moreover, foreseen future a database, covering a range of training
developments, simulator availability and objectives, function levels and defined
suitability for training are not always competencies.
in line with training objectives based on
the Standards of Training, Certification The sociological and linguistic origins of
and Watchkeeping for Seafarers constraints on ship crew performance
(STCW 95). have also been investigated. Examples
of incidents and accidents related to
Therefore, one research project has communication problems in open seas
developed training scenarios, with or under pilotage indicate the need to
particular attention to human factors. consider language and cultural issues in
Specific topics include simulator-training the recruitment and training of ship crews.
© Eureka Slide, M. Loriaux
MARITIME SAFETY

Maritime Education and Training (MET) 11 (continued)

Educational and training requirements


for basic and maritime English
have been analysed. This led to
recommendations on how to integrate
modern tools of training, such as videos
and computer-based training, and
provided the outline of a pilot syllabus
for the teaching of maritime English,
based on the latest international rules
and standards.

A networking activity on MET focused


on the harmonisation of European
systems, providing the basis for the
development of a common European
approach to the implementation of
international regulations such as the
Standards of Training, Certification and
Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW 95)
and the International Safety
Management (ISM) code. This work
addressed in particular the problem of © Eureka Slide, M. Loriaux

the shortage of qualified seafarers,  better awareness of technological


which affects the quality and safety of progress, with information technology
maritime transport in Europe, through being a driving force in shipping,
an improved, more harmonised and should be raised in MET programmes;
applicable MET. This activity highlighted  to attract young people to seafaring,
the following aspects: joint efforts are required building on
 to improve economic efficiency and promising national approaches;
competitiveness, it is recommended  advanced simulators should be
to concentrate and focus the resources intensively used in MET schemes, in
of MET institutions for all kinds of order to foster cost-effectiveness;
marine operations;  the transition from ship to shore
 to foster mobility of seafarers, the should be encouraged through an
mutual recognition of certificates and enrichment of MET programmes with
(national) regulations is desirable; a view to ensuring a career pathway.

12 13
ENHANCED
INFORMATION SERVICES

T
raditional Vessel Traffic Services to maximise the efficiency of waterborne
(VTS) focus on the management of transport, while again supporting safety
waterborne traffic in order to improve and environmental objectives. In particular,
navigation and safety. Innovative the VTMIS concept enables the integration
Vessel Traffic Management and of traffic and transport management, i.e.
Information Services (VTMIS) aim to provide the provision of information on traffic, cargo
real-time information and services in order flows and environmental conditions.

Vessel traffic management and information services (VTMIS) 12

information tools – and by interlinking


VT(MI)S and other related services in
local, regional and European networks.

Effective shore-based management of


waterborne traffic requires Vessel Traffic
Services (VTS) and Vessel Traffic
Management and Information Services
(VTMIS) to be sited in optimal locations.
Therefore a mobile VTS has been
developed for on-site measurement of
The transport research programme has traffic conditions, in particular flow and
made extensive efforts in the area of density, enabling the comparison of
VTS and VTMIS to develop improved data between different areas as well as
systems for safe and efficient traffic the collection of traffic statistics.
control and monitoring along the An important achievement was
European coastline. the successful testing of a communication
standard that enables the exchange of
The connection and interoperability of traffic and environmental data between
different existing information systems VTS centres and systems using different
has been demonstrated at a number technologies.
of test sites in order to establish the
procedures and functionalities for a A networking activity allowed Member
future European-wide VTMIS network. States and the research community to
A number of value-added services were establish a common view and better
introduced by integrating existing and understanding of what VTMIS can offer.
emerging technologies – such as The expected benefits of VTMIS relative
Electronic Chart and Display Information to VTS were evaluated in terms of
Services and Automatic Identification safety, efficiency and protection
Systems as well as Internet-based of the environment.

In inland and short sea shipping, transport.To ensure interoperability and in


the use of information and anticipation of intelligent waterborne
communication technologies is transport corridors being established (e.g.
dramatically increasing and may help to connecting the North Sea with the Black
provide a competitive edge over road Sea), research efforts in the area of inland
MARITIME SAFETY

navigation have sought to apply the same to achieve full interoperability of different
principles, technologies and standards as on-board solutions which are tailor-made
for maritime transport. In the area of traffic for a given part of the transport chain, e.g.
management, this approach has led to the to have the same information displayed
concept of River Information Services (RIS) in high-seas, coastal zones, ports and
being developed. In parallel, the aim is inland waterways.

River Information Services (RIS) 13

River Information Services form the traffic


management concept for inland
navigation in Europe. RIS will provide
harmonised information services to
support traffic and transport
management. The concept was initially
developed bottom-up and as a public-
private partnership between public
authorities, the transport and IT industries
and the research community. Important
conceptual elements of RIS – onboard
traffic images, fairway information,
strategic and logistic information – have
been developed and tested at a number
of European test sites. The RIS concept
builds on agreed European standards
for data and communication which are
based on maritime standards adopted
by the IMO (International Maritime strategic traffic images at the user level.
Organisation), e.g. for Inland ECDIS In addition, the technological side of RIS
(Electronic Chart Display and has been assessed, focusing on sensor
Information System) and AIS (Automatic requirements for inland water naviga-
Identification Systems). tion and the available technologies,
such as differential GPS, radar, heading
An integrated architecture has been and sensor platform instruments.
elaborated for information, navigation Training and certification requirements
and communication systems on-board for skippers were also considered, leading
vessels. This allows the functional to recommendations for the future
definition of information flows, education and training of personnel
distinguishing between tactical and on-board inland water vessels.

14 15
CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS
IN TRANSPORT RESEARCH
This section identifies current research projects in
the maritime transport sector addressing safety issues.
Further details are available from the Links section of
the web-based Knowledge Centre.

T
he transport research programme based on five broad themes:
has shown that the problems facing • ensuring the application of international
maritime transport need to be regulations, within the framework of port
addressed through a pro-active state control, to detect sub-standard vessels
approach to quality and safety encompassing and prevent them from sailing in European
safety standards, the human factor as well waters and calling at European ports;
as operational and organisational practices. • guarding against human error by improved
Most prominently, the rapid implementation crew awareness, education and training;
of safety features, such as the mandatory use
of voyage data recorders, has to be pursued • making passenger ships safer by improving
in further initiatives and backed up by safety standards;
research, demonstration and evaluation trials. • protecting waters from pollution by ships
carrying dangerous or polluting goods to
The current research programme concentrates or from EU ports;
resources in larger projects, in order to obtain • ensuring the safe flow of traffic by
the critical mass for full-scale validation of developing VTMIS systems and implementing
technologies and to smooth the effective a monitoring and control system.
transfer of research results into real-life
application. The research tools to achieve Quality in shipping is often related to better
these objectives are mainly demonstration safety at sea and much activity is focused
projects and thematic networks. on eliminating sub-standard operations in
all areas. One goal is the application of high
The strategy towards achieving better quality management concepts by European
safety standards in maritime operations is waterborne operators.
MARITIME SAFETY

Quality of maritime transport operations 14

A thematic network is promoting the


development of high-quality shipping
operations and bringing together all
relevant actors in the transport chain.
The aim is to achieve a common
understanding of how to combine
the industrial concept of total logistics
quality with the European desire for
improved safety at sea. The thematic
network will respond to initiatives such
as Short Sea Shipping by considering
the ways in which these initiatives can
be assisted by improved technology
and high-quality services within an
attractive commercial framework. The
ultimate outcome will be a framework
© Eureka Slide, Louagie

that covers all major aspects of quality


systems, such as human, procedural and
equipment supply, communication, IT
systems, maintenance and survey.

Other thematic networks are continuing and training, safety, environmental


the work in the areas of maritime education protection and traffic management.

Maritime education 15

A thematic network on maritime


education and training (MET) and
the mobility of seafarers is pursuing
the harmonisation of MET schemes
across Europe – also with a view to
enlargement of the EU. The aim is to
improve the quality of maritime education
and training and to co-ordinate
the contents of MET schemes for ship
officers in the European Union in order
to increase their mobility. The work
addresses industry and government
concerns over the scarcity of ship officers
in EU countries.

In particular, the thematic network will


provide a harmonised approach to the
design of improved and more widely
applicable syllabi for MET students and
specialised courses for students and
lecturers alike. It will evaluate the funding
of MET, support the mutual recognition
of certificates, and identify ways of
increasing job attractiveness for
ship officers.
© Eureka Slide, Domelounksen

16 17
Safety and environmental protection 16

Safety assessment in waterborne


transport is addressed in another major
thematic network. This aims to improve
safety and environmental protection in
shipping through the development of a
pro-active safety culture. The work will
establish a common knowledge base and
a comprehensive framework for safety
assessment and safety management in
waterborne transport. It will investigate
how best to provide reliable and com-
parable data for safety assessment, and
evaluate the feasibility of a European
information system for safety assessment.
In addition, it will analyse how to
implement methods for collecting risk
data, such as accident and incident
reporting and the deployment of voyage
data recorders ("maritime black box").
Based on this, the network should
identify how a common and harmonised
accident and incident investigation
methodology can be developed at a
European level.

© Eureka Slide, Domelounksen


The network builds on the conclusions
and recommendations from previous
European Commission projects on
formal safety assessment and casualty
analysis.

Towards the actual implementation of VTMIS and RIS 17

and Information Services (VTMIS) and


River Information Services (RIS).
The primary objective is to identify
the conditions for the effective
promotion and implementation of these
services in the near term.
© Eureka Slide, Louagie

More specifically, the benefits of the


new information services to users and
operators will be evaluated, and schemes
will be determined to pave the way
A thematic network is working to reach for the participation of e.g.
a common understanding of the private/public partnerships in
concepts of Vessel Traffic Management the implementation stage.
References
Further information on the following projects can be obtained from the web-based Knowledge Centre.
Other key documents referenced in the brochure are available on the DG Energy and Transport web
site (http://europa.eu.int/comm/dgs/energy_transport/index_en.html).

1. White Paper "European transport policy for 2010: time to decide", COM(2001)370
2.The transport research programme is part of the fourth framework programme for Community activities in the field
of research, technological development and demonstration for the period 1994 to 1998
3. ATOMOS II project
4. MBB project
5. DISC and DISC II projects
6. BERTRANC and CASMET projects
7. FSEA project
8. SEALOC project
9. SAFECO and SAFECO II projects
10. MASIS II, MASSOP and REWORD projects
11. MARCOM, MASSTER and METHAR projects
12. MOVIT and VTMIS-NET projects
13. INCARNATION and RINAC projects
14. ADVANCES network
15. METNET network
16. THEMES network
17. WATERMAN-TS network

The following documents may serve as valuable background information:


• Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on the safety of the seaborne oil
trade, COM (2000) 142 final
• Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on a second set of Community
measures on maritime safety following the sinking of the oil tanker Erika, COM(2000) 802, final
• Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on the training and recruitment of
seafarers, COM (2001) 188 final

The programme’s Knowledge Centre is available at:


http://europa.eu.int/comm/transport/extra/home.html
It provides:
• structured guides to the results and projects for particular topics;
• summaries and final reports of individual projects;
• access to project web sites and other contact details.

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Brochures on results from the transport research programme

KO-39-01-546-EN-C
are available for:

1. Sustainable mobility

2. Clean urban transport

3. European transport networks

4. Single European sky

5. Maritime safety

6. Freight intermodality

7. Getting prices right

8. Road safety

9. Intelligent transport systems

OFFICE FOR OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS


OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
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