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1. Prepare, in the form of a flowsheet, an outline showing the sequence of steps in the complete
development of a chemical processing plant.

2. A process for making a single product involves reacting two liquids in a continuously
agitated reactor and distilling the resulting mixture. Unused reactants are recovered as
overhead and are recycled. The product is obtained in sufficiently pure form as bottoms from
the distillation tower.

(a) Prepare a qualitative flow sheet for the process, showing all pieces of equipment.
(b) With cross reference to the qualitative flow sheet, list each piece of equipment and
tabulate for each the information needed concerning chemicals and the process in order to
design the equipment.

3. Synthesis gas may be prepared by a continuous, non-catalytic conversion of a hydrocarbon

by means of controlled partial combustion in a fire-brick lined reactor. In the basic form of
this process, the hydrocarbon and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately preheated and
charged to the reactor. Before entering the reaction zone, the two feed stocks are intimately
mixed in a combustion chamber. The heat produced by combustion of part of the
hydrocarbon pyrolyzes the remaining hydrocarbons into gas and a small amount of carbon
in the reaction zone. The reactor effluent then passes through a waste-heat boiler, a water-
wash carbon-removal unit, and a water-cooler/scrubber. Carbon is recovered in equipment
of simple design in a form, which can be used as fuel or in ordinary carbon products.
Prepare a simplified equipment flow sheet for the process, with temperatures and pressure
conditions at each piece of equipment.

4. Make a material balance and a qualitative flow sheet for the synthesis gas process described
in Question 4 (above). Assume an operating factor of 95 percent and a feed stock with an
analysis of 84.6% C, 11.3% H2, 3.5% S, 0.13% O2, 0.4% N2, and 0.07% ash (all on a mass
basis). The oxidant in this process will be oxygen having a purity of 95%. Production is to be
8.2 m3/s.

5. Outline, briefly, the role which the following groups play in the evolution of a successful
commercial chemical process: (a) Market Research, and (b) Process Development.

6. Aqueous sodium carbonate, containing 9.55 mass% dissolved solids, is to be converted to

caustic soda by the addition of crushed quicklime (CaO) in a heated, agitated vessel. The plant
will operate in three shifts, and a batch of 195.2 Mg of sodium carbonate solution is to be
processed in each shift. The feed will enter at 43C, and after a stoichiometric amount of
quicklime has been added, the mixture will be heated to 82C. Under these conditions,
laboratory tests have shown that the reaction will be 90% complete in 2 hours. At this point,
the slurry will be decanted from the reaction vessel and filtered. It may be assumed that the
insoluble matter leaving the decanter is wetted with twice its own mass of water. It may also be
assumed that the filter cake contains 50 mass% insoluble solids and only 0.5 mass% of each
sodium salt, when the wash-water rate is 5 kg per kg of dry insoluble matter. Prepare a
complete mass balance for the process.
Reactions: (i) CaO + H2O R Ca(OH)2 (ii) Ca(OH)2 + Na2CO3 R 2 NaOH + CaCO3