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© Copyright 2002 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.

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How IEQ Affects


Health, Productivity
By William J. Fisk, P.E., Member ASHRAE

his article, a summary of Fisk,1,2 estimates the nationwide improve- formance (adjusted downward1) and on
T ments in health and productivity potentially attainable by provid-
the economic output of office workers,
since SBS is most commonly reported
ing better indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in U.S. buildings. Esti- for office workers.
mates include the potential reductions in three categories of health A similar procedure was used to esti-
mate the potential direct productivity
effects, the associated economic benefits, and the potential direct gains from improved indoor temperature
improvements in productivity not mediated through health. control and better lighting quality. All
estimates were adjusted to 1996 U.S.
Potential percentage reductions in other barriers will sometimes make these dollars and to the size of the U.S. popu-
health effects from changes in improv- gains difficult. lation in 1996.
ing IEQ were estimated from the results To calculate health benefits, poten-
of epidemiological (i.e., population tial percentage reductions in health ef- Acute Respiratory Illness
health) studies that identified risk fac- fects were multiplied by the size of the No high quality studies identified
tors for health effects and quantified the affected population or by the number failed to find a link between building
risks. For example, many studies have of health effects experienced. To esti- characteristics and acute respiratory ill-
found that the prevalence of respiratory mate economic benefits, the percentage nesses (ARIs) such as influenza and
symptoms associated with asthma are in- reductions in health effects were multi- common colds. Eight studies reported
creased by 20% to 100% among occu- plied by the annual costs of the health statistically significant 23% to 76% re-
pants of houses with moisture problems, effects. The costs in the U.S. of acute ductions in ARIs among building occu-
implying that elimination of these mois- respiratory illnesses and of allergies and pants with higher ventilation rates,
ture problems would diminish symp- asthma were based on published esti- reduced space sharing, reduced occu-
toms by 17% to 50% in these occupants mates with direct health-care costs and pant density, or irradiation of air with
(e.g., 20% ÷ 120% = 17%). indirect productivity costs (e.g., value ultraviolet light. These changes were
These risk factor reductions through of lost work). considered technically feasible and
practical measures were estimated from Estimating the costs of sick building practical, given sufficient benefits.
published data using engineering judg- syndrome (SBS) symptoms was more One study found a 35% reduction in
ments. For example, it was considered difficult and produced more uncertain short-term absence, a surrogate for ARI,
technically feasible and practical, but estimates. No comprehensive data were in buildings with higher ventilation
not necessarily easy or inexpensive, to available on the costs of SBS-related in- rates. Because some studies took place
double ventilation rates in offices or vestigations, remediations, or litigation. in buildings such as barracks and a jail,
improve prevention and expedite repair However, three studies have measured reductions in ARIs were adjusted down-
of water leaks in buildings. Conse- small but statistically significant de- wards, and ranged from 9% to 20%. Mul-
quently, the “potential” reductions in creases in worker performance linked to
About the Author
risk factors are those considered both SBS symptoms. Therefore, the estimated William J. Fisk, P.E., is staff scientist and depart-
technically feasible and practical, rec- cost of SBS symptoms was based on ment head, Indoor Environment Department, at
ognizing that implementation costs and these measured decreases in work per- Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Calif.

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IEQ

tiplying this range by annual cases of common colds and toms from improved IEQ was 8% to 25%, among a large popula-
influenza resulted in an estimated 16 million to 37 million tion — 53 million with allergies and 16 million asthmatics.
potentially avoided cases. Given the $70 billion annual cost Given the $15 billion annual cost of allergies and asthma, the
of ARIs, potential productivity gains were $6 billion to $14 potential economic gains are $1 billion to $4 billion.
billion.
Sick Building Syndrome Symptoms
Allergies and Asthma SBS symptoms are acute symptoms, such as eye and nose
The scientific literature reports statistically significant irritation and headache, associated with occupancy in a spe-
links between prevalences of allergy and asthma symptoms cific building, but not indicating a specific disease. Risk
and a variety of changeable building characteristics or prac- factors for SBS symptoms identified in many studies include
tices, including indoor allergen concentrations, moisture and lower ventilation rates, presence of air conditioning, and
mold problems, pets, and tobacco smoking. The reported links higher indoor air temperatures. Increased chemical and mi-
between these risk factors and symptoms were often quite crobiological pollutants in the air or on indoor surfaces, de-
strong. bris or moisture problems in HVAC systems, more carpets and
For example, parental smoking was associated with 20% to fabrics, and less frequent vacuuming were risk factors in a
40% increases in asthma symptoms. In many studies, mold or small number of studies.
moisture problems in residences were associated with 100% One large study suggests that a 10 cfm (5 L/s) per person
increases in lower respiratory symptoms indicative of asthma. increase in ventilation rates would decrease prevalences of
These moisture and mold problems are common. For example, the most common SBS symptoms by one-third on average.
about 20% of U.S. houses have water leaks. Based on these data, Practical measures could diminish all these risk factors. Based
the estimated potential reduction in allergy and asthma symp- on these data, the estimated potential reduction in SBS

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symptoms was 20% to 50%. The affected population is large Potential U.S. Annual
Source of Potential Annual
Savings or Productivity
— in a survey of 100 U.S. offices, 23% of office workers Productivity Gain Health Benefits
Gain (1996 U.S. $)
(64 million workers) frequently experienced two or more SBS 16 Million to 37
symptoms at work. The estimated productivity reduction Reduced Million Avoided
$6 Billion to $14 Billion
Respiratory Illness Cases of Common
caused by SBS symptoms in the office worker population
Cold or Influenza
was 2%, with an annual cost of $60 billion. A 20% to 8% to 25% Decrease
50% reduction in these symptoms, considered feasible and in Symptoms within
Reduced Allergies
practical, would bring annual economic benefits of $10 bil- 53 Million Allergy $1 Billion to $4 Billion
And Asthma
Sufferers and 16
lion to $30 billion. Million Asthmatics
20% to 50%
Direct Productivity Gains Reduction in SBS
Literature documents direct linkages of worker performance Reduced Sick Health Symptoms
Building Syndrome Experienced $10 Billion to $30 Billion
with air temperatures and lighting conditions, without ap- Symptoms Frequently at Work
parent effects on worker health. Many but not all studies by ~15 Million
indicate that small (few °C) differences in temperatures can Workers
influence workers’ speed or accuracy by 2% to 20% in tasks Improved Worker
Performance from
such as typewriting, learning performance, reading speed, Changes in
Not Applicable $20 Billion to $160 Billion
multiplication speed, and word memory. Surveys have docu- Thermal
mented that indoor air temperature is often poorly controlled, Environment and
Lighting
implying an opportunity to increase productivity. Wyon3 es-
timated that providing ±3°C (±5°F) of individual tempera- Table 1: Estimated potential productivity gains.
ture control would increase work performance by 3% to 7%.
A smaller number of studies have documented improve- changes improved worker performance by even a significant
ments in work performance with better lighting, with ben- fraction of a percent or reduced sick leave by a day or more
efits most apparent for visually demanding work. Increased per year. While employers may be tempted to neglect energy
daylighting was also linked in one study to improved stu- efficiency when seeking to improve health and productivity,
dent learning. Based on these studies and recognizing that the most desirable measures or packages of measures are those
performance of only some work tasks is likely to be sensitive that improve IEQ and simultaneously save energy. Examples
to temperature and lighting, the estimated potential direct of such measures are provided in Fisk.1
productivity gain is 0.5% to 5%, with the range reflecting
Summary
the large uncertainty. Considering only U.S. office workers,
Table 1 summarizes the estimated potential health and pro-
the corresponding annual productivity gain is $20 billion to
ductivity gains from improved IEQ. While uncertainty in the
$160 billion.
magnitude of potential gains is high, even the lower bounds
of the estimated benefits are large from a societal perspec-
Benefits, Costs of Improvements
tive.
Two example calculations compared estimated productiv-
ity gains with costs for increasing ventilation rates and in- Acknowledgments
creasing filter system efficiency. The benefit-to-cost ratios This work was supported by the assistant secretary for energy
efficiency and renewable energy, Office of Building Technology, State,
were 14 and 8, respectively. Milton, et al.4 estimated benefit- and Community Programs, Office of Building Research and Stan-
to-cost ratios of three to six for the reduced absence obtained dards of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No. DE-
with increased ventilation, neglecting diminished health-care AC03-76SF00098.
costs. For many other measures that increase productivity, we
References
would expect similarly high benefit-to-cost ratios. For ex- 1. Fisk, W.J. 2000. “Health and productivity gains from better in-
ample, preventing or repairing roof leaks should diminish door environments and their relationship with building energy effi-
the need for costly building repairs and reduce asthma symp- ciency.” Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 25(1): 537-566.
toms. Some measures, such as removing pets from houses of 2. Fisk, W.J. 2000. “Estimates of potential nationwide productivity
and health benefits from better indoor environments: An update.”
asthmatics, have negligible financial costs.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Report, Chap. 4 in Indoor
Air Quality Handbook eds. J.D. Spengler, J.M. Samet, J.F. McCarthy,
Productivity Gains and Energy Efficiency McGraw Hill.
In many non-industrial workplaces, the cost of workers’ 3. Wyon, D.P. 1996. “Indoor environmental effects on productiv-
salaries and benefits exceeds energy costs by approximately ity.” IAQ’96 Paths to Better Building Environments pp. 5-15. ASHRAE.
4. Milton, D.K., P.M. Glencross, M.D. Walters. 2000. “Risk of
a factor of 100. Consequently, businesses should be strongly
sick leave associated with outdoor air supply rate, humidification, and
motivated to change building designs or operations if these occupant complaints.” Indoor Air 10(4): 212-221.
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