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Chapter 1

1. Describe the anatomical position.

2. Name the cavities of the trunk and the serous membranes that line them.

3. List the eleven systems of the human body.

4. Name the structural levels of the body and describe each level.

5. List and briefly describe the six basic life processes.

6. Define the term homeostasis. Identify the components of a typical feedback

loop, and describe the role of each.

7. Explain how a positive feedback loop differs from a negative feedback loop.

8. Identify and describe the locations of the major body fluid compartments.
Which is most often called the body's "internal environment?"

9. One of the members of your study group is insisting that a feedback loop is a
positive feedback loop because it is "doing good for the body." What is
wrong, if anything, with this student's thinking?

10. Osmometer cells in the brain sense and increase in the concentration of
plasma. This information is sent to the hypothalamus, which notifies the
pituitary gland to release the hormone ADH. ADH causes the kidney to save
water, which lowers the concentration of the plasma.
Identify the elements of a feedback loop in this scenario. Is this a positive or a
negative feedback loop? Explain your answer.

11. Consider the roles of two hormones involved in regulation of the

concentration of calcium ions in the blood. Parathyroid hormone increases the
concentration of calcium ions in the blood, but calcitonin decreases the
concentration. Maintenance of calcium ion homeostasis is critical to
neurological, cardiac and skeletal muscle function. Based on this information
predict what type of feedback mechanism would respond to restore calcium
balance if a teenager took a dare and ate 100 antacid tablets made of a
calcium compound in 10 minutes. Explain the answer in terms of the
components of a feedback loop and whether the body would respond to this
situation with a positive or a negative feedback loop.
12. A nurse is in the hospital room when the physician comes in to examine the
patient and discuss the patient’s condition with her family. The physician tells
the family that the patient’s hypogastric pain may be associated with several
conditions and further tests must be conducted. When the doctor leaves, the
family asks the nurse what the hypogastric region is, and why it matters if the
patient is pregnant. Answer the family’s questions in terms that someone with
a middle school education could understand.

13. Why is it necessary to have both phases of metabolism take place in our

The following questions refer to the figure below

14. A 26-year-old female presented with an irregularly shaped mole in the right
lumbar region, just lateral to the vertebrae. Indicate and label where this

15. A 10-year-old female presented to the emergency room with a laceration on

the left forearm just distal to the antecubital region. Indicate and label where
this is found.

16. A 22-year-old female was identified by a tattoo on the fibular surface of the
left leg just proximal to the tarsal region. Indicate and label where this is
Chapter 2

17. Compare and contrast ionic vs. covalent chemical bonds.

18. Compare and contrast primary and secondary active transport.

19. Describe three factors that increase the rate of chemical reactions.

20. Describe the functions of water in the body.

21. List the six major functions of proteins.

22. Explain how the carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system works in healthy

23. Describe the three major types of lipids found in the body.

Chapter 3

24. Briefly describe the fluid mosaic model.

25. Describe five different functions of embedded membrane proteins.

26. Briefly describe the two ways water molecules pass through a plasma

27. Briefly list the steps involved in receptor mediated endocytosis of ligands.

28. Briefly explain the difference between transcription and translation.

29. Compare and contrast primary and secondary active transport.

30. Compare mitosis to meiosis.

Chapter 4

31. Name the four principal types of human tissues, and briefly describe the
function of each?
Chapter 5

32. Describe how fingerprints are formed and what they are used for.

33. Describe how an arrector pili works.

34. Briefly describe the steps in epidermal wound healing.

35. Briefly describe the steps in deep wound healing.

36. Describe the structural characteristics of the epidermis that relate to its
protection function.

37. Compare and contrast the locations and structure of thin and thick skin.

38. List and briefly discuss the functions of skin.

39. John has just been brought into the emergency room following a fiery
explosion at a chemical plant. He is diagnosed with third degree burns over
the anterior surfaces of his arms and trunk. What specific structural damage
has occurred to his skin? What risks to John's life have resulted from this

Chapter 6

40. List and briefly describe the six main functions of the skeletal system.

41. Describe the two major differences between compact and spongy bone.

42. Briefly describe the steps in intramembraneous ossification.

43. Briefly describe the steps in bone deposition.

44. Briefly describe the steps in bone resorption.

45. Describe the steps in bone repair

46. Describe the process by which bone increases in length and diameter.

47. Patient X has a tumor of the parathyroid glands that causes a hyper secretion
from these glands. Predict the effect on the skeletal system and on the
secretion of calcitonin.
48. An archeologist and an anthropologist are studying two skeletons from an
ancient tomb that had apparently been looted in an earlier time. Both skeletons
are females; both are approximately the same height. However, the
anthropologist is absolutely certain that one skeleton is the remains of
someone from the privileged class while the other skeleton is the remains of a
servant or slave. How could the anthropologist be so sure of the economic
status of the individuals based solely on their skeletal remains?

49. Describe the signs and symptoms of osteoporosis and describe the risk factors
for developing osteoporosis.

Chapter 7

50. Briefly describe the types of bones found in the human body.

51. Briefly describe the location each of the four sutures including relevant bones.

52. Briefly describe the function of the fontanels.

53. Briefly describe the six fontanels of the infant skull including their location,
shape and time of closure.

54. Describe all the regions of the adult vertebral column including how many
bones are in each region.

Chapter 8

55. Compare and contrast the male and female pelvis.

56. Name the bones that are included in each lower limb.

57. Name the bones that are included in each upper limb.

Chapter 9

58. Briefly describe the structural classifications of joints.

59. Briefly describe the three types of functional classifications of joints.

60. Briefly describe what is meant by a person being “double-jointed”.

61. Describe the functions of synovial fluid.

62. Briefly describe what is happening when a person “cracks their knuckles”.

63. Describe the factors affecting the range of motion at synovial joints.

64. Describe the affects of aging on joints.

65. Name and briefly describe the common types of arthritis.

Movement Definition

Plantar flexion
Chapter 10

66. Name and describe the functions of the two contractile, two regulatory, and
five structural proteins seen in skeletal muscle fibers.

67. Compare and contrast the functional and structural characteristics of muscular

68. Muscle fatigue is thought to be brought on by what conditions?

69. Outline all steps of skeletal muscle contraction. Your answer should include
all steps from the neuromuscular junction to the contraction of the muscle
(sliding filament mechanism).

70. List and briefly describe the three sources for ATP production in muscle

71. Name the four steps in order of the contraction cycle and what is needed for
the steps to continuously repeat.

72. How dies a nerve impulse elicit a muscle action potential?

73. What are the three ways that ATP can be produced in muscle fibers?

74. Describe the differences between isotonic and isometric contraction. Include
in your answer a description of the 2 types of isotonic contraction.

Chapter 11

75. Briefly describe the differences between a mechanical advantage and a

mechanical disadvantage.

76. Briefly describe the three categories of levers, an example of each and if each
one works at an advantage or disadvantage.

77. Briefly describe four main benefits of stretching before exercising.

78. Identify the anatomical parts corresponding to the generic components of a

lever system. Describe the arrangement of these parts in first, second, and
third class lever systems.

79. Discuss the roles of prime movers, antagonists, synergists, and fixators in
Muscle Term Definition
Chapter 12

80. What factors limit neurogensis.

81. Describe four ways drugs can modify the effects of neurotrasmitters.

82. Describe the three ways neurotransmitters can be removed.

83. Describe the two conditions that allow maintenance of the resting membrane
potential in excitable cells.

84. Describe the characteristics of the neuron cell membrane and its environment
that contribute to the existence of a resting potential.

85. Describe the phases of an action potential, including all appropriate ion
movements and the mechanisms by which such movements occur.

86. Describe the process used to repair a peripheral neuron.

87. Briefly describe what causes the depolarizing phase.

Chapter 13

88. Briefly explain why the spinal cord is shorter than the vertebral column in an

89. Identify the components of a spinal reflex arc, and describe the function of

Chapter 14

90. Describe the structure and function of the blood-brain barrier.

91. Explain why a crushing injury to the occipital bone is usually fatal.

92. Describe the structural and functional relationship between the hypothalamus
and the pituitary gland.

93. Explain the function of the basal nuclei.

94. Compare the sensory and motor areas of the cerebrum.

Chapter 15

95. Discuss the differences between the somatic nervous system and autonomic
nervous system.

96. Describe the possible ways in which sympathetic preganglionic neurons may
connect with postganglionic neurons.

Explain why the sympathetic division of the ANS has more widespread and
longer-lasting effects than the parasympathetic division.

97. An autonomic neuron releases the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. What can

you tell about this neuron's role in the ANS? Describe the effector types, in
terms of responses to the neurotransmitter. What possible characteristics can
be determined about the postsynaptic cell? Explain your answers.

98. A patient with chronic skeletal muscle spasms was placed on an

anticholinergic medication. The muscle spasms have gone, but now the patient
also reports a loss of muscle strength. In addition, the patient’s blood pressure
is so low that she faints if she stands up too quickly. Explain the effects of the
medication the patient received.

99. Explain how the ANS regulates blood flow during times of fight or flight vs.
times of rest-and-digest.

100. Outline the physiological consequences of activating the sympathetic division

of the autonomic nervous system. Your answer should include reference to at
least 2 different organ systems

101. Compare and contrast the overall responses of the sympathetic and
parasympathetic divisions.

Chapter 16

102. You are sitting on a sunny Florida beach. Describe the anatomical structures
that must be present and the physiological events that must occur in order for
you to perceive the warmth of the sun.

103. Synesthesia is a condition in which stimulation of one sensory modality

results in perception of another. One man reportedly tastes shapes. Many
synesthetic people hear colors. Based on what you know about sensation,
explain the phenomenon of synesthesia.
104. A viral infection has damaged a patient’s tectospinal tract. What signs of this
damage probably helped the physicians diagnose the problem?

105. Describe the role of the reticular activating system in sleep, arousal, and

106. Compare short-term memory vs. long-term memory with regard to specific
changes that are thought to occur in the brain.

107. Explain the four activities of the cerebellum.

Chapter 17

108. List the cells, structures and fluids that light must pass through to reach the
photoreceptor cells.

109. Explain the process by which smell sensations are sensed and perceived.

110. Emily was very ill with an upper respiratory infection. Her roommate gave
her some chicken soup to make her feel better. Neither Emily nor her
roommate realized that the soup was too hot to eat until after Emily put a
spoonful in her mouth. Now Emily says she can’t taste anything. Why? When
will she be able to taste again?

111. Describe the process of image formation on the retina.

112. Deafness can occur for many reasons. Using your knowledge of the structure
of the ear and the processing of detecting sound, explain why arthritis could
cause deafness.

113. Differentiate between static and dynamic equilibrium. Describe the structures
and physiological mechanisms involved in receiving and transducing
vestibular sensations.

Chapter 18

114. Compare and contrast the mechanisms of action of lipid-soluble vs.

water-soluble hormones.

115. Describe the role of the hypothalamus in the regulation of the pituitary gland.
116. Enuresis, or bedwetting, may be caused by psychological, anatomical or
physiological factors. In the latter case, vasopressin is often prescribed and is
a very effective treatment. What is vasopressin? How can it prevent enuresis?

117. Describe and explain the similarities between starvation and diabetes mellitus.

118. Using the control of blood calcium concentration as an example, describe the
feedback mechanism responsible in response to the stimulus of LOW blood
calcium concentration. Include in your answer:
a) The two major hormones that are responsible for the body’s regulation of
blood calcium levels.
b) The specific steps involved in the feedback mechanism that is stimulated
when blood calcium concentration is LOW.

119. Patient X has a tumor of the parathyroid glands that causes a hyper secretion
from these glands. Predict the effect on the skeletal system and on the
secretion of calcitonin.

120. Explain the effects of normal secretion of thyroid hormones that influence
metabolic rate and what happens when there is hyper-secretion of these
Hormone Organ
ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)

ADH (antidiuretic hormone)






Growth hormone








PTH (Parathyroid hormone)