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Aircraft Structural

Principles
Semester GENAP T.A. 2017 / 2018-2
PS: Rangka Pesawat – MP-3A, B,C
Aircraft Structure
Design
Philosophy
Goals
Criteria
Contents :
• A/C Structure Design – Philosophy & Goal
• Prinsip Design (Principles of Design)
• Requirements for Aircraft Structural Design
• Basic Structural Design Philosophy
• Material selection Criteria
• Applicable Regulations
• Loads on Aircraft Structure
• Static & Fatigue Strength
• Proses Perancangan (design) pesawat terbang
• Tahap Pengujian (Structure design phase)
• Klasifikasi Struktur Pesawat Udara : Primary,
Secondary, Tertiary
AIRCRAFT STRUCTURAL DESIGN
PHILOSOPHY & GOAL
✈ Pesawat Terbang dibuat dengan Tujuan :
 Untuk Memudahkan Pengangkutan Manusia
dan / atau Barang Dari suatu Tempat Ke
Tempat Lainnya dengan Cepat, atau
 Ketempat – tempat yang Sulit Dijangkau
dengan Jalan Darat.

✈ Sesuai dengan Misinya, maka Pesawat Udara


harus dirancang (design) sedemikian rupa
agar Memenuhi Persyaratan-persyaratan
tertentu baik Teknis maupun Non–teknis.
4
Jan 2011 / DMG 4
Prinsip Design –
Struktur Pesawat Udara
Prinsip Design –
Struktur Pesawat Udara

 Struktur /Airframe (rangka pesawat)


dibangun sesuai dengan persyaratan yang
sangat spesifik, karena ia mencakup
± 40 ~ 60 % dari total berat (massa)
pesawat dan memberikan semua kekuatan
bagi pesawat udara.

1/25/2011 6
Prinsip Design –
Struktur Pesawat Udara
 Persyaratan (Requirements) Design, antara
lain:
a) Cukup Kuat (adequate Strength),
b) Cukup Kaku (adequate Stiffness),
c) Ringan (Minimum Weight or Mass),
d) Kecukupan sifat mekanis material (toughness,
fatigue resistance, dll),
e) Bentuk aerodinamis (smooth aerodynamic
shape).
1/25/2011 7
- Maximum expected load
(limit load ) must not exceed material failure
stress.
- Minimum structural weight for
best performance (very important difference
compared to other types of structures).
– Higher structural weight - requires larger wing area
and larger engine thrust, which further increase
weight.
– Higher weight - leads to higher fuel consumption
and lower range.
b) High Stiffness - Stiffness determines:
force, F, and deflection, δ, relationship (stress, σ vs
strain, ɛ).

Spring: kx = F;
k = AE/L for rod,
Where: E = Young’s modulus,
A = cross sectional area,
L = length)
x = displacement of a body
d) Large Fatigue Life - Repeated
application and removal of Loads cause
fatigue.
• Fatigue failures occur – at much smaller stress
compared to strength failure.
• Takeoff/landing and gust – cause load cycles.
• Fatigue life, rather than strength requirements,
dominate structural design for transport
aircraft (~70,000 hrs).
Large Buckling Resistance – Lateral
displacement of columns under axial load known
as buckling.
Critical buckling load, P   EI 2
2
L
Where:
I = Moment of inertia of column cross-section,
E = Elastic (Young’s) Modulus,
L = column length
e) Bentuk Aerodinamis (smooth aerodynamic
shapes) – untuk mengurangi hambatan (drag)
Aircraft constructions Aircraft structures
AERODYNAMIC
LOADS Structure works to
transfer the applied
loads

INERTIAL LOAD Force equilibrium


(D’Alembert principle)

Such considerations apply to all type of


structures (not only aerospace structure)

14
Requirements: Stiffness
Limitation to the relative displacements
AERODYNAMIC due to functional requirements (e.g.
LOADS aerodynamics)
Avoid frequency coupling (resonance)

Strength
Avoid permanent deformation and the
collapse of the structures under
operative load
INERTIAL LOAD
Shape Constraints
AERODYNAMICS, INTERNAL
VOLUMES FOR PAYLOADS

OBJECTIVE: perform structural functions,


fulfilling requirements, respect constraints with
MINIMUM WEIGHT
15
Structural Safety with Minimum Weight
– is the Major Criterion for
the Design of Aircraft Structures,

which comprise :

• Thin load bearing Skins,


• Frames, Stiffeners, Spars, made of Light Weight,
High Strength, High Stiffness Materials.

1/25/2011 16
BASIC STRUCTURAL DESIGN
PHILOSOPHY
Membuat Pesawat Terbang yang –

☛ Laik Udara (Airworthy),


☛ Berkualitas (mutu) Tinggi,
☛ Ekonomis,
☛ dengan Menggunakan :
♦ Bahan /Material,
♦ Teknik Perancangan/Design, dan
♦ Teknik Pembuatan /Fabrikasi
yang Terbaik yang ada & tersedia.
Jan 2011 / DMG 17
BASIC STRUCTURAL DESIGN
PHILOSOPHY
✦ KELAIKUDARAAN / Laikudara (Airworthy)
– maksudnya adalah :
• Terpenuhinya persyaratan desain tipe pesawat
udara dan Dalam kondisi aman untuk
beroperasi.
(Ref.: UU Penerbangan No.1/2009, pasal 1, ayat 10)
Kelaikan Udara /Kelaikudaraan
(Airworthiness) :
• Adalah – terpenuhinya persyaratan desain tipe
(type design) pesawat udara dan dalam kondisi
aman untuk beroperasi, serta
• Terpenuhinya persyaratan yang mencegah
terjadinya pencemaran lingkungan;

• Kelaikan udara (Kelaikudaraan) dari suatu


pesawat udara yang dioperasikan harus tetap
dipertahankan dengan cara melakukan
perawatan, perbaikan maupun modifikasi sesuai
dengan rekomendasi dari pabrik.
dmg/ may 2010 19
Kelaikan Udara /Kelaikudaraan
(Airworthiness) :
• Design Struktur Pesawat Udara – harus
memenuhi Persyaratan (minimum)
Keselamatan (safety & airworthy) yg ketat –
yang tercantum didalam Regulasi:
• CASR /14CFR (FAR)/CS Parts :
• Parts 23 dan 25 – Pesawat Terbang Sayap
Tetap (Fixed Wing Aircraft / Airplane)
• Parts 27 dan 29 – Pesawat Udara Sayap
Berputar (Rotary Wing / Rotorcraft)
BASIC STRUCTURAL DESIGN
PHILOSOPHY & GOALS – (samb.):
✦ Kualitas /quality – maksudnya adalah :
 Pesawat harus Mampu Menahan Beban (Loads),
dan Kondisi Lingkungan (Environmental),
dimana pesawat akan dioperasikan, dengan
Aman (Safe) dan untuk Jangka Waktu yang
Lama; dan

 Ini merupakan Tujuan dari Design (Design Goal).


April 18 21
Jan 2011 / DMG 21
AIRCRAFT STRUCTURAL
DESIGN GOALS
Beberapa Faktor Penting yang menjadi
Tujuan Design ( Design Goals ) :
 Safety (Keamanan)
 Long Life (Panjang Umur)
 Minimum Weight (Ringan)
 High Utilization Rate (Tingkat Pemakaian yang
Tinggi)
 Ease of Maintenance (Mudah Dirawat)
April 18 22
Jan 2011 / DMG 22
Structural Design Goals :
SAFETY (Keamanan)
 Struktur Pesawat Terbang harus mampu –

✈ Menahan Beban Paling Kritis (maximum) yang


mungkin terjadi selama pesawat hidup /ber-operasi.

✈ Bertahan (survive) terhadap Kerusakan yang


mungkin terjadi akibat Tumbukan dengan Benda
Asing, dan Kerusakan Tak Terduga, tanpa mengalami
Kecelakaan Fatal (atau Catastrophic Failure – y.i
Kehilangan jiwa dan/atau pesawat).
23
Jan 2011 / DMG 23
Structural Design Goals :
SAFETY (Keamanan) – (samb -1)
Struktur pesawat harus Aman (safe) Memikul
Beban-beban :
✈ Flight Loads ( Beban Terbang ),
✈ Ground Loads ( Beban Darat ),
✈ Impact Damage ( Kerusakan akibat Tumbukan ),
✈ Undetected Damage ( Kerusakan yang Tidak
Terdeteksi ).
 Untuk Impact & Undetected Damages – Sampai tiba waktu
pemeriksaan (inspection).
 Safety adalah tujuan /goal yang tidak dapat ditawar-tawar/
kompromi-kan lagi.
24
Jan 2011 / DMG 24
Structural Design Goals :
LONG LIFE (Panjang Umur)
✦ Economic Service Life (Umur ekonomis) :
✈ Pesawat udara di-rancang/design untuk
beroperasi secara menguntungkan
(economically profitable) selama 15 s/d 20
tahun dengan tingkat keandalan yang tinggi,
dengan minimum perawatan.

• Diatas umur itu pesawat sudah tidak ekonomis lagi


di operasikan, walaupun masih tetap laik
terbang (airworthy), karena biaya perawatan
struktur cenderung meningkat naik.
April 18 25
Jan 2011 / DMG 25
Structural Design Goals :
MINIMUM WEIGHT (Ringan)
• Agar Pesawat udara menguntungkan secara
ekonomis, bobot (berat)nya harus seminimum
mungkin.

• Berat struktur (rangka pesawat: fuselage,


wing, empennage, engine mountings,
attachment brackets, dll) – meliputi 40 ~ 60 %
dari keseluruhan (total) berat kosong pesawat
terbang (total empty weight).
April 18 26
May '09 / DMG 26
Structural Design Goals :
MINIMUM WEIGHT (Ringan) – (samb)
Faktor-faktor yang Merpengaruhi Bobot
Minimum (Minimum Weight) :

✈ Static Strength,
✈ Fatigue Strength,
✈ Damage Tolerance,
✈ Corrosion Resistance,
✈ Material Selection,
✈ Efficient Detail Design.
April 18 27
May '09 / DMG 27
Structural Design Goals :
HIGH UTILIZATION RATE
- adalah :
✈ Suatu ukuran dari efisiensi bagaimana suatu
operator / maskapai penerbangan (Airliner)
mengoperasikan armadanya,

y.i : jumlah jam per-hari pemakaian pesawat.


◘ Semakin banyak jam terbangnya diudara, semakin
besar earning power –nya.

◘ Kunci utama dari tingginya suatu tingkat pemakaian


(high utilization rate) adalah – kemudahan untuk
pemeriksaan / inspeksi dan pemeliharaan.
April 18 28
Jan 2011 / DMG 28
Structural Design Goals :
MAINTAINABILITY (Mampu dirawat)
Pesawat Mudah Dirawat / pelihara, jika:
 Servicing – waktu perawatan seminimum mungkin,
 Component Acceccibility – mudah mendapat
komponen (suku cadang),
 Maintain Applicability – mudah menerapkan cara
perawatan,
 Reduce Maintenance Requirements– persyaratan
perawatan berkurang,
 Inspectability – dapat diperiksa /inspeksi,
 Repairability – dapat diperbaiki

April 18 29
Jan 2011 / DMG 29
Kriteria Pemilihan Material Pesawat Udara
(Material Selection Criteria) :
• Static strength efficiency
• Fatigue strength
• Fracture toughness and crack-growth rate
• Availability and cost
• Fabrication characteristics
• Corrosion and embrittlement phenomena
• Compatibility with other materials
• Environmental stability

30
Structural Design Requirements
(Persyaratan / Kriteria Rancangan Struktur)
 Bayangkan jika anda bertanggung-jawab untuk merancang
(men-design) suatu pesawat terbang transport supersonik.
 Lima (5) Kriteria /persyaratan Design Struktur
yang Paling Penting , yang harus anda Penuhi !

1. Light weight ( Ringan )


2. High strength ( Berkekuatan Tinggi )
3. High stiffness ( Kokoh /Kekakuan Tinggi )
4. High resistance to buckling (Ketahanan Tinggi terhadap Tekuk)
5. Long fatigue life ( Umur Kelelahan Panjang ).

Harga (cost) adalah sangat penting untuk keseluruhan tujuan


design, tapi kriteria diatas adalah Khusus untuk Rancangan
Struktur.
STRUCTURAL DESIGN
CONSIDERATION :
✈ Pertimbangan Design:
• Banyak aspek yang harus dipertimbangkan
dalam merancang detail dari struktur.
• Dapat dibayangkan, banyak pertentangan /
konflik timbul ketika pembahasan meliputi
banyak hal yang harus dipertimbangkan.
• Segala upaya dilakukan untuk meng-optimasi
rancangan (design) agar konsisten dengan
tujuan awal design (original design goals).
Jan 2011 / DMG 32
STRUCTURAL DESIGN
CONSIDERATION :
CRITERIA
CONFIGURATION LOADS AND STRESS
AERODYNAMICS FATIGUE
AND LIFT
MATERIAL
FLUTTER SELECTION

MATERIAL SIZE STRUCTURAL CORROSION


LIMITATIONS PROTECTION
DESIGN DAMAGE
MANUFACTURING
TOLERANCE
PRODUCIBILITY
INSPECTABILITY /
WEIGHT TRADES ACCESSBILITY
MAINTENANCE
COST TRADES
CONSIDERATIONS
Jan 2011 / DMG 33
STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA :

Kriteria Perancangan Struktur Pesawat Udara


ditentukan oleh :

✈ CASR (Peraturan Keselamatan Penerbangan Sipil)


– DGCA RI,
✈ Peraturan / peryaratan Kelaikan Udara Asing
(seperti: FAR/ JAR/ EASA) – bila perlu,
✈ Persyaratan Militer (Mil-Specs)–bila utk militer,
✈ Potential Customer Requirements,
✈ Company Requirements – persyaratan design
Perusahaan / Pabrik Pesawat itu sendiri.
Jan 2011 / DMG 34
Structural Design Criteria :
APPLICABLE REGULATIONS :
Persyaratan Design & Testing Struktur
Pesawat Udara Sipil (Airworthiness Standards) –
tercantum di :

 CASR Parts 23 & 25 – Fixed Wing Airplanes :


➣ Subpart C – Structure
➣ Subpart D – Design and Construction

 CASR Parts 27 & 29 – Rotorcrafts (Helicopters) :


➣ Subpart C – Strength Requirements
➣ Subpart D – Design & Construction
April 18 35
Jan 2011 / DMG 35
Structural Design Criteria :
APPLICABLE REGULATIONS :
Persyaratan Operasional Pesawat – yang
mempengaruhi Design :

 CASR Parts 121– Certification and Operating


Requirements : for Domestic, Flag, and Supplemental
Air Carriers (Transport airplane , pax seating config ≥
30 seats, payload cap > 3,409 kilograms (7,500 pounds)

 CASR Parts 135 - Certification and Operating


Requirements : for Commuter And Charter Air Carriers
April 18 36
Jan 2011 / DMG 36
LOADS ON
AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE :

✈ EXTERNAL LOADS (Beban Luar)

✈ INTERNAL LOADS (Beban Dalam)

✈ MISCELLANEOUS LOADS

1/25/2011 37
LOADS ON
AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE :
Two Main Categories of External Load
Conditions:
 Flight Loads and
 Ground Loads.
• These loads are typically stated in terms of
Maximum Limit Loads and Load Factors,
and
• Permit determination of the Structural
Strength Requirements for airplane.
1/25/2011 38
LOADS ON
AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE :
Definition
Load factor , n, means:
• The ratio of a specified load to the total
weight of the aircraft.
– The specified load is expressed in terms of any of
the following: aerodynamic forces, inertia forces,
or ground or water reactions.
• Example: n=L/W

1/25/2011 39
LOADS ON
AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE :
 EXTERNAL LOADS (Beban Luar)
• Dua Kondisi Pembebanan Luar yang Utama :

• ✈ Flight Loads (Beban Terbang) : Beban yang


diderita pesawat selama penerbangan
diakibatkan oleh Manoeuver dan Gust ; dan

• ✈ Ground Loads (Beban Darat) : Semua


beban yang ditemui pesawat sewaktu
Bergerak atau Berpindah tempat Didarat;

1/25/2011 40
EXTERNAL LOADS (Beban Luar):
 FLIGHT LOADS (Beban Terbang) :

✈ Manoeuver Loads ✈ Gust Loads


♦ Symmetrical ♦ Symmetrical
♦ Unsymmetrical ♦ Unsymmetrical

❐ GROUND LOADS (Beban Darat):


✈ Landing
✈ Taxying
✈ Ground Handling


– (CASR 25, Subpart C - Structure)

1/25/2011 41
EXTERNAL LOADS (Beban Luar):

 FLIGHT LOADS (Beban Terbang) :


– Air Loads (straight-and-level, unaccelerated
flight)
– Maneouver Loads
– Gust Loads

Gust = hembusan angin kencang;

1/25/2011 42
EXTERNAL LOADS ON AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
Four Forces on an Airplane
 Air Loads (straight-and-level, unaccelerated flight)

dmg/Dec/2009
These loads (forces) are in Equilibrium condition.
43
EXTERNAL LOADS ON AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
FOUR FORCES ON AN AIRPLANE
♦ Empat (4) Gaya Utama yang Bekerja pada
Pesawat Udara - dalam keadaan Terbang Lurus
Mendatar, Tanpa Percepatan
(straight-and-level, unaccelerated flight
Atau steady-flight ) :
 Thrust (Gaya Dorong);
 Drag (Gaya Tahan atau hambatan);
 Weight (Berat Pesawat);
 Lift (Gaya Angkat)
dmg/2009 44
EXTERNAL LOADS (Beban Luar):
 FLIGHT LOADS (Beban Terbang) :
– Maneouver Loads

Gambar : Typical Pitching Manoeuver pesawat terbang


(a) Resultan Gaya-gaya Angkat pada Sayap Pesawat terbang
(b) Distribusi Tekanan
1/25/2011 45
EXTERNAL LOADS (Beban Luar):
 FLIGHT LOADS (Beban Terbang) :
– Gust Loads – is a Violent, Abrupt Rush of Wind.
• Gust criteria – are based on the fact that
turbulent conditions of varying intensity occur
in the air through which the airplane flies.

• The following figures show some of the


atmospheric phenomena which create
turbulence.
Gust = hembusan angin kencang;
1/25/2011 46
EXTERNAL LOADS (Beban Luar):
 FLIGHT LOADS (Beban Terbang) :
– Gust Loads – is a Violent, Abrupt Rush of
Wind.
• This turbulence causes the air velocities in all
directions w.r.t the Flight Path. These are
called GUST.
• In the criteria, Gusts are considered to act :
– Normal to the flight path in a vertical direction, or
– Lateral direction, and
– Parallel to the flight path in an aft acting direction.
1/25/2011 47
EXTERNAL LOADS (Beban Luar):
• Typical Gusts

1/25/2011 48
EXTERNAL (FLIGHT) LOADS –
Wind Shear

• Effect of wind shear


on aircraft trajectory

• Note how merely correcting for the initial gust front can have
dire (mengerikan) consequences.
Jan 2011 / DMG 49
EXTERNAL LOADS (Beban Luar):
❐ GROUND LOADS (Beban Darat): (CASR / FAR Part 25)

✈ Landing ✈ Ground Handling


- Level Landing •Taxi
- Tail Down Landing •Takeoff Run
- One wheel Landing •Braked Roll
- Lateral Drift Landing •Turning
- Rebound Landing •Nose wheel yawing
(hopping) •Pivoting
•Reverse Braking
•Towing

✈ Unsymmetrical Loads on Multiple Wheel Units


✈ Emergency Landing ( Inertia ) Loads on :
1) Land {CASR 25.561(b)(3) : 9 g fwd, 3g upwd, dst.},
2) Water : Ditching. (CASR 25. 801).
Jan 2011 / DMG 50
External
(Ground )
Loads :

Jan 2011 / DMG 51


External
(Ground )
Loads :

Jan 2011 / DMG 52


External
(Ground )
Loads :

Jan 2011 / DMG 53


External
(Ground )
Loads :

Jan 2011 / DMG 54


EMERGENCY LANDING on LAND

Jan 2011 / DMG CASR /14CFR (FAR)/ CS 23.561(b) atau 25.561(b) 55


EXTERNAL LOADS (Beban Luar):
 PEMBEBANAN LUAR LAINNYA :
• ✈ Operational Loads –
• Berasal dari Profil Terbang (Flight Profile)
yang diharapkan terjadi untuk suatu pesawat,
dan Load ini dipakai untuk menentukan
persyaratan detail design untuk durability.

• ✈ Miscellaneous Loads – Biasanya digunakan


sbg beban untuk men-design Non-Primary
Aircraft Structure.

1/25/2011 56
EXTERNAL LOADS (Beban Luar):
✈ OPERATIONAL LOADS :
 To establish Fatigue Strength, it is necessary to show
by analysis and/or tests that the structure is capable
of withstanding the repeated loads of variable
magnitude expected for the service life goal of the
airplane.
• A Life Goal in Total Flights or Flight Hours (FH) is
determined.
• The details of a typical flight are fixed.
• A typical flight profile - illustrating the factors
affecting fatigue life are shown below.
• For Fuselages these must include the effects of
Pressurization Cycles.
Jan 2011 / DMG 57
Operational Loads :
Typical Flight Profile

Altitude vs Time
Jan 2011 / DMG 58
LOADS ON AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
INTERNAL LOADS (Beban Dalam )
STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY

✈ External load (beban luar) yang bekerja pada


pesawat diubah menjadi Internal Load (beban
dalam) yang harus dipikul oleh bagian detil struktur
(detail structural members).

✈ Masing-masing detail structural member dan


assembly harus di-design agar memenuhi
persyaratan Static Strength, Durability, dan
April 18
Damage Tolerance. 59
Jan 2011 / DMG 59
LOADS ON AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
MISCELLANEOUS LOADS (samb-1) :
❐ Contoh : Beberapa Jenis Miscellaneous Loads

 Control Surfaces Loads (aileron, elevator, rudder)


 Door Loads (pax, cargo, landing gear, and
access)
 Pressure Loads (cabin, fuel tank, and local
surface)
 Nose Radome Loads
 Fluid System Requirements
 Seat and Floor Loads
 Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) Loads
April 18 60
Jan 2011 / DMG 60
AIRCRAFT LOADS
Air Loads - Pressure distribution on aircraft during maneuver,
gust, control surface deflection, buffet. Span-wise and chord-
wise load distribution.
Inertia Loads - Acceleration, rotation, vibration, flutter
Power Plant Loads - Thrust, torque, duct pressure
Takeoff Loads - Catapult, aborted takeoff
Landing Loads - Vertical load factor, arrested landing

Tension, compression, torsion, shear, bending


Factor of safety (~1.5) applied on ‘limit load’ (largest expected
load) to obtain ‘ultimate load’. Structure must withstand ultimate
(or design) load without failure. For fighter aircraft, limit load =
8 * Weight (‘8g’ maneuver)
 Metals (metallic)
 Non-metals (non-metallic)

1/25/2011 62
The Junker J-1 , All metal construction in 1910.

1/25/2011 63
Aircraft Materials –
• An aircraft must be constructed of materials that
are both light and strong.
• Early aircraft were made of wood.
• Lightweight metal alloys with a strength greater
than wood were developed and used on later
aircraft.
• Materials currently used in aircraft construction
are classified as either:
– metallic materials, or
– nonmetallic materials.

1/25/2011 64
Aircraft Materials

• Aluminum (80%) - Lightest for most parts


(especially buckling)
• Steel (17%) - Highly loaded parts (landing
gear, engine fittings)
• Titanium (3%) - High temperature parts
(engine nacelle)
• Composites (carbon fiber + epoxy) -
Secondary structures (control surfaces, flaps,
wing skin for fighter aircraft)
 Aliminium Alloys.
– Pure Aluminum lacks sufficient strength to be
used for aircraft construction.
– However, its strength increases considerably
when it is alloyed or mixed with other
compatible metals.
– Aluminum posses corrosion resistance.

1/25/2011 66
 Aliminium Alloys – (cont’d-1).
 ALLOYING AGENTS :
– Aluminium alloys are classified by their major
Alloying Ingredient.
– The elements most commonly used for
Aluminum Alloying, are:
• Copper (Cu), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn),
and Zinc (Zn)

1/25/2011 67
 Aliminium Alloys – (cont’d-2).
 ALLOYING AGENTS :
Wrought Aluminum and Wrought Aluminum Alloys are
identified by a Four digit index system.
– The most common Alloying elements used are as follows:
– 1xxx – aluminum
– 2xxx – copper
– 3xxx – manganese
– 4xxx – silicon
– 5xxx – magnesium
– 6xxx – magnesium and silicon Wrought Al = Al tempa

– 7xxx – zinc
– 8xxx – other elements.
1/25/2011 68
• Aliminium Alloys – (cont’d-3).
• Copper based (2000 series) – damage tolerant -
used in
• Fatigue critical areas of the airframe,
• Pressurized fuselage, and
• Wing skins

1/25/2011 69
• Zinc based (7000 series).
– Boeing 747-400, Airbus A320, 340, etc. offers
increase strength and weight saving.
– Used on the A320 for larger machined structures and
compression designed components.

• Aluminium /Lithium Alloys – being developed


which are stronger and have greater stiffness.

1/25/2011 70
• Steels.
• Used in high stress areas, such as :
– Wing to fuselage joints, Engine attachments, Bolts,
Hinge pins, etc.
– Like all aircraft structural parts, they are so designed
to have a high strength/weight ratio whilst
maintaining a long fatigue life.

1/25/2011 71
• Titanium Alloys. Good in tension and
– with a density lower than that of steel is used to
replace steel in certain applications.
– Titanium is nearly half the weight (half the density)
of steel – size for size, has a higher melting point,
and may have the same strength – but high tensile
steel (HTS) is much stronger.
– Titanium alloys resist corrosion well.

1/25/2011 72
• Magnesium Alloys.
– Lighter by half (half the density) than Titanium alloys
– and lighter than Aluminum Alloys – size for size.
– Prone to corrosion,
– Poor tensile strength, but cast well and
– fairly good in compression.
– Will burn under some circumstances.

Cast, casting = cor, tuang

1/25/2011 73
Titanium Alloys.

Titanium Alloys. Good in tension and with a density lower than that of
steel is used to replace steel in certain applications.
• Titanium is nearly half the weight (half the density) of steel – size
for size, has a higher melting point, and may have the same
strength – but high tensile steel (HTS) is much stronger.
• Titanium alloys resist corrosion well.
1/25/2011 74
• Wood. Some woods have a
good strength to weight
ratio.
– Are easy to fabricate into
components and easily
joined,
– But are prone warping, insect
and fungal attack, and various
rotting processes. World War - I:
– Used extensively in the Perang Dunia – I (1917an)
construction of airframes and pesawat dari kayu
propellers in the early days
and may still be seen in some
aircraft structures today.
1/25/2011 75
• Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics (GRP).
– Used for honeycomb panels, ducts, radomes, aerials,
and internal décor panels and finishings.
– Is strong and tough and used as primary structure on
some aircraft.
– Will not corrode.
• CFCs – Carbon Reinforced Composites.
– Have good strength /weight ratio and high resistance
to damage.
– CFC structures are of similar construction to GRP, but
the material is made of carbon filament.
– Use in structural parts of airframes.
1/25/2011 76
1/25/2011 77
• Kevlar (Aramide).
– An increasingly common material used for structures,
fairings, internal furnishing and carpets.
– It is tough, has good tensile strength,
– Is self extinguishing and generates little smoke when
burning.
– Varieties are used for electrical cable insulation.
• Kevlar 49 – is laid up in sheets and made into solid
laminates or bonded into honeycomb.
• Nomex . This is Kevlar honeycomb sandwich
between glass fiber or carbon fiber sheets.
1/25/2011 78
DMG /March 2009 79
• Fiberlam.
– Produced by Ciba Geigy and used extensively on
aircraft floors, bulkheads, and internal fittings.
– The Airship 500 has its fins made of Fibrelam.

• Carbondec. Similar to Fiberlam using a Nomex


honeycomb core sandwiched between carbon
fiber sheeting.
• It has a greater wear and impact resistance
than glass fiber.
1/25/2011 80
• Glare.
• This is a metal/composite sandwich construction
using (typically) three thin layers of Aluminum
alloy sheet (2024-T-3) sandwiching two layers of
prepreg glass fiber cloth (all bonded together).
• It is 10 % less dense than Al-alloy with greater
fatigue and damage resistance.
• Used for skin panels on the fuselage of the A380.

1/25/2011 81
Standar Kelaikudaraan –
Struktur Pesawat Udara
• Semua struktur pesawat harus dirancang-bangun
sesuai dengan filosofi, tujuan, dan kriteria yang
memenuhi persyaratan & standar kelaikan udara
( ) yang
dikeluarkan oleh Airworthiness Authority / Aviation
Safety Agency.

 Regulasi (aturan) dan/atau Persyaratan dituangkan


dalam :
– CASR / PKPS untuk DGCA-RI;
– 14 CFR (sebelumnya disebut FAR) untuk FAA-A.S; dan
– CS (Certification Specifications) & JAR (Joint Aviation
Requirements) untuk EASA, Uni Eropa.
1/25/2011 84
Airworthiness Standards –
Struktur Pesawat Udara
Persyaratan/Aturan/ Regulasi/ Standar Kelaikan
Udara (Kelaikudaraan) yang tercantum di CASR /
PKPS :
• Part 23 – Normal, Utility, Acrobatic, and
Commuter Category Airplanes
• Part 25 – Transport Category Aiplanes
• Part 27 – Normal Category Rotorcraft
• Part 29 – Transport Category Rotorcraft

Harus dipenuhi sebelum diterbitkan Sertifikat Tipe


(Type Certificate, TC).
1/25/2011 85
Standar Kelaikudaraan –
Struktur Pesawat Udara
• Untuk Perancangan Struktur, persyaratan atau
standard Kelaikan Udara tercantum dalam :
• CASR Parts 23 & 25 untuk pesawat bersayap
tetap (Fixed Wing Airplane), Sub-bagian atau
– Subpart C – Structure
– Subpart D – Design and Construction
• CASR Parts 27 & 29, Subparts C &D untuk
pesawat bersayap Berputar (Rotary Wing).
1/25/2011 86
Prinsip Design & Kriteria –
Struktur Pesawat Udara
• Struktur pesawat udara – harus memenuhi
persyaratan kelaikan udara yang ketat, dan
• Authority (DGCA) akan terlibat, selama tahap-
tahap design / perancangan dan konstruksi
dari pesawat (aircraft).

• Beberapa contoh persyaratan CASR/PKPS yang


berkenaan dengan Struktur, sbb :

1/25/2011 87
Prinsip Design & Kriteria – Struktur Pesawat Udara

 Factor of Safety ( faktor keselamatan /


keamanan):
– The normal specified minimum is 1,5 but can be
changed (with authority).
– This means that an a/c must be made 1 ½ times
stronger than the max load it is likely to meet in
service.
 Deformation (perubahan bentuk /deformasi)
of structure must not be significant under
normal maximum loadings.

1/25/2011 88
Prinsip Design & Kriteria – Struktur Pesawat Udara

 Fatigue. Cyclic stressing that weakens the


structure even though the stresses are well
within the normal maximum stress-levels the
material will bear.
• Fatigue limits are laid down and the structure
must pass both static and dynamic fatigue
testing.

{ Batas kelelahan (material) telah ditetapkan dan struktur harus


lulus kedua pengujian baik uji statik maupun uji fatigue dinamik}.
• (More of this later- when deals with this subject)

1/25/2011 89
Prinsip Design & Kriteria – Struktur Pesawat Udara

 Gust Loads. The aerodynamic loadings which


the a/c experiences in flight and the
conditions under which they are applied are
specified.

• Gust Loads – is a Violent, Abrupt Rush of Wind.

1/25/2011 90
Prinsip Design & Kriteria – Struktur Pesawat Udara

 Fuel & Oil Loads.


• These are applied to the airframe by fuel and
oil mass and inertia loads.
• In many cases the fuel tank loads are
considerable and the airframe must be
capable of withstanding these loads – with the
appropriate factor of safety.

1/25/2011 91
Prinsip Design & Kriteria – Struktur Pesawat Udara

 Engine, APU, and Landing Gear Loads.


• The L/G - produces :
– Large compressive loads on landing and
– A significant weight consideration when the
a/c is airborne.
• Engine - put considerable stress onto the
airframe locally, caused by their weight and
the thrust they produce.

1/25/2011 92
Prinsip Design & Kriteria – Struktur Pesawat Udara

 Pressurization Loads.
– The stress (cabin differential pressure) can be as
high as 8 psi (in some cases even higher).
– E.g. CN235 -

 Towing and Ground Movement Loads.


– Max loads are specified.
 Emergency Landing Loads.
– Maximum loads applied to all the airframe
structure.
1/25/2011 93
Prinsip Design & Kriteria – Struktur Pesawat Udara

 Lightning Protection / Static Charge Build-


up.
– This is usually achieved, for the structure, by
having the structure electrically bonded, so
that when lightning strikes the whole
structure will be at the same electrical
potential (voltage).
– For bonding purposes ordinary metal-to-metal
joining is considered satisfactory.

1/25/2011 94
Prinsip Design & Kriteria – Struktur Pesawat Udara
Lightning Protection / Static Charge Buid-up. (cont’d)
• Where metal-to-metal joining is not used, or
where it might be considered electrically
unsatisfactory, bonding strips are used (braided
copper or something similar).
• This requirement applies to both metal and
composite aircraft.
• Electrical / electronic equipment is also regulated
for lightning protection.
• Static discharge wicks are provided for discharge
of static electrical potential build-up.

1/25/2011 95
Figure 1. Typical Electrical Bonding
Arrangements

1/25/2011 96
Prinsip Design & Kriteria – Struktur Pesawat Udara

 Flying Controls, Landing Gear many other


systems / subsystems.
– Strength requirements are related to both
static and fatigue strengths and in all cases a
factor of safety is built in.

– The F.S. may not be great, as in civil


engineering, as high Factors of Safety carry a
weight penalty.

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Prinsip Design & Kriteria – Struktur Pesawat Udara

 Static Strength.
• Such as tensile, compressive, and shear forces.

• These must have a factor of safety sufficiently


high to ensure a long structure life under all
expected max. load conditions, plus the
ability to withstand certain abnormally high
loads on a once or twice-off basis.

1/25/2011 99
Prinsip Design & Kriteria – Struktur Pesawat Udara
 Fatigue Strength.
• This is the ability to withstand cyclic loading at
normal (or low) level.
• A factor of safety is involved with aircraft
structures to ensure that the fatigue limit is
never exceeded.
• In severe cases, fatigue failure - can occur and
it may not be obvious why the metal has failed
– as the loads are well within the normal
maximum limits.

1/25/2011 100
Prinsip Design & Kriteria – Struktur Pesawat Udara

 Fail Safe
• In structure design – “ fail safe ” is normally
associated with the prevention of crack
propagation.
• The best way to stop a crack from developing
is to design a discontinuity within its path.
• In metal structural components – fail safe can
be done by making the component of more
than one part.
Prinsip Design & Kriteria – Struktur Pesawat Udara
 Fail Safe – (cont’d-1).
– In composite materials the “discontinuity”
is provided by the fibers – which means that
a crack will not normally develop across the
fibers but will develop along them.

– Comment: Have you notice how clothes tear ?


– The tear (a crack if you like) will develop along the
weave (cutting weft or warp yarns separately – but
not both together),
– it will not develop at 45˚to the weave - cutting both
simultaneously. That’s why a tear will normally
produce an “L shaped” tear.

1/25/2011 102
Prinsip Design & Kriteria – Struktur Pesawat Udara
 Fail Safe Design.
– Is achieved through Material Selection, Proper
Stress Levels, and
– Multiple Load Path structural arrangements which
maintain High Strength in the presence of Crack or
Damage.

 Examples of Multiple Load Path are :


a. Use Tear / crack stoppers
b. Spanwise wing and stabilizer skin splice

1/25/2011 103
Stop Crack /Tear

1/25/2011 104
Fig.2 - Spar with Fail-safe Design

Butt
Crack
Plates
stopper

Failsafe spar: should one member of a complex structure fail, some


other member would assume the load of the failed member. 105
Prinsip Design & Kriteria – Struktur Pesawat Udara

 Fail Safe Construction.


– Fail safe may be used in System design.
– For example, if a computer controlling cabin
lights in the 747-400 fails - then it
automatically fails with the lights ON.

1/25/2011 106
Spar Shear-Web Crack Stopper for Fail-
safe feature

Spar-web dengan crack-stopper (penghenti retak) untuk


design Fail-Safe.
107
1/25/2011 108
Prinsip Design & Kriteria – Struktur Pesawat Udara

 Fail Hard.
– Mainly associated with Primary Structures
where failure or fracture would be catastrophic.

1/25/2011 109
Prinsip Design & Kriteria – Struktur Pesawat Udara

 Safe Life.
– This is a basic design certification
philosophy – mainly associated with
Primary Structure to limit the life of a
component (normally in Flying Hours, FH) to
a safe life.

1/25/2011 110
Prinsip Design & Kriteria – Struktur Pesawat Udara
 Safe Life – (cont’d -1).
• This safe life is normally independent of :
– Any Detected Defect.
– Fail-safe provision.
– Redundant Load Path provision.
• Total safe-life –
– is published by the airframe manufacturer
and
– When reached the component is replaced
irrespective of condition.
1/25/2011 111
Prinsip Design & Kriteria – Struktur Pesawat Udara

 Redundant Structure
• This term is usually associated with structure
that has many members, i.e. there are several
load paths.
• Should one member in the structure fail, then
the load that it took will be shared by the
other members.
• The structure has poor strength-to-weight
(strength/weight) ratio but has a good safety
margin.
1/25/2011 112
Prinsip Design & Kriteria – Struktur Pesawat Udara

 Damage Tolerant Structure


• All structure has some damage tolerance.
• Highly stressed primary structure may have
little damage tolerance and, in some cases
damage such as a small scratch or dent can be
serious (e.g. Aluminum alloys are very notch
sensitive).

1/25/2011 113
Prinsip Design & Kriteria – Struktur Pesawat Udara

 Damage Tolerant Structure – (cont’d)


• This damage (small scratch or dent can ) –
might be classified as Negligible (which will
need some attention anyway), but check the
SRM (Structure Repair Manual).
• Some structures will tolerate a considerable
amount of damage – notably secondary
structure – while still bearing normal in-flight
and landing loads.

1/25/2011 114
Prinsip Design & Kriteria – Struktur Pesawat Udara

 Critical Parts.
• A Critical Part – is any part which, if it should
fail, will have a catastrophic effect on the
aircraft.
• A Critical Part List – must be provided by the
manufacturer with special provision made to
ensure each part’s continued airworthiness –
special inspections, etc.

1/25/2011 115
DMG /March 2009 116
How an Airplane is Built
How an Airplane is Built
(Bagaimana Pesawat Terbang Dibangun)
1. Sales (Penjualan) :
• Kontrak – pesawat terbang (contract – airplane)
• Jumlah/banyaknya pesawat terbang (airplane qty)
• Jadwal penyerahan (delivery schedule)
• Kontrak – suku cadang (contract spare parts)
• Persyaratan atau keinginan Pembeli/pengguna
(customer’s Requirements)
How an Airplane is Built
(Bagaimana Pesawat Terbang Dibangun)
2. Engineering :
– Preliminary design
– Specifications
– Research & Tests
– Detail Design
– Production Design Drawings
CONCEPTUAL, DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT, CERTIFICATION, OPERATION

DMG /March 2009 120


TAHAPAN / FASE - PERANCANGAN
PESAWAT UDARA
 Conceptual Design, Requirements & Objectives
(DR&O)
 Preliminary Design - phase
 Specifications
 Research , Development & Tests (labs)
 Detail Design - phase
 Manufacturing /Production Design – phase
 Testing (Development & Certification) – phase
 Ground Test, ▪ Flight Test
• Certification – phase
• In Sevice Life (Operational) of Aircraft - Phase
DMG /March 2009 121
DESIGN CONCEPT, REQUIREMENTS
& OBJECTIVES – PHASE
– Market Study: possible impact of
technological development in order to gain
interest in the product;
– Define Basic Product Objective: within the
overall company strategy, and
– Produce a Design Brief or Requirements, and
Interpret the brief into a Design Concept.

DMG /March 2009 122


PRELIMINARY DESIGN – PHASE :
• Producing an Overall Concept for the
aircraft and Establishing its Basic
Characteristics (e.g. Design Specifications,
Design Criteria);
• Determine overall Structural Arrangement,
• Initial Sizing / pre-dimensioning of the
Aircraft, its Main Components, Basic
Material used, etc.
• Preliminary Loads Calculation
DMG /March 2009 123
DETAIL DESIGN – PHASE :
• Basic concept of the aircraft will have
been fixed (freeze the design).
• Defining the information needed to
Produce / Manufacture the aircraft.
• Produces Detail Design Drawings & Specs
for Production of Aircraft and its
Components, and
• Drawings and specs for Aircraft Test
Articles : Ground and Flight Testing.
• Detail Analyses.
DMG /March 2009 124
Tahap Pengujian

(Structure Testing Phase)


TAHAPAN /FASE PENGUJIAN (TESTING)
PESAWAT UDARA
✈ Manufacturing / fabrication –
menerjemahkan rancangan (design)
menjadi produk/barang (hardware);
✈ Testing (Development & Certification ):
 Ground Test (Aircraft : Static, Fatigue ;
Components)
 Flight Test
✈ Certification – Type (TC)

DMG /March 2009 126


TAHAPAN PENGUJIAN AIRPLANE

(Testing Stages)

COMPONENT

ASSEMBLY

Coupon
Test
ELEMENT
(NEW SHAPES)
MATERIAL
(NEW)
DMG /March 2009 127
Development Testing of Transport Airplane
AIRCRAFT DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT, & CERTIFICATION

Design Specification

Design Criteria

Basic Loads

Laboratory
Flight Test Development
Airplane Design
Data Test Data

Certification Test
Program

Feed-back
Approved
Type Certificate
DMG /March 2009 129
TYPE CERTIFICATED AIRCRAFT
SAFE
AIRCRAFT CONTINUED
OPERATIONAL
SAFETY

AIRWORTHINESS
APPROVAL
PRODUCTION
APPROVAL
TYPE DESIGN

dmg/ may 2010 130


Klasifikasi/ Kategori Struktur
Pesawat Udara

 AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE
CLASSIFICATIONS :
 Primary Structure
 Secondary Structure
 Tertiary structure (Eropa)

1/25/2011 131
Klasifikasi Struktur Pesawat Udara
AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE CLASSIFICATION :

 Struktur Utama (Primary structure) :

• Struktur pemikul beban utama / kritis pada sebuah


pesawat udara.
• Bila struktur ini rusak berat, pesawat udara tidak
dapat terbang.
• Beban Stress sangat tinggi, jika rusak, bisa menyebab-
kan kecelakaan fatal (catastrophic failure) dan
kehilangan nyawa atau pesawat.
 Contoh: Wing, Fuselage, Tails, Wing Spar, Engine
Mounting, dsb.
1/25/2011 132
Klasifikasi Struktur Pesawat Udara
AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE CLASSIFICATION :

 Struktur Sekunder (Secondary structure):


Bagian struktur yang :
 Memikul beban stress tinggi, tapi bila rusak, masih
punya alternative load paths (lintasan gaya yg lain).
 Gunanya terutama untuk memberi bentuk Aerodinamis.
 Termasuk struktur yang bukan pemikul beban utama.

Contoh: Fairings dari sambungan wing dengan fuselage,


fairing lainnya, Slat, Spoiler, . . .
1/25/2011 133
Klasifikasi Struktur Pesawat Udara
AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE CLASSIFICATION :

 Tertiary structure (Struktur Ketiga):

• Lightly stressed parts,


• Such as fairings, wheel mud guards and minor
component brackets.
• Failure of which would not be serious.

1/25/2011 134
STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION *
* From Damage Tolerance concept

1/25/2011 Primary & Secondary Structures 135


Faktor-faktor yang
mempengaruhi Design Struktur
Rancangan Struktur Pesawat Udara
(Aircraft Structure Design)
 Faktor-faktor yang Mempengaruhi Design
Wing, a.l :
• Ukuran (Size) pesawat
• Berat (Weight) pesawat
• Penggunaannya (the Use of aircraft, mision)
• Kecepatan yang di-inginkan sewaktu terbang dan
mendarat (desired Speed in flight and at landing)
• Laju pendakian yang di-inginkan (Desired Rate of
Climb).

dmg/12/2009 137
Figure: Airfoil Designs.

138
Bentuk Sayap (Wing Planform):
(bentuk-bentuk tipikal wing L.E & T.E)

139
Wing–Fuselage ARRANGEMENTS
(Konfigurasi Pemasangan Wing ke Fuselage)

High Wing
(Diatas Fuselage)

Mid Wing
(Ditengah-tengah
Fuselage)

Low Wing
(Dibawah Fuselage)
141
Wing-Fuselage Structural Arrangements /
Configuration

Gambar 1-10 : Common Wing Forms 142


Wing-Fuselage Structural
Arrangements / Configuration
Rancangan Struktur Pesawat Udara
(Aircraft Structure Design)
 Faktor-faktor yang Mempengaruhi Design
Fuselage, a.l :
Berdasarkan fungsinya & misi , seperti :
• Tempat Pengendalian Pesawat (pilot, instrumen);
• Melindungi dan Memuat Penumpang, Barang, cargo,
peralatan;
• Memasang Wing, Tail, dan Landing Gear;
• Tempat pemasangan & support bagi Mesin (single
engine), Pada multi-engine aircraft (pesawat bermesin
ganda), engine bisa dipasang di fuselage, atau di wing,
atau di tail.
• Non-Aerodynamic Surface – bukan penghasil gaya
angkat.
Konfigurasi Fuselage
Penampang (cross-section) Fuselage

146
Penampang Mil Cargo Transport

147
Nose Loading Design - Cargo
AIRCRAFT GENERAL DESCRIPTION
REAR CARGO / RAMP DOORS

Ventral Door

Ramp Door

149
Rancangan Struktur Pesawat Udara
(Aircraft Structure Design)
 Faktor-faktor yang Mempengaruhi
Design Fuselage-bertekanan
(pressurized fuselage), a.l :
• Kenyamanan dan keselamatan penumpang,
untuk pesawat yg terbang tinggi {ketinggian
pswt > 10.000 ft (≈ 3,3 km)} : kabin penumpang
& awak pesawat (flight crew, attendats) harus
diberi tekanan (pressurized a/c).
Pressurized & Un-pressurized Areas

dmg/Dec/2009 151
Landing Gear

(Roda Pendarat) 152


Rancangan Struktur Pesawat Udara
(Aircraft Structure Design)
Faktor-faktor yang Mempengaruhi Design
Landing Gear, Yang utamanya a.l :
a) Ukuran pesawat udara (size of aircraft);
b) Berat (bobot) pesawat udara (weight of aircraft);
c) Peran pesawat udara (Role of aircraft);
d) Letak sayap /wing – High or Low wing.
e) Prestasi / unjuk kerja (Performance).
f) Konstruksi pesawat udara dan Masalah yang
berkaitan denga penyimpanannya (Construction of
aircraft and associated w/ L/G stowage problems).
Misi : Tipe /jenis Landing Gear :

Floats –type
Skis –type
Landing Gear
Landing Gear

Wheels –type Landing Gear 154


Roda Pendarat Tetap
{ Fixed (Non-retractable) L/G }

Roda Pendarat Dapat Dilipat


{ Retractable L/G}
155
Retractable
Landing
Gears
(Bisa dilipat)
Typical Wheel & Gear Arrangements

Terkait Bobot/
berat Pesawat
Udara

157
Typical Wheel & Gear Arrangements
Aircraft Structure Design
Aircraft Design
• Design has always carries with it –
– A degree of Prestige,
• Because its effectiveness can be seen in a
final product, and
• A successful design – can confer something
approaching glamour upon those
responsible.
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SHEET METAL REPAIR

 Basic Principles of Repair :


1. Maintaining Original Strength
2. Maintaining Original Contour
3. Keeping Weight to a Minimum

dmg/2011 161
Definisi & Pengertian
yang dipakai sesuai dengan
CASR

CASR = Civil Aviation Safety Regulations


PKPS = Peraturan Keselamatan
Penerbangan Sipil

162
Ref. CASR Part 1
 Factor of Safety – A design factor used to
provide for the possibility of loads greater than
those assumed, and for uncertainties in design
and fabrication (ref. CASR Part 23; 25; 27; 29 used
factor of safety 1.5).
• Factor of Safety or Safety Factor (S.F) – is the
ratio of the Ultimate Load to the Limit Load.
• F.S minimum is 1.5 :
This means that an airframe part/ structure must
be made 1 ½ times stronger than the maximum
load it is likely to meet in service.
163
Ref. CASR Part 1
Load factor – means the ratio of a specified
load to the total weight of the aircraft. The
specified load is expressed in terms of any of
the following: aerodynamic forces, inertia
forces, or ground or water reactions.
n = L/W

164
• Jeppesen Sanderson, A & P Maintenance / Technician :
“Airframe” Textbook, Nov.2003, Englewood, Colorado, USA.
• EASA module.
• Niu, Michael. C.Y : Airframe Design.
166