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RFID(Radio Frequency Identification) & APPLICATIONS

THE BIO-CHIPS
(Paper under the theme:”BIO INFORMATICS using RFID”)

AUTHORS:

R. B.V. Santosh Kumar,

3rd year ECE,

Kaushik college of engg,

Contact No: 8897984070,

Email id:bhuvan.kai@gmail.com

Ekathra regd id: EK111481

Ismail Basha,

3rd year ECE,

Kaushik college of engg,

Contact No: 9985034946,

Email id:arya990@gmail.com

Ekathra regd id: EK111573

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ABSTRACT: (everything from lizards to dogs),
electronic "branding" of horses,
“A single electronic card may monitoring lab animals, fisheries,
replace everything in your wallet including endangered wildlife, automobiles, garment
your cash, credit cards, ATM card, ID tracking, hazardous waste, and humans.
cards and insurance. In future it would be Implementation of Glucose detector
One card, or one chip, with your life in it.” in Biochips, Implementation of Oxygen
“Biochips”-The sensor in Biochips, Implementation of
most exciting future technology is an Blood pressure sensor in Biochips,
outcome of the fields of Computer science, Proposal of Solution for the typical theft
Electronics & Biology. It is a new type of problem faced by the Biochips. These four
bio-security device to accurately track contributions have been discussed in detail
information regarding what a person is with the proposed principles for
doing, trace a person/animal, store and implementation of the concepts.
update financial, medical, demographic A simple ID chip is already walking
data, basically everything about a person. around in thousands of individuals and
It’s no more required with biochips, the animals. Companies such as AVID
good old idea of remembering pesky PINs, (Norco, Calif.), Electronic ID, Inc.
Passwords, & Social security numbers. No (Cleburne, TX.), and Electronic
more matters of carrying medical records Identification Devices, Ltd. (Santa
to a hospital, No more cash/credit card Barbara, Calif.) sell both the chips and the
carrying to the market place; everything detectors. The chips are of the size of an
goes embedded in the chip….Everything uncooked grain of rice, small enough to be
goes digitalized. No more hacker tricks on injected under the skin using a hypodermic
the internet….! Biochip has a variety syringe needle. They respond to a signal
technique for secured E-money from the detector, held just a few feet
transactions on the net. The power of away, by transmitting out an identification
biochips exists in capability of locating number. This number is then compared to
lost children, downed soldiers. database listings of registered pets. The
The biochip technology was Biochip tagging for humans has already
originally developed in 1983 for started…Rush out for your tag!!!!
monitoring fisheries, it’s use now includes,
over 300 zoos, over 80 government
agencies in at least 20 countries, pets

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INTRODUCTION THE BIOCHIP TECHNOLOGY

Biochips are any microprocessor chips that The current, in use, biochip implant
can be used in Biology. The biochip system is actually a fairly simple device.
technology was originally developed in Today’s, biochip implant is basically a
1983 for monitoring fisheries, it’s use now small (micro) computer chip, inserted
includes, over 300 zoos, over 80 under the skin, for identification purposes.
government agencies in at least 20 The biochip system is radio frequency
countries, pets (everything from lizards to identification (RFID) system, using low-
dogs), electronic "branding" of horses, frequency radio signals to communicate
monitoring lab animals, fisheries, between the biochip and reader.
endangered wildlife, automobiles, garment
tracking, hazardous waste, and humans.
Biochips are "silently" inching into
humans. For instance, at least 6 million
medical devices, such as artificial body
parts (prosthetic devices), breast implants,
chin implants, etc., are implanted in people
each year. And most of these medical
devices are carrying a "surprise" guest — a
biochip. In 1993, the Food and Drug
Administration passed the Safe Medical
PERSPECTIVE OF THE ACTUAL SIZE
Devices Registration Act of 1993,
requiring all artificial body implants to THE BIOCHIP IMPLANT SYSTEM
have "implanted" identification — the CONSISTS OF TWO COMPONENTS:
biochip. So, the yearly, 6 million
THE TRANSPONDER:
recipients of prosthetic devices and breast
implants are "biochipped". To date, over 7 The transponder is the actual biochip
million animals have been "chipped". The implant. It is a passive transponder,
major biochip companies are A.V.I.D. meaning it contains no battery or energy of
(American Veterinary Identification its own. In comparison, an active
Devices), Trovan Identification Systems, transponder would provide its own energy
and Destron-Fearing Corporation. source, normally a small battery. Because
the passive biochip contains no battery, or

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nothing to wear out, it has a very long life, tiny, primitive, radio antenna "receives and
up to 99 years, and no maintenance. Being sends" signals from the reader or scanner.
passive, it's inactive until the reader
3. Tuning Capacitor:
activates it by sending it a low-power
electrical charge. The reader "reads" or The capacitor stores the small electrical
"scans" the implanted biochip and receives charge (less than 1/1000 of a watt) sent by
back data (in this case an identification the reader or scanner, which activates the
number) from the biochip. The transponder. This "activation" allows the
communication between biochip and transponder to send back the ID number
reader is via low-frequency radio waves. encoded in the computer chip. Because
"radio waves" are utilized to communicate
The biochip transponder consists of four
between the transponder and reader, the
parts:
capacitor is "tuned" to the same frequency
1, Computer Microchip: as the reader.

The microchip stores a unique 4. Glass Capsule:


identification number from 10 to 15 digits
The glass capsule "houses" the microchip,
long. The storage capacity of the current
antenna coil and capacitor. It is a small
microchips is limited, capable of storing
capsule, the smallest measuring 11 mm in
only a single ID number. AVID (American
length and 2 mm in diameter, about the
Veterinary Identification Devices), claims
size of an uncooked grain of rice. The
their chips, using an nnn-nnn-nnn format,
capsule is made of biocompatible material
has the capability of over 70 trillion
such as soda lime glass. After assembly,
unique numbers. The unique ID number is
the capsule is hermetically (air-tight)
"etched" or encoded via a laser onto the
sealed, so no bodily fluids can touch the
surface of the microchip before assembly.
electronics inside. Because the glass is
Once the number is encoded it is
very smooth and susceptible to movement,
impossible to alter. The microchip also
a material such as a polypropylene
contains the electronic circuitry necessary
polymer sheath is attached to one end of
to transmit the ID number to the "reader".
the capsule. This sheath provides a
2. Antenna Coil: compatible surface which the bodily tissue
fibers bond or interconnect, resulting in a
This is normally a simple, coil of copper
permanent placement of the biochip.
wire around a ferrite or iron core. This

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BIOCHIP AND SYRINGE: LCD display. The reader can include a RS-
232 port to attach a computer.

WORKING OF A BIOCHIP:

The reader generates a low-power,

The biochip is inserted into the subject electromagnetic field, in this case via radio

with a hypodermic syringe. Injection is signals, which "activates" the implanted

safe and simple, comparable to common biochip. This "activation" enables the

vaccines. Anesthesia is not required nor biochip to send the ID code back to the

recommended. In dogs and cats, the reader via radio signals. The reader

biochip is usually injected behind the neck amplifies the received code, converts it to

between the shoulder blades. Trovan, Ltd., digital format, decodes and displays the ID

markets an implant, featuring a patented number on the reader's LCD display. The

"zip quill", which you simply press in, no reader must normally be between 2 and 12

syringe is needed. According to AVID inches near the biochip to communicate.

"Once implanted, the identity tag is The reader and biochip can communicate

virtually impossible to retrieve. . . The through most materials, except metal.

number can never be altered." THE APPLICATIONS:

THE READER: With a biochip tracing of a person/animal ,

The reader consists of an "exciter" coil anywhere in the world is possible:

which creates an electromagnetic field Once the reader is connected to the


that, via radio signals, provides the internet, satellite and a centralized
necessary energy (less than 1/1000 of a database is maintained about the
watt) to "excite" or "activate" the biochipped creatures, It is always possible
implanted biochip. The reader also carries to trace out the personality intended.
a receiving coil that receives the
transmitted code or ID number sent back A biochip can store and update financial,

from the "activated" implanted biochip. medical, demographic data, basically

This all takes place very fast, in everything about a person:

milliseconds. The reader also contains the An implanted biochip can be scanned to
software and components to decode the pay for groceries, obtain medical
received code and display the result in an procedures, and conduct financial

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transactions. Currently, the in use, passports & medical records to the market
implanted biochips only store one 10 to 15 place. Payment system, authentication
digits. If biochips are designed to procedures may all be done by the means
accommodate with more ROM & RAM Biochips.
there is definitely an opportunity.
Medicinal implementations of
A biochip leads to a secured E- Commerce Biochips.
systems:
A New Era Proposed by us
It’s a fact; the world is very quickly going
Biochip as Glucose Detector :
to a digital or E-economy, through the
Internet. It is expected that by 2008, 60% The Biochip can be integrated with a
of the Business transactions will be glucose detector. The chip will allow
performed through the Internet. The E- diabetics to easily monitor the level of the
money future, however, isn't necessarily sugar glucose in their blood. Diabetics
secure. The Internet wasn't built to be Fort currently use a skin prick and a hand-held
Knox. In the wrong hands, this powerful blood test, and then medicate themselves
tool can turn dangerous. Hackers have with insulin depending on the result. The
already broken into bank files that were system is simple and works well, but the
100% secure. A biochip is the possible need to draw blood means that most
solution to the "identification and security" diabetics don't test themselves as often as
dilemma faced by the digital economy. they should. Although they may get away
This type of new bio-security device is with this in the short term, in later life
capable of accurately tracking information those who monitored infrequently suffer
regarding what users are doing, and who from blindness, loss of circulation, and
are to accurately track information other complications. The solution is more
regarding what users are doing, and who frequent testing, using a less invasive
is actually doing it. method. The biochip will sit underneath
the skin, sense the glucose level, and send
Biochips really are potent in replacing
the result back out by radio-frequency
passports, cash, medical records:
communication.
The really powered biochip systems can
Proposed principle of Glucose detection:
replace cash, passports, medical & other
records! It’s no more required to carry A light-emitting diode (LED) in the
wallet full cash, credit/ATM cards, biochip starts off the detection process.

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The light that it produces hits a fluorescent Hg. A Pressure ratio lower than this is said
chemical: one that absorbs incoming light to be “Low BP “ condition & A Pressure
and re-emits it at a longer wavelength. The ratio more than this is “High BP”
longer wavelength of light is then detected, condition. Serious Effects will be reflected
and the result is sent to a control panel in humans during Low & High BP
outside the body. Glucose is detected conditions; it may sometimes cause the
because the sugar reduces the amount of death of a Person. Blood Pressure is
light that the fluorescent chemical re- checked with BP Apparatus in Hospitals
emits. The more glucose there is the less and this is done only when the patient is
light that is detected. abnormal. However, a continuous
monitoring of BP is required in the aged
Biochip as Oxygen sensor :
people & Patients.
The biochip can also be integrated with an
A huge variety of hardware circuitry
oxygen sensor .The oxygen sensor will be
(sensors) is available in electronics to
useful not only to monitor breathing in
detect the flow of fluid. It’s always
intensive care units, but also to check that
possible to embed this type of sensors into
packages of food, or containers of
a biochip. An integration of Pressure
semiconductors stored under nitrogen gas,
(Blood Flow) detecting circuits with the
remain airtight.
Biochip can make the chip to continuously
Proposed principal of Oxygen sensor in monitor the blood flow rate & when the
Biochip: pressure is in its low or high extremes it
can be immediately informed through the
The oxygen-sensing chip sends light
reader hence to take up remedial measures.
pulses out into the body. The light is
absorbed to varying extents, depending on Typical Problem of Biochips: A Solution
how much oxygen is being carried in the Proposed –
blood, and the chip detects the light that is
The Lock: Problem before the world
left. The rushes of blood pumped by the
heart are also detected, so the same chip is A chip implant would contain a person’s
a pulse monitor. financial world, medical history, health
care — it would contain his electronic
Biochip as an Blood Pressure sensor:
life". If cash no longer existed and if the
In normal situations, The Blood Pressure world’s economy was totally chip
of a healthy Human being is 120/80 mm of oriented; — there would be a huge "black-

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market" for chips! Since there is no cash as social security number, Passport
and no other bartering system, criminals number, bankcard number etc., which are
would cut off hands and heads, stealing normally permanent in nature. The
"rich-folks" chips. induction of RAM component in addition
to ROM & storing the Bankcard, Financial
"It is very dangerous because once
details which causes the problem is a mere
kidnappers get to know about these chips,
solution.
they will skin people to find them,"
As RAM needs to be continuously charged
(New York Times, June 20, 1999)
inorder to retain the data, Current can be
The typical solutions won’t work well are supplied to the chip either from the
already proposed by different people: electrical energy produced in the cells or
by converting the heat energy in our body
The Biochip must retain data only if it is
to electrical energy.
placed in a fluid medium like blood & not
in any other medium. Once if the chip is taken out from the
human body RAM immediately loses the
This technique is unsuitable for
Power supply from the human body; thus
identification of dead bodies (murdered by
information in the RAM is lost and
the kidnappers) as it loses the data about
therefore is useless for the kidnappers.
the social security number.
However this technique will not affect the
The data in the Biochip must be erased if it
data in ROM i.e. Social security number
is exposed to sunlight/air.
that can be used to detect the address of
This technique is unsuitable as the dead bodies that were unidentified.
transplantation of biochip from genuine to
CONCLUSION
the fraud in darkness (by means of infrared
light) or in the vacuum (by means of The Cyber Future

oxygen cylinders). And many Infotech will be implanted in our bodies.


such…….!!!!!!!!
A chip implanted somewhere in human
Our key: The solution Proposed by us bodies might serve as a combination of
credit card, passport, driver's license,
A generic & existing model of Biochips
personal diary. No longer would it be
consists of only ROM component in it and
needed to worry about losing the credit
is capable of accommodating the data such
cards while traveling. A chip inserted into

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human bodies might also give us extra
mental power.

The really fascinating idea is under fast


track research "but we're close.” The day
in which we have chips embedded in our
skins is not too far from now. "This is
science fiction stuff." ,”This is a true
example to prove science really starts with
fiction”.

REFERENCES -

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU & INFORMATION


TECHNOLOGY MAGAZINES.
IEEE MICROWAVES MAGAZINE.