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TOEFL VOCABULARY

Abandon :To leave alone or to give up Acuity sharpness of perception


Abate :to decrease or diminish Adapt to change
Abet :to help or aid Admonish to advice or to warn against
Abhor :to hate something Adroitly with easy skill and ability
Abject: hopeless or miserable Advantage benefit
Absorbent: having the quality of holding Advocate to propose or to support
water Afluent rich or wealthy
Abundance: an amount greater than Aggravate to make worse
needed Agile able to move quickly and easily
Accessory: an extra or added part Agitate to cause to trouble and upset
Accommodation: something supplied for Ailment phsical or mental problem
convenience Akin like or similar to
Accomplice: someone who helps another Alleviate to fix or remedy a problem or
to break the law condition
Accomplish :to achieve Allure the ability to strongly attrack
Accost :to bother or threaten Ambiguous unclear
Accru :to build up over time Amicable friendly
Accumulate Şto buılt up to collect Ample more than enough
Acrıd havıng an unpleasent ırrıtatıng
qualıty
MUSIC
A score of music
A tune harmonize, balance.. Chime. Succession of musical sounds forming an air or melody, with or
without the harmony accompanying it.. Musical setting of a hymn, poem, psalm, etc., usually in four-
part harmony.3.the state of being in the proper pitch: to be in tune. tune in, to adjust a radio or
television set so as to receive (signals, a particular station, etc.).tune out, a. to adjust a radio or
television set so as to stop or avoid receiving (a station or channel).b. Slang. to stop paying
attention to a person, situation, etc. tune up, a. to cause a group of musical instruments to be
brought to the same pitch .b. to begin to sing .c. to bring into proper operating order, as a motor:
Before starting on our trip we should have the car tuned up.
Accompany to play or sing an accompaniment to or for. to provide the musical accompaniment.
Syn. 1. ACCOMPANY, ATTEND, CONVOY, ESCORT mean to go along with someone (or something). To
ACCOMPANY is to go along as an associate on equal terms: to accompany a friend on a shopping
trip.ATTEND implies going along with, usually to render service or perform duties: to attend one's
employer on a business trip.To CONVOY is to accompany (esp. ships) with an armed guard for
protection: to convoy a fleet of merchant vessels.To ESCORT is to accompany in order to protect,
guard, honor, or show courtesy: to escort a visiting dignitary.
Alto pl. -tos, adj. 1. the lowest female voice; contralto. 2.the highest male voice; countertenor. 3.a
singer with such a voice.4.a musical part for such a voice. 5.the second highest of the four parts of a
mixed vocal chorus, or the voices or persons singing this part. 6.the second highest instrument in a
family of musical instruments, as the viola in the violin family or the althorn in the cornet family.(of a
musical instrument) second highest in a family of musical instruments: alto saxophone. alto-, var. of
alti-: altostratus.
Audition (ô dishÆÃn), n. au·diÆtion·er, n. 1.a trial hearing given to a singer, actor, or other
performer to test suitability for employment, professional training or competition, etc. 2.a reading or
other simplified rendering of a theatrical work, performed before a potential backer, producer,
etc.3.the act, sense, or power of hearing.4.something that is heard.5.to try or compete in an
audition: to audition aspiring actors; to audition for the leading role.
Ballads
Bass adj. 1.low in pitch; of the lowest pitch or range: a bass voice; a bass instrument. 2.of or
pertaining to the lowest part in harmonic music.3.the bass part. 4.a bass voice, singer, or
instrument. 5.See double bass. bassÆly, adv.bassÆness, n. bassÆy, adj. bass2 (bas), n., pl. (esp.
collectively) bass, (esp. referring to two or more kinds or species) bass·es. 1.any of numerous
edible, spiny-finned, freshwater or marine fishes of the families Serranidae and Centrarchidae.2.
(originally) the European perch, Perca fluviatilis.bass3 (bas), n. 1.the basswood or linden.2.Bot.
bast. Bass (bas), n.
Blues (blÁz), n. 1.the blues, (used with a pl. v.) depressed spirits; despondency; melancholy: This
rainy spell is giving me the blues.2.(used with a sing. v.) Jazz. a. a song, originating with American
blacks, that is marked by the frequent occurrence of blue notes, and that takes the basic form,
customarily improvised upon in performance, of a 12-bar chorus consisting of a 3-line stanza with
the second line repeating the
Cantata n. 1.a choral composition, either sacred and resembling a short oratorio or secular, as a
lyric drama set to music but not to be acted.2.a metrical narrative set to recitative or alternate
recitative and air, usually for a single voice accompanied by one or more instruments.
Choir n.
Chorus n., pl. -rus·es, v., -rused, -rus·ing.
Contralto pl. -tos,1.the lowest female voice or voice part, intermediate between soprano and
tenor.2.the alto, or highest male voice or voice part.3.a singer with a contralto voice.Country
western
Debut a first public appearance on a stage, on television, etc.2.the first appearance of something,
as a new product.3.(of a young woman) a formal introduction and entrance into society, as at an
annual ball.4.the beginning of a profession, career,
Dedicated adj. dedÆi·catÅed·ly, adv.1.wholly committed to something, as to an ideal, political
cause, or personal goal: a dedicated artist.2.set apart or reserved for a specific use or purpose: We
don't need a computer but a dedicated word processor.3.(of machine parts, electrical components,
hardware, etc.) made or designed to interconnect exclusively with one model or a limited range of
models in a manufacturer's line: The new tractors use only high-priced dedicated accessories.
Drums
Duet du·etÆtist, n.
Ensemblepl. -sem·bles 1.all the parts of a thing taken together, so that each part is considered
only in relation to the whole.2.the entire costume of an individual, esp. when all the parts are in
harmony: She was wearing a beautiful ensemble by one of the French designers.3.a set of
furniture.4.Music. a. the united performance of an entire group of singers, musicians, etc.b. the
group so performing: a string ensemble.5.a group of supporting entertainers, as actors, dancers, and
singers, in a theatrical production.Syn. 1. totality, entirety, aggregate.
Flute fluteÆlikeÅ, adj.
Folk n. 1.Usually folks. (Used with a pl. v.) People in general: Folks say there wasn't much rain last
summer.2.Often, folks. (used with a pl. v.) people of a specified class or group: country folk; poor
folks.3.(used with a pl. v.) people as the carriers of culture, esp. as representing the composite of
social mores, customs, forms of behavior, etc., in a society: The folk are the bearers of oral
tradition.4.folks, Informal. a. Members of one's family; one's relatives: All his folks come from
France.b. one's parents: Will your folks let you go?5.Archaic. a people or tribe.6.just folks,
Informal. (of persons) simple, unaffected, unsophisticated, or open-hearted people: He enjoyed
visiting his grandparents because they were just folks.
7.of or originating among the common people: folk beliefs; a folk hero.8.having unknown origins and
reflecting the traditional forms of a society: folk culture; folk art. Syn. 4. Kinfolk, kin, relations,
people; clan, tribe
French horn
Gifted having great special talent or ability: the debut of a gifted artist.2.having exceptionally high
intelligence: gifted children. giftÆed·ly, adv.giftÆed·ness, n. Syn. 1. Accomplished, talented.
Harmony a. any simultaneous combination of tones. b. the simultaneous combination of tones,
esp. when blended into chords pleasing to the ear; chordal structure, as distinguished from melody
and rhythm. c. the science of the structure, relations, and practical combination of chords.
4.an arrangement of the contents of the Gospels, either of all four or of the first three, designed to
show their parallelism, mutual relations, and differences. Syn. 1. Concord, unity, peace, amity,
friendship. 2. Consonance, conformity, orrespondence, consistency. See symmetry. 3. HARMONY,
MELODY in music suggests a combination of sounds from voices or musical instruments. HARMONY
is the blending of simultaneous sounds of different pitch or quality, making chords: harmony in part
singing; harmony between violins and horns. MELODY is the rhythmical combination of successive
sounds of various pitch, making up the tune or air: a tuneful melody to accompany cheerful words.
Harp .a musical instrument consisting of a triangular frame formed by a soundbox, a pillar, and a
curved neck, and having strings stretched between the soundbox and the neck that are plucked with
the fingers..Slang (disparaging and offensive). a person of Irish birth or descent..Also called harper.
any of several English coins issued for use in Ireland during the 16th and 17th centuries, bearing the
figure of a harp on the reverse harpÆlikeÅ, adj.
Heavy metal
Hymns anthem, psalm, paean. a song or ode in praise or honor of God, a deity, a nation, etc.
Lyrics of a song
Marching band
Melody
Modern
Oboe a woodwind instrument having a slender conical, tubular body and a double-reed
mouthpiece.2.(in an organ) a reed stop with a sound like that of an oboe.3.(a word formerly used in
communications to represent the letter O.) o·boe2 n. (sometimes cap).a navigation system utilizing
two radar ground stations that measure the distance to an aircraft and then radio the information to
the aircraft.
Opera house
Oratorio n., pl. -ri·os. an extended musical composition with a text more or less dramatic in
character and usually based upon a religious theme, for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra, and
performed without action, costume, or scenery.
Praised the act of expressing approval or admiration; commendation; laudation.2.the offering of
grateful homage in words or song, as an act of worship: a hymn of praise to God. praiseÆful, adj.
praiseÆful·ly, adv. praiseÆless, adj. praisÆer, n. Syn. 1. acclamation, plaudit, applause,
approbation, compliment. 2. encomium, eulogy, panegyric. 6. laud, applaud, eulogize. See approve.
7. glorify, exalt, honor.Ant. 1. condemnation. 6. depreciate.
Quartet any group of four persons or things.2.an organized group of four singers or players.3.a
musical composition for four voices or instruments.Also, esp. Brit., quar·tetteÆ.
Ragtime rythm in which the accompaniment is strict two-four time and the melody, with
improvised embellishments, is in steady syncopation.2.a style of American music having this
rhythm, popular from about 1890 to 1915.
Recital n. 1.a musical entertainment given usually by a single performer or by a performer and one
or more accompanists.2.a similar entertainment in a field other than music: a dance recital.3.a
program or concert by dance or music students to demonstrate their achievements or progress.4.an
act or instance of reciting.5.a formal or public delivery of something memorized. 6.a detailed
statement.7.an account, narrative, or description: He gave a recital of the things he'd been doing
since we'd last seen him.re·citÆal·ist, n. Syn. 7. See narrative.
Recital hall
Recognized -nized, -niz·ing. to identify as something or someone previously seen, known, etc2.to
identify from knowledge of appearance or characteristics:. They recognized him as a fraud.3.to
perceive as existing or true; realize: to be the first to recognize a fact.4to acknowledge as the person
entitled to speak at a particular time: The Speaker recognized the Congressman from
Maine..Biochem., Immunol. to bind with, cleave, or otherwise react to (another substance) as a result
of fitting its molecular shape or a portion of its shape.Also, esp. Brit., recÆog·niseÅ.rec·og·niz·a·ble
adj. Syn. 3. acknowledge, appreciate, understand, grant, concede.
Reggae a style of Jamaican popular music blending blues, calypso, and rock-'n'-roll, characterized
by a strong syncopated rhythm and lyrics of social protest.
Rehearse hearsed, -hears·ing. 1.to practice (a musical composition, a play, a speech, etc.) in
private prior to a public presentation.2.to drill or train (an actor, musician, etc.) by rehearsal, as for
some performance or part.3.to relate the facts or particulars of; recount.4.to rehearse a play, part,
etc.; participate in a rehearsal. re·hearsÆa·ble, adj. re·hearsÆer, n. Syn. 3. delineate, describe,
portray; narrate, recapitulate. See relate.
Rhythm
Soprano pl. -pran·os, 1.the uppermost part or voice.2.the highest singing voice in women and
boys.3.a part for such a voice.4.a singer with such a voice.5.of or pertaining to a soprano; having
the compass of a soprano.
Spirituals 1.of, pertaining to, or consisting of spirit; incorporeal. 2.of or pertaining to the spirit or
soul, as distinguished from the physical nature: a spiritual approach to life.3.closely akin in interests,
attitude, outlook, etc.: the professor's spiritual heir in linguistics.5.characterized by or suggesting
predominance of the spirit; ethereal or delicately refined: She is more of a spiritual type than her
rowdy brother.6.of or pertaining to the spirit as the seat of the moral or religious nature.7.of or
pertaining to sacred things or matters; religious; devotional; sacred.8.of or belonging to the church;
ecclesiastical: lords spiritual and temporal.9.of or relating to the mind or intellect.10.a spiritual or
religious song: authentic folk spirituals.11.spirituals, affairs of the church.12.a spiritual thing or
matter. spirÆit·u·al·ly, adv. spirÆit·u·al·ness, n.
Symphony
Talented
Tenor
Tone
Trio tri·os. 1.a musical composition for three voices or instruments.2.a company of three singers or
players.3.any group of three persons or things.4.a subordinate division of a minuet, scherzo, march,
etc., usually in a contrasted key and style
Trombone musical wind instrument consisting of a cylindrical metal tube expanding into a bell and
bent twice in a Ushape, usually equipped with a slide (slide trombone).trom·bon·ist
Viola
Violin
Advertising
Assembly line an arrangement of machines, tools, and workers in which a product is assembled by
having each perform a specific, successive operation on an incomplete unit as it passes by in a series
of stages organized in a direct line. Also called production line.
Assets a useful and desirable thing or quality: Organizational ability is an asset.2.a single item of
ownership having exchange value.3.assets, a. items of ownership convertible into cash; total
resources of a person or business, as cash, notes and accounts receivable, securities, inventories,
goodwill, fixtures, machinery, or real estate (opposed to liabilities).b. Accounting. the items detailed
on a balance sheet, esp. in relation to liabilities and capital.c. all property available for the payment of
debts, esp. of a bankrupt or insolvent firm or person.d. Law. property in the hands of an heir,
executor, or administrator, that is sufficient to pay the debts or legacies of a deceased person.
BUSINESS
Balance sheet Accounting. 1.a tabular statement of both sides of a set of accounts in which the debit
and credit balances add up as equal.2.a statement of the financial position of a business on a
specified date.
Benefits something that is advantageous or good; an advantage: He explained the benefits of public
ownership of the postal system.2.a payment or gift, as one made to help someone or given by a
benefit society, insurance company, or public agency: The company offers its employees a pension
plan, free health insurance, and other benefits.3.a theatrical performance or other public
entertainment to raise money for a charitable organization or cause. benÆe·fit·er, n. Syn. 1. favor,
service. advantage.
Bonds something that binds, fastens, confines, or holds together.2.a cord, rope, band, or ligament.
3.something that binds a person or persons to a certain circumstance or line of behavior: the bond of
matrimony. 4.something, as an agreement or friendship, that unites individuals or peoples into a
group; covenant: the bond between nations. 5.binding security; firm assurance: My word is my
bond.6.a sealed instrument under which a person, corporation, or government guarantees to pay a
stated sum of money on or before a specified day.7.any written obligation under seal. 8.Law. a written
promise of a surety.9.Finance. a certificate of ownership of a specified portion of a debt due to be paid
by a government or corporation to an individual holder and usually bearing a fixed rate of
interest.12.Insurance. a. a surety agreement. b. the money deposited, or the promissory
arrangement entered into, under any such agreement. 13.a substance that causes particles to
adhere; binder.14.adhesion between two substances or objects, as concrete and reinforcing strands.
15. Also called chemical bond. Chem. the attraction between atoms in a molecule or crystalline
structure. Cf. coordinate bond, covalent bond, electrovalent bond, hydrogen bond, metallic
bond.16.See bond paper. bondable, adj. bondÅa·bilÆi·ty, n. bonder, n. bondless, adj. Syn. 1.
bonds, chains, fetters. 3. BOND, LINK, TIE agree in referring to a force or influence that unites people.
BOND, however, usually emphasizes the strong and enduring quality of affection, whereas TIE may
refer more esp. to duty, obligation, or responsibility: bonds of memory; Blessed be the tie that binds;
family ties. A LINK is a definite connection, though a slighter one; it may indicate affection or merely
some traceable influence or desultory communication: a close link between friends.
Bonus pl. -nus·es. 1. reward, honorarium, gift. 2. BONUS, BOUNTY, PREMIUM refer to something
extra beyond a stipulated payment. A BONUS is a gift to reward performance, paid either by a private
employer or by a government: a bonus based on salary; a soldiers' bonus.A BOUNTY is a public aid or
reward offered to stimulate interest in a specific purpose or undertaking and to encourage
performance: a bounty for killing wolves.A PREMIUM is usually something additional given as an
inducement to buy, produce, or the like: a premium received with a magazine subscription.
Brand 1kind, grade, or make, as indicated by a stamp, trademark, or the like: the best brand of
coffee.
2.a mark made by burning or otherwise, to indicate kind, grade, make, ownership, etc.3.a mark
formerly put upon criminals with a hot iron.4.any mark of disgrace; stigma.5.See BRANDING IRON.6.a
kind or variety of something distinguished by some distinctive characteristic: The movie was filled with
slapstick—a brand of humor he did not find funny.7.a burning or partly burned piece of
wood.8.Archaic. a sword.9.to label or mark with or as if with a brand. brandÆer, n.brandÆless, adj.
Syn. 4. stain, spot, blot, taint.
Budget
Capital 1.the wealth, whether in money or property, owned or employed in business by an individual,
firm, corporation, an accumulated stock of such wealth.any form of wealth employed or capable of
being employed in the production of more wealth accounting.a. assets remaining after deduction of
liabilities; the net worth of a business.b. the ownership interest in a business.pertaining to financial
capital: capital stock.principal; highly important: a capital crime; a capital offender.fatal; extremely
serious: a capital error.capÆi·tal·ness, n. PRINCIPAL apply to a main or leading representative of a
kind. CAPITAL may mean larger or more prominent; it may also suggest preeminence or excellence:
capital letter, idea, virtue,etc. CHIEF means leading, highest in office or power: the chief clerk.MAJOR
may refer to greatness of import—Syn. 4. principal, investment, assets, stock. 11. prime, primary, first.
The adjectives CAPITAL, CHIEF, MAJOR, ance, number, or quantity: a major operation, the major part of
a population.PRINCIPAL refers to most distinguished, influential, or foremost: principal officer.Ant. 11.
trivial, minor. Usage. The noun CAPITAL1 refers to a city or town that is the seat of government; to a
capital letter as opposed to a lowercase letter; and to wealth or resources. The noun CAPITOL refers
primarily to the building in Washington, D.C., in which Congress sits or to similar buildings used by
state legislatures. cap·i·tal2 (kapÆi tl), n. Archit. the distinctively treated upper end of a column, pier,
or the like.
Capital gain profit from the sale of assets, as bonds or real estate.
Capitalism
Cash flow the sum of the after-tax profit of a business plus depreciation and other noncash charges:
used as an indication of internal funds available for stock dividends, purchase of buildings and
equipment, etc.
Collateral security pledged for the payment of a loan: He gave the bank some stocks and bonds as
collateral for the money he borrowed.2.Anat.a. a subordinate or accessory part.b. a side branch, as of
a blood vessel or nerve.c. See collateral circulation. 3.a relative descended from the same stock,
but in a different line. 4.accompanying; auxiliary: He received a scholarship and collateral aid..secured
by collateral: a collateral loan.7.aside from the main subject, course, etc.; secondary: These
accomplishments are merely collateral to his primary goal..col·lat·er·al·i·ty col·latÆer·al·ness, n.
col·latÆer·al·ly, adv.
Collective bargaining the process by which wages, hours, rules, and working conditions are
negotiated and agreed upon by a union with an employer for all the employees collectively
whom it represents.
Commission the act of committing or giving in charge.2.an authoritative order, charge, or
direction.
3.authority granted for a particular action or function.4.a document granting such authority..a group
of persons authoritatively charged with particular functions: a parks commission.9.the condition of
being placed under special authoritative responsibility or charge.10.a task or matter committed to
one's charge; official assignment: The architect received a commission to design an office building.
15.in commission,a. in service. b. in operating order: A great deal of work will be necessary to put
this car in commission again. c. Also, into commission. Navy. (of a ship) manned and in condition for
or ordered to active service.16.on commission, paid entirely or partially with commissions from sales
one has made or for work one has done: The salespeople who are on commission earn 6 percent of the
total amount they sell.17.out of commission, a. not in service.b. not in operating order: The stove is
out of commission.18.to give a commission to: to commission a graduate of a military academy for
the building's lobby. com·misÆsion·a·ble, adj. com·misÆsion·al, adj. com·misÆsive, adj.
com·misÆsive·ly, adv.
Compensation 1.the act or state of compensating.2.the state of being compensated.3.something
given or received as an equivalent for services, debt, loss, injury, suffering, lack, etc.; indemnity: The
insurance company paid him $2000 as compensation for the loss of his car.4.Biol. the improvement of
any defect by the excessive development or action of another structure or organ of the same
structure.5.Psychol. a mechanism by which an individual attempts to make up for some real or
imagined deficiency of personality or behavior by developing or stressing another aspect of the
personality or by substituting a different form of behavior. comÅpen·saÆtion·al, adj. 3. recompense,
payment, amends, reparation; requital, satisfaction, indemnification.
Corporation an association of individuals, created by law or under authority of law, having a
continuous existence independent of the existences of its members, and powers and liabilities distinct
from those of its members.2.(cap.) the group of principal officials of a borough or other municipal
division in England. 3.any group of persons united or regarded as united in one body.4.Informal. a
paunch; potbelly
Credit 1.commendation or honor given for some action, quality, etc.: Give credit where it is due.
2.a source of pride or honor: You are a credit to your school 3.the ascription or acknowledgment of
something as due or properly attributable to a person, institution, etc.: She got a screen credit for
photography.4.trustworthiness; credibility: a witness of credit.5.confidence in a purchaser's ability and
intention to pay, displayed by entrusting the buyer with goods or services without immediate
payment.6.reputation of solvency and probity, entitling a person to be trusted in buying or borrowing:
Your credit is good.11.Educ.a. official acceptance and recording of the work completed by a student in
a particular course of study.b. a credit hour.12.Bookkeeping a. an entry of payment or value received
on an account.b. the right-hand side of an account on which such entries are made (opposed to
debit)c. an entry, or the total shown, on the credit side.13.any deposit or sum of money against which
a person may draw.14.do someone credit, to be a source of honor or distinction for someone. Also,
do credit to someone. 15.on credit, by deferred payment: Everything they have was bought on
credit.16.to one's credit, deserving of praise or recognition; admirable: It is to his credit that he
freely admitted his guilt.17.to believe; put confidence in; trust; have faith in 18.to bring honor,
esteem, etc., to; reflect well upon.19.Bookkeeping. to enter upon the credit side of an account; give
credit for or to.20.Educ. to award educational credits to (often fol. by with): They credited me with
three hours in history.21.credit to or with, to ascribe to a (thing, person, etc.): In former times many
herbs were credited with healing powers. credÆit·less, adj. Syn. 4–7, 9. CREDIT, REPUTE,
REPUTATION, STANDING refer to one's status in the estimation of a community. CREDIT refers to
business and financial status and the amount of money for which a person will be trusted. REPUTE is
particularly what is reported about someone, the favor in which the person is held, etc.: a man of fine
repute among his acquaintances.REPUTATION is the moral and other character commonly ascribed to
someone: of unblemished reputation.STANDING is one's position in a community, or rank and
condition in life: a man of good standing and education.
Debt 1.something that is owed or that one is bound to pay to or perform for another: a debt of $50.
2.a liability or obligation to pay or render something: My debt to her for advice is not to be discharged
easily.
Theol. an offense requiring reparation; a sin; a trespass. debtÆless, adj.Syn. 1. obligation, duty, due.
Default 1.failure to act; inaction or neglect: They lost their best client by sheer default.
2.failure to meet financial obligations.3.Law. failure to perform an act or obligation legally required,
esp. to appear in court or to plead at a time assigned.4.Sports. failure to arrive in time for, participate
in, or complete a scheduled match.5.lack; want; absence.6.Computers. a value that a program or
operating system assumes, or a course of action that a program or operating system will take, when
the user or programmer specifies no overriding value or action7.to fail in fulfilling or satisfying an
engagement, claim, or obligation.8.to fail to meet financial obligations or to account properly for
money in one's care: When he defaulted in his payments, the bank foreclosed on the car.9.Law. to fail
to appear in court.10.Sports.a. to fail to participate in or complete a match b. to lose a match by
default.11.to fail to perform or pay: to default a debt.12to declare to be in default, esp. legally: The
judge defaulted the defendant.13Sports.a. to fail to compete in (a scheduled game, race, etc.).b. to
lose by default.14.Law. to lose by failure to appear in court.
Delegation 1.a group or body of delegates: Our club sent a delegation to the rally.
Demand 1.to ask for with proper authority; claim as a right: He demanded payment of the
debt.2.Law. a. to lay formal legal claim to.b. to summon, as to court 3.Econ. a. the desire to
purchase, coupled with the power to do so.b. the quantity of goods that buyers will take at a particular
price3.the state of being wanted or sought for purchase or use: an article in great demand.13.on
demand, upon presentation or request for payment: The fee is payable on demand.—de·mandÆa·ble,
adj. —de·mandÆer, n.
Syn. 3. exact. DEMAND, CLAIM, REQUIRE imply making an authoritative request. To DEMAND is to ask
in a bold, authoritative way: to demand an explanation.To CLAIM is to assert a right to something: He
claimed it as his due.To REQUIRE is to ask for something as being necessary; to compel: The Army
requires absolute obedience of its soldiers.
Demand curve
Deregulation 1.to remove government regulatory controls from (an industry, a commodity, etc.): to
deregulate the trucking industry; to deregulate oil prices2.to undergo deregulation: Some banks have
already started to deregulate
Discount 1.to deduct a certain amount from (a bill, charge, etc.): All bills that are paid promptly will
be discounted at two percent.2.to offer for sale or sell at a reduced price: The store discounted all
clothing for the sale.3.to advance or lend money with deduction of interest on (commercial paper not
immediately payable).4.to purchase or sell (a bill or note) before maturity at a reduction based on the
interest for the time it still has to run..to offer goods or services at a reduced price.t: a discount
drugstore. disÆcount·a·ble, adj.
Distribution1. an act or instance of distributing.2.the frequency of occurrence or the natural
geographic range or place where any item or category of items occurs: What is the distribution of
coniferous forests in the world?6.placement, location, arrangement, or disposition: The distribution of
our troops is a military secret.3.apportionment: The court decided the distribution of the property
among the heirs.Econa. the division of the aggregate income of any society among its members, or
among the factors of production.b. the system of dispersing goods throughout a
community.9.Statistics. a set of values or measurements of a set of elements, each measurement
being associated with an element.10.Math. a generalized function used esp. in solving differential
equations.
Dividends1.Math. a number that is to be divided by a divisor.2.Law. a sum out of an insolvent estate
paid to creditors.3.Finance. a. a pro-rata share in an amount to be distributed.b. a sum of money paid
to shareholders of a corporation out of earnings.4.Insurance. (in participating insurance) a distribution
to a policyholder of a portion of the premium not needed by the company to pay claims or to meet
expenses.5.a share of anything divided.6.anything received as a bonus, reward, or in addition to or
beyond what is expected: Swimming is fun, and gives you the dividend of better health.. 5. allotment,
portion.
Employee a person working for another person or a business firm for pay.
Employer1.a person or business that employs one or more people, esp. for wages or salary: a fair
employer.
2.a person or thing that makes use of or occupies someone or something: an inadequate employer of
one's time.
Entrepreneurn.1.a person who organizes and manages any enterprise, esp. a business, usually with
considerable initiative and risk.2.an employer of productive labor; contractor3.to deal with or initiate
as an entrepreneur4.to act as an entrepreneur enÅtre·pre·neurÆi·al, adj. enÅtre·pre·neurÆi·al·ly, adv
enÅtre·pre·neurÆi·al·ism, enÅtre·pre·neurÆism, n. enÅtre·pre·neurÆship, n.
Flexible exchange1.capable of being bent, usually without breaking; easily bent: a flexible ruler.
2.susceptible of modification or adaptation; adaptable: a flexible schedule.3.willing or disposed to
yield; pliable: a flexible personality.4.a flexible substance or material, as rubber or leather.
flexÅi·bilÆi·ty, flexÆi·ble·ness. flexibly, adv. Syn. 1. pliable, elastic, supple. FLEXIBLE, LIMBER, PLIANT
refer to that which bends easily. FLEXIBLE refers to that which is capable of being bent and adds
sometimes the idea of compressibility or expansibility: a flexible piece of rubber hose. LIMBER is esp.
applied to the body to refer to ease of movement; it resembles FLEXIBLE except that there is an idea
of even greater ease in bending: a limber dancer. PLIANT stresses an inherent quality or tendency to
bend that does not require force or pressure from the outside; it may mean merely adaptable or may
have a derogatory sense: a pliant character. 2. tractable, compliant. —Ant. 1. stiff. 2. rigid.
Franchise1.a privilege of a public nature conferred on an individual, group, or company by a
government: a franchise to operate a bus system.2. the right or license granted by a company to an
individual or group to market its products or services in a specific territory.3.a store, restaurant, or
other business operating under such a license.4.the territory over which such a license extends.5.the
right to vote: to guarantee the franchise of every citizen.6.a privilege arising from the grant of a
sovereign or government, or from prescription, which presupposes a grant.7.Sports Slang. a player of
great talent or popular appeal, considered vitally important to a team's success or future.8.a legal
immunity or exemption from a particular burden, exaction, or the like.9.Obs. freedom, esp. from
imprisonment, servitude, or moral restraint.10.to grant (an individual, company, etc.) a franchise: The
corporation has just franchised our local dealer.11.enfranchise.franÆchis·a·ble, adj.
franÅchis·a·bilÆi·ty, n. fran·chise·ment
Fringe benefitsn. 1.a decorative border of thread, cord, or the like, usually hanging loosely from a
raveled edge or separate strip.2.anything resembling or suggesting this: a fringe of grass around a
swimming pool.3.an outer edge; margin; periphery: on the fringe of the art world.4.something
regarded as peripheral, marginal, secondary, or extreme in relation to something else: the lunatic
fringe of a strong political party.5.Optics. one of the alternate light and dark bands produced by
diffraction or interference.6.See fringe benefit. 7.to furnish with or as if with a fringe.8.to serve as a
fringe for, or to be arranged around or along so as to suggest a fringe: armed guards fringing the
building. fringeÆless, adj. fringeÆlikeÅ, adj. fringÆy, adj. Syn. 2. edge, border, skirt, rim.
Gross national product (GNP)
Gross·es 1.without deductions; total, as the amount of sales, salary, profit, etc., before taking
deductions for expenses, taxes, or the like (opposed to net): gross earnings; gross sales.2.unqualified;
complete; rank: a gross scoundrel. 3.flagrant and extreme: gross injustice.4.indelicate, indecent,
obscene, or vulgar: gross remarks. 5.lacking in refinement, good manners, education, etc.; unrefined.
6.large, big, or bulky.7.extremely or excessively fat. 8.thick; dense; heavy: gross vegetation. 9.of or
concerning only the broadest or most general considerations, aspects, etc. 10.Slang. extremely
objectionable, offensive, or disgusting: He wore an outfit that was absolutely gross.11.a group of 12
dozen, or 144, things. Abbr.: gro. 12.total income from sales, salary, etc., before any deductions
(opposed to net)..grossÆly, adv. grossÆness, n. Syn. 3. shameful, outrageous, heinous, grievous. See
flagrant. 4. low, animal, sensual, broad. 6. massive, great. Ant. 4. decent. 6. delicate, small.
Income (net and gross) 1.the monetary payment received for goods or services, or from other
sources, as rents or investments.2.something that comes in as an addition or increase, esp. by
chance.3.Archaic. a coming in. inÆcome·less, adj. Syn. 1. interest, salary, wages, annuity, gain,
return, earnings. Ant. 1. outgo, expenditure.
Interest .Finance. a. a sum paid or charged for the use of money or for borrowing money.b. such a
sum expressed as a percentage of money borrowed to be paid over a given period, usually one
year.15.something added or thrown in above an exact equivalent: Jones paid him back with a left
hook and added a right uppercut for interest.16 in the interest(s) of, to the advantage or
advancement of; in behalf of: in the interests of good government.
International trade
Inventory to·ries, v., -to·ried, -to·ry·ing. 1.a complete listing of merchandise or stock on hand, work in
progress, raw materials, finished goods on hand, etc., made each year by a business concern.2.the
objects or items represented on such a list, as a merchant's stock of goods.3.the aggregate value of a
stock of goods.4.raw material from the time of its receipt at an industrial plant for manufacturing
purposes to the time it is sold.5.a detailed, often descriptive, list of articles, giving the code number,
quantity, and value of each; catalog.6.a formal list of movables, as of a merchant's stock of goods.7.a
formal list of the property of a person or estate.8.a tally of one's personality traits, aptitudes, skills,
etc., for use in counseling and guidance.9.a catalog of natural resources, esp. a count or estimate of
wildlife and game in a particular area.10.the act of making a catalog or detailed listing.
inÆven·toÅri·a·ble, adj. inÅven·toÆri·al, adj. inÅven·toÆri·al·ly, adv. Syn. 5. roster, record, register,
account.
Investment 1 the investing of money or capital in order to gain profitable returns, as interest,
income, or appreciation in value.2.a particular instance or mode of investing.3.a thing invested in, as
a business, a quantity of shares of stock, etc.4.a devoting, using, or giving of time, talent, emotional
energy, etc., as for a purpose or to achieve something: His investment in the project included more
time than he cared to remember.6.Biol. any covering, coating, outer layer, or integument, as of an
animal or vegetable.7 .investiture with an office, dignity, or right. 8 Also called investment
compound. Metall. a refractory material applied in a plastic state to a pattern to make a mold.
Labor productive activity, esp. for the sake of economic gain.2.the body of persons engaged in such
activity, esp. those working for wages.3.this body of persons considered as a class (distinguished from
management and capital).4.physical or mental work, esp. of a hard or fatiguing kind; toil.5.a job or
task done or to be done.
8.(cap.) Also called Labor Department. Informal. the Department of Labor.9 to develop or dwell on
in excessive detail: Don't labor the point.10to burden or tire: to labor the reader with unnecessary
detail.11Brit. Dial. to work or till (soil or the like).12 of or pertaining to workers, their associations, or
working conditions: labor reforms.Also, esp. Brit., —laÆbor·ing·ly, adv. laÆbor·less, adj. Syn. 2.
working people, working class. 4. exertion. See work. 6. parturition, delivery. 9. drudge. 14.
overdo.Ant. 1, 4. idleness; leisure. 1, 4, 9. rest.
Labor unions
Leases a contract renting land, buildings, etc., to another; a contract or instrument conveying
property to another for a specified period or for a period determinable at the will of either lessor or
lessee in consideration of rent or other compensation.2.the property leased.3.the period of time for
which a lease is made: a five-year lease.4.a new lease on life, a chance to improve one's situation
or to live longer or more happily: Plastic surgery gave him a new lease on life.5. to grant the
temporary possession or use of (lands, tenements, etc.) to another, usually for compensation at a
fixed rate; let: She plans to lease her apartment to a friend.6.to take or hold by lease: He leased the
farm from the sheriff.7.to grant a lease; let or rent: to lease at a lower rental.leasÆa·ble, adj.
leaseÆless, adj. leasÆer, n. Syn. 6. rent, charter, hire. Textiles. 1.a system for keeping the warp in
position and under control by alternately crossing the warp yarn over and under the lease rods.2.the
order of drawing in the warp ends.
Loan (short-term, long-term) the act of lending; a grant of the temporary use of something: the
loan of a book.
2.something lent or furnished on condition of being returned, esp. a sum of money lent at interest: a
$1000 loan at 10 percent interest.3.loanword.4.on loan, a. borrowed for temporary use: How many
books can I have on loan from the library at one time?b. temporarily provided or released by one's
regular employer, superior, or owner for use by another: Our best actor is on loan to another movie
studio for two films.5.to make a loan of; lend: Will you loan me your umbrella?6.to lend (money) at
interest.7.to make a loan or loans; lend.Usage. Sometimes mistakenly identified as an Americanism,
LOAN1 as a verb meaning "to lend' has been used in English for nearly 800 years: Nearby villages
loaned clothing and other supplies to the flood-ravaged town.The occasional objections to LOAN as a
verb referring to things other than money, are comparatively recent. LOAN is standard in all contexts
but is perhaps most common in financial ones: The government has loaned money to farmers to
purchase seed.
Manufacturing -tured, -tur·ing. 1.the making of goods or wares by manual labor or by machinery,
esp. on a large scale: the manufacture of television sets.2.the making or producing of anything;
generation: the manufacture of body cells.3.the thing or material manufactured; product: Plastic is an
important manufacture.4.to make or produce by hand or machinery, esp. on a large scale.5.to work up
(material) into form for use: to manufacture cotton.6.to invent fictitiously; fabricate; concoct: to
manufacture an account of the incident.7.to produce in a mechanical way without inspiration or
originality: to manufacture a daily quota of poetry.manÅu·facÆtur·a·ble, adj. manÅu·facÆtur·al, adj.
Syn. 4. build. MANUFACTURE, ASSEMBLE, FABRICATE apply to processes in industry. MANUFACTURE,
originally to make by hand, now means to make by machine or by industrial process: to manufacture
rubber tires .TO ASSEMBLE is to fit together the manufactured parts of something mechanical: to
assemble an automobile. TO FABRICATE is to construct or build by fitting standardized parts together:
to fabricate houses.
Market price he price at which a commodity, security, or service is selling in the open market.
market value.
Marketing 1. the act of buying or selling in a market.2.the total of activities involved in the
transfer of goods from the producer or seller to the consumer or buyer, including advertising, shipping,
storing, and selling.
Mass production the production or manufacture of goods in large quantities, esp. by
machinery.
Mechanization(n) 1.to make mechanical.2.to operate or perform by or as if by machinery.3.to
introduce machinery into (an industry, enterprise, etc.), esp. in order to replace manual labor.4.Mil. to
equip with tanks and other armored vehicles.Also, esp. Brit., mechÆa·niseÅ. mechÆa·nizÅer, n.
Media 1.a pl. of medium. 2.(usually used with a pl. v.) the means of communication, as radio and
television, newspapers, and magazines, that reach or influence people widely: The media are covering
the speech tonight.
3.pertaining to or concerned with such means: a job in media research.Usage. MEDIA, like data, is the
plural form of a word borrowed directly from Latin. The singular, MEDIUM, early developed the
meaning "an intervening agency, means, or instrument' and was first applied to newspapers two
centuries ago. In the 1920s MEDIA began to appear as a singular collective noun, sometimes with the
plural MEDIAS. This singular use is now common in the fields of mass communication and advertising,
but it is not frequently found outside them: The media is(or are) not antibusiness.me·di·a2 n., pl.
-di·ae 1.Gk. Gram. a voiced plosive, as b, d, g.2.Anat. the middle layer of an artery or lymphatic
vessel.3.Entomol. a longitudinal vein in the middle portion of the wing of an insect.
Merchandise 1.the manufactured goods bought and sold in any business.2.the stock of goods in a
store.3.goods, esp. manufactured goods; commodities.4.to carry on trade.5.to buy and sell; deal in;
trade.6.to plan for and promote the sales of. merÆchan·disÅa·ble, adj. merÆchan·disÅer, n.
Merger 1.a statutory combination of two or more corporations by the transfer of the properties to one
surviving corporation.2.any combination of two or more business enterprises into a single
enterprise.3.an act or instance of merging.
Monopoly pl. -lies. 1.exclusive control of a commodity or service in a particular market, or a control
that makes possible the manipulation of prices. Cf. duopoly, oligopoly. 2.an exclusive privilege to carry
on a business, traffic, or service, granted by a government.3.the exclusive possession or control of
something.4.something that is the subject of such control, as a commodity or service.5.a company or
group that has such control.6.the market condition that exists when there is only one seller.7.(cap.) a
board game in which a player attempts to gain a monopoly of real estate by advancing around the
board and purchasing property, acquiring capital by collecting rent from other players whose pieces
land on that property. mo·nopÆo·loidÅ, adj.
Morale emotional or mental condition with respect to cheerfulness, confidence, zeal, etc., esp. in the
face of opposition, hardship, etc.: the morale of the troops.
Mortgage .a conveyance of an interest in property as security for the repayment of money
borrowed.2.the deed by which such a transaction is effected.3.the rights conferred by it, or the state
of the property conveyed. 4.Law. to convey or place (real property) under a mortgage.5.to place
under advance obligation; pledge: to mortgage one's life to the defense of democracy.
Partnership
Payable 1.to be paid; due: a loan payable in 30 days.2. capable of being or liable to be
paid.3.profitable.
4.Law. imposing an immediate obligation on the debtor.5.an amount, bill, etc., that is to be
paid.6.payables, the accounts payable of a business: payÅa·bilÆi·ty, payÆa·ble·ness, n. payÆa·bly,
adv.
Pricing
Prime rate Banking. the minimum interest rate charged by a commercial bank on short-term
business loans to large, best-rated customers or corporations. Also called prime, prime interest
rate, prime lending rate.
Principal first or highest in rank, importance, value, etc.; chief; foremost.2.of, of the nature of, or
constituting principal or capital: a principal investment.3.Geom. (of an axis of a conic) passing through
the foci.4.a chief or head.5. the head or director of a school or, esp. in England, a college.6. person
who takes a leading part in any activity, as a play; chief actor or doer.7.the first player of a division of
instruments in an orchestra (excepting the leader of the first violins).8.something of principal or chief
importance..Finance. a capital sum, as distinguished from interest or profit.13.Music a. an organ
stop.b. the subject of a fugue.14.(in a framed structure) a member, as a truss, upon which adjacent or
similar members depend for support or reinforcement.15.each of the combatants in a duel, as
distinguished from the seconds.prinÆci·pal·shipÅ, n.Syn. 1. prime, paramount, leading, main,
cardinal, preeminent. See capital 1. 4. leader. 5. headmaster, dean, master. Ant. 1. secondary,
ancillary.—Usage. The noun PRINCIPLE and the noun and adjective PRINCIPAL are often confused.
Although pronounced alike, the words are not interchangeable in writing. A PRINCIPLE is broadly "a
rule of action or conduct' (His overriding principle is greed) or "a fundamental doctrine or tenet' (Their
principles do not permit the use of alcoholic beverages). The adjective PRINCIPAL has the general
sense "chief, first, foremost': My principal objection is the cost of the project. The noun PRINCIPAL has
among other meanings "the head or director of a school' (The faculty supported the principal in her
negotiations with the board) and "a capital sum, as distinguished from interest or profit' (The monthly
payments go mostly for interest, leaving the principal practically untouched).
Production 1. the act of producing; creation; manufacture.2.something that is produced; a
product.3.Econ. the creation of value; the producing of articles having exchange value.4.the total
amount produced: Production is up this month.5.a work of literature or art.6.the act of presenting for
display; presentation; exhibition: the production of evidence in support of the case.7.Informal. an
unnecessarily or exaggeratedly complicated situation or activity: That child makes a production out of
going to bed.. pro·ducÆtion·al, adj. Syn. 6. introduction, appearance, display, materialization.
Profit Often, profits. a. pecuniary gain resulting from the employment of capital in any transaction.
Cf. gross profit, net profit. b. the ratio of such pecuniary gain to the amount of capital invested .c.
returns, proceeds, or revenue, as from property or investments.2.the monetary surplus left to a
producer or employer after deducting wages, rent, cost of raw materials, etc.: The company works on
a small margin of profit.3.advantage; benefit; gain.4.to gain an advantage or benefit: He profited
greatly from his schooling.5.to make a profit.6.to take advantage: to profit from the weaknesses of
others.7.to be of service or benefit.8.to make progress.9.to be of advantage or profit to: Nothing
profits one so much as a sound education.profÆit·er, n. profÆit·less, adj. profÆit·less·ly, adv.
profÆit·less·ness, n. Syn. 1. return. 2. net income. 3. good, welfare, advancement, improvement. See
advantage. 4, 9. advance, improve.Ant. 1. loss.
Profit sharing the sharing of profits, as between employer and employee, esp. in such a way that the
employee receives, in addition to wages, a share in the profits of the business.
Promotion 1. advancement in rank or position.2.furtherance or encouragement.3.the act of
promoting.4.the state of being promoted.5.something devised to publicize or advertise a product,
cause, institution, etc., as a brochure, free sample, poster, television or radio commercial, or personal
appearance.6.Also called queening. Chess. the replacement of a pawn that has reached the enemy's
first rank by a more powerful piece of the same color, usually a queen. pro·moÆtion·al, adj.
Publicity extensive mention in the news media or by word of mouth or other means of
communication.2.public notice so gained.3.the measures, process, or business of securing public
notice.4.information, articles, or advertisements issued to secure public notice or attention.5.the state
of being public, or open to general observation or knowledge.
Quota 1.the share or proportional part of a total that is required from, or is due or belongs to, a
particular district, state, person, group, etc.2.a proportional part or share of a fixed total amount or
quantity.3.the number or percentage of persons of a specified kind permitted to enroll in a college,
join a club, immigrate to a country, etc.1. allotment, apportionment, allocation.
Receivable 1. fit for acceptance; acceptable.2awaiting receipt of payment: accounts
receivable.3.capable of being received.4.receivables, business assets in the form of obligations due
from others.
Regulation 1. a law, rule, or other order prescribed by authority, esp. to regulate conduct.
2.the act of regulating or the state of being regulated.3.Mach. the percentage difference in some
quantity related to the operation of an apparatus or machine, as the voltage output of a transformer
or the speed of a motor, between the value of the quantity at no-load operation and its value at full-
load operation.4.Electronics. the difference between maximum and minimum voltage drops between
the anode and the cathode of a gas tube for a specified range of values of the anode current.5.Sports.
the normal, prescribed duration of a game according to the sport's regulations, exclusive of any extra
innings, overtime period, etc.: The Knicks tied the score in the final seconds of regulation, sending the
game into overtime.
Retail the sale of goods to ultimate consumers, usually in small quantities (opposed to
wholesale).2.pertaining to, connected with, or engaged in sale at retail: the retail price.3.in a retail
quantity or at a retail price.4.to sell at retail; sell directly to the consumer.5.to relate or repeat in
detail to others: to retail scandal.6.to be sold at retail: It retails at 50 cents. reÆtail·er, n.
Revenue 1.the income of a government from taxation, excise duties, customs, or other sources,
appropriated to the payment of the public expenses.2.the government department charged with the
collection of such income.3.revenues, the collective items or amounts of income of a person, a state,
etc.4.the return or yield from any kind of property, patent, service, etc.; income.5.an amount of
money regularly coming in.6.a particular item or source of income.rev·e·nu·al revÆe·nuedÅ, adj.

Risks
Salary a fixed compensation periodically paid to a person for regular work or services.
Shareholder a holder or owner of shares, esp. in a company or corporation. Also called
share·own·er
Sole 1.being the only one;) proprietorship the owner of a business establishment, a hotel, etc.2.a
person who has the exclusive right or title to something; an owner, as of real property. 3.a group of
proprietors; proprietary.
Speculation 1.the contemplation or consideration of some subject: to engage in speculation on
humanity's ultimate destiny.2.a single instance or process of consideration 3.a conclusion or opinion
reached by such contemplation: These speculations are impossible to verify.4.conjectural
consideration of a matter; conjecture or surmise: a report based on speculation rather than facts.
5.engagement in business transactions involving considerable risk but offering the chance of large
gains, esp. trading in commodities, stocks, etc., in the hope of profit from changes in the market
price.6.a speculative commercial venture or undertaking.Syn. 3. supposition, view, theory,
hypothesis.
Staff pl. staffs for 1–4, 8; staves (st€v) or staffs for 5–7, 9, 10; adj., v. 1.a group of persons, as
employees, charged with carrying out the work of an establishment or executing some
undertaking.2.a group of assistants to a manager, superintendent, or executive.3.Mil. a. a body of
officers without command authority, appointed to assist a commanding officer.b. the parts of any
army concerned with administrative matters, planning, etc., rather than with actual participation in
combat.4.those members of an organization serving only in an auxiliary or advisory capacity on a
given project. Cf. line 5.a stick, pole, or rod for aid in walking or climbing, for use as a weapon, etc.6.a
rod or wand serving as a symbol of office or authority, as a crozier, baton, truncheon, or mace.7.a pole
on which a flag is hung or displayed.8.something that supports or sustains.9.Also, stave. Music. a set
of horizontal lines, now five in number, with the corresponding four spaces between them, on which
music is written.to serve on the staff of.15.to send to a staff for study or further work (often fol. by
out): The White House will staff out the recommendations before making a decision.16 to hire
employees, as for a new office or project (sometimes fol. by up): Next month we'll begin staffing up for
the reelection campaign. staffÆless, adj.
Stock holder a holder or owner of stock in a corporation.2.Australian. an owner of livestock, as a
rancher.
stock 1.a supply of goods kept on hand for sale to customers by a merchant, distributor,
manufacturer, etc.; inventory.
2.a quantity of something accumulated, as for future use: a stock of provisions.4.Theat. a stock
company: a job in summer stock.5.Finance. a. the outstanding capital of a company or corporation.b.
the shares of a particular company or corporation.c. the certificate of ownership of such stock; stock
certificate.d. (formerly) a tally or stick used in transactions between a debtor and a creditor.stocks,
a. a former instrument of punishment consisting of a framework with holes for securing the ankles
and, sometimes, the wrists, used to expose an offender to public derision. Cf. pillory (def. 1).b. a
frame in which a horse or other animal is secured in a standing position for shoeing or for a veterinary
operation.c. the frame on which a boat rests while under construction.in stock, on hand for use or
sale: There are no more blue skirts in stock.lock, stock, and barrel. See lock 1 (def. 12).on the
stocks,a. under construction, as esp. a ship.b. in progress or preparation: a new novel on the
stocks.out of stock, lacking a supply of, esp. temporarily: We are out of stock in this item.take or
put stock in, to put confidence in or attach importance to; believe; trust: Considering his general
unreliability, I can't take stock in what he has told you.take stock, a. to make an inventory of stock
on hand.b. to make an appraisal of resources or prospects: She took stock of her decorating scheme
and decided it was time for a change. stockÆlikeÅ, adj. Syn. 1. store, provision, reserve. 11. lineage,
family. 14. haft. 49. usual.
Strike 1.to deal a blow or stroke to (a person or thing), as with the fist, a weapon, or a hammer;
hit.2.to inflict, deliver, or deal (a blow, stroke, attack, etc.).3.to drive so as to cause impact: to strike
the hands together.4.to thrust forcibly: Brutus struck a dagger into the dying Caesar. strike hands,
to conclude a bargain, as by shaking or joining hands; confirm an agreement: They reached a price
satisfactory to both of them, and struck hands on it.Syn. 1. STRIKE, HIT, KNOCK imply suddenly
bringing one body in contact with another. STRIKE suggests such an action in a general way: to strike
a child.HIT is less formal than STRIKE, and often implies giving a single blow, but usually a strong one
and definitely aimed: to hit a baseball.To KNOCK is to strike, often with a tendency to displace the
object struck; it also means to strike repeatedly: to knock someone down; to knock at a door.See also
beat. Ant. 1. miss.
Supply 1.to furnish or provide (a person, establishment, place, etc.) with what is lacking or requisite:
to supply someone clothing; to supply a community with electricity.2.to furnish or provide (something
wanting or requisite): to supply electricity to a community.3.to make up, compensate for, or satisfy (a
deficiency, loss, need, etc.): The TVA supplied the need for cheap electricity.4.to fill or occupy as a
substitute, as a vacancy, a pulpit, etc.: During the summer local clergymen will supply the pulpit.
Tariff 1.an official list or table showing the duties or customs imposed by a government on imports or
exports.
2.the schedule or system of duties so imposed.3.any duty or rate of duty in such a list or
schedule.4.any table of charges, as of a railroad, bus line, etc.5.bill; cost; charge.
Trade 1.business, barter, dealing. TRADE, COMMERCE, TRAFFIC refer to the exchanging of
commodities for other commodities or money. TRADE is the general word: a brisk trade between the
nations.COMMERCE applies to trade on a large scale and over an extensive area: international
commerce.TRAFFIC may refer to a particular kind of trade; but it usually suggests the travel,
transportation, and activity associated with or incident to trade: the opium traffic; heavy traffic on the
railroads. 3.swap. 4. vocation, métier, employment, living, craft. See occupation. 12.TRADE, BARGAIN,
BARTER, SELL refer to exchange or transfer of ownership for some kind of material consideration.
TRADE conveys the general idea, but often means to exchange articles of more or less even value: to
trade with Argentina.BARGAIN suggests a somewhat extended period of coming to terms: to bargain
about the price of a horse.BARTER applies esp. to exchanging goods, wares, labor, etc., with no
transfer of money for the transaction: to barter wheat for machinery.SELL implies transferring
ownership, usually for a sum of money: to sell a car.
Trade balance the difference between the values of exports and imports of a country, said to be
favorable or unfavorable as exports are greater or less than imports.
Trademark 1.any name, symbol, figure, letter, word, or mark adopted and used by a manufacturer
or merchant in order to designate his or her goods and to distinguish them from those manufactured
or sold by others. A trademark is a proprietary term that is usually registered with the Patent and
Trademark Office to assure its exclusive use by its owner.2.a distinctive mark or feature particularly
characteristic of or identified with a person or thing.3.to stamp or otherwise place a trademark
designation upon.4.to register the trademark of.
Venture .an undertaking involving uncertainty as to the outcome, esp. a risky or dangerous one: a
mountain-climbing venture.2.a business enterprise or speculation in which something is risked in the
hope of profit; a commercial or other speculation.3.the money, ship, cargo, merchandise, or the like,
on which risk is taken in a business enterprise or speculation.4.Obs. hazard or risk.5.at a venture,
according to chance; at random: A successor was chosen at a venture.6.to expose to hazard; risk: to
venture one's fortune; to venture one's life.7.to take the risk of; brave the dangers of: to venture a
voyage into space. venÆtur·er, n. Syn. 6. endanger, imperil, jeopardize.
Wage Often, wages. money that is paid or received for work or services, as by the hour, day, or
week. Cf. living wage, minimum wage. 2.Usually, wages. Econ. the share of the products of
industry received by labor for its work (as distinct from the share going to capital).3.Usually, wages.
(used with a sing. or pl. v.) recompense or return: The wages of sin is death.
Wholesale .the sale of goods in quantity, as to retailers or jobbers, for resale (opposed to retail).2.of,
pertaining to, or engaged in sale by wholesale.3.extensive; broadly indiscriminate: wholesale
discharge of workers.
4.in a wholesale way; on wholesale terms: I can get it for you wholesale.5.in large quantities; on a
large scale, esp. without discrimination: Wild horses were slaughtered wholesale. wholeÆsalÅer, n.
ARTS AND LITERATURE
Abstract (adj. ab straktÆ, abÆstrakt; n. abÆstrakt; v. ab straktÆ for 11–14, abÆstrakt for 15), adj.
1.thought of apart from concrete realities, specific objects, or actual instances: an abstract
idea.2.expressing a quality or characteristic apart from any specific object or instance, as justice,
poverty, and speed.3.theoretical; not applied or practical: abstract science.4.difficult to understand;
abstruse: abstract speculations.5.Fine Arts.a. of or pertaining to the formal aspect of art, emphasizing
lines, colors, generalized or geometrical forms, etc., esp. with reference to their relationship to one
another.b. (often cap.) pertaining to the nonrepresentational art styles of the 20th century.
Anthology pl. -gies. 1.a book or other collection of selected writings by various authors, usually in
the same literary form, of the same period, or on the same subject: an anthology of Elizabethan
drama; an anthology of modern philosophy.2.a collection of selected writings by one author.
an·tho·log·i·cal adj.anÅtho·logÆi·cal·ly, adv. —an·tholÆo·gist, n.
Author
Ballerina a principal female dancer in a ballet company. Cf. prima ballerina. 2. any female ballet
dancer.
Ballet
Choreography
Debut a first public appearance on a stage, on television, etc.2.the first appearance of something, as
a new product.
3.(of a young woman) a formal introduction and entrance into society, as at an annual ball.
Design
Drawing
Epic epÆi·cal.
1.noting or pertaining to a long poetic composition, usually centered upon a hero, in which a series of
great achievements or events is narrated in elevated style: Homer'sIliad is an epic poem.2.resembling
or suggesting such poetry: an epic novel on the founding of the country.3.heroic; majestic;
impressively great: the epic events of the war.4.of unusually great size or extent: a crime wave of epic
proportions.5.an epic poem.6.epic poetry.7.any composition resembling an epic.8.something worthy to
form the subject of an epic: The defense of the Alamo is an American epic.9.(cap.) Also called Old
Ionic. the Greek dialect represented in the Iliad and the Odyssey, apparently Aeolic modified by Ionic.
Fiction Syn. 3. fable, fantasy. FICTION, FABRICATION, FIGMENT suggest a story that is without basis
in reality. FICTION suggests a story invented and fashioned either to entertain or to deceive: clever
fiction; pure fiction.FABRICATION applies particularly to a false but carefully invented statement or
series of statements, in which some truth is sometimes interwoven, the whole usually intended to
deceive: fabrications to lure speculators.FIGMENT applies to a tale, idea, or statement often made up
to explain, justify, or glorify oneself: His rich uncle was a figment of his imagination.
Ant. 3. fact.
Folk dance
Genre n., pl. -res adj. 1.a class or category of artistic endeavor having a particular form, content,
technique, or the like: the genre of epic poetry; the genre of symphonic music.2.Fine Artsa. paintings
in which scenes of everyday life form the subject matter.b. a realistic style of painting using such
subject matter. 3.genus; kind; sort; style4.Fine Arts. of or pertaining to genre.5.of or pertaining to a
distinctive literary type.
Hue 1.a gradation or variety of a color; tint: pale hues.2.the property of light by which the color of an
object is classified as red, blue, green, or yellow in reference to the spectrum.3.color: all the hues of
the rainbow.
Impressionism 1.Fine Arts. a. (usually cap.) a style of painting developed in the last third of the 19th
century, characterized chiefly by short brush strokes of bright colors in immediate juxtaposition to
represent the effect of light on objects.b. a manner of painting in which the forms, colors, or tones of
an object are lightly and rapidly indicated.c. a manner of sculpture in which volumes are partially
modeled and surfaces roughened to reflect light unevenly.2.a theory and practice in literature that
emphasizes immediate aspects of objects or actions without attention to details.3 a late-19th-century
and early-20th-century style of musical composition in which lush harmonies, subtle rhythms, and
unusual tonal colors are used to evoke moods and impressions.
Movement
Nonfiction 1. the branch of literature comprising works of narrative prose dealing with or offering
opinions or conjectures upon facts and reality, including biography, history, and the essay (opposed to
fiction and distinguished from poetry and drama).2.works of this class: She had read all of his novels
but none of his nonfiction.3.(esp. in cataloging books, as in a library or bookstore) all writing or books
not fiction, poetry, or drama, including nonfictive narrative prose and reference works; the broadest
category of written works.
Plot a secret plan or scheme to accomplish some purpose, esp. a hostile, unlawful, or evil purpose: a
plot to overthrow the government.2.Also called storyline. the plan, scheme, or main story of a
literary or dramatic work, as a play, novel, or short story.3.a small piece or area of ground: a garden
plot; burial plot.4.a measured piece or parcel of land: a house on a two-acre plot.5.a plan, map,
diagram, or other graphic representation, as of land, a building, etc.6.a list, timetable, or scheme
dealing with any of the various arrangements for the production of a play, motion picture, etc.:
According to the property plot, there should be a lamp stage left.7.a chart showing the course of a
craft, as a ship or airplane.8.Artillery. a point or points located on a map or chart: target plot. plotÆful,
adj. plotÆless, adj. plotÆless·ness, n. Syn. 1. intrigue, cabal. See conspiracy. 9. brew, hatch, frame.
19. PLOT, CONSPIRE, SCHEME imply secret, cunning, and often unscrupulous planning to gain one's
own ends. To PLOT is to contrive a secret plan of a selfish and often treasonable kind: to plot against
someone's life.To CONSPIRE is to unite with others in an illicit or illegal machination: to conspire to
seize agovernment. To SCHEME is to plan ingeniously, subtly, and often craftily for one's own
advantage: to scheme how to gain power.
Poetry
Prose 1.the ordinary form of spoken or written language, without metrical structure, as distinguished
from poetry or verse.
2.matter-of-fact, commonplace, or dull expression, quality, discourse, etc.3.Liturgy. a hymn sung after
the gradual, originating from a practice of setting words to the jubilatio of the alleluia.4.of, in, or
pertaining to prose.5.commonplace; dull; prosaic.
6.to turn into or express in prose.7.to write or talk in a dull, matter-of-fact manner.
Protagonist 1.the leading character, hero, or heroine of a drama or other literary work.2.a
proponent for or advocate of a political cause, social program, etc.3.the leader or principal person in a
movement, cause, etc.4.the first actor in ancient Greek drama, who played not only the main role, but
also other roles when the main character was offstage. Cf. deuteragonist, tritagonist. 5.Physiol.
agonist.
Publish
Realistic
Saga 1.a medieval Icelandic or Norse prose narrative of achievements and events in the history of a
personage, family, etc.
2.any narrative or legend of heroic exploits.3.Also called saÆga novÅel. a form of the novel in which
the members or generations of a family or social group are chronicled in a long and leisurely
narrative.Syn. 2. epic, tale, history.
Science fiction a form of fiction that draws imaginatively on scientific knowledge and speculation in
its plot, setting, theme, etc.
Script 1.the letters or characters used in writing by hand; handwriting, esp. cursive writing.2.a
manuscript or document.
3.the text of a manuscript or document.
Sculpture
Set1. position, locate, situate, plant. put. 11. estimate, appraise, evaluate, price, rate.13. establish..
solidify, congeal, harden. . clique.. . attitude.. posture.. predetermined. 116. stubborn,
obstinate.Usage. The verbs SET and SIT1 are similar in form and meaning but different in grammatical
use. SET is chiefly transitive and takes an object: Set the dish on the shelf.Its past tense and past
participle are also SET: Yesterday he set three posts for the fence. The judge has set the date for the
trial.SET also has some standard intransitive uses, as "to pass below the horizon' (The sun sets late in
the northern latitudes during the summer) and "to become firm, solid, etc.' (This glue sets quickly
Shade — the comparative darkness caused by the interception or screening of rays of light from an
object, place, or area.2.a place or an area of comparative darkness, as one sheltered from the sun.
Syn. 1. obscurity, gloom, dusk. SHADE, SHADOW imply partial darkness or something less bright than
the surroundings. SHADE indicates the lesser brightness and heat of an area where the direct rays of
light do not fall: the shade of a tree.It differs from SHADOW in that it implies no particular form or
definite limit, whereas SHADOW often refers to the form or outline of the object that intercepts the
light: the shadow of a dog. 8. apparition, phantom, spirit. 13. bit. 14. trace, hint, suggestion. 15. veil,
screen. See curtain. 20. cloud, blur, obfuscate. 21. conceal, shelter.—Ant. 1. light, glare.—Regional
Variation. 3. See window shade.
Sketch 2. outline. 5. skit, act, routine. 6. draw, outline, design, rough out, delineate, represent. See
depict. a simply or hastily executed drawing or painting, esp. a preliminary one, giving the essential
features without the details.2.a rough design, plan, or draft, as of a book.3.a brief or hasty outline of
facts, occurrences, etc.: a sketch of his life.4.a short, usually descriptive, essay, history, or story.5.a
short play or slight dramatic performance, as one forming part of a vaudeville program.Metall. (in a
steel mill or the like) to mark (a piece) for cutting.to make a sketch or sketches. sketchÆer, n.
sketchÆing·ly, adv. sketchÆlikeÅ, adj.
Stage (staged, staging)1. a single step or degree in a process; a particular phase, period, position,
etc., in a process, development, or series.2.a raised platform or floor, as for speakers, performers, etc.
3.Theat. a. the platform on which the actors perform in a theater b. this platform with all the parts of
the theater and all the apparatus back of the proscenium. the scene of any action. by easy stages,
working, traveling, etc., slowly, with frequent pauses; unhurriedly, with many stops; gradually. go on
the stage, to become an actor, esp. in the theater: She knew from the age of 12 that she would go on
the stage. hold the stage, a. to continue to be produced, as a play or other theatrical production.b. to
be the center of attention.20.on stage, performing, esp. as an actor. stageÆa·ble, adj.
stageÅa·bilÆi·ty, stageÆa·ble·ness, n. stageÆa·bly, adv. ..
Step
Style
Technique
Tone
Troupe a company, band, or group of singers, actors, or other performers, esp. one that travels
about.2.to travel as a member of a theatrical company; barnstorm. 1.troop.
Watercolor
NATURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY
Absorb 1.to suck up or drink in (a liquid); soak up: A sponge absorbs water.2.to swallow up the
identity or individuality of; incorporate: The empire absorbed many small nations.3.to involve the full
attention of; to engross or engage wholly: so absorbed in a book that he did not hear the bell.4.to take
in without echo, recoil, or reflection: to absorb sound and light; to absorb shock ab·sorbÆa·ble, adj.
ab·sorbÅa·bilÆi·ty n. 2. assimilate, consume, devour, engulf; destroy.
Adapt 1.to make suitable to requirements or conditions; adjust or modify fittingly: They adapted
themselves to the change quickly.He adapted the novel for movies.2.to adjust oneself to different
conditions, environment, etc.:to adapt easily to all circumstances a·daptÆed·ness, n.1.fit,
accommodate, suit, reconcile, conform; modify, rework, convert. adjust.
Algae any of numerous groups of chlorophyll-containing, mainly aquatic eukaryotic organisms
ranging from microscopic single-celled forms to multicellular forms 100 ft. (30 m) or more long,
distinguished from plants by the absence of true roots, stems, and leaves and by a lack of
nonreproductive cells in the reproductive structures: classified into the six phyla Euglenophyta,
Crysophyta, Pyrrophyta, Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, and Rhodophyta. Cf. blue-green algae. alÆgal,
adj.
Amphibian .any cold-blooded vertebrate of the class Amphibia, comprising frogs and toads, newts
and salamanders, and caecilians, the larvae being typically aquatic, breathing by gills, and the adults
being typically semiterrestrial, breathing by lungs and through the moist, glandular skin.2.an
amphibious plant.3.an airplane designed for taking off from and landing on both land and water.4.Also
called amtrac. a flat-bottomed, armed, military vehicle, equipped with both tracks and a rudder, that
can travel either on land or in water, used chiefly for landing assault troops.5.belonging or pertaining
to the Amphibia.6.amphibious
Analogous having analogy; corresponding in some particular: A brain and a computer are
analogous.2.Biol. corresponding in function, but not evolved from corresponding organs, as the wings
of a bee and those of a hummingbird. a·nalÆo·gous·ly, adv. a·nalÆo·gous·ness, n. 1. similar, alike,
like, comparable, akin.Ant. 1. dissimilar.
Behavior
Biome a complex biotic community characterized by distinctive plant and animal species and
maintained under the climatic conditions of the region, esp. such a community that has developed to
climax.
Biosphere 1. the part of the earth's crust, waters, and atmosphere that supports life.2.the
ecosystem comprising the entire earth and the living organisms that inhabit it.
Calorie
Chlorophyll the green coloring matter of leaves and plants, essential to the production of
carbohydrates by photosynthesis, and occurring in a bluish-black form, and a dark-green form, Also,
chloÆro·phylÅloid, adj.
Classify 1.to arrange or organize by classes; order according to class.2.to assign a classification to
(information, a document, etc.). Cf. classification 3.to limit the availability of (information, a
document, etc.) to authorized persons.
clasÆsi·fiÅa·ble, adj. 1. class, rank, rate, categorize, group.
Cyclic 1.revolving or recurring in cycles; characterized by recurrence in cycles.
2.of, pertaining to, or constituting a cycle or cycles.
3.Chem. of or pertaining to a compound that contains a closed chain or ring of atoms (contrasted with
acyclic).
4.Bot. a. arranged in whorls, as the parts of a flower.b. (of a flower) having the parts so
arranged.5.Math. a. pertaining to an algebraic system in which all the elements of a group are powers
of one element.b. (of a set of elements) arranged as if on a circle, so that the first element follows the
last. cy·clic·i·ty (s ヘ klisÆi t チ), n.
Data 1.a pl. of datum.2.(used with a pl. v.) individual facts, statistics, or items of information: These
data represent the results of our analyses. Data are entered by terminal for immediate processing by
the computer.
3.used with a sing. v.) a body of facts; information: Additional data is available from the president of
the firm.
Usage. DATA is a plural of DATUM, which is originally a Latin noun meaning "something given.' Today,
DATA is used in English both as a plural noun meaning "facts or pieces of information' (These data are
described more fully elsewhere) and as a singular mass noun meaning "information': Not much data is
available on flood control in Brazil.It is almost always treated as a plural in scientific and academic
writing. In other types of writing it is either singular or plural. The singular DATUM meaning "a piece of
information' is now rare in all types of writing. In surveying and civil engineering, where DATUM has
specialized senses, the plural form is DATUMS.
Dominant 1. ruling, governing, or controlling; having or exerting authority or influence: dominant
in the chain of command.2.occupying or being in a commanding or elevated position.3.predominant;
main; major; chief: Corn is the dominant crop of Iowa.4.Genetics. of or pertaining to a
dominant.5.Music. pertaining to or based on the dominant: the dominant chord.6.Genetics. a. the one
of a pair of alternative alleles that masks the effect of the other when both are present in the same
cell or organism.b. the trait or character determined by such an allele. Cf. recessive (defs. 4, 5).
7.Music. the fifth tone of a diatonic scale.8.Ecol. any of one or more types of plants, or sometimes
animals, that by virtue of abundance, size, or habits exert so important an influence on the conditions
of an area as to determine, to a great extent, what other organisms can live there.domÆi·nant·ly, adv.
1. prevailing, principal. DOMINANT, PREDOMINANT, PARAMOUNT, PREEMINENT describe something
outstanding. DOMINANT describes something that is most influential or important: the dominant
characteristics of monkeys.PREDOMINANT describes something that is dominant over all others, or is
more widely prevalent: Curiosity is the predominant characteristic of monkeys.PARAMOUNT applies to
something that is first in rank or order: Safety is of paramount importance.PREEMINENT applies to a
prominence based on recognition of excellence: His work was of preeminent quality.
Dormant 1. lying asleep or as if asleep; inactive, as in sleep; torpid: The lecturer's sudden shout
woke the dormant audience.2.in a state of rest or inactivity; inoperative; in abeyance: The project is
dormant for the time being.
3.Biol. in a state of minimal metabolic activity with cessation of growth, either as a reaction to adverse
conditions or as part of an organism's normal annual rhythm.4.undisclosed; unasserted: dormant
musical talent.5.(of a volcano) not erupting.6.Bot. temporarily inactive: dormant buds; dormant
seeds.7.(of a pesticide) applied to a plant during a period of dormancy: a dormant spray.8.Heraldry.
(of an animal) represented as lying with its head on its forepaws, as if asleep. Syn. 1, 2. quiescent.
See inactive. 4. latent.Ant. 1. awake, active.
Evolution 1. any process of formation or growth; development: the evolution of a language; the
evolution of the airplane.2.a product of such development; something evolved: The exploration of
space is the evolution of decades of research.3.Biol. change in the gene pool of a population from
generation to generation by such processes as mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift.4.a
process of gradual, peaceful, progressive change or development, as in social or economic structure or
institutions.5.a motion incomplete in itself, but combining with coordinated motions to produce a
single action, as in a machine.6.a pattern formed by or as if by a series of movements: the evolutions
of a figure skater.7.an evolving or giving off of gas, heat, etc.8.Math. the extraction of a root from a
quantity. Cf. involution (def. 8).9.a movement or one of a series of movements of troops, ships, etc.,
as for disposition in order of battle or in line on parade.10.any similar movement, esp. in close order
drill.evÅo·luÆtion·al, adj. evÅo·luÆtion·al·ly, adv. Syn. 1. unfolding, change, progression,
metamorphosis.Ant. 1. stasis, inactivity, changelessness.
Extinct 1.no longer in existence; that has ended or died out: an extinct species of fish.2.no longer in
use; obsolete: an extinct custom.3.extinguished; quenched; not burning.4.having ceased eruption; no
longer active: an extinct volcano.
Syn. 1. defunct, gone, vanished. See dead. 2. archaic. 3. out.
Fauna an ancient Roman goddess of chastity and fertility.Also called Fauna.
Flora 1.the plants of a particular region or period, listed by species and considered as a whole.2.a
work systematically describing such plants.3.plants, as distinguished from fauna.4.the aggregate of
bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms normally occurring on or in the bodies of humans and other
animals: intestinal flora.
Fossil 1.any remains, impression, or trace of a living thing of a former geologic age, as a skeleton,
footprint, etc.
2.a markedly outdated or old-fashioned person or thing.3.a linguistic form that is archaic except in
certain restricted contexts, as nonce in for the nonce, or that follows a rule or pattern that is no longer
productive, as the sentence So be it.4.of the nature of a fossil: fossil insects.5.belonging to a past
epoch or discarded system; antiquated: a fossil approach to economics. fosÆsil·likeÅ,
Gene the basic physical unit of heredity; a linear sequence of nucleotides along a segment of DNA
that provides the coded instructions for synthesis of RNA, which, when translated into protein, leads to
the expression of hereditary character.
Habitat 1.the natural environment of an organism; place that is natural for the life and growth of an
organism: a tropical habitat.2.the place where a person or thing is usually found.Paris is a major
habitat of artists.3. a special environment for living in over an extended period, as an underwater
research vessel.4.habitation
Homologous 1.having the same or a similar relation; corresponding, as in relative position or
structure.
2.corresponding in structure and in origin, but not necessarily in function: The wing of a bird and the
foreleg of a horse are homologous.3.having the same alleles or genes in the same order of
arrangement: homologous chromosomes.
Hybrid the offspring of two animals or plants of different breeds, varieties, species, or genera, esp. as
produced through human manipulation for specific genetic characteristics.2.a person or group of
persons produced by the interaction or crossbreeding of two unlike cultures, traditions, etc.3.anything
derived from heterogeneous sources, or composed of elements of different or incongruous kinds: a
hybrid of the academic and business worlds.4.a word composed of elements originally drawn from
different languages, as television, whose components come from Greek and Latin.5.bred from two
distinct races, breeds, varieties, species, or genera.6.composite; formed or composed of
heterogeneous elements.7.composed of elements originally drawn from different languages, as a
word.5. HYBRID, MONGREL refer to animals or plants of mixed origin. HYBRID is the scientific term:
hybrid corn; a hybrid variety of sheep.MONGREL, used originally of dogs to denote the offspring of
crossings of different breeds, is now extended to other animals and to plants; it is usually deprecatory,
as denoting mixed, nondescript, or degenerate breed or character: a mongrel pup.Ant. 5. purebred,
thoroughbred.
Inherited 1.take or receive (property, a right, a title, etc.) by succession or will, as an heir
Instinct an inborn pattern of activity or tendency to action common to a given biological species.2.a
natural aptitude or gift: an instinct for making money.ive power.Syn. 3. genius, knack, faculty, talent.
Larva .Entomol. the immature, wingless, feeding stage of an insect that undergoes complete
metamorphosis. 2.any animal in an analogous immature form.3.the young of any invertebrate
animal.4.larvae, Rom. Antiq. malignant ghosts, as lemures.
Mammal any vertebrate of the class Mammalia, having the body more or less covered with hair,
nourishing the young with milk from the mammary glands, and, with the exception of the egg-laying
monotremes, giving birth to live young.mamÆmal·likeÅ, adj.
Metamorphosis Biol. a profound change in form from one stage to the next in the life history of an
organism, as from the caterpillar to the pupa and from the pupa to the adult butterfly. Cf. complete
metamorphosis.
Syn. 2. mutation, transmutation.Ant. 1, 2. stasis.
Mineral 1.any of a class of substances occurring in nature, usually comprising inorganic substances,
as quartz or feldspar, of definite chemical composition and usually of definite crystal structure, but
sometimes also including rocks formed by these substances as well as certain natural products of
organic origin, as asphalt or coal mineralogical, mineralogy.
Mutation a sudden departure from the parent type in one or more heritable characteristics, caused
by a change in a gene or a chromosome. mu·taÆtion·al, adj. mu·taÆtion·al·ly, adv.
Neuron Biol. a specialized, impulse-conducting cell that is the functional unit of the nervous system,
consisting of the cell body and its processes, the axon and dendrites.Also called nerve cell. Also, esp.
Brit., neu·rone
Nucleus n., pl. -cle·i (-kl チ ヘ Å), -cle·us·es.1.a central part about which other parts are grouped or
gathered; core—Syn. 1.center, kernel, heart.
Nutrient 1.nourishing; providing nourishment or nutriment.
Oxidation 1.the process or result of oxidizing.2.Also, oxÅi·daÆtion·al, oxÆi·daÅtive,
Pasteurization v.t., -ized, iz·ing. to expose (a food, as milk, cheese, yogurt, beer, or wine) to an
elevated temperature for a period of time sufficient to destroy certain microorganisms, as those that
can produce disease or cause spoilage or undesirable fermentation of food, without radically altering
taste or quality.esp. Brit, pasÆteur·iseÅ.—pasÅteur·i·zaÆtion, n
.Phase n., v., phased, phas·ing. —n. 1.any of the major appearances or aspects in which a thing of
varying modes or conditions manifests itself to the eye or mind.phaseÆless, adj. —phaÆsic,
phaÆse·al, adj.—Syn. 1. form, shape; facet, side.
Pigment a dry insoluble substance, usually pulverized, which when suspended in a liquid vehicle
becomes a paint, ink, etc.2.a coloring matter or substance.
Plankton the aggregate of passively floating, drifting, or somewhat motile organisms occurring in a
body of water, primarily comprising microscopic algae and protozoa.—plank·ton·ic adj.
Primate Eccles. an archbishop or bishop ranking first among the bishops of a province or country.
2.any of various omnivorous mammals of the order Primates, comprising the three suborders
Anthropoidea (humans, great apes, gibbons, Old World monkeys, and New World monkeys), Prosimii
(lemurs, loris, and their allies), and Tarsioidea (tarsiers), esp. distinguished by the use of hands, varied
locomotion, and by complex flexible behavior involving a high level of social interaction and cultural
adaptability. pri·maÆtal, adj., n pri·ma·tial , pri·mat·i·cal .
Recessive 1. tending to go, move, or slant back; receding.—re·cesÆsive·ly, adv.—
re·cesÆsive·ness, n.
Recycle 1.to treat or process (used or waste materials) so as to make suitable for reuse: recycling
paper to save trees.2. to alter or adapt for new use without changing the essential form or nature
of: The old factory is being recycled as a theater.—re·cyÆcla·ble, adj. —re·cyÅcla·bilÆi·ty, n. —
re·cyÆcler, re·cyÆclist, n.
Root 1.a part of the body of a plant that develops, typically, from the radicle and grows downward
into the soil, anchoring the plant and absorbing nutriment and moisture.2.roots, Music.a. the
fundamental tone of a compound tone or of a series of harmonies.root and branch, utterly; entirely:
to destroy something root and branch.take root, a. to send out roots; begin to grow.b. to become
fixed or established: The prejudices of parents usually take root in their children.—rootÆlikeÅ, adj.—
Syn. 6. basis. 7. beginning, derivation, rise, fountainhead. 8. parent. 23. eradicate.root2 1.to turn up
the soil with the snout, as swine.2.to poke, pry, or search, as if to find something: to root around in a
drawer for loose coins.root3 1.to encourage a team or contestant by cheering or applauding
enthusiastically.2.to lend moral support:—Syn. 1. cheer, applaud, boost, support.
Seed n., pl. seeds, (esp. collectively) seed, v., adj. 1.the fertilized, matured ovule of a flowering
plant, containing an embryo or rudimentary plant.2.any propagative part of a plant, including tubers,
bulbs, etc., esp. as preserved for growing a new crop.3.go or run to seed, a. (of the flower of a plant)
to pass to the stage of yielding seed.b. to lose vigor, power, or prosperity; deteriorate: He has gone to
seed in the last few years.seedÆless, adj.—seedÆless·ness, n.seedÆlikeÅ, adj. Syn. descendants,
heirs, posterity, issue, scions.
Sensory 1.of or pertaining to the senses or sensation.2.Physiol. noting a structure for conveying an
impulse that results or tends to result in sensation, as a nerve.Also, sen·so·ri·al
Species n., pl. -cies, adj. —n. 1.a class of individuals having some common characteristics or
qualities; distinct sort or kind.2.Biol. the major subdivision of a genus or subgenus, regarded as the
basic category of biological classification, composed of related individuals that resemble one another,
are able to breed among themselves, but are not able to breed with members of another species.
Spore n., v. spored, spor·ing.1.Biol. a walled, single- to many-celled, reproductive body of an
organism, capable of giving rise to a new individual either directly or indirectly.2.a germ, germ cell,
seed, or the like.3.to bear or produce spores spoÆral, spoÆroid, adj
Stem n., v., stemmed, stem·ming1.the ascending axis of a plant, whether above or below ground,
which ordinarily grows in an opposite direction to the root or descending axis.2.the stalk that supports
a leaf, flower, or fruit.3.a stalk of bananas.4.the handle of a spoon.5.the stock or line of descent of a
family; ancestry or pedigree.6.—stemÆless, adj. —stemÆlikeÅ, adj. stem2 v., stemmed, stem·ming,
1.to stop, check, or restrain.2.to dam up; stop the flow of (a stream, river, or the like).stem3 v.t.,
stemmed, stem·ming. 1.to make headway against (a tide, current, gale, etc.).2.to make progress
against (any opposition).
Symbiosis .Biol.a. the living together of two dissimilar organisms, as in mutualism, commensalism,
amensalism, or parasitism.b. (formerly) mutualism 2.Psychiatry. a relationship between two people in
which each person is dependent upon and receives reinforcement, whether beneficial or detrimental,
from the other.3.Psychoanal. the relationship between an infant and its mother in which the infant is
dependent on the mother both physically and emotionally.4. any interdependent or mutually
beneficial relationship between two persons, groups, etc.sym·bi·ot·ic symÅbi·otÆi·cal, adj.
symÅbi·otÆi·cal·ly, adv.
Trace a surviving mark, sign, or evidence of the former existence, influence, or action of some agent
or event; vestige: traces of an advanced civilization among the ruins.2.a barely discernible indication
or evidence of some quantity, quality, characteristic, expression, etc.: a trace of anger in his tone.3.an
extremely small amount of some chemical component: a trace of copper in its composition. 1.TRACE,
VESTIGE agree in denoting marks or signs of something, usually of the past. TRACE, the broader term,
denotes any mark or slight indication of something past or present: a trace of ammonia in
water.VESTIGE is more limited and refers to some slight, though actual, remains of something that no
longer exists: vestiges of one's former wealth. 2.hint, suggestion, taste, touch. 5. spoor, trail, record.
15.trail.Ant. 3.abundance, plethora.
trace2 n. 1.either of the two straps, ropes, or chains by which a carriage, wagon, or the like is drawn
by a harnessed horse or other draft animal. See illus. under harness.2. a piece in a machine, as a
bar, transferring the movement of one part to another part, being hinged to each.3.kick over the
traces, to throw off restraint; become independent or defiant: He kicked over the traces and ran off to
join the navy.
Transport Syn. 1.See carry. 10.rapture, happiness. See ecstasy. to carry, move, or convey from one
place to another.
2.to carry away by strong emotion; enrapture.3.to send into banishment, esp. to a penal colony.
Vertebrate having vertebrae; having a backbone or spinal column.2.belonging or pertaining to the
Vertebrata (or Craniata), a subphylum of chordate animals, comprising those having a brain enclosed
in a skull or cranium and a segmented spinal column; a major taxonomic group that includes
mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.3.a vertebrate animal.
Virus an ultramicroscopic (20 to 300 nm in diameter), metabolically inert, infectious agent that
replicates only within the cells of living hosts, mainly bacteria, plants, and animals: composed of an
RNA or DNA core, a protein coat, and, in more complex types, a surrounding envelope.2.Informal. a
viral disease.3.a corrupting influence on morals or the intellect; poison.4.a segment of self-replicating
code planted illegally in a computer program, often to damage or shut down a system or network.
HEALTH AND MEDICINE
Addiction the state of being enslaved to a habit or practice or to something that is psychologically or
physically habit-forming, as narcotics, to such an extent that its cessation causes severe
trauma.Artery Anat. a blood vessel that conveys blood from the heart to any part of the body.2.a
main channel or highway, esp. of a connected system with many branch
Basic concepts temel kavram
Blood vessel any of the vessels, as arteries, veins, or capillaries, through which the blood circulates.
Bones
Breathe
Capillary pl. -lar·ies. Kilcal damar1.pertaining to or occurring in or as if in a tube of fine bore.
2.resembling a strand of hair; hairlike.3.Physicsa. pertaining to capillarity.b. of or pertaining to the
apparent attraction or repulsion between a liquid and a solid, observed in capillarity.4.Anat. pertaining
to a capillary or capillaries.
5.Anat. one of the minute blood vessels between the terminations of the arteries and the beginnings
of the veins.
6.Also called capÆillary tubeÅ. a tube with a small bore.
Carcinogen kär sinÆà jÃn, -jenÅ, kärÆsà nà jenÅ, -nŽ-), n. Pathol. any substance or agent that tends
to produce a cancer.
Cardiac of or pertaining to the heart: cardiac disease.2. of or pertaining to the esophageal
portion of the stomach.
3.Med. a cardiac remedy.4.a person suffering from heart disease.Cartilage Anat., Zool. 1.a firm,
elastic, flexible type of connective tissue of a translucent whitish or yellowish color; gristle.2.a part or
structure composed of cartilage.
Circulation an act or instance of circulating, moving in a circle or circuit, or flowing.2.the continuous
movement of blood through the heart and blood vessels, which is maintained chiefly by the action of
the heart, and by which nutrients, oxygen, and internal secretions are carried to and wastes are
carried from the body tissues.3.any similar circuit, passage, or flow, as of the sap in plants or air
currents in a room.4.the transmission or passage of anything from place to place or person to person:
the circulation of a rumor; the circulation of money.5.the distribution of copies of a periodical among
readers.6.the number of copies of each issue of a newspaper, magazine, etc., distributed.7.coins,
notes, bills, etc., in use as money; currency.8.Library Science.a. the lending of library books and other
materials.b. the number of books and materials that a library has lent.c. the processes connected with
providing for the use of library materials, including reserve operations, recall, and record-
keeping.9.Hydraul. a quantity analogous to work and equal to the line integral of the component of
fluid velocity about a closed contour.10.in circulation, participating actively in social or business life:
After a month in the hospital, he's back in circulation. cir·cu·la·ble Diaphragm Anat. a. a muscular,
membranous or ligamentous wall separating two cavities or limiting a cavity. b. the partition
separating the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity in mammals.2.Physical Chem.a. a porous
plate separating two liquids, as in a galvanic cell.b. a semipermeable membrane. 3.a thin disk that
vibrates when receiving or producing sound waves, as in a telephone, microphone, speaker, or the
like.4.Also called pessary. a thin, dome-shaped device, usually of rubber, for wearing over the uterine
cervix during sexual intercourse to prevent conception.5.a plate with a hole in the center or a ring that
is placed on the axis of an optical instrument, as a camera, and that controls the amount of light
entering the instrument..
Disease
Embryo the young of a viviparous animal, esp. of a mammal, in the early stages of development
within the womb, in humans up to the end of the second month. Cf. fetus.2.Bot. the rudimentary plant
usually contained in the seed.
3.any multicellular animal in a developmental stage preceding birth or hatching.4.the beginning or
rudimentary stage of anything: He charged that the party policy was socialism in
embryo.5.embryonic.embryo-a combining form representing embryo in compound words:
embryology.Also, esp. before a vowel, embry-
Epidemic Also, epÅi·demÆi·cal. (of a disease) affecting many persons at the same time, and
spreading from person to person in a locality where the disease is not permanently
prevalent.2.extremely prevalent; widespread.3.a temporary prevalence of a disease.4.a rapid spread
or increase in the occurrence of something: an epidemic of riots.epÅi·demÆi·cal·ly, adv.
ep·i·de·mic·i·ty n.
Germ 1.a microorganism, esp. when disease-producing; microbe.2.a bud, offshoot, or seed.3.the
rudiment of a living organism; an embryo in its early stages.4.the initial stage in development or
evolution, as a germ cell or ancestral form.
5.something that serves as a source or initial stage for subsequent development: the germ of an
idea.6.Pathol. of, pertaining to, or caused by disease-producing germs. germÆless, adj. germÆlikeÅ,
adj. Syn. 4. spark, root, bud, rudiment, seed.
Hemoglobin Biochem. the oxygen-carrying pigment of red blood cells that gives them their red color
and serves to convey oxygen to the tissues: occurs in reduced form (deoxyhemoglobin)in venous
blood and in combination with oxygen (oxyhemoglobin) in arterial blood. Symbol: Hb Cf. heme.
heÅmo·gloÆbic, heÅmo·gloÆbin·ous, adj.
Hormone
Immunization 1.the fact or process of becoming immune, as against a disease.
2.Finance. a method of protection against fluctuating bond interest rates by investing in securities
having different yields and terms. Infection 1.an act or fact of infecting; state of being infected.2.an
infecting with germs of disease, as through the medium of infected insects, air, water, or clothing.3.an
infecting agency or influence.4.an infectious disease: Is this infection very dangerous?5.the condition
of suffering an infection.6.corruption of another's opinions, beliefs, moral principles, etc.; moral
contamination.7.an influence or impulse passing from one to another and affecting feeling or action.
8.Gram. (in Celtic languages) assimilation in which a vowel is influenced by a following vowel or
semivowel; umlaut.
Influenza Pathol. an acute, commonly epidemic disease, occurring in several forms, caused by
numerous rapidly mutating viral strains and characterized by respiratory symptoms and general
prostration.flu..Vet. Pathol. an acute, contagious disease occurring in horses and swine, characterized
by fever, depression, and catarrhal inflammations of the eyes, nasal passages, and bronchi, and
caused by a virus. inÅflu·enÆzal, adj. inÅflu·enÆza·likeÅ, adj.
Ligament Anat. Zool. a band of tissue, usually white and fibrous, serving to connect bones, hold
organs in place, etc.
2.a tie or bond: The desire for personal freedom is a ligament uniting all peoples.
Metabolism Biol., Physiol. the sum of the physical and chemical processes in an organism by which
its material substance is produced, maintained, and destroyed, and by which energy is made
available. Cf. anabolism, catabolism.
2.any basic process of organic functioning or operating: changes in the country's economic
metabolism.
Nutrient 1 nourishing; providing nourishment or nutriment.2.containing or conveying nutriment, as
solutions or vessels of the body.3.a nutrient substance.
Nutrition 1.the act or process of nourishing or of being nourished.2.the science or study of, or a
course of study in, nutrition, esp. of humans.3the process by which organisms take in and utilize food
material.4.food; nutriment.5.the pursuit of this science as an occupation or profession. nu·triÆtion·al,
nu·triÆtion·arÅy, adj. nu·triÆtion·al·ly, adv.
Obesity very fat or overweight; corpulent. o·beseÆly, adv. o·beÆsi·ty, o·beseÆness, n.
Olfactory pl.-ries.1.of or pertaining to the sense of smell: olfactory organs.2.Usually, olfactories. an
olfactory organ.
3.See olfactory nerve. ol·facÆto·ri·ly, adv.
Optical of, pertaining to, or applying optics or the principles of optics.2.constructed to assist sight or
to correct defects in vision.3.of or pertaining to sight or vision; visual.4.of or pertaining to the eye.5.of
or pertaining to an optician or opticians or to their products, esp. eyeglasses: an optical
service.6.dealing with or skilled in optics.
7.opticals. See optical effects.opÆti·cal·ly, adv.
Pulmonary 1.of or pertaining to the lungs.2. of the nature of a lung; lunglike.3.affecting the
lungs.4.having lungs or lunglike organs.5.pertaining to or affected with disease of the lungs.
Pulse the regular throbbing of the arteries, caused by the successive contractions of the heart, esp.
as may be felt at an artery, as at the wrist.2.a single pulsation, or beat or throb, of the arteries or
heart.3.the rhythmic recurrence of strokes, vibrations, or undulations.4.a single stroke, vibration, or
undulation.5.Elect. a momentary, sudden fluctuation in an electrical quantity, as in voltage or
current.6.Physics. a single, abrupt emission of particles or radiation.7.a throb of life, emotion,
etc.8.vitality.9.the general attitude, sentiment, preference, etc., as of the public.10.to beat or throb;
pulsate.11.to beat, vibrate, or undulate.12.Physics. to emit particles or radiation periodically in short
bursts.
Med. to administer (medication) in interrupted, often concentrated dosages to avoid unwanted side
effects.
pulse2 (puls), n. 1. the edible seeds of certain leguminous plants, as peas, beans, or lentils.
2.a plant producing such seeds.
Reflex Physiol. noting or pertaining to an involuntary response to a stimulus, the nerve impulse from
a receptor being transmitted inward to a nerve center that in turn transmits it outward to an
effector.2occurring in reaction; responsive.
3.cast back; reflected, as light, color, etc.4.bent or turned back.5.designating a radio apparatus in
which the same circuit or part performs two functions.6.Physiol.a. Also called reÆflex actÆ. Movement
caused by a reflex response.b. Also called reÆflex acÆtion. the entire physiological process activating
such movement.7.any automatic, unthinking, often habitual behavior or response. 8.the reflection or
image of an object, as exhibited by a mirror or the like. .to arrange in a reflex system. reÆflex·ly, adv.
reÆflex·ness, n.
Roughage 1rough or coarse material.2.any coarse, rough food for livestock.3.fiber
Secrete , -cret·ed, -cret·ing. to discharge, generate, or release by the process of secretion.se·crete2
(si kr チ tÆ), v.t., -cret·ed, -cret·ing. to place out of sight; hide; conceal: squirrels secreting nuts in a
hollow tree trunk.
Syn. cover, shroud, disguise. See hide 1. Armor. a steel skullcap of the 17th century, worn under a soft
hat.
Stimulant Physiol., Med. something that temporarily quickens some vital process or the functional
activity of some organ or part: Adrenalin is a stimulant for the heart.2.any food or beverage that
stimulates, esp. coffee, tea, or, in its initial effect, alcoholic liquor.3a stimulus or incentive.4.Physiol.,
Med. temporarily quickening some vital process or functional activity.5stimulating. Cf. depressant.
Stimulation stim·u·late (stimÆyà l€tÅ), v., -lat·ed, -lat·ing.1.to rouse to action or effort, as by
encouragement or pressure; spur on; incite: to stimulate his interest in mathematics.2.Physiol., Med.
to excite (a nerve, gland, etc.) to its functional activity.3.to invigorate (a person) by a food or beverage
containing a stimulant, as coffee, tea, or alcoholic liquor.4.to act as a stimulus or stimulant.—
stimÆu·la·ble, adj. —stim·u·la·bil·i·ty n.stimÆu·latÅing·ly, adv.
stimÅu·laÆtion, n. stimÆu·laÅtor, stimÆu·latÅer, n. 1. arouse, activate, excite. See animate.
Vaccinate -nat·ed, -nat·ing. Med. 1 to inoculate with the vaccine of cowpox so as to render the
subject immune to smallpox.2. to inoculate with the modified virus of any of various other diseases, as
a preventive measure.
3.to perform or practice vaccination.
Vein one of the system of branching vessels or tubes conveying blood from various parts of the body
to the heart.2.(loosely) any blood vessel.3.one of the riblike thickenings that form the framework of
the wing of an insect.4.one of the strands or bundles of vascular tissue forming the principal
framework of a leaf.5.any body or stratum of ore, coal, etc., clearly separated or defined: a rich vein of
coal.6.a body or mass of igneous rock, deposited mineral, or the like occupying a crevice or fissure in
rock; lode.7.a natural channel or watercourse beneath the surface of the earth.8.the water running
through such a channel.9.a streak or marking, as of a different shade or color, running through
marble, wood, etc.10.a condition, mood, or temper: a vein of pessimism veinÆal, adj. —veinÆless,
adj. —veinÆlikeÅ, adj. . tone, streak, touch, hint, thread.
Withdraw revoke, rescind, disavow. 4. See depart. to draw back, away, or aside; take back; remove:
She withdrew her hand from his. He withdrew his savings from the bank.to retract or recall: to
withdraw an untrue charge.3to cause (a person) to undergo withdrawal from addiction to a
substance.to go or move back, away, or aside; retire; retreat: to withdraw from the room.5.to remove
oneself from some activity, competition, etc.: He withdrew before I could nominate him6.to cease
using or consuming an addictive narcotic (fol. by from): to withdraw from heroin.7.Parl. Proc. to
remove an amendment, motion, etc., from consideration. with·drawÆa·ble, adj. with·drawÆer, n.
with·drawÆing·ness, n.
SOCIAL STUDIES AND HISTORY
Abolish to do away with; put an end to; annul; make void: to abolish slavery.
a·bolÆish·a·ble, adj. a·bolÆish·er, n. a·bolÆish·ment, n. suppress, nullify, cancel; annihilate, obliterate,
extinguish; exterminate, extirpate, eliminate. ABOLISH, ERADICATE, STAMP OUT mean to do away
completely with something. To ABOLISH is to cause to cease, often by a summary order: to abolish a
requirement.STAMP OUT implies forcibly making an end to something considered undesirable or harmful:
to stamp out the opium traffic.ERADICATE (literally, to tear out by the roots), a formal word, suggests
extirpation, leaving no vestige or trace: to eradicate all use of child labor.
Ant. establish.
Aborigine Latin. from the very beginning; from the source or origin. ab·o·rig·i·ne (abÅÃ rijÆÃ n チ), n.
1.one of the original or earliest known inhabitants of a country or region.
2.(cap.) Also, Aboriginal. Also called Australian Aborigine. a member of the dark-skinned people who were
the earliest inhabitants of Australia.3.aborigines, the original, native fauna or flora of a region.
Acculturate -at·ed, -at·ing. to alter by acculturation. ac·culÆtur·aÅtive, adj.acculturation 1.the process
of adopting the cultural traits or social patterns of another group.2.the result of this process.
Administration 1.the management of any office, business, or organization; direction.2.the function of a
political state in exercising its governmental duties.3.the duty or duties of an administrator in exercising
the executive functions of the position.
4.the management by an administrator of such duties.5.a body of administrators, esp. in government.6.
(often cap.) the executive branch of the U.S. government as headed by the President and in power during
his or her term of office: The Administration has threatened to veto the new bill. The Reagan
administration followed President Carter's.9Law. management of a decedent's estate by an executor or
administrator, or of a trust estate by a trustee.ad·minÅis·traÆtion·al, adj.
Ally -lied, -ly·ing, n., pl. -lies.1.to unite formally, as by treaty, league, marriage, or the like (usually fol. by
with or to): Russia allied itself to France.2.to associate or connect by some mutual relationship, as
resemblance or friendship.
3.to enter into an alliance; join; unite.4.a person, group, or nation that is associated with another or others
for some common cause or purpose: Canada and the United States were allies in World War II.5.Biol. a
plant, animal, or other organism bearing an evolutionary relationship to another, often as a member of the
same family: The squash is an ally of the watermelon.6.a person who associates or cooperates with
another; supporter.al·liÆa·ble, adj. 1. unify, join, combine, wed. 4. partner, confederate. 6. friend, aide,
accomplice, accessory, assistant, abettor; colleague, coadjutor, auxiliary, helper.Ant. 4, 6. enemy, foe,
adversary.
Amendment 1. the act of amending or the state of being amended.2.an alteration of or addition to a
motion, bill, constitution, etc.3.a change made by correction, addition, or deletion: The editors made few
amendments to the manuscript.4.Hort. a soil-conditioning substance that promotes plant growth indirectly
by improving such soil qualities as porosity, moisture retention, and pH balance.
Ancestor
Artifact 1.any object made by human beings, esp. with a view to subsequent use.
2.a handmade object, as a tool, or the remains of one, as a shard of pottery, characteristic of an earlier
time or cultural stage, esp. such an object found at an archaeological excavation.3.any mass-produced,
usually inexpensive object reflecting contemporary society or popular culture: artifacts of the pop rock
generation.4.a substance or structure not naturally present in the matter being observed but formed by
artificial means, as during preparation of a microscope slide.5.a spurious observation or result arising from
preparatory or investigative procedures.6.any feature that is not naturally present but is a product of an
extrinsic agent, method, or the like: statistical artifacts that make the inflation rate seem greater than it
is.Also, artefact.ar·ti·fac·tu·al adj.
Authority 1. rule, power, sway. AUTHORITY, CONTROL, INFLUENCE denote a power or right to direct the
actions or thoughts of others. AUTHORITY is a power or right, usually because of rank or office, to issue
commands and to punish for violations: to have authority over subordinates.CONTROL is either power or
influence applied to the complete and successful direction or manipulation of persons or things: to be in
control of a project.INFLUENCE is a personal and unofficial power derived from deference of others to one's
character, ability, or station; it may be exerted unconsciously or may operate through persuasion: to have
influence over one's friends. 3. sovereign, arbiter.
Barbarian 3. alien. 6. rude, primitive, wild, rough, barbaric, coarse, ignorant, uncultivated. BARBARIAN,
BARBARIC, BARBAROUS pertain to uncivilized people. BARBARIAN is the general word for anything
uncivilized: a barbarian tribe.BARBARIC has both unfavorable and mildly favorable connotations, implying
crudeness of taste or practice, or conveying an idea of rude magnificence and splendor: barbaric
noise.BARBAROUS emphasizes the inhumanity and cruelty of barbarian life: barbarous customs.Ant. 6.
cultivated, civilized.
Barter
Bias bi·ased, bi·as·ing or (esp. Brit.) bi·assed, bi·as·sing. 1.an oblique or diagonal line of direction, esp.
across a woven fabric.2.a particular tendency or inclination, esp. one that prevents unprejudiced
consideration of a question; prejudice.
3.Statistics. a systematic as opposed to a random distortion of a statistic as a result of sampling
procedure.
4.Lawn Bowling.a. a slight bulge or greater weight on one side of the ball or bowl.b. the curved course
made by such a ball when rolled.5.Electronics. the application of a steady voltage or current to an active
device, as a diode or transistor, to produce a desired mode of operation.6.a high-frequency alternating
current applied to the recording head of a tape recorder during recording in order to reduce distortion.7.on
the bias, a. in the diagonal direction of the cloth.b. out of line; slanting.Syn. 2. predisposition,
preconception, predilection, partiality, proclivity; bent, leaning. BIAS, PREJUDICE mean a strong inclination
of the mind or a preconceived opinion about something or someone. A BIAS may be favorable or
unfavorable: bias in favor of or against an idea.PREJUDICE implies a preformed judgment even more
unreasoning than BIAS, and usually implies an unfavorable opinion: prejudice against a race. 10.
predispose, bend, incline, dispose.Ant. 2. impartiality.
Blockade -ad·ed, -ad·ing. 1.the isolating, closing off, or surrounding of a place, as a port, harbor, or city,
by hostile ships or troops to prevent entrance or exit.2.any obstruction of passage or progress: We had
difficulty in getting through the blockade of bodyguards.3.Pathol. interruption or inhibition of a normal
physiological signal, as a nerve impulse or a heart muscle–contraction impulse.4.to subject to a
blockade.block·adÆer, n. Syn. 1. See siege.
Boycott to combine in abstaining from, or preventing dealings with, as a means of intimidation or
coercion: to boycott a store.2.to abstain from buying or using: to boycott foreign products.
Bureaucracy -cies.
1.government by many bureaus, administrators, and petty officials.
2.the body of officials and administrators, esp. of a government or government department.
3.excessive multiplication of, and concentration of power in, administrative bureaus or administrators.
4.administration characterized by excessive red tape and routine.
Charter .a document, issued by a sovereign or state, outlining the conditions under which a corporation,
colony, city, or other corporate body is organized, and defining its rights and privileges.2.(often cap.) a
document defining the formal organization of a corporate body; constitution: the Charter of the United
Nations.3.authorization from a central or parent organization to establish a new branch, chapter,
etc.charÆter·a·ble, adj.charÆter·age, n charÆter·er, n charÆter·less, adj.
Civilization
Colony pl. -nies. 1.a group of people who leave their native country to form in a new land a settlement
subject to, or connected with, the parent nation.2.the country or district settled or colonized: Many
Western nations are former European colonies.
3.any people or territory separated from but subject to a ruling power.Syn. 6. body, band.
Compromise a settlement of differences by mutual concessions; an agreement reached by adjustment of
conflicting or opposing claims, principles, etc., by reciprocal modification of demands.2.the result of such a
settlement.3.something intermediate between different things: The split-level is a compromise between a
ranch house and a multistoried house.4.an endangering, esp. of reputation; exposure to danger, suspicion,
etc.: a compromise of one's integrity. comÆpro·misÅer, n. comÆpro·misÅing·ly, adv. com·prom·is·sa·ry
Craftsman 1.a person who practices or is highly skilled in a craft; artisan.2.an artist.
craftsÆman·likeÅ, adj. craftsÆman·ly, adj. craftsÆman·shipÅ, n. Syn. 1. artificer, handicraftsman.Usage.
See -man.
Debate bat·ed, -bat·ing. 1.a discussion, as of a public question in an assembly, involving opposing
viewpoints: a debate in the Senate on farm price supports.2.a formal contest in which the affirmative and
negative sides of a proposition are advocated by opposing speakers.3.deliberation;
consideration.4.Archaic. strife; contention.—de·batÆer, n. de·batÆing·ly, adv.Syn. 1. argument,
controversy, disputation, contention. 5. dispute, contend. See argue.
Delegation 1.a group or body of delegates: Our club sent a delegation to the rally.2.the body of
delegates chosen to represent a political unit, as a state, in an assembly: the New Jersey delegation in
CongressSyn. 2. commission.
Dictator
Ecology the branch of biology dealing with the relations and interactions between organisms and their
environment, including other organisms.2.Also called human ecology. the branch of sociology concerned
with the spacing and interdependence of people and institutions.Also, oecology.
Embargo goes, v., -goed, -go·ing. 1.an order of a government prohibiting the movement of merchant
ships into or out of its ports.
2.an injunction from a government commerce agency to refuse freight for shipment, as in case of
congestion or insufficient facilities.3.any restriction imposed upon commerce by edict.Syn. 4. ban,
restriction, interdiction, postscription.
Emigration 1.an act or instance of emigrating.2.a body of emigrants; emigrants collectively.3.Physiol.
diapedesis.
Exile -iled, -il·ing. 1.expulsion from one's native land by authoritative decree.2.the fact or state of such
expulsion: to live in exile.3.a person banished from his or her native land.to separate from country, home,
etc.: Disagreements exiled him from his family.exÆil·a·ble, adj exÆil·er, n. Syn. 7, 8. evict, drive out, cast
out, eject, deport.
Expedition an excursion, journey, or voyage made for some specific purpose, as of war or exploration.
2.the group of persons, ships, etc., engaged in such an activity: a large expedition of scientists and military
personnel.
3.promptness or speed in accomplishing something: He worked with great expedition.Syn. 1. See trip. 3.
quickness, dispatch, alacrity.
Feudal of, pertaining to, or like the feudal system, or its political, military, social, and economic
structure.2.of or pertaining to the Middle Ages.3.of, pertaining to, or of the nature of a fief or fee: a feudal
estate.4.of or pertaining to the holding of land in a fief or fee.
Frontier the part of a country that borders another country; boundary; border.2.the land or territory that
forms the furthest extent of a country's settled or inhabited regions.3.Often, frontiers. a. the limit of
knowledge or the most advanced achievement in a particular field: the frontiers of physics.b. an outer limit
in a field of endeavor, esp. one in which the opportunities for research and development have not been
exploited: the frontiers of space exploration.4.Math. boundary fron·tierÆless, adj. fron·tierÆlikeÅ, adj.
Syn.1boundary.
Ghetto -tos, -toes. 1.a section of a city, esp. a thickly populated slum area, inhabited predominantly by
members of an ethnic or other minority group, often as a result of social or economic restrictions,
pressures, or hardships.2.(formerly, in most European countries) a section of a city in which all Jews were
required to live.3.a section predominantly inhabited by Jews.4.any mode of living, working, etc., that
results from stereotyping or biased treatment: job ghettos for women; ghettos for the elderly.
Govern 1.to rule over by right of authority: to govern a nation.2.to exercise a directing or restraining
influence over; guide: the motives governing a decision.3.to hold in check; control: to govern one's
temper.4.to serve as or constitute a law for: the principles governing a case.5.Gram. to be regularly
accompanied by or require the use of (a particular form). In They helped us, the verb helped governs the
objective case of the pronoun we.6.to regulate the speed of (an engine) with a governor.Syn. 1. reign. See
rule. 2. control, sway, influence, conduct, supervise, superintend.Ant. 1. obey.

Heritage something that comes or belongs to one by reason of birth; an inherited lot or portion: a
heritage of poverty and suffering; a national heritage of honor, pride, and courage.2.something reserved
for one: the heritage of the righteous.
3.Lawa. something that has been or may be inherited by legal descent or succession.b. any property, esp.
land, that devolves by right of inheritance.Syn. 1. estate, patrimony. See inheritance.
Humanitarian
Illiteracy -cies 1.a lack of ability to read and write.2.the state of being illiterate; lack of any or enough
education.
3.a mistake in writing or speaking, felt to be characteristic of an illiterate or semiliterate person: a letter
that was full of illiteracies.
Immigrate 1.to come to a country of which one is not a native, usually for permanent residence.2.to pass
or come into a new habitat or place, as an organism.3.to introduce as settlers: to immigrate cheap
labor.imÆmi·graÅtor, n. Syn. 1. See migrate.
Issue copy, edition, printing. 5-7. crux. 6, 7. problem, question. 10. upshot, conclusion, end. 27. See
emerge. 30. flow, emanate, arise, spring. 31. ensue.Ant. 27. return. -sued, -su·ing. 1.the act of sending out
or putting forth; promulgation; distribution: the issue of food and blankets to flood victims.2.something
that is printed or published and distributed, esp. a given number of a periodical: Have you seen the latest
issue of the magazine?3.something that is sent out or put forth in any form.4.a quantity of something that
is officially offered for sale or put into circulation at one time: a new issue of commemorative stamps; a
new bond issue.Pathola. a discharge of blood, pus, or the like.b. an incision, ulcer, or the like, emitting
such a discharge.issues, Eng. Law. the profits from land or other property.
Judicial pertaining to judgment in courts of justice or to the administration of justice: judicial proceedings;
the judicial system.2.pertaining to courts of law or to judges; judiciary: judicial functions.3.of or pertaining
to a judge; proper to the character of a judge; judgelike: judicial gravity.4.inclined to make or give
judgments; critical; discriminating: a judicial mind.5.decreed, sanctioned, or enforced by a court: a judicial
decision.6.giving or seeking judgment, as in a dispute or contest; determinative: a judicial duel over
lands.7.inflicted by God as a judgment or punishment.ju·diÆcial·ly, adv. ju·diÆcial·ness, n. Syn.juridical.
forensic. 4.judicious.
Legal 1.permitted by law; lawful: Such acts are not legal.2.of or pertaining to law; connected with the law
or its administration: the legal profession.3.appointed, established, or authorized by law; deriving authority
from law.
legals, authorized investments that may be made by fiduciaries, as savings banks or trustees.
leÆgal·ly, adv. Syn. 3. licit, legitimate, sanctioned.
Legend a nonhistorical or unverifiable story handed down by tradition from earlier times and popularly
accepted as historical. LEGEND, FABLE, MYTH refer to fictitious stories, usually handed down by tradition
(although some fables are modern). LEGEND, originally denoting a story concerning the life of a saint, is
applied to any fictitious story, sometimes involving the supernatural, and usually concerned with a real
person, place, or other subject: the legend of the Holy Grail.A FABLE is specifically a fictitious story (often
with animals or inanimate things as speakers or actors) designed to teach a moral: a fable about
industrious bees.A MYTH is one of a class of stories, usually concerning gods, semidivine heroes, etc.,
current since primitive times, the purpose of which is to attempt to explain some belief or natural
phenomenon: the Greek myth about Demeter.Ant.fact.
Majority -ties. 1.the greater part or number; the number larger than half the total (opposed to minority): the m
the population.2.a number of voters or votes, jurors, or others in agreement, constituting more than half of the to
number.
Mandate -dat·ed, -dat·ing.1.a command or authorization to act in a particular way on a public issue given
by the electorate to its representative: The president had a clear mandate to end the war.2.a command
from a superior court or official to a lower one.3.an authoritative order or command: a royal mandate.to
authorize or decree (a particular action), as by the enactment of law.to order or require; make mandatory:
to mandate sweeping changes in the election process.
to consign (a territory, colony, etc.) to the charge of a particular nation under a mandate.3. fiat, decree,
injunction, edict, ruling.
Medieval of, pertaining to, characteristic of, or in the style of the Middle Ages: medieval architecture.Cf.
Middle Ages. 2.Informal. extremely old-fashioned; primitive.Also,
Metropolitan 1.of, noting, or characteristic of a metropolis or its inhabitants, esp. in culture,
sophistication, or in accepting and combining a wide variety of people, ideas, etc.2.of or pertaining to a
large city, its surrounding suburbs, and other neighboring communities: the New York metropolitan area.
Minority , pl. -ties, adj. 1.the smaller part or number; a number, part, or amount forming less than half of
the whole.2.a smaller party or group opposed to a majority, as in voting or other action.3.a group
differing, esp. in race, religion, or ethnic background, from the majority of a population: legislation aimed
at providing equal rights for minorities.
Monarchy -chies. 1.a state or nation in which the supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in a
monarch. Cf. absolute monarchy, limited monarchy. 2.supreme power or sovereignty held by a single
person.Syn. 1. See kingdom.
Nobility ties. 1.the noble class or the body of nobles in a country.2.(in Britain) the peerage.nobleness of
mind, character, or spirit; exalted moral
Nominate(tion) -nat·ed, -nat·ing, 1.to propose (someone) for appointment or election to an office.2.to
appoint to a duty or office.3.to propose for an honor, award, or the like.4.Horse Racing. to register (a
horse) as an entry in a race.
5.to name; designate.6.Obs. to specify.Syn. 1.pick, choose.
Oligarchy- chies. 1.a form of government in which all power is vested in a few persons or in a dominant
class or clique; government by the few.2.a state or organization so ruled.3.the persons or class so ruling.
Oppression 1. the exercise of authority or power in a burdensome, cruel, or unjust manner.the
feeling of being heavily burdened, mentally or physically, by troubles, adverse conditions, anxiety,
etc.Syn. 1. tyranny, despotism, persecution. 3, 4. hardship, suffering.Ant. 1. kindness, justice.
Ore n., pl.ö·re. Oregon. 1.a metal-bearing mineral or rock, or a native metal, that can be mined at a
profit.2.a mineral or natural product serving as a source of some nonmetallic substance, as sulfur.1.a
bronze coin of Norway, the 100th part of a krone.2.a zinc or bronze coin of Denmark, the 100th part of a
krone.3.a bronze coin of Sweden, the 100th part of a krona.4.a fractional currency of the Faeroe Islands,
the 100th part of a krona.Also, ø·re (ŒÆRÃ) (for defs. 1, 2).
Petition a formally drawn request, often bearing the names of a number of those making the request,
that is addressed to a person or group of persons in authority or power, soliciting some favor, right, mercy,
or other benefit: a petition for clemency; a petition for the repeal of an unfair law.2.a request made for
something desired, esp. a respectful or humble request, as to a superior or to one of those in authority; a
supplication or prayer: a petition for aid; a petition to God for courage and strength.3.something that is
sought by request or entreaty: to receive one's full petition.4.Law. an application for a court order or for
some judicial action.5.to beg for or request (something).6.to address a formal petition to (a sovereign, a
legislative body, etc.): He received everything for which he had petitioned the king. Syn. suit.2. entreaty,
solicitation, appeal. 9. Solicit, sue.appeal.
Pioneer 1.a person who is among those who first enter or settle a region, thus opening it for occupation
and development by others.2.one who is first or among the earliest in any field of inquiry, enterprise, or
progress: pioneers in cancer research.3.one of a group of foot soldiers detailed to make roads, dig
intrenchments, etc., in advance of the main body.
4.Ecol. an organism that successfully establishes itself in a barren area, thus starting an ecological cycle of
life.
5.(cap.) Aerospace. one of a series of U.S. space probes that explored the solar system and transmitted
scientific information to earth.6.(cap.) (formerly) a member of a Communist organization in the Soviet
Union for children ranging in age from 10 to 16. Cf. Komsomol, Octobrist. Syn. 2. leader, trailblazer,
forerunner, pathfinder.
Population density
Prejudice diced, -dic·ing. 1.an unfavorable opinion or feeling formed beforehand or without knowledge,
thought, or reason.
2.any preconceived opinion or feeling, either favorable or unfavorable.3.unreasonable feelings, opinions, or
attitudes, esp. of a hostile nature, regarding a racial, religious, or national group.prejÆu·diced·ly, adv.
prejÆu·dice·less, adj. Syn. 2. preconception, partiality, predilection, predisposition. See bias. 7. bias,
influence.
Primitive 1.being the first or earliest of the kind or in existence, esp. in an early age of the world:
primitive forms of life.
unaffected or little affected by civilizing influences; uncivilized; savage: primitive passions.Math. a. a
geometric or algebraic form or expression from which another is derived.b. a function of which the
derivative is a given function. Ling. the form from which a given word or other linguistic form has
been derived, by either morphological or historical processes, as take in undertake.[primÆi·tive·ly, adv.
primÆi·tive·ness, primÅi·tivÆi·ty, n. Syn. prehistoric, primal, primary, primordial, original, aboriginal,
antediluvian, pristine. prime.
Prohibit 1.to forbid (an action, activity, etc.) by authority or law: Smoking is prohibited here.2.to forbid
the action of (a person).
3.to prevent; hinder.pro·hibÆit·er, pro·hibÆi·tor, n. Syn. 1. interdict. See forbid. 3. obstruct.Ant. 1.
permit.
Propaganda
Ratify -fied, -fy·ing. 1.to confirm by expressing consent, approval, or formal sanction: to ratify a
constitutional amendment.
2.to confirm (something done or arranged by an agent or by representatives) by such action. ratÆi·fiÅer,
n. Syn. 1. corroborate, approve. 2. validate, establish.Ant. 1. veto, disapprove.
Ration Syn. 1, 2. portion, allotment. 1, 3. See food. 4. mete, dole, allot.
1.a fixed allowance of provisions or food, esp. for soldiers or sailors or for civilians during a shortage: a
daily ration of meat and bread.2.an allotted amount: They finally saved up enough gas rations for the
trip.3.rations, a. provisions: Enough rations were brought along to feed all the marchers.b. Chiefly South
Atlantic States. food or meals: The old hotel still has the best rations in town 4.to supply, apportion, or
distribute as rations (often fol. by out): to ration out food to an army.5.to supply or provide with rations: to
ration an army with food.6.to restrict the consumption of (a commodity, food, etc.): to ration meat during
war.
Refinery pl. -er·ies.an establishment for refining something, as metal, sugar, or petroleum.
Reform
Renewable re·newÅa·bilÆi·ty, n.
Represent to present again or anew. 1.to serve to express, designate, stand for, or denote, as a word,
symbol, or the like does; symbolize: In this painting the cat represents evil and the bird, good. 2.to express
or designate by some term, character, symbol, or the like: to represent musical sounds by notes..to act for
or in behalf of (a constituency, state, etc.) by deputed right in exercising a voice in legislation or
government:He represents Chicago's third Congressional district.Slang. to use or display a secret
handshake, sign, gesture, etc., for purposes of identification: The gang members always represent when
they see one another.repÅre·sentÆa·ble, adj repÅre·sentÅa·bilÆi·ty, n.1. Exemplify.delineate.portray.
Reserves 6.to save or set aside (a portion of the Eucharistic elements) to be administered, as to the sick,
outside of the Mass or communion service..Finance.a. cash, or assets readily convertible into cash, held
aside, as by a corporation, bank, state or national government, etc., to meet expected or unexpected
demands.b. uninvested cash held to comply with legal requirements.
.something kept or stored for use or need; stock: a reserve of food. 9.a resource not normally called upon
but available if needed.
re·servÆa·ble, adj. re·serveÆless, adj. Syn. 1. husband, hold, store. See keep. 8. supply. 14. taciturnity,
constraint, coldness.
Ant. 1. squander. 13, 14. warmth.
Revolt to break away from or rise against constituted authority, as by open rebellion; cast off allegiance
or subjection to those in authority; rebel; mutiny: to revolt against the present government.2 to turn
away in mental rebellion, utter disgust, or abhorrence (usually fol. by from): He revolts from eating
meat.3.to rebel in feeling (usually fol. by against): to revolt against parental authority.
4.to feel horror or aversion (usually fol. by at): to revolt at the sight of blood.5.to affect with disgust or
abhorrence: Such low behavior revolts me re·voltÆer, n. Syn. 6. uprising, disorder, putsch.
Rotation the act of rotating; a turning around as on an axis. 2.Astron a. the movement or path of the
earth or a heavenly body turning on its axis.b. one complete turn of such a body. 3.regularly recurring
succession, as of officials. 4.Agric. See crop rotation.
5.Math.a. an operation that rotates a geometric figure about a fixed point.ro·taÆtion·al, adj.
Rural ruÆral·ism, n. ruÆral·ist, ruÆral·iteÅ, n. ruÆral·ly, adv. ruÆral·ness, n. 1. unsophisticated, rough.
RURAL and RUSTIC are terms that refer to the country. RURAL is the official term: rural education.It may
be used subjectively, and usually in a favorable sense: the charm of rural life.RUSTIC, however, may have
either favorable or unfavorable connotations. In a derogatory sense, it means provincial, boorish, or
crude; in a favorable sense, it may suggest ruggedness or a homelike rural charm: rustic simplicity.Ant.
1. urban.
Sanction authoritative permission or approval, as for an action.2.something that serves to support an
action, condition, etc.
3.something that gives binding force, as to an oath, rule of conduct, etc.4.Law. a. a provision of a law
enacting a penalty for disobedience or a reward for obedience.b. the penalty or reward.5.Internat. Law.
action by one or more states toward another state calculated to force it to comply with legal
obligations.sancÆtion·a·ble, adj. sancÆtion·aÅtive, adj. sancÆtion·er, n. sancÆtion·less, adj. Syn. 6.
permit.Ant. 1. disapproval. 6. disapprove.
Settlement an arrangement or adjustment, as of business affairs or a disagreement.an agreement
signed after labor negotiations between union and management6.the terms reached in this
agreement.the settling of persons in a new country or place.
8.a colony, esp. in its early stages.9.a small community, village, or group of houses in a thinly populated
area.10a community formed and populated by members of a particular religious or ideological group: a
Shaker settlement.12.Law. a. final disposition of an estate or the like.b. the settling of property, title,
etc., upon a person. c. the property so settled.Also called setÆtlement houseÅ. Social Work. an
establishment in an underprivileged area providing social services to local residents.
Slum slummed, slum·ming. 1.Often, slums. a thickly populated, run-down, squalid part of a city,
inhabited by poor people.
2.any squalid, run-down place to live.3.to visit slums, esp. from curiosity.4.to visit or frequent a place,
group, or amusement spot considered to be low in social status.slumÆmer, n.
Smog smoke or other atmospheric pollutants combined with fog in an unhealthy or irritating
mixture.2.See photochemical smog.
3.to cover or envelop with or as if with smog.smogÆless, adj.
Sovereignty pl. -ties. .the status, dominion, power, or authority of a sovereign; royalty..supreme and
independent power or authority in government as possessed or claimed by a state or community..
rightful status, independence, or prerogative..a sovereign state, community, or political unit.
Statistics (used with a sing. v.) the science that deals with the collection, classification, analysis, and
interpretation of numerical facts or data, and that, by use of mathematical theories of probability,
imposes order and regularity on aggregates of more or less disparate elements.2.(used with a pl. v.) the
numerical facts or data themselves.
Tenement lso called tenÆement houseÅ. a run-down and often overcrowded apartment house, esp.
in a poor section of a large city.
2.Law.a. any species of permanent property, as lands, houses, rents, an office, or a franchise, that may
be held of another.
b. tenements, freehold interests in things immovable considered as subjects of property.3.Brit. an
apartment or room rented by a tenant.4. Archaic. any abode or habitation.ten·e·men·tal ,
ten·e·men·ta·ry adj. tenÆe·ment·ed, adj.
Textile
Tyranny pl.-nies. 1.arbitrary or unrestrained exercise of power; despotic abuse of authority.2.the
government or rule of a tyrant or absolute ruler.3.a state ruled by a tyrant or absolute ruler.4.oppressive
or unjustly severe government on the part of any ruler.
5. undue severity or harshness.6.a tyrannical act or proceeding.Syn. 1. despotism, absolutism,
dictatorship.
Unanimous 1.of one mind; in complete agreement; agreed. 2.characterized by or showing complete
agreement: a unanimous vote.
u·nanÆi·mous·ly, adv. u·nanÆi·mous·ness, n.
Urban of, pertaining to, or designating a city or town.2.living in a city.3.characteristic of or accustomed
to cities; citified: He is an urban type.
Wilderness a wild and uncultivated region, as of forest or desert, uninhabited or inhabited only by wild
animals; a tract of wasteland. 2.a tract of land officially designated as such and protected by the U.S.
government.3.any desolate tract, as of open sea.
4.a part of a garden set apart for plants growing with unchecked luxuriance.5.a bewildering mass or
collection.Syn. 1.e desert
GEOGRAPHY
ca·put n., pl. ca·pi·ta (kapÆi tÃ). Anat. any head or headlike expansion on a structure, as on a bone.
Aqueduct Civ. Eng. a. a conduit or artificial channel for conducting water from a distance, usually by
means of gravity.b. a bridgelike structure that carries a water conduit or canal across a valley or over a
river. 2.Anat. a canal or passage through which liquids pass.
Arable 1.capable of producing crops; suitable for farming; suited to the plow and for tillage: arable
land; arable soil.
2.land that can be or is cultivated.
Archipelago pl. -gos, -goes. 1.a large group or chain of islands: the Malay Archipelago.2.any large
body of water with many islands.3.the Archipelago, the Aegean Sea.ar·chi·pe·lag·ic ,
ar·chi·pe·la·gi·an
Arid adj. 1.being without moisture; extremely dry; parched: arid land; an arid climate.2barren or
unproductive because of lack of moisture: arid farmland.3.lacking interest or imaginativeness; sterile;
jejune: an arid treatment of an exciting topic.
Bay a body of water forming an indentation of the shoreline, larger than a cove but smaller than a
gulf.2.South Atlantic States. an arm of a swamp.3.a recess of land, partly surrounded by hills.4.an arm of
a prairie or swamp, extending into woods and partly surrounded by them.Syn. 1. inlet, estuary, sound,
firth, bight.
bay2 (b€), n1. Archit. a. any of a number of similar major vertical divisions of a large interior, wall,
etc.: The nave is divided into six bays. b. a division of a window between a mullion and an adjoining
mullion or jamb.c. See bay window (def. 1).
2.Aeron. a. any portion of an airplane set off by two successive bulkheads or other bracing members.b. a
compartment in an aircraft: a bomb bay; an engine bay.5.Naut. a. the deck space between the anchor
windlass and the stem of a vessel. b. See sick bay.
Syn. 3. alcove, nook, recess, niche; loft, garret.
bay3 1.a deep, prolonged howl, as of a hound on the scent.2.the position or stand of an animal or
fugitive that is forced to turn and resist pursuers because it is no longer possible to flee (usually prec. by
at or to): a stag at bay; to bring an escaped convict to bay.
3.the situation of a person or thing that is forced actively to oppose or to succumb to some adverse
condition (usually prec. by at or to).Syn. 5. roar, bellow, bark, bell, clamor.bays, fame; renown.bay5 n.
1reddish brown.
Bayou pl. -ous. Chiefly Lower Mississippi Valley and Gulf States. 1.a marshy arm, inlet, or outlet of a
lake, river, etc., usually sluggish or stagnant.2.any of various other often boggy and slow-moving or still
bodies of water.
Boundary -ries. 1.something that indicates bounds or limits; a limiting or bounding line.2.Also called
frontier. Math. the collection of all points of a given set having the property that every neighborhood of
each point contains points in the set and in the complement of the set.
Canyon a deep valley with steep sides, often with a stream flowing through it.Also, cañon.Syn. gorge,
gully, ravine, pass, gap, arroyo, coulee.
Climate
Coastal of, relating to, bordering on, or located near a coast: The coastal regions are inundated at high
tide.
Coniferous Bot.1.belonging or pertaining to the conifers. Cf. conifer : any of numerous, chiefly
evergreen trees or shrubs of the class Coniferinae (or group Coniferales), including the pine, fir, spruce,
and other cone-bearing trees and shrubs, and also the yews and their allies that bear drupelike seeds.2.a
plant producing naked seeds in cones, or single naked seeds as in yews, but with pollen always borne in
cones.
Crop cropped or (Archaic) cropt; crop·ping. 1.the cultivated produce of the ground, while growing or
when gathered: the wheat crop.2.the yield of such produce for a particular season.3.the yield of some
other product in a season: the crop of diamonds.
cropÆless, adj. .PRODUCE esp. denotes household vegetables: Produce from the fields and gardens was
taken to market.YIELD emphasizes what is given by the land in return for expenditure of time and labor:
There was a heavy yield of grain this year.
Cyclone a large-scale, atmospheric wind-and-pressure system characterized by low pressure at its
center and by circular wind motion, counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, clockwise in the
Southern Hemisphere. Cf. anticyclone, extratropical cyclone, tropical cyclone.2.(not in technical
use) tornado.3.Also called cyÆclone collecÆtor, cyÆclone sepÆarator. Mach. a device for removing
small or powdered solids from air, water, or other gases or liquids by centrifugal force.
Deciduous shedding the leaves annually, as certain trees and shrubs.2.falling off or shed at a particular
season, stage of growth, etc., as leaves, horns, or teeth.3.not permanent; transitory.
Delta the fourth in a series of items.4.anything triangular, like the Greek capital delta ( ). 5.Math. an
incremental change in a variable, as  or . 6.a nearly flat plain of alluvial deposit between diverging
branches of the mouth of a river, often, though not necessarily, triangular: the Nile delta.7.(usually cap.)
a word used in communications to represent the letter D.8.(cap.) Astron. a star that is usually the fourth
brightest of a constellation: The fourth brightest star in the Southern Cross is Delta Crucis.
Demographer de·mog·ra·phy n.the science of vital and social statistics, as of the births, deaths,
diseases, marriages, etc., of populations.
Drought a period of dry weather, esp. a long one that is injurious to crops.2.an extended shortage: a
drought of good writing.
3.Archaic. thirst.Also, drouth (drouth).Syn. 2. scarcity, lack, want, dearth, paucity, famine.
Elevation the height to which something is elevated or to which it rises: The elevation of the tower is 80
feet.2 the altitude of a place above sea level or ground level.3.an elevated place, thing, or part; an
eminence.4.loftiness; grandeur or dignity; nobleness: elevation of mind 8.Survey. a. Also called angle of
elevation. the angle between the line from an observer or instrument to an object above the observer or
instrument and a horizontal line.b. the distance above a datum level.9.the ability of a dancer to stay in
the air while executing a step or the height thus attained.10.the Elevation, Rom. Cath. Ch. the lifting by
the celebrant of the Eucharistic elements immediately after consecration, for adoration by the
communicants.Syn. 1. See height. 3. height; hill; mountain; plateau. 4. exaltation, nobility.Ant. 1.
depth.
Equinox the time when the sun crosses the plane of the earth's equator, making night and day of
approximately equal length all over the earth and occurring about March 21 (vernal equinox or spring
equinox)and September 22 (autumnal equinox). 2.either of the equinoctial points.
Erosion he process by which the surface of the earth is worn away by the action of water, glaciers,
winds, waves, etc.
Estuary pl. -ar·ies. 1.that part of the mouth or lower course of a river in which the river's current meets
the sea's tide.
2.an arm or inlet of the sea at the lower end of a river.
Fertile 1bearing, producing, or capable of producing vegetation, crops, etc., abundantly; prolific: fertile
soil.2.bearing or capable of bearing offspring.3.abundantly productive: a fertile imagination.4.producing
an abundance (usually fol. by of or in): a land fertile of wheat.5.conducive to productiveness: fertile
showers.6.Biol. a. fertilized, as an egg or ovum; fecundated.b. capable of growth or development, as
seeds or eggs.7.Bot. a. capable of producing sexual reproductive structures.b. capable of causing
fertilization, as an anther with fully developed pollen.c. having spore-bearing organs, as a
frond.8.Physics. (of a nuclide) capable of being transmuted into a fissile nuclide by irradiation with
neutrons: Uranium 238 and thorium 232 are fertile nuclides.Cf. fissile (def. 2).
9.produced in abundance.ferÆtile·ly, adv. ferÆtile·ness, n. Syn. 1–3. fecund, teeming. See productive.
Ant. 1–3. sterile, barren.
Fiord fjord 1.a long, narrow arm of the sea bordered by steep cliffs: usually formed by glacial
erosion.2.(in Scandinavia) a bay..
Geyser a hot spring that intermittently sends up fountainlike jets of water and steam into the air.2.Brit.
Informal. a hot-water heater, as for a bath.3.to spew forth as or like a geyser: the kettle geysering all
over the stove.
Glacier an extended mass of ice formed from snow falling and accumulating over the years and moving
very slowly, either descending from high mountains, as in valley glaciers, or moving outward from
centers of accumulation, as in continental glaciers.
Globe globed, glob·ing. . the planet Earth (usually prec. by the).2.a planet or other celestial body.3.a
sphere on which is depicted a map of the earth (terrestrial globe)or of the heavens (celestial globe).
Grassland an area, as a prairie, in which the natural vegetation consists largely of perennial grasses,
characteristic of subhumid and semiarid climates.2.land with grass growing on it, esp. farmland used for
grazing or pasture.
Gulf 1. a portion of an ocean or sea partly enclosed by land.2.a deep hollow; chasm or
abyss.3.any wide separation, as in position, status, or education.something that engulfs or to swallow up;
engulf.gulfÆlikeÅ, adj. —gulfÆy, adj. Syn. 2. canyon, gorge, gully, cleft, rift, split.
Harbor HARBOR, HAVEN, PORT indicate a shelter for ships. A HARBOR may be natural or artificially
constructed or improved: a fine harbor on the eastern coast.A HAVEN is usually a natural harbor that can
be utilized by ships as a place of safety; the word is common in literary use: a haven in time of storm; a
haven of refuge.A PORT is a HARBOR viewed esp. in its commercial relations, though it is frequently
applied in the meaning of HARBOR or HAVEN also: a thriving port; any old port in a storm. 3. asylum,
sanctuary, retreat. 4. protect, lodge. 6. See cherish.
Harvest 1.Also, harÆvest·ing. the gathering of crops.2.the season when ripened crops are
gathered.3.a crop or yield of one growing season.4.a supply of anything gathered at maturity and stored:
a harvest of wheat.
Horticulture the cultivation of a garden, orchard, or nursery; the cultivation of flowers, fruits,
vegetables, or ornamental plants.
2.the science and art of cultivating such plants.horÅti·culÆtur·al, adj. horÅti·culÆtur·ist, n.
Icecap a thick cover of ice over an area, sloping in all directions from the center.
Irrigation the artificial application of water to land to assist in the production of crops.2.Med. the
flushing or washing out of anything with water or other liquid.
Isthmus pl. -mus·es, -mi (-m ヘ). 1.a narrow strip of land, bordered on both sides by water, connecting
two larger bodies of land.
2.Anat., Zool. a connecting, usually narrow, part, organ, or passage, esp. when joining structures or
cavities larger than itself.
3.Ichthyol. the narrow fleshy area between the sides of the lower jaw of a fish.isthÆmoid, adj.
Lakefront the land along the edge of a lake: Property along the lakefront is more expensive every
year.Also called lakeshore.
Land and Land forms.
Landlocked shut in completely, or almost completely, by land: a landlocked bay.2.having no direct
access to the sea: a landlocked country.3.living in waters shut off from the sea, as some fish.
Marine of or pertaining to the sea; existing in or produced by the sea: marine vegetation.2.pertaining to
navigation or shipping; nautical; naval; maritime.3.serving on shipboard, as soldiers.4.of or belonging to
the marines.naval affairs, or the department of a government, as in France, having to do with such
affairs.dead marine, Australian Slang. an empty bottle of beer or spirits.
12.tell it or that to the marines! I don't believe your story; I refuse to be fooled.
Maritime connected with the sea in relation to navigation, shipping, etc.2.of or pertaining to the sea:
maritime resources.
3.bordering on the sea: maritime provinces.4.living near or in the sea: maritime plants.5. characteristic
of a sailor; nautical: maritime clothing.
Mesa a land formation, less extensive than a plateau, having steep walls and a relatively flat top and
common in arid and semiarid parts of the southwestern U.S. and Mexico.
Monsoon the seasonal wind of the Indian Ocean and southern Asia, blowing from the southwest in
summer and from the northeast in winter.2.(in India and nearby lands) the season during which the
southwest monsoon blows, commonly marked by heavy rains; rainy season.
Oceanic
Peninsula an area of land almost completely surrounded by water except for an isthmus connecting it
with the mainland.
2.the Peninsula, a. Spain and Portugal together; Iberian Peninsula; Iberia.b. a district in SE Virginia
between the York and James rivers: Civil War battles. pen·inÆsu·lar, adj. pen·inÆsu·lar·ism,
pen·in·su·lar·i·ty
Plateau pl. -teaus, -teaux v, -teaued, -teau·ing. 1.a land area having a relatively level surface
considerably raised above adjoining land on at least one side, and often cut by deep canyons.2.a period
or state of little or no growth or decline: to reach a plateau in one's career.3.Psychol. a period of little or
no apparent progress in an individual's learning, marked by an inability to increase speed, reduce
number of errors, etc., and indicated by a horizontal stretch in a learning curve or graph.4.a flat stand, as
for a centerpiece, sometimes extending the full length of a table.5.to reach a state or level of little or no
growth or decline, esp. to stop increasing or progressing; remain at a stable level of achievement; level
off: After a period of uninterrupted growth, sales began to plateau.
6.to cause to remain at a stable level, esp. to prevent from rising or progressing: Rising inflation
plateaued sales income.
Polar regions the regions within the Arctic and Antarctic circles.
Prairie1.an extensive, level or slightly undulating, mostly treeless tract of land in the Mississippi valley,
characterized by a highly fertile soil and originally covered with coarse grasses, and merging into drier
plateaus in the west. Cf. pampas, savanna, steppe.
2.a tract of grassland; meadow.3.(in Florida) a low, sandy tract of grassland often covered with
water.4.Southern U.S. wet grassland; marsh.5.(cap.) a steam locomotive having a two-wheeled front
truck, six driving wheels, and a two-wheeled rear truck. See table under Whyte classification.
Reef a ridge of rocks or sand, often of coral debris, at or near the surface of the water.2.Mining. a lode
or vein.
reef2 (r チ f), Naut. a part of a sail that is rolled and tied down to reduce the area exposed to the wind.
2.to shorten (sail) by tying in one or more reefs.3.to reduce the length of (a topmast, a bowsprit, etc.), as
by lowering, sliding inboard, or the like.4.to pull (old oakum) out of seams, as with a rave hook (often fol.
by out).
Reservoir 1.a natural or artificial place where water is collected and stored for use, esp. water for
supplying a community, irrigating land, furnishing power, etc.2.a receptacle or chamber for holding a
liquid or fluid.3.Geol. See under pool 1 (def. 6).
4. Biol. a cavity or part that holds some fluid or secretion.5.a place where anything is collected or
accumulated in great amount.
6.a large or extra supply or stock; reserve: a reservoir of knowledge.Syn. 5. store, pool, fund, stockpile,
hoard.
Savannah a seaport in E Georgia, near the mouth of the Savannah River 2.a river flowing SE from E
Georgia along most of the boundary between Georgia and South Carolina and into the Atlantic. 314 mi.
(505 km) long.
Steppe an extensive plain, esp. one without trees.2.The Steppes, a. the vast grasslands, esp. those in
the S and E European and W and SW Asian parts of Russia.b See Kirghiz Steppe.
Strait Often, straits. (used with a sing. v.) a narrow passage of water connecting two large bodies of
water.2.Often, straits. a position of difficulty, distress, or need: Ill and penniless, he was in sad straits
indeed.3.Archaic. a narrow passage or area.
4.an isthmus.adj. Archaic. narrow: Strait is the gate.. affording little space; confined in area.strict, as
in requirements or principles.
straitÆly, adv. straitÆness, n. Syn. 2. exigency, pinch, dilemma, predicament, plight. See emergency.
Ant. 2. ease.
Terracing 1.something formed as a terrace.2.a system of terraces.3.the act or process of making
terraces.
Tidewater water affected by the flow and ebb of the tide.2.the water covering tideland at flood
tide.seacoast.
Topography pl. -phies. the detailed mapping or charting of the features of a relatively small area,
district, or locality.
2.the detailed description, esp. by means of surveying, of particular localities, as cities, towns, or
estates.3.the relief features or surface configuration of an area.4.the features, relations, or configuration
of a structural entity.5.a schema of a structural entity, as of the mind, a field of study, or society,
reflecting a division into distinct areas having a specific relation or a specific position relative to one
another.top·o·graph·ic topÅo·graphÆi·cal, adj. topÅo·graphÆi·cal·ly, adv.
Tundra one of the vast, nearly level, treeless plains of the arctic regions of Europe, Asia, and North
America.
Typhoon a tropical cyclone or hurricane of the western Pacific area and the China seas.2.a violent
storm or tempest of India.
3. (cap.) Mila. a single-engine British ground attack aircraft of World War II.b. NATO's name for a class of
nuclear-powered Soviet ballistic missile submarine carrying 20 multiwarhead missiles.
Weather
Blizzard Meteorol.a. a storm with dry, driving snow, strong winds, and intense cold.b. a heavy and
prolonged snowstorm covering a wide area.2.an inordinately large amount all at one time; valanche: a
blizzard of Christmas cards.3.to snow as a blizzard: Looks as though it's going to blizzard tonight.—
blizÆzard·y, blizÆzard·ly, adj.
Condensation reduction of a book, speech, statement, or the like, to a shorter or terser form;
abridgment.4.a condensed form: Did you read the whole book or just a condensation?5.a condensed
mass.6.(in nontechnical usage) condensate.7.the act or process of reducing a gas or vapor to a liquid or
solid form.8.Chem. a reaction between two or more organic molecules leading to the formation of a
larger molecule and the elimination of a simple molecule such as water or alcohol.9.Meteorol. the
process by which atmospheric water vapor liquefies to form fog, clouds, or the like, or solidifies to form
snow or hail.10.Psychoanal. the representation of two or more ideas, memories, feelings, or impulses by
one word or image, as in a person's humor, accidental slips, or dreams.
11.Physics. the relative amount by which the density of an elastic medium varies from its average value
as a sound wave passes through it.conÅden·saÆtion·al, adj. conÆden·saÅtive, adj.
Convection Physics. the transfer of heat by the circulation or movement of the heated parts of a liquid
or gas.2.Meteorol. the vertical transport of atmospheric properties, esp. upward (distinguished from
advection).3.the act of conveying or transmitting.
con·vecÆtion·al, adj.
Evaporation
Front Meteorol. an interface or zone of transition between two dissimilar air masses.
Frontal system
Precipitation a casting down or falling headlong.3 a hastening or hurrying in movement, procedure, or
action.4.sudden haste.
5.unwise or rash rapidity.6.Meteorol. a. falling products of condensation in the atmosphere, as rain,
snow, or hail.
b. the amount of rain, snow, hail, etc., that has fallen at a given place within a given period, usually
expressed in inches or centimeters of water.7.Chem., Physics. the precipitating of a substance from a
solution.
Basic Concepts
Accelerate to cause faster or greater activity, development, progress, advancement, etc., in: to
accelerate economic growth.
2.to hasten the occurrence of: to accelerate the fall of a government.3.Mech. to change the velocity of (a
body) or the rate of (motion); cause to undergo acceleration.4.to reduce the time required for (a course
of study) by intensifying the work, eliminating detail, etc 5.to move or go faster; increase in speed.6.
to progress or develop faster.ac·celÆer·a·ble, adj. ac·celÆer·atÅed·ly, adv.
Circumference the outer boundary, esp. of a circular area; perimeter: the circumference of a
circle.2.the length of such a boundary: a one-mile circumference.3.the area within a bounding line: the
vast circumference of his mind.Syn. 1. periphery, circuit.
Data
Hypothesis pl. -ses 1.a proposition, or set of propositions, set forth as an explanation for the
occurrence of some specified group of phenomena, either asserted merely as a provisional conjecture to
guide investigation (working hypothesis)or accepted as highly probable in the light of established
facts.hy·pothÆe·sist, n. —Syn. 1. See theory.
Liter a unit of capacity redefined in 1964 by a reduction of 28 parts in a million to be exactly equal to
one cubic decimeter. It is equivalent to 1.0567 U.S. liquid quarts and is equal to the volume of one
kilogram of distilled water at 4°C. Abbr.: l esp. Brit., litre.
Vertical 1.being in a position or direction perpendicular to the plane of the horizon; upright; plumb.2.of,
pertaining to, or situated at the vertex.3.of or pertaining to the cranial vertex.4.Bot.a. (of a leaf) having
the blade in a perpendicular plane, so that neither of the surfaces can be called upper or lower.b. being
in the same direction as the axis; lengthwise.verÅti·calÆi·ty, verÆti·cal·ness, verÆti·cal·ism, n.
verÆti·cal·ly, adv. Syn. 1. See upright.Ant. 1. horizontal.
Volume 1.a collection of written or printed sheets bound together and constituting a book.2.one book
of a related set or series.3.a set of issues of a periodical, often covering one year.4. Hist. a roll of
papyrus, parchment, or the like, or of manuscript.5.the amount of space, measured in cubic units, that
an object or substance occupies.6. a mass or quantity, esp. a large quantity, of something: a volume of
mail.7.amount; total: the volume of sales.8.the degree of sound intensity or audibility; loudness: to turn
up the volume on a radio.
Biology
Cellular pertaining to or characterized by cellules or cells, esp. minute compartments or cavities.2.of or
pertaining to cellular phones.
Enzymes of or pertaining to an enzyme.Also, en·zy·mic
Evolution 1.any process of formation or growth; development: the evolution of a language; the
evolution of the airplane.
2.a product of such development; something evolved: The exploration of space is the evolution of
decades of research.
3.Biol. change in the gene pool of a population from generation to generation by such processes as
mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift.4.a process of gradual, peaceful, progressive change or
development, as in social or economic structure or institutions.
.Math. the extraction of a root from a quantity. Cf. involution (def. 8).9.a movement or one of a
series of movements of troops, ships, etc., as for disposition in order of battle or in line on
parade.10.any similar movement, esp. in close order drill.
evÅo·luÆtion·al, adj. evÅo·luÆtion·al·ly, adv. Syn. 1. unfolding, change, progression,
metamorphosis.Ant. 1. stasis, inactivity, changelessness.
Genetics
Organism a form of life composed of mutually interdependent parts that maintain various vital
processes.2.a form of life considered as an entity; an animal, plant, fungus, protistan, or
moneran.3.any organized body or system conceived of as analogous to a living being: the
governmental organism.4.any complex thing or system having properties and functions determined
not only by the properties and relations of its individual parts, but by the character of the whole that
they compose and by the relations of the parts to the whole.orÅgan·isÆmic, orÅgan·isÆmal, adj.
orÅgan·isÆmi·cal·ly, adv. . organization, network, entity, structure.
Proteins
Chemistry
Atom
Bonding Psychol., Animal Behav.a. a relationship that usually begins at the time of birth between a
parent and offspring and that establishes the basis for an ongoing mutual attachment.b. the
establishment of a pair bond.2.a close friendship that develops between adults, often as a result of
intense experiences, as those shared in military combat.3.Dentistry. a technique or procedure for
restoring the discolored or damaged surface of a tooth by coating it with a highly durable resinous
material that adheres to the existing enamel.
Catalyst Chem. a substance that causes or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being
affected.2.something that causes activity between two or more persons or forces without itself being
affected.3.a person or thing that precipitates an event or change: His imprisonment by the
government served as the catalyst that helped transform social unrest into revolution.
4.a person whose talk, enthusiasm, or energy causes others to be more friendly, enthusiastic, or
energetic.
Compounds (adj. komÆpound, kom poundÆ; n. komÆpound; v. kÃm poundÆ, komÆpound), adj.
1.composed of two or more parts, elements, or ingredients: Soap is a compound substance.something
formed by compounding or combining parts, elements, etc.Chem. a pure substance composed of two
or more elements whose composition is constant.com·poundÆa·ble, adj. com·poundÆed·ness, n.
com·poundÆer, n.
Element Chem. one of a class of substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances by
chemical means.
Hydrocarbon ny of a class of compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon, as an alkane,
methane, CH4, an alkene, ethylene, C2H4, an alkyne, acetylene, C2H2, or an aromatic compound,
benzene, C6H6.
Molecules the smallest physical unit of an element or compound, consisting of one or more like
atoms in an element and two or more different atoms in a compound.2.Chem. a quantity of a
substance, the weight of which, measured in any chosen unit, is numerically equal to the molecular
weight; gram molecule.3.any very small particle.
Energy
Conductor a substance, body, or device that readily conducts heat, electricity, sound, etc.: Copper is
a good conductor of electricity.
Inertia 1.inertness, esp. with regard to effort, motion, action, and the like; inactivity; sluggishness.
2.Physics. a. the property of matter by which it retains its state of rest or its velocity along a straight
line so long as it is not acted upon by an external force.b. an analogous property of a force: electric
inertia.3.Med. lack of activity, esp. as applied to a uterus during childbirth when its contractions have
decreased or stopped.in·erÆtial, adj. Syn. 1. torpor, inaction, laziness.
Kinetic 1.pertaining to motion.2.caused by motion.3.characterized by movement: Running and
dancing are kinetic activities.
ki·netÆi·cal·ly, adv. -kinetic, a combining form found on adjectives that correspond to nouns ending in
-kinesia or -kinesis: bradykinetic.
Solar of or pertaining to the sun: solar phenomena.2.determined by the sun: solar hour.3.proceeding
from the sun, as light or heat.a private or upper chamber in a medieval English house.Also, sollar,
soller.
Turbine any of various machines having a rotor, usually with vanes or blades, driven by the pressure,
momentum, or reactive thrust of a moving fluid, as steam, water, hot gases, or air, either occurring in
the form of free jets or as a fluid passing through and entirely filling a housing around the rotor. Cf.
impulse turbine, reaction turbine.
Voltage
Experiments
Binocular
Concave -caved, -cav·ing. 1.curved like a segment of the interior of a circle or hollow sphere;
hollow and curved. Cf. convex
2.Geom. (of a polygon) having at least one interior angle greater than 180°.3.Obs. hollow.4. a
concave surface, part, line, or thing.5.Mach. a concave piece, as one against which a drum
rotates.6.to make concave.con·caveÆly, adv. —con·caveÆness, Convex having a surface that is
curved or rounded outward. Cf. concave 2.Math.a. (of a polygon) having all interior angles less than
or equal to 180°.b. (of a set) having the property that for each pair of points in the set the line joining
the points is wholly contained in the set.3. a convex surface, part, or thing.con·vexÆly,
con·vex·ed·ly adv. con·vexÆed·ness, n.
Diffuse to pour out and spread, as a fluid.2.to spread or scatter widely or thinly;
disseminate.3.Physics. to spread by diffusion.
4.to spread.5.Physics. to intermingle by diffusion.6.characterized by great length or discursiveness in
speech or writing; wordy.
7.widely spread or scattered; dispersed.8. Bot. widely or loosely spreading.9. Optics. (of reflected
light) scattered, as from a rough surface (opposed to specular).dif·fuse·ly adv. dif·fuseÆness, n.
Formula . -las, -lae 1.a set form of words, as for stating or declaring something definitely or
authoritatively, for indicating procedure to be followed, or for prescribed use on some ceremonial
occasion.2.any fixed or conventional method for doing something: His mystery stories were written
according to a popular formula.3.Matha. a rule or principle, frequently expressed in algebraic
symbols.b. such a symbolic expression.4.Chem. an expression of the constituents of a compound by
symbols and figures. Cf. empirical formula, molecular formula, structural formula.a special
nutritive mixture, esp. of milk, sugar, and water, in prescribed proportions for feeding a baby.a formal
statement of religious doctrine.
8.(cap.) a set of specifications as to weight, engine displacement, fuel capacity, etc., for defining a
class of racing cars (usually followed by a limiting numerical designation): Some races are open to
Formula One cars.
Heat
Insoluble 1.incapable of being dissolved: insoluble salts.. incapable of being solved or explained:
an insoluble problem.
Vacuum pl. vac·u·ums for 1, 2, 4–6, vac·u·a for 1, 2, 4, 6; adj.; v.1.a space entirely devoid of
matter.2.an enclosed space from which matter, esp. air, has been partially removed so that the
matter or gas remaining in the space exerts less pressure than the atmosphere (opposed to
plenum).3.the state or degree of exhaustion in such an enclosed space.4.a space not filled or
occupied; emptiness; void: The loss left a vacuum in his heart.5.a vacuum cleaner or
sweeper.6.Physics. a state of lowest energy in a quantum field theory.7.of, pertaining to, employing,
or producing a vacuum.8.(of a hollow container) partly exhausted of gas or air.9.pertaining to a device
or process that makes use of a vacuum to accomplish a desired task.10.noting or pertaining to
canning or packaging in which air is removed from the container to prevent deterioration of the
contents. 11.to use a vacuum cleaner on; clean with a vacuum cleaner: to vacuum rugs.12. to
treat with any vacuum device, as a vacuum drier.13.to use a vacuum cleaner: to vacuum in the dining
room.
Vapor 1.a visible exhalation, as fog, mist, steam, smoke, or noxious gas, diffused through or
suspended in the air: the vapors rising from the bogs.2.Physics. a gas at a temperature below its
critical temperature.3.a substance converted into vapor for technical or medicinal uses.4.a
combination of a vaporized substance and air.5.gaseous particles of drugs that can be inhaled as a
therapeutic agent. Brit., vapour.—vaÆpor·a·ble, adj. vaÅpor·a·bilÆi·ty, n. vaÆpor·er, n. vaÆpor·less,
adj. vaÆpor·likeÅ, adj.
Geology
Lava the molten, fluid rock that issues from a volcano or volcanic vent.2.the rock formed when
this solidifies, occurring in many varieties differing greatly in structure and constitution.
Tectonic plate adj. 1.of or pertaining to building or construction; constructive;
architectural.2.Geol. a. pertaining to the structure of the earth's crust.b. referring to the forces
or conditions within the earth that cause movements of the crust.
c. designating the results of such movements: tectonic valleys.tec·tonÆi·cal·ly, adv.
Mass a body of coherent matter, usually of indefinite shape and often of considerable size: a
mass of dough.2.a collection of incoherent particles, parts, or objects regarded as forming one
body: a mass of sand.3.aggregate; whole (usually prec. by in the): People, in the mass, mean
well.4.a considerable assemblage, number, or quantity: a mass of errors; a mass of
troops.5.bulk, size, expanse, or massiveness: towers of great mass and strength.6.Fine Arts. a.
Painting. an expanse of color or tone that defines form or shape in general outline rather than in
detail. b. a shape or three-dimensional volume that has or gives the illusion of having weight,
density, and bulk.7.the main body, bulk, or greater part of anything: the great mass of American
films.8. Physics. the quantity of matter as determined from its weight or from Newton's
second law of motion. Abbr.: m Cf. weight (def. 2), relativistic mass, rest mass. 9.Pharm. a
preparation of thick, pasty consistency, from which pills are made.mass·ed·ly Syn. 2.
assemblage, heap, congeries. 4. collection, accumulation, pile, conglomeration. 5. magnitude,
dimension. See size 1. 7. majority. 10. proletariat, plebeians. 17. collect, marshal, amass,
aggregate.Ant. 17. disperse.
Refraction Physics. the change of direction of a ray of light, sound, heat, or the like, in passing
obliquely from one medium into another in which its wave velocity is different.2.Ophthalm.a. the
ability of the eye to refract light that enters it so as to form an image on the retina.b. the
determining of the refractive condition of the eye.3. Astron. a. Also called
astronomical refraction. the amount, in angular measure, by which the altitude of a celestial
body is increased by the refraction of its light in the earth's atmosphere, being zero at the zenith
and a maximum at the horizon.b. the observed altered location, as seen from the earth, of
another planet or the like due to diffraction by the atmosphere.
re·fracÆtion·al, adj.
Desalinization de·salt , v.tto remove the salt from (esp. sea water), usually to make it
drinkable.Also, desalinate, desalinize.
Fission act of cleaving or splitting into parts.2.Also called nuclear fission. Physics. the
splitting of the nucleus of an atom into nuclei of lighter atoms, accompanied by the release of
energy. Cf. fusion 3.Biol. the division of an organism into new organisms as a process of
reproduction.4.Physics. to undergo fission.5.Physics. to cause to undergo fission.
Fusion the act or process of fusing; the state of being fused.2.that which is fused; the result of
fusing: A ballet production is the fusion of many talents.3.Politicsa. a coalition of parties or
factions. b. (cap) the political party resulting from such a coalition.4.Also called nuclear
fusion. Physics. a thermonuclear reaction in which nuclei of light atoms join to form nuclei of
heavier atoms, as the combination of deuterium atoms to form helium atoms. Cf. fission (def.
2).
5.Ophthalm. a. Also called binocular fusion. the correct blending of the images of both eyes.b.
the perception of rapid, intermittent flashes of light as a continuous beam.6.popular music that
is a blend of two styles, esp. a combining of jazz with either rock, classical music, or such ethnic
elements as Brazilian or Japanese music.. Ling. the merging of linguistic elements, esp.
morphemes, usually accompanied by a change in the form of the elements.8.(of food) combining
usually widely differing ethnic or regional ingredients, styles, or techniques: a restaurant serving
French-Thai fusion cuisine; a fusion menu.—fuÆsion·al, adj.
Ionization to separate or change into ions.2.to produce ions in.3. to become changed into
the form of ions, as by dissolving.Also, esp. Brit., iÆon·iseÅ
Oxidation
Reduction the act of reducing or the state of being reduced.2.the amount by which something
is reduced or diminished.
3.a form produced by reducing; a copy on a smaller scale.4.Cell Biol. meiosis, esp. the first
meiotic cell division in which the chromosome number is reduced by half.5.Chem. the process or
result of reducing.
Constellation Astron a. any of various groups of stars to which definite names have been
given, as Ursa Major, Ursa Minor, Boötes, Cancer, Orion. b. the section of the heavens occupied
by such a group. 2.Astrol. a. the grouping or relative position of the stars as supposed to
influence events, esp. at a person's birth.b. Obs. character as presumed to be determined by the
stars.3.a group or configuration of ideas, feelings, characteristics, objects, etc., that are related
in some way: a constellation of qualities that made her particularly suited to the job.4.any
brilliant, outstanding group or assemblage: a constellation of great scientists.con·stel·la·to·ry
Syn. 4. gathering, company, circle.
Eclipse e·clipsed, e·clips·ing. 1.Astron. a. the obscuration of the light of the moon by the
intervention of the earth between it and the sun (lunar eclipse)or the obscuration of the light of
the sun by the intervention of the moon between it and a point on the earth (solar eclipse).b. a
similar phenomenon with respect to any other planet and either its satellite or the sun. c. the
partial or complete interception of the light of one component of a binary star by the other.2.any
obscuration of light.
Gravity pl. -ties. 1 the force of attraction by which terrestrial bodies tend to fall toward the
center of the earth. 2.heaviness or weight. 3 gravitation in general. 4.See acceleration of
gravity. 5.a unit of acceleration equal to the acceleration of gravity. Symbol: g6.serious or
critical nature: He seemed to ignore the gravity of his illness.
7.serious or dignified behavior; dignity; solemnity: to preserve one's gravity.8.lowness in pitch,
as of sounds.
Syn. 6. seriousness, danger, emergency, import.
Descriptive words
Adequate as much or as good as necessary for some requirement or purpose; fully sufficient,
suitable, or fit (often fol. by to or for): This car is adequate to our needs. adequate food for fifty
people.2.barely sufficient or suitable: Being adequate is not good enough.3.Law. reasonably
sufficient for starting legal action: adequate grounds.adÆe·quate·ly, adv.
—adÆe·quate·ness, n. Syn. 1. satisfactory, competent, sufficient, enough; capable.
Assured guaranteed; sure; certain; secure: an assured income.2.bold; confident; authoritative:
His art was both assured and facile.3.boldly presumptuous.4.Chiefly Brit. insured, as against
loss.5.Insurance. a. the beneficiary under a policy.
b. the person whose life or property is covered by a policy.as·sur·ed·ly adv. as·surÆed·ness, n.
Authoritative having due authority; having the sanction or weight of authority: an authoritative
opinion.
2.substantiated or supported by documentary evidence and accepted by most authorities in a
field: an authoritative edition of Shakespeare; an authoritative treatment of a subject.3.having
an air of authority; accustomed to exercising authority; positive; peremptory; dictatorial: said
with an authoritative air.au·thorÆi·taÅtive·ly, adv. au·thorÆi·taÅtive·ness, n.
Syn. 1. official. 3. dogmatic, authoritarian.
Bold er, -est. 1.not hesitating or fearful in the face of actual or possible danger or rebuff;
courageous and daring: a bold hero. . make bold, to presume or venture; dare: I made bold to
offer my suggestion.boldÆly, adv. boldÆness, n. Syn. 1. fearless, adventurous, brave, valiant,
intrepid, valorous, dauntless. 2. BOLD, BRAZEN, FORWARD, PRESUMPTUOUS may refer to
manners in a derogatory way. BOLD suggests impudence, shamelessness, and immodesty: a
bold stare.BRAZEN suggests the same, together with a defiant manner: a brazen liar.FORWARD
implies making oneself unduly prominent or bringing oneself to notice with too much assurance.
PRESUMPTUOUS implies overconfidence, effrontery, taking too much for granted.Ant. 2. modest.
Capable aving power and ability; efficient; competent: a capable instructor.2.capable of, a.
having the ability or capacity for: a man capable of judging art.b. open to the influence or effect
of; susceptible of: a situation capable of improvement.c. predisposed to; inclined to: capable of
murder.caÆpa·ble·ness, n. caÆpa·bly, adv. Syn. 1. skillful, ingenious, accomplished. See able.
Cautious showing, using, or characterized by caution: a cautious man; To be cautious is often
to show wisdom.
cauÆtious·ly, adv. cauÆtious·ness, n. Syn. prudent, guarded, wary, chary, circumspect,
watchful, vigilant. See careful.
Competent 1. having suitable or sufficient skill, knowledge, experience, etc., for some
purpose; properly qualified: He is perfectly competent to manage the bank branch.2.adequate
but not exceptional.3.Law. (of a witness, a party to a contract, etc.) having legal
competence.4.Geol. (of a bed or stratum) able to undergo folding without flowage or change in
thickness.comÆpe·tent·ly, adv. Syn. 1. fit, capable, proficient. See able.
Concerned interested or affected: concerned citizens.2.troubled or anxious: a concerned
look.3.having a connection or involvement; participating: They arrested all those concerned in
the kidnapping.
Courageous possessing or characterized by courage; brave: a courageous speech against the
dictator.cou·raÆgeous·ly, adv. cou·raÆgeous·ness, n. Syn. See brave.
Curious inquisitive
Daring 1.adventurous courage; boldness.—adj. 2.bold or courageous; fearless or intrepid;
adventurous.darÆing·ly, adv. darÆing·ness, n. —Syn. 1. audacity, bravery. 2. dauntless,
undaunted, venturesome, audacious, brave.Ant. 1. caution.
Determined resolute; staunch: the determined defenders of the Alamo.2.decided; settled;
resolved.3.Gram. (of a phonetic feature) predictable from its surrounding context.de·ter·mined·ly
adv. de·terÆmined·ness, n. Syn. 1. inflexible, unfaltering, unwavering.
Durable .able to resist wear, decay, etc., well; lasting; enduring. 2.durables. See durable
goods.duÅra·bilÆi·ty, duÆra·ble·ness, n. —duÆra·bly, adv. Syn. 1. permanent.Ant. 1. weak,
transitory.
Dynamic dy·namÆi·cal. 1.pertaining to or characterized by energy or effective action;
vigorously active or forceful; energetic: the dynamic president of the firm..2.Physics a. of or
pertaining to force or power.b. of or pertaining to force related to motion.3.pertaining to the
science of dynamics.4.of or pertaining to the range of volume of musical sound.5.Computers. (of
data storage, processing, or programming) affected by the passage of time or the presence or
absence of power: Dynamic memory must be constantly refreshed to avoid losing data.6.Gram.
nonstative.or dynamic force, esp. one that motivates, affects development or stability,
etc.dy·namÆi·cal·ly, adv.
Eager .keen or ardent in desire or feeling; impatiently longing: I am eager for news about them.
He is eager to sing.
2.characterized by or revealing great earnestness: an eager look.3.Obs. keen; sharp;
biting.eaÆger·ly, adv. eaÆger·ness, n. Syn. 1. enthusiastic, desirous. See avid. 2. fervent,
zealous, fervid, intent, intense, earnest.Ant. 1, 2. indifferent, uninterested. 2. heedless.
Fearless
Firm 1adj., -er, -est, v., adv., -er, -est.
1.not soft or yielding when pressed; comparatively solid, hard, stiff, or rigid: firm ground; firm
texture.2.securely fixed in place.3.not shaking or trembling; steady: a firm voice.4.not likely to change;
fixed; settled; unalterable: a firm belief.
5.steadfast or unwavering, as persons or principles: firm friends.6.indicating firmness or determination: a
firm expression.
7.not fluctuating much or falling, as prices, values, etc.: The stock market was firm today.8.to make firm;
tighten or strengthen (sometimes fol. by up): to firm up one's hold on something.9.to steady or fix
(sometimes fol. by up): to firm up prices.10.to become firm or fixed (sometimes fol. by up): Butter firms by
churning.11.(of prices, markets, etc.) to recover; become stronger, as after a decline (sometimes fol. by
up): Stock prices firmed again today.12.firmly: He stood firm.
firmÆly, adv. firmÆness, n. Syn. 1. FIRM, HARD, SOLID, STIFF are applied to substances that tend to retain
their form unaltered in spite of pressure or force. FIRM often implies that something has been brought from
a yielding state to a fixed or elastic one: An increased amount of pectin makes jellies firm.HARD is applied
to substances so resistant that it is difficult to make any impression upon their surface or to penetrate
their interior: as hard as a stone.SOLID is applied to substances that without external support retain their
form and resist pressure: Water in the form of ice is solid.It sometimes denotes the opposite of hollow: a
solid block of marble.STIFF implies rigidity that resists a bending force: as stiff as a poker. 2. fast, stable,
immovable. 4. established, confirmed. 5. determined, immovable, staunch, reliable.
Ant. 1. yielding, soft.
firm2 (fûrm), n. 1.a partnership or association for carrying on a business.2.the name or title
under which associated parties transact business: the firm of Smith & Jones.Syn. 1. company,
business, concern, house.
Forceful 1.full of force; powerful; vigorous; effective: a forceful plea for peace.2.acting or
driven with force.
forceÆful·ly, adv. forceÆful·ness, n. Syn. 1. cogent, telling.
Gallant brave, spirited, noble-minded, or chivalrous: a gallant knight; a gallant rescue
attempt.2.exceptionally polite and attentive to women; courtly.3.stately; grand: a gallant
pageant.4.showy, colorful, or stylish, as in dress; magnificent.
5.amorous; amatory.6.a brave, noble-minded, or chivalrous man.7.a man exceptionally attentive
to women.
8.a stylish and dashing man.9.a suitor or lover.10.a paramour.11.to court or act as a lover of (a
woman).12.to escort (a woman).13.to attend or pay court as a gallant.galÆlant·ly, adv.
galÆlant·ness, n. Syn. 1. valorous, courageous, heroic, bold, daring, intrepid. See brave. 2.
chivalrous, courteous.
Hardy adj., -di·er, -di·est. 1.capable of enduring fatigue, hardship, exposure, etc.; sturdy;
strong: hardy explorers of northern Canada.2.(of plants) able to withstand the cold of winter in
the open air.3.requiring great physical courage, vigor, or endurance: the hardiest sports.4.bold
or daring; courageous: hardy soldiers.5.unduly bold; presumptuous; foolhardy.Syn. 1. vigorous,
robust, hale, stout, sound. 4. intrepid, resolute, brave.Ant. 1. weak. 4. timid.
Influential having or exerting influence, esp. great influence: three influential educators.2.a
person who exerts or can exert strong influence: according to influentials of the fashion
industry.inÅflu·enÆtial·ly, adv. Syn. 1. consequential, forceful, important.
Innocent
Intense existing or occurring in a high or extreme degree: intense heat.2.acute, strong, or
vehement, as sensations, feelings, or emotions: intense anger.3.of an extreme kind; very great,
as in strength, keenness, severity, or the like: an intense gale.4.having a characteristic quality in
a high degree: The intense sunlight was blinding.5.strenuous or earnest, as activity, exertion,
diligence, or thought: an intense life.6.exhibiting a high degree of some quality or
action.7.having or showing great strength, strong feeling, or tension, as a person, the face, or
language. 8.susceptible to strong emotion; emotional: an intense person.9.(of color) very deep:
intense red.10.Photog. dense (def. 4).
in·tenseÆly, adv. in·tenseÆness, n. Syn. 2. fervent, passionate, ardent, strong.

Lively -li·er, -li·est, adv. 1.full or suggestive of life or vital energy; active, vigorous, or brisk: a
lively discussion.
2.animated, spirited, vivacious, or sprightly: a lively tune; a lively wit.3.eventful, stirring, or
exciting: The opposition gave us a lively time.4.bustling with activity; astir: The marketplace was
lively with vendors.5.strong, keen, or distinct; vivid: a lively recollection.6.striking, telling, or
effective, as an expression or instance.7.vivid or bright, as color or light: a lively
pink.8.sparkling, as wines.9.fresh or invigorating, as air: a lively breeze.10.rebounding quickly;
springing back; resilient: a lively tennis ball.11.riding the sea buoyantly, as a ship.12.with
briskness, vigor, or animation; briskly: to step lively.
liveÆli·ness, n. Syn. 1. alert, spry, nimble, agile, quick, pert. 2. gay, buoyant. 5. forceful, clear.
7. brilliant, clear, glowing.
Ant. 1. inactive, torpid. 2. dull. 5. weak. 7. dim.
Loose loos·er, loos·est, adv., v. loosed, loos·ing. 1.free or released from fastening or
attachment: a loose end.
2.free from anything that binds or restrains; unfettered: loose cats prowling around in alleyways
at night.
3.uncombined, as a chemical element.4.not bound together: to wear one's hair loose..not
cohering: loose sand.
.not strict, exact, or precise: a loose interpretation of the law..Sportsa. having the players on a
team positioned at fairly wide intervals, as in a football formation.b. (of a ball, hockey puck, etc.)
not in the possession of either team; out of player control..hang or stay loose, Slang. to remain
relaxed and unperturbed..on the loose,a. free; unconfined, as, esp., an escaped convict or
circus animal.b. behaving in an unrestrained or dissolute way: a bachelor on the loose.21.in a
loose manner; loosely (usually used in combination): loose-flowing..break loose, to free oneself;
escape: The convicts broke loose..cast loose, a. to loosen or unfasten, as a ship from a
mooring.b. to send forth; set adrift or free: He was cast loose at an early age to make his own
way in the world..cut loose, a. to release from domination or control.b. to become free,
independent, etc.c. to revel without restraint: After the rodeo they headed into town to cut
loose..let loose, a. to free or become free.b. to yield; give way: The guardrail let loose and we
very nearly plunged over the edge..turn loose, to release or free, as from confinement: The
teacher turned the children loose after the class..looseÆly, adv. —looseÆness, Syn. 2. unbound,
untied, unrestricted, unconfined. 10. libertine, dissolute, licentious. 17. vague, general,
indefinite. 27. loosen, unbind. 28. liberate. 32. ease.Ant. 1. bound. 10. chaste. 32. tighten.
Manly adj., -li·er, -li·est, adv. 1.having qualities traditionally ascribed to men, as strength or
bravery.2.pertaining to or suitable for males: manly sports.3.Archaic. in a manly
manner.manÆli·ness, n. Syn. MANLY, MANFUL, MANNISH mean having the traits or qualities that
a culture regards as especially characteristic of or ideally appropriate to adult men. MANLY is
usually a term of approval, suggesting traits admired by society, such as determination,
decisiveness, and steadiness: a manly acceptance of the facts; manly firmness of
character.MANFUL, also a term of approval, stresses qualities such as courage, strength, and
fortitude: a manful effort to overcome great odds.MANNISH is most often used derogatorily in
reference to the traits, manners, or accouterments of a woman that are thought to be more
appropriate to or typical of a man: a mannish abruptness in her speech; She wore a severely
mannish suit.See also male.
Ant. 1. weak, cowardly.
Mighty might·i·er, might·i·est, adv., 1.having, characterized by, or showing superior power
or strength: mighty rulers.
2.of great size; huge: a mighty oak.3.great in amount, extent, degree, or importance;
exceptional: a mighty accomplishment.4.Informal. very; extremely: I'm mighty pleased.5.(used
with a pl. v.) mighty persons collectively (usually prec. by the): the rich and the
mighty.mightÆi·ness, n. Syn. 1. strong, puissant. See powerful. 2. immense, enormous,
tremendous, sizable.Ant. 1. feeble. 2. small.
Outstanding prominent; conspicuous; striking: an outstanding example of courage.2.marked
by superiority or distinction; excellent; distinguished: an outstanding student.3.continuing in
existence; remaining unsettled, unpaid, etc.: outstanding debts.4.(of securities and the like)
publicly issued and sold or in circulation.outÅstandÆing·ly, adv. outÅstandÆing·ness, n. Syn. 1.
eminent. 3. owing, due.
Robust 1.strong and healthy; hardy; vigorous: a robust young man; a robust faith; a robust
mind.
2.strongly or stoutly built: his robust frame.3suited to or requiring bodily strength or endurance:
robust exercise.
4.rough, rude, or boisterous: robust drinkers and dancers.5.rich and full-bodied: the robust flavor
of freshly brewed coffee.ro·bustÆly, adv. ro·bustÆness, n. Syn. 1. powerful, sound. 4. coarse,
rambunctious. Ant. 1. feeble. 2. weak.
Secure cur·er, -cur·est, v., -cured, -cur·ing. adj. 1.free from or not exposed to danger or
harm; safe.
2.dependable; firm; not liable to fail, yield, become displaced, etc., as a support or a fastening:
The building was secure, even in an earthquake.3.affording safety, as a place: He needed a
secure hideout.4in safe custody or keeping: Here in the vault the necklace was secure.5.free
from care; without anxiety: emotionally secure.se·curÆa·ble, adj. se·cureÆly, adv. se·cureÆness,
n. se·curÆer, n. Syn. 1. protected. See safe. 2. stable, fast, fixed. 7. confident. 10. gain. See
get. 11. protect, guard, safeguard. 12. assure, guarantee.Ant. 1. unsafe.
Sharp -er, -est, v., adv., n. 1.having a thin cutting edge or a fine point; well-adapted for
cutting or piercing: a sharp knife.
2.terminating in an edge or point; not blunt or rounded: The table had sharp corners.3.involving
a sudden or abrupt change in direction or course: a sharp curve in the road; The car made a
sharp turn.4.abrupt, as an ascent: a sharp drop.
keenly or acutely.punctually: Meet me at one o'clock sharp. vigilantly.briskly; quickly.Music.
above the true pitch: You're singing a little sharp.37.Informal. an expert.sharpÆly, adv. Ant. 1.
dull.
Shy
Skillful showing or involving skill: a skillful display of fancy diving.skillÆful·ly, adv.
skillÆful·ness, n.
Syn. 1. ready, adroit, deft, adept, apt, clever, ingenious. SKILLFUL, SKILLED, EXPERT refer to
readiness and adroitness in an occupation, craft, or art. SKILLFUL suggests esp. adroitness and
dexterity: a skillful watchmaker.SKILLED implies having had long experience and thus having
acquired a high degree of proficiency: not an amateur but a skilled worker.EXPERT means having
the highest degree of proficiency; it may mean much the same as SKILLFUL or SKILLED, or both:
expert workmanship.See also dexterous. Ant. 1. awkward, clumsy, amateurish.
Smooth -er, -est, adv., v., n. 1.free from projections or unevenness of surface; not rough:
smooth wood; a smooth road.
2.generally flat or unruffled, as a calm sea.3.free from hairs or a hairy growth: a smooth
cheek.4.of uniform consistency; free from lumps, as a batter, sauce, etc.5in a smooth manner;
smoothly.6.smooth over, to make seem less severe, disagreeable, or irreconcilable; allay;
mitigate: He smoothed over my disappointment with kind words.
smoothÆa·ble, adj. smoothÆer, n. smoothÆly, adv. smoothÆness, n. Syn. 1. glossy, polished,
even, flat. See level.
Spirited having or showing mettle, courage, vigor, liveliness, etc.: a spirited defense of
poetry.spirÆit·ed·ly, adv. spirÆit·ed·ness, n. Syn. animated, vivacious, ardent, active, energetic,
lively, vigorous, courageous, mettlesome.
Stable -bled, -bling. 1. barn, mews.to put or lodge in or as if in a stable.to live in or as if in a
stable.staÆble·likeÅ, adj. .
sta·ble2 adj., -bler, -blest.1.not likely to fall or give way, as a structure, support, foundation,
etc.; firm; steady.
2.able or likely to continue or last; firmly established; enduring or permanent: a stable
government.3.resistant to sudden change or deterioration: A stable economy is the aim of every
government.4.steadfast; not wavering or changeable, as in character or purpose;
dependable.5.not subject to emotional instability or illness; sane; mentally sound.6.Physics.
having the ability to react to a disturbing force by maintaining or reestablishing position, form,
etc.7.Chem. not readily decomposing, as a compound; resisting molecular or chemical change.8.
(of a patient's condition) exhibiting no significant change.staÆble·ness,n staÆbly, adv.
Syn.fixed, strong, sturdy. 4. invariable, unvarying, staunch, constant, reliable, steady, solid.
Steady adj., stead·i·er, stead·i·est, interj., n., pl. stead·ies, v., stead·ied, stead·y·ing,
adv.
1.firmly placed or fixed; stable in position or equilibrium: a steady ladder.2.even or regular in
movement: the steady swing of the pendulum.3. free from change, variation, or interruption;
uniform; continuous: a steady diet of meat and potatoes; a steady wind.4.constant, regular, or
habitual: a steady job.5.free from excitement or agitation; calm: steady nerves.6.firm;
unfaltering: a steady gaze; a steady hand.7.steadfast or unwavering; resolute: a steady purpose.
.go steady, Informal. to date one person exclusively: Her father didn't approve of her going
steady at such an early age.
11.(used to urge someone to calm down or be under control.).Informal. a person of the opposite
sex whom one dates exclusively; sweetheart; boyfriend or girlfriend..nformal. a steady visitor,
customer, or the like; habitué.to make or keep steady, as in position, movement, action,
character, etc.: His calm confidence steadied the nervous passengers.steadÆi·ly, adv.
steadÆi·ness, n. Syn. 1. balanced. 3. undeviating, invariable. 7. See steadfast.
Tame tam·er, tam·est, v., tamed, tam·ing. adj.
1.changed from the wild or savage state; domesticated: a tame bear.2.without the savageness
or fear of humans normal in wild animals; gentle, fearless, or without shyness, as if
domesticated: That lion acts as tame as a house cat.
3.tractable, docile, or submissive, as a person or the disposition.4.lacking in excitement; dull;
insipid: a very tame party.
5.spiritless or pusillanimous.6.not to be taken very seriously; without real power or importance;
serviceable but harmless: They kept a tame scientist around.7.brought into service; rendered
useful and manageable; under control, as natural resources or a source of power.8.cultivated or
improved by cultivation, as a plant or its fruit.9.to make tame; domesticate; make
tractable.10.to deprive of courage, ardor, or zest.11.to deprive of interest, excitement, or
attractiveness; make dull.
12.to soften; tone down.13.to harness or control; render useful, as a source of power.14.to
cultivate, as land or plants.
15.to become tame.tameÆly, adv. tameÆness, n. tamÆer, n. Syn. 3. meek, subdued. 4. flat,
empty, vapid, boring, tedious, uninteresting. 5. cowardly, dastardly. 9. break, subdue. 12. calm,
mollify.Ant. 1. wild.
Tough -er, -est, adv., n., v. 1.strong and durable; not easily broken or cut.2.not brittle or
tender.3.difficult to masticate, as food: a tough steak.4.of viscous consistency, as liquid or
semiliquid matter: tough molasses.5.capable of great endurance; sturdy; hardy: tough
troops.6.not easily influenced, as a person; unyielding; stubborn: a tough man to work
for.7.hardened; incorrigible: a tough criminal.8.difficult to perform, accomplish, or deal with;
hard, trying, or troublesome: a tough problem.9.hard to bear or endure (often used ironically):
tough luck.10.vigorous; severe; violent: a tough struggle.11.vicious; rough; rowdyish: a tough
character; a tough neighborhood.12.practical, realistic, and lacking in sentimentality; tough-
minded.13.Slang. remarkably excellent; first-rate; great.14.hang tough, Slang. See hang 15.in
a tough manner.16.a ruffian; rowdy.17.tough it out, Informal. to endure or resist hardship or
adversity.toughÆly, adv. toughÆness, n. Syn. 1.firm, hard. 5. durable. 6.inflexible.Ant.
1.fragile. 5. feeble, weak.
Victorious having achieved a victory; conquering; triumphant: our victorious army.
Virile of, pertaining to, characteristic of, or befitting a man; masculine; manly: virile
strength.2.having or exhibiting masculine energy, forcefulness, or strength in a marked
degree.3.characterized by a vigorous, masculine spirit: a virile literary style.4.of, pertaining to,
or capable of procreation.Syn. 2. vigorous. See male.
Zealous full of, characterized by, or due to zeal; ardently active, devoted, or
diligent.zealÆous·ly, adv. zealÆous·ness, n.
Syn. enthusiastic, eager, fervid, fervent, intense, passionate, warm.
FEELINGS
Complacent pleased, esp. with oneself or one's merits, advantages, situation, etc., often
without awareness of some potential danger or defect; self-satisfied: The voters are too
complacent to change the government. pleasant; complaisant.com·plaÆcent·ly, adv. Syn. 1.
smug, unbothered, untroubled.
Confused -fused, -fus·ing. 1.to perplex or bewilder: The flood of questions confused me.2.to
make unclear or indistinct: The rumors and angry charges tended to confuse the issue.3.to fail
to distinguish between; associate by mistake; confound: to confuse dates; He always confuses
the twins.4.to disconcert or abash: His candor confused her.5.to combine without order; jumble;
disorder: Try not to confuse the papers on the desk.con·fusÆa·ble, adj. con·fusÅa·bilÆi·ty, n.
con·fusÆa·bly, adv. con·fus·ed·ly (kÃn fyÁÆzid l チ, -fyÁzdÆ-), adv. con·fusÆed·ness, n.
Coy -er, -est, v. —adj. 1.artfully or affectedly shy or reserved; slyly hesitant; coquettish.2.shy;
modest.3.showing reluctance, esp. when insincere or affected, to reveal one's plans or opinions,
make a commitment, or take a stand: The mayor was coy about his future political
aspirations.7.to quiet; soothe. to pat; caress.coyÆish, adj. coyÆish·ness, n. coyÆly, adv.
coyÆness, n. Syn. 2. retiring, diffident, bashful, demure.
Disgusted
Grief-stricken overwhelmed by grief; deeply afflicted or sorrowful.
Humble bler, -blest, v., -bled, -bling. adj. 1.not proud or arrogant; modest: to be humble
although successful.2.having a feeling of insignificance, inferiority, subservience, etc.: In the
presence of so many world-famous writers I felt very humble.3.low in rank, importance, status,
quality, etc.; lowly: of humble origin; a humble home.4.courteously respectful: In my humble
opinion you are wrong.5.low in height, level, etc.; small in size: a humble member of the
galaxy.humÆble·ness, n. humÆbler, n. humÆbling·ly, adv.
humÆbly, adv. Syn. 1. unpretending, unpretentious. 2. submissive, meek. 3. unassuming, plain,
common, poor. 4. polite. 6. mortify, shame, abash. 7. subdue, crush, break. HUMBLE, DEGRADE,
HUMILIATE suggest lowering or causing to seem lower. To HUMBLE is to bring down the pride of
another or to reduce him or her to a state of abasement: to humble an arrogant enemy.To
DEGRADE is to demote in rank or standing, or to reduce to a low level in dignity: to degrade an
officer; to degrade oneself by lying.To HUMILIATE is to make others feel or appear inadequate
or unworthy, esp. in some public setting: to humiliate a sensitive person.—Ant. 1, 2. proud. 3.
noble, exalted. 4. rude, insolent. 6. elevate. 8. exalt.
Smug smug·ger, smug·gest. 1.contentedly confident of one's ability, superiority, or
correctness; complacent.2.trim; spruce; smooth; sleek
Aggressive
Agitated excited; disturbed.
Belligerent 1.warlike; given to waging war.2.of warlike character; aggressively hostile;
bellicose: a belligerent tone.3.waging war; engaged in war: a peace treaty between belligerent
powers.4.pertaining to war or to those engaged in war: belligerent rights.
5.a state or nation at war.6.a member of the military forces of such a state.bel·ligÆer·ent·ly,
adv. Syn. 2. pugnacious, truculent, combative, quarrelsome, antagonistic, contentious.
Biting 1.nipping; smarting; keen: biting cold; a biting sensation on the tongue.2.cutting;
sarcastic: a biting remark.bitÆing·ly, adv. bitÆing·ness, n. Syn. 2. incisive, trenchant; caustic,
mordant, scathing, lacerating.
Blunt —bluntÆly, adv. bluntÆness, n. Syn. 1. See dull. 2. short, gruff, rough, rude, uncivil,
impolite. BLUNT, BLUFF, BRUSQUE, CURT characterize manners and speech. BLUNT suggests
lack of polish and of regard for the feelings of others: blunt and tactless.BLUFF implies an
unintentional roughness together with so much good-natured heartiness that others rarely take
offense: a bluff sea captain.BRUSQUE connotes sharpness and abruptness of speech or manner:
a brusque denial.CURT applies esp. to disconcertingly concise language: a curt reply. 3.
dimwitted, thick, stolid. 4. dull.
Bullying , pl. -lies, v., -lied, -ly·ing, adj. 1.a blustering, quarrelsome, overbearing person who
habitually badgers and intimidates smaller or weaker people..Archaic. a man hired to do
violence.3.Obs. a pimp; procurer.4.Obs. good friend; good fellow.
5.Obs. sweetheart; darling.6.to act the bully toward; intimidate; domineer.7.to be loudly
arrogant and overbearing.8Informal. fine; excellent; very good.9.dashing; jovial; high-
spirited.10.Informal. good! well done!bulÆly·a·ble, adj. Syn. 6. cow, browbeat, coerce; terrorize,
tyrannize.
Callous 1.made hard; hardened.2.insensitive; indifferent; unsympathetic: They have a callous
attitude toward the sufferings of others.3. having a callus; indurated, as parts of the skin
exposed to friction.4.to make or become hard or callous.calÆlous·ly, adv. calÆlous·ness, n.
Syn. 1. hard. 2. inured, insensible, obtuse. See hard. Ant. 1. soft. 2. sensitive.
Cranky crank·i·er, crank·i·est. 1.ill-tempered; grouchy; cross: I'm always cranky when I don't
get enough sleep.2.eccentric; queer.
3.shaky; unsteady; out of order.4.full of bends or windings; crooked.5.Brit. Dial. sickly; in
unsound or feeble condition; infirm.
crankÆi·ly, adv. crankÆi·ness, n. Syn. 1. crotchety, cantankerous, perverse.Cross yn.
traverse, span, bridge. baffle, foil, contradict. petulant, fractious, irascible, waspish, crabbed,
churlish, sulky, cantankerous, cranky, ill-tempered, impatient, irritable, fretful, touchy, testy.
CROSS, ILL-NATURED, PEEVISH, SULLEN refer to being in a bad mood or ill temper. CROSS
means temporarily in an irritable or fretful state, and somewhat angry: a cross reply.ILL-
NATURED implies a more permanent condition, without definite cause, and means unpleasant,
unkind, inclined to snarl or be spiteful: an ill-natured dog; ill-natured spite.PEEVISH means
complaining and snappish: a peevish child.SULLEN suggests a kind of glowering silent
gloominess and means refusing to speak because of bad humor, anger, or a sense of injury or
resentment: sullen and vindictive.Ant. 41. aid.. good-natured, agreeable.
Defiant characterized by defiance; boldly resistant or challenging: a defiant
attitude.de·fiÆant·ly, adv. —de·fiÆant·ness, n. Syn. insubordinate, contumacious, refractory,
recalcitrant, rebellious, insolent; daring.Ant. obedient.

Enraged raged, -rag·ing. to make extremely angry; put into a rage; infuriate: His
supercilious attitude enraged me.
en·rag·ed·ly en·rageÆment, n. Syn. anger, inflame, madden. ENRAGE, INCENSE, INFURIATE
imply stirring to violent anger. TO ENRAGE or TO INFURIATE is to provoke wrath: They
enrage(infuriate) him by their deliberate and continual injustice. TO INCENSE is to inflame
with indignation or anger: to incense a person by making insulting remarks.Ant. appease,
pacify.
Envious full of, feeling, or expressing envy: envious of a person's success; an envious
attack.2.Archaic. a. emulous.b. enviable.
enÆvi·ous·ly, adv. enÆvi·ous·ness, n. Syn. 1. resentful, jealous, covetous
.Fierce fierceÆly, adv. fierceÆness, n. Syn. 1. untamed; cruel, fell, brutal; barbarous,
bloodthirsty, murderous. FIERCE, FEROCIOUS, TRUCULENT suggest vehemence and violence
of temper, manner, or action: fierce in repelling a foe.FEROCIOUS implies fierceness or
cruelty, esp. of a bloodthirsty kind, in disposition or action: a ferocious glare; ferocious
brutality toward helpless refugees.TRUCULENT suggests an intimidating or bullying
fierceness of manner or conduct: His truculent attitude kept them terrified and submissive. 2,
3. furious, passionate, turbulent.Ant. 1. tame, mild.
GESTURES
Blink o open and close the eye, esp. involuntarily; wink rapidly and repeatedly.2.to look
with winking or half-shut eyes: I blinked at the harsh morning light.3.to be startled, surprised,
or dismayed (usually fol. by at): She blinked at his sudden fury.
4.to look evasively or with indifference; ignore (often fol. by at): to blink at another's
eccentricities.5.to shine unsteadily, dimly, or intermittently; twinkle: The light on the buoy
blinked in the distance.9.an act of blinking: The faithful blink of the lighthouse.
10a gleam; glimmer: There was not a blink of light anywhere.11.Chiefly Scot. a glance or
glimpse.Syn. 1. See wink 1. 8. overlook, disregard, avoid, condone. 9. wink, flicker, twinkle,
flutter
Frown
Grimace a facial expression, often ugly or contorted, that indicates disapproval, pain,
etc.2.to make grimaces.
Grin to smile broadly, esp. as an indication of pleasure, amusement, or the like.2.to draw
back the lips so as to show the teeth, as a snarling dog or a person in pain.3.to show or be
exposed through an opening, crevice, etc.
Pout 1.to thrust out the lips, esp. in displeasure or sullenness. 2.to look or be sullen.3.to
swell out or protrude, as lips.
4.to protrude (the lips).5.to utter with a pout.6.the act of pouting; a protrusion of the lips.7.a
fit of sullenness: to be in a pout.
poutÆful, adj. poutÆing·ly, adv. Syn. 1, 2. brood, mope, glower, scowl, sulk.
Scowl 1.to draw down or contract the brows in a sullen, displeased, or angry manner.2.to
have a gloomy or threatening look.
3.to affect or express with a scowl.4.a scowling expression, look, or aspect.scowlÆer, n.
scowlÆful, adj. scowlÆing·ly, adv. Syn. 1. frown, lower, glare. 2. glower, gloom.
Smirk k (smûrk), v.i. 1.to smile in an affected, smug, or offensively familiar way.2 the facial
expression of a person who smirks.smirkÆer, n. smirkÆing·ly, adv.
Squint nt (skwint), v.i. 1.to look with the eyes partly closed.2.Ophthalm. to be affected with
strabismus; be cross-eyed.
3.to look or glance obliquely or sidewise; look askance.4.to make or have an indirect
reference to or bearing on; tend or incline toward (usually fol. by toward, at, etc.).Ophthalm.
a condition of the eye consisting in noncoincidence of the optic axes; strabismus.Informal. a
quick glance: Let me have a squint at that paper.Also called hagioscope. (in a church) a small
opening in a wall giving a view of the altar.Ophthalm. (of the eyes) affected with
strabismus.squintÆer, n. —squintÆing·ly, adv. —squintÆing·ness, n.
Wink .to close and open one or both eyes quickly.2.to close and open one eye quickly as a
hint or signal or with some sly meaning (often fol. by at): She winked at him across the room.
WINK, BLINK refer to rapid motions of the eyelid. TO WINK is to close and open either one or
both eyelids with a rapid motion. TO BLINK suggests a sleepy, dazed, or dazzled condition in
which it is difficult to focus the eyes or see clearly: Bright sun makes one blink. 4. sparkle.
HOSTILITY ties. 1.a hostile state, condition, or attitude; enmity; antagonism;
unfriendliness.2.a hostile act.3.opposition or resistance to an idea, plan, project,
etc.4.hostilities, a. acts of warfare.b. war. Syn. 1. animosity, animus, ill will, hatred. 4.
fighting, conflict.
Furious full of fury, violent passion, or rage; extremely angry; enraged: He was furious about
the accident.2.intensely violent, as wind or storms.3.of unrestrained energy, speed, etc.:
furious activity.
Harsh ungentle and unpleasant in action or effect: harsh treatment; harsh manners.2.grim
or unpleasantly severe; stern; cruel; austere: a harsh life; a harsh master.3.physically
uncomfortable; desolate; stark: a harsh land.4.unpleasant to the ear; grating; strident: a
harsh voice; a harsh sound.5.unpleasantly rough, ragged, or coarse to the touch: a harsh
surface.6.jarring to the eye or to the esthetic sense; unrefined; crude; raw: harsh
colors.7unpleasant to the taste or sense of smell; bitter; acrid: a harsh flavor; a harsh
odor.harshÆly, adv. —harshÆness, n—Syn. 2. brusque, hard, unfeeling, unkind, brutal,
acrimonious, bad-tempered. See stern 1. 3. rough. 4. discordant, dissonant, unharmonious.
6. unesthetic.
Hostile opposed in feeling, action, or character; antagonistic: hostile
criticism.3.characterized by antagonism.4not friendly, warm, or generous; not hospitable.
Impatient not patient; not accepting delay, opposition, pain, etc., with calm or
patience.2.indicating lack of patience: an impatient answer.3.restless in desire or
expectation; eagerly desirous.4.impatient of, intolerant of: impatient of any interruptions.
im·paÆtient·ly, adv. —im·paÆtient·ness, n. Syn.1.uneasy, unquiet.1, 2. irritable, testy,
fretful, violent, hot; curt, brusque, abrupt. 3. hasty, impetuous, precipitate, sudden.Ant. 1.
calm.
Insensitive deficient in human sensibility, acuteness of feeling, or consideration; unfeeling;
callous: an insensitive person.
2.not physically sensitive: insensitive skin.3.not affected by physical or chemical agencies or
influences: insensitive to light.
4.not readily responsive or aware: insensitive to the needs of the
peasants.in·senÆsi·tive·ness, in·senÅsi·tivÆi·ty, n.
Intolerant Syn. 1. illiberal, narrow, proscriptive, prejudiced, biased, dictatorial, totalitarian.
INTOLERANT, FANATICAL, BIGOTED refer to strongly illiberal attitudes. INTOLERANT refers to
an active refusal to allow others to have or put into practice beliefs different from one's own:
intolerant in politics; intolerant of other customs.BIGOTED is to be so emotionally or
subjectively attached to one's own belief as to be hostile to all others: a bigoted
person.FANATICAL applies to unreasonable or extreme action in maintaining one's beliefs
and practices without necessary reference to others: a fanatical religious sect.
Ant. 1. liberal.
Irritated angered, provoked, or annoyed.2.inflamed or made raw, as a part of the body.
Obnoxious highly objectionable or offensive; odious: obnoxious behavior.2.annoying or
objectionable due to being a showoff or attracting undue attention to oneself: an obnoxious
little brat.3.Archaic. exposed or liable to harm, evil, or anything objectionable.
4.Obs. liable to punishment or censure; reprehensible.ob·noxÆious·ly, adv.
ob·noxÆious·ness, n. Syn. 1. See hateful. Ant. 1. delightful.
Obstinate firmly or stubbornly adhering to one's purpose, opinion, etc.; not yielding to
argument, persuasion, or entreaty.
2.characterized by inflexible persistence or an unyielding attitude; inflexibly persisted in or
carried out: obstinate advocacy of high tariffs.3.not easily controlled or overcome: the
obstinate growth of weeds.4.not yielding readily to treatment, as a disease.
obÆsti·nate·ly, adv. obÆsti·nate·ness, n. Syn. 1. mulish, obdurate, unyielding, unbending,
intractable, perverse, inflexible, refractory, pertinacious. See stubborn. Ant. 1. submissive,
tractable.
Outraged raged, -rag·ing. 1.an act of wanton cruelty or violence; any gross violation of law
or decency.
2.anything that strongly offends, insults, or affronts the feelings.3.a powerful feeling of
resentment or anger aroused by something perceived as an injury, insult, or injustice:
Outrage seized the entire nation at the news of the attempted assassination.
4.to subject to grievous violence or indignity.5. to anger or offend; make resentful; shock: I
am outraged by his whole attitude.
6.to offend against (right, decency, feelings, etc.) grossly or shamelessly: Such conduct
outrages our normal sense of decency.7.to rape. Syn. 2. offense, abuse, indignity. 7. violate.
Perturbed 1. to disturb or disquiet greatly in mind; agitate.2.to throw into great disorder;
derange.3.Astron. to cause perturbation in the orbit of (a celestial body).
Repulsive causing repugnance or aversion: a repulsive mask.2.capable of causing
repulsion; serving to repulse: to present enough repulsive force to keep the enemy from
daring to attack.3.tending to drive away or keep at a distance; cold; forbidding: arrogant,
repulsive airs to frighten the timid .4.Physics. of the nature of or characterized by physical
repulsion.re·pulÆsive·ly, adv. re·pulÆsive·ness, n. Syn. 1. loathsome, disgusting, offensive,
distasteful.
Resentful the feeling of displeasure or indignation at some act, remark, person, etc.,
regarded as causing injury or insult. full of or marked by resentment.
Savage // wild
Severe ver·er, -ver·est. 1harsh; unnecessarily extreme: severe criticism; severe
laws.2.serious or stern in manner or appearance: a severe face.3.grave; critical: a severe
illness.4.rigidly restrained in style, taste, manner, etc.; simple, plain, or austere.5.causing
discomfort or distress by extreme character or conditions, as weather, cold, or heat;
unpleasantly violent, as rain or wind, or a blow or shock.6.difficult to endure, perform, fulfill,
etc.: a severe test of his powers.7.rigidly exact, accurate, or methodical: severe
standards.se·vereÆly, adv. se·vereÆness, n. Syn. 2. strict, hard. See stern 1. 4. unadorned.
7. demanding, exacting.Ant. 1. lenient. 2. gentle.
Spiteful full of spite or malice; showing spite; malicious; malevolent; venomous: a spiteful
child.
Terse ters·er, ters·est. 1.neatly or effectively concise; brief and pithy, as
language.2.abruptly concise; curt; brusque.
terseÆly, adv. terseÆness, n. Syn. 1. succinct, compact, neat, concentrated. 1, 2. See
concise.
Vindictive disposed or inclined to revenge; vengeful: a vindictive person.2.proceeding from
or showing a revengeful spirit: vindictive rumors.vin·dicÆtive·ly, adv. vin·dicÆtive·ness, n.
Syn. 1. unforgiving. See spiteful. Ant. 1. forgiving.
Wicked -er, -est, adv. 1.evil or morally bad in principle or practice; sinful; iniquitous: wicked
people; wicked habits.2.mischievous or playfully malicious: These wicked kittens upset
everything.3.distressingly severe, as a storm, wound, or cold: a wicked winter.
4.unjustifiable; dreadful; beastly: wicked prices; a wicked exam.5.having a bad disposition;
ill-natured; mean: a wicked horse.
6.spiteful; malevolent; vicious: a wicked tongue.7.extremely troublesome or dangerous:
wicked roads.8.unpleasant; foul: a wicked odor.9.Slang. wonderful; great; masterful; deeply
satisfying: He blows a wicked trumpet.10.Slang. very; really; totally: That shirt is wicked
cool.wickÆed·ly, adv. Syn. 1. unrighteous, ungodly, godless, impious, profane, blasphemous;
immoral, profligate, corrupt, depraved, dissolute; heinous; infamous, villainous. Ant. 1. good,
virtuous.Wrathful 1.very angry; ireful; full of wrath: They trembled before the wrathful
queen.2.characterized by or showing wrath: wrathful words.wrathÆful·ly, adv.
wrathÆful·ness, n. Syn. 1. irate, furious, raging, incensed, enraged.
GLOOM& SADNESS
Abandoned forsaken or deserted: an abandoned building; an abandoned kitten.
2. unrestrained or uncontrolled; uninhibited: She danced with abandoned enthusiasm.
3. utterly lacking in moral restraints; shameless; wicked: an abandoned and dissolute ruler.
a·banÆdoned·ly, adv. Syn. 1. discarded, rejected. 3. See immoral.
Alienated to make indifferent or hostile: He has alienated his entire family.
2. to turn away; transfer or divert: to alienate funds from their intended purpose.
3. Law. to transfer or convey, as title, property, or other right, to another: to alienate lands.
alÆien·aÅtor, n. Syn. 1. See estrange.
Bewildered surprised shocked
Constrained forced, compelled, or obliged: a constrained confession.
2. stiff or unnatural; uneasy or embarrassed: a constrained manner.
Debased to reduce in quality or value; adulterate: They debased the value of the dollar.
2. to lower in rank, dignity, or significance: He wouldn't debase himself by doing manual labor.
de·bas·ed·ness (di b€Æsid nis, -b€stÆ-), n. de·baseÆment, n. de·basÆer, n.de·basÆing·ly, adv.
Syn. 1. lower, vitiate, corrupt; contaminate, pollute, defile. 2. degrade, abase, demean, reduce.
Dejected epressed in spirits; disheartened; low-spirited: The dejected expression on the face of the
loser spoiled my victory.
de·jectÆed·ly, adv. de·jectÆed·ness, n. Syn. discouraged, despondent, dispirited, downhearted,
unhappy, miserable.
Ant. happy.
Depressed sad and gloomy; dejected; downcast.
2. pressed down, or situated lower than the general surface.
3. lowered in force, amount, etc.
4. undergoing economic hardship, esp. poverty and unemployment.
5. being or measured below the standard or norm.
6. Bot., Zool. flattened down; greater in width than in height.
7. Psychiatry. suffering from depression.
Syn. 1. saddened, morose, despondent, miserable; blue; morbid.Ant. 1. happy.
Desolate -lat·ed, -lat·ing.
—adj.
1. barren or laid waste; devastated: a treeless, desolate landscape.
2. deprived or destitute of inhabitants; deserted; uninhabited.
3. solitary; lonely: a desolate place.
4. having the feeling of being abandoned by friends or by hope; forlorn.
5. dreary; dismal; gloomy: desolate prospects.
—v.t.
6. to lay waste; devastate.
7. to deprive of inhabitants; depopulate.
8. to make disconsolate.
9. to forsake or abandon.
desÆo·late·ly, adv. desÆo·late·ness, n. desÆo·latÅer, desÆo·laÅtor, n.
Syn. 1. ravaged. 2. desert. 4. lonesome, lost; miserable, wretched, woebegone, woeful, inconsolable,
cheerless, hopeless. DESOLATE, DISCONSOLATE, FORLORN suggest one who is in a sad and wretched
condition. The DESOLATE person is deprived of human consolation, relationships, or presence:
desolate and despairing.The DISCONSOLATE person is aware of the efforts of others to console and
comfort, but is unable to be relieved or cheered by them: She remained disconsolate even in the midst
of friends.The FORLORN person is lost, deserted, or forsaken by friends: wretched and forlorn in a
strange city. 6. ravage, ruin. 8. sadden, depress. 9. Desert. Ant. 4. delighted, happy.
Discouraged
1. to deprive of courage, hope, or confidence; dishearten; dispirit.
2. to dissuade (usually fol. by from).
3. to obstruct by opposition or difficulty; hinder: Low prices discourage industry.
4. to express or make clear disapproval of; frown upon: to discourage the expression of enthusiasm.
5. to become discouraged: a person who discourages easily dis·courÆag·er, n. dis·courÆage·a·ble,
adj. dis·courÆag·ing·ly, adv. Ant. 1. encourage.

Dismal causing gloom or dejection; gloomy; dreary; cheerless; melancholy: dismal weather.
2. characterized by ineptness or lack of skill, competence, effectiveness, imagination, or interest;
pitiful: Our team played a dismal game.
3. Obs. a. disastrous; calamitous. b. unlucky; sinister.
4. Southern U.S. a tract of swampy land, usually along the coast.isÆmal·ly, adv.
—disÆmal·ness, dis·malÆi·ty, n. Syn. 2. hopeless, abysmal, dreadful.
Ant. 1. cheerful; gay.
Downcast directed downward, as the eyes.
2. dejected in spirit; depressed.
—n.
3. overthrow or ruin.
4. a downward look or glance.
5. a shaft down which air passes, as into a mine (opposed to upcast).
downÆcastÅly, adv.
—downÆcastÅness, n.
Syn. 2. sad, desolate, disconsolate; low, blue.
Forlorn . desolate or dreary; unhappy or miserable, as in feeling, condition, or appearance.
2. lonely and sad; forsaken.
3. expressive of hopelessness; despairing: forlorn glances.
4. bereft; destitute: forlorn of comfort.
for·lornÆly, adv. for·lornÆness, n. Syn. 1. pitiful, pitiable, helpless, woebegone, comfortless. 2. alone,
lost, solitary. See desolate. 4. deprived.Ant. 1. happy. 2. accompanied.
Futile . incapable of producing any result; ineffective; useless; not successful: Attempting to force-
feed the sick horse was futile.
2. trifling; frivolous; unimportant.
fuÆtile·ly, adv. fuÆtile·ness, n. Syn. 1. See useless.
Grief keen mental suffering or distress over affliction or loss; sharp sorrow; painful regret.
2. a cause or occasion of keen distress or sorrow.
3. come to grief, to suffer disappointment, misfortune, or other trouble; fail: Their marriage came to
grief after only two years.4.good grief, (used as an exclamation of dismay, surprise, or relief): Good
grief, it's started to rain again!
—griefÆless, adj. griefÆless·ness, n. Syn. 1. anguish, heartache, woe, misery; sadness, melancholy,
moroseness. See sorrow.
Ant. 1. joy.
Grim grim·mer, grim·mest.
1. stern and admitting of no appeasement or compromise: grim determination; grim necessity.
2. of a sinister or ghastly character; repellent: a grim joke.
3. having a harsh, surly, forbidding, or morbid air: a grim man but a just one; a grim countenance.
4. fierce, savage, or cruel: War is a grim business.grimÆly, adv. grimÆness, n.
—Syn. 1. harsh, unyielding. 2. frightful, horrible, dire, appalling, horrid, grisly, gruesome, hideous,
dreadful. 3. severe, stern, hard. 4. ferocious, ruthless.
Ant. 1. lenient. 2. attractive. 3. gentle.
Hindered 1. to cause delay, interruption, or difficulty in; hamper; impede: The storm hindered
our progress.
2. to prevent from doing, acting, or happening; stop: to hinder a man from committing a crime.
—v.i.
3. to be an obstacle or impediment.
hinÆder·er, n. hinÆder·ing·ly, adv. Syn. 1. encumber, obstruct, trammel. 2. block, thwart. See prevent.

—Ant. 1. encourage.

hind·er (h ヘ nÆdÃr), adj.


1. situated at the rear or back; posterior: the hinder part of a carcass.
—n.
2. Chiefly Northern and North Midland U.S. the buttocks.
Humiliated
Moody
Obsolete
Offended
Perplexed
Rejected
Strained
Weary
Worthless
FEAR & ANXIETY
Agitate
Alarmed
Anxious
Apprehensive
Bashful
Desperate
Dreading
Frantic
Hesitant
Intimidated
Overwhelmed
Restless
Scared
Strained
Tense
Timid
Uneasy
INABILITY&INADEQUASY
Crippled
Deficient
Demoralized
Disabled
Incapable
Incompetent
Inept
Inferior
Meek
Trivial
Fragile
Frail
Unfit
Unqualified
Vulnerable
LOVE& JOY
Altruistic
Benevolent
Benign
Bliss
Charming
Comical
Congenial
Considerate
Contented
Courteous
Ecstatic
Elated
Empathetic
Enthusiastic
Exuberant
Fit
Gratified
Hospitable
Inspired
Jovial
Jubilant
Lenient
Mellow
Moral
Obliging
Optimistic
Patient
Receptive
Relieved
Splendid
Superb
Vivacious
Witty
Worthy
QUANTITY
Ample
Copious
Dearth
Lavish
Meager
Paucity
Profuse
Scant
Scarcity
Sparing
Sparse
Sufficient
APPEARANCE
Acrid
Alert
Ample
Bitter
Blushing
Bright
Bulky
Contoured
Crinkled
Crystalline
Dim
Diminutive
Dull
Elegant
Fancy
Filthy
Foggy
Fragrant
Gleaming
Glistening
Grotesque
Homely
Immense
Lithe
Massive
Miniature
Misty
Murky
Obtuse
Petite
Poised
Portly
Prodigious
Putrid
Quaint
Rotten
Rotund
Savory
Shallow
Sheer
Smoggy
Spicy
Tangy
Tasty
Unsightly
Vast
Voluminous
Weird
Wizened
SOUND
Deafening
Faint
Harsh
Hoarse
Raspy
Resonant
Screech
Thunderous
Whine
TIME
Ancient
Annual
Decade
Dusk
Intermittent
Lengthy
Periodic
Punctual
Speedy
Sporadic
Sunrise
Swift
Twilight
TOUCH
Breezy
Chilly
Creepy
Crisp
Cuddly
Frosty
Greasy
Prickly
Rough
Shaggy
Silky
Slimy
Slippery
Slushy
Smooth
Stinging
Tight
Waxen