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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Never before has the rapid increase in new knowledge and technology
and in the base of change and itself demanded a learning response as
great as what is now required to remain competitive. Today individuals
and organizations must become continuous learners to survive and hence
it is not surprising to find that most successful Organisations operate in a
continuous learning mode.

The challenge of globalization, technological innovation increasing


competition and growth through expansion, diversification and
acquisition has had a wide-ranging and far reaching impact on HRD.
There is a need for a continuous process that aims at providing fresh
knowledge and skill inputs to the employees so as to ensure the
development of their competencies, dynamism, motivation and
effectiveness in a systematic and planned way, thereby improving the
productivity and overall organizational effectiveness. As a result,
training and development activities have acquired great significance and
are now firmly centre-stage in most of the organizations. Hence it can be
said that with the advent of free market economy rapid change in the
environment, training and development activities have assumed an
importance never before witnessed in Indian corporate history.

Training is the process of assisting a person in enhancing his efficiency


and effectiveness at work by improving and updating his professional
knowledge developing his personal skills relevant to his work and
cultivating in him appropriate behavior and attitude towards his work and
people he is working with. Development takes place as a result of
training and essentially implies growth plus change. Thus, development
go hand in hand. My endeavor has been to gain an in-depth insight into
the process of discovering, harnessing and developing of the human
capital to the benefit of both the individual and the organization into
days highly dynamic and competitive business world through a
comprehensive study and analysis of the latest training and development
techniques used by Apollo Tyres Limited.
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT –
SCALING NEW HEIGHTS

Corporate success depends upon having and retaining talented people.


This is true today as it has always been. The shortage of such people is
widely accepted and training, at long last, is beginning to be recognized
as part of the solution and hence the total investment in training is on
the rise. This is true for all organizations. There really is no alternative
than to make sure that human skills so vital to the corporate success are
recognized, harnessed, developed and suitably maintained.

Training is not however, one ‘one-off’ investment. It is a continuing


investment. Not only is it needed to create the skilled workforce, but
also maintain the high levels of skills demanded by the ever changing,
highly dynamic work place.

The return on investment on HRD is still controversial in view of the


time variable in achieving the desired change and effectiveness in the
employees. The top management looks at the loss and profit equation
for any activity. It is interested in the benefits to the organization in the
terms of increased productivity, increased profitability, reduction in
wastage etc in return for investment in training. Hence, evaluation of
training programmers and introduction of the necessary corrective
measures also assumes considerable significance.

Training is the most important function that contributes directly to the


development of human resources. If human resources have to be developed, the
organization should create conditions in which people acquire new knowledge and
skills and develop healthy patterns of behavior and styles. One of the main
mechanisms of achieving this environment is training.

Training is essential because technology is developing continuously and at a fast


rate. Systems and practices get outdated soon due to new discoveries in
technology, including technical, managerial and behavioral aspects.
Organizations, which do not develop mechanisms to catch up with and use the
growing technology, soon become outdated. However, developing individuals in
the organization can contribute to the effectiveness of the organization.

Training and development are important activities in all organizations, large and
small. Every organization, regardless of size, needs to have well-trained
employees in its workforce who are prepared to perform their jobs.

The term 'training' refers to the acquisition of specific skills or knowledge.


Training programs attempt to teach trainees to perform a specific job and a
particular activity.

The term 'development' usually refers to improving the intellectual or


emotional abilities needed to do a better job.
PRINCIPLES AND EVALUATION OF TRAINING

Training is the process of assisting a person for enhancing his efficiency and
effectiveness at work by improving and updating his professional knowledge, by
developing skills relevant to his work and cultivating appropriate behaviour and
attitude towards work and people. Training could be designed either for improving
present capabilities at work or for preparing a person for assuming higher.
Responsibilities in future which would call for additional knowledge and superior
skills.

Training is different from education particularly formal education. While


education is concerned mainly with enhancement of knowledge, training aims
essentially at increasing knowledge, stimulating aptitude and imparting skills
related to a specific job.

In India, considerable importance has been accorded to training in social


development and this is evident form the fact that the community spends roughly
six million dollars annually on training every year. But there are complains about
the ineffectiveness of training and possible waste of resources because of the use
of stereotyped and conventional methods in training which are often not set
completely in tune with job requirements.

It is a continuous process

Training is a continuous and life long process. Right form the time a child is born
he starts receiving training form his mother for a variety of needs, so that he
becomes a social being. His training continues in the school and the college
situations. However training as an organized effort is designed with certain
objectives, for example to help the trainees to be informed of the subject matter
which they have to use in their work situation. Apart from change of attitudes,
their skills have to be improved and knowledge or information has to be imparted
through effective methods. In other worlds, training provides and synthesizing
with the help of the trainers, the information already available on the subject.
Training is a time-bound programme. Thus there is a separate specialized
discipline of trainers specializing in the field of human activity.

Prevailing concept New concept

1. The acquisition of subject matter 1. Motivation and skills lead to action.


knowledge by a participant leads to Skills are acquired through practice.
action.

2. The participant learns what the 2. Learning is a complex function of


trainer teaches. Learning is a simple the motivation and capacity of the
function of the capacity of the individual participant, the norms of
participant to learn and the ability of the training groups the training
the trainer to teach. methods and the behaviour of the
trainers and the general climate of
the institution. The participant's
motivation is influenced by the
climate of his work organization.

3. Individual action leads to 3. Improvement on the job is complex


improvement on the job. function of individual learning the
norms of the working group and the
general climate of the organization.
Individual learning used leads to
frustration.

4. Training is the responsibility of the 4. Training is the responsibility of


training institution. It begins and three partners: the participant
ends with the course. organization the participant, and the
training institution. It has a
preparatory pertaining and a
subsequent, post-training phase. All
are equally important to the success
of training.

There has been in some quarter’s criticism of training and it is often argued that
personnel can acquire administrative capabilities and work skills through
apprenticeship capabilities and work skills through apprenticeship rather than
through formal training. While the training cannot by itself guarantee the success
of a development programme, its untrained personnel are unlikely to prove
effective. It is in this context that expert; administrators and planners greatly
appreciate the relevance of training in development process.
INTERACTION BETWEEN TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT AND
OTHER HUMAN RESOURCE FUNCTIONS

The interaction Training opportunities reduce


the demand for highly qualified
between applicants
training and
development
and other
human Staffing
resource
functions
Careful selection may reduce
the need for training. But hiring
additional employees adds to
training needs

Training helps employees


perform better
Performance
Training evaluation
Performance evaluations
and
provide information that helps
developm
to assess training needs
ent
Training should improve
performance and result in
higher levels of pay
Compensati
on
Financial incentives can create
greater enthusiasm for training
and increased participation

Skilled employees should


perform better, reducing the
probability of grievances and
discipline Employee
relations
Unions may participate in the
design and presentation of the
training
The Training Cycle
A training cycle consists of a series of steps which lead to a training
event being undertaken. Evaluation provides feedback which links back
to the initial stages of training design. Indeed, it is the evaluation/
feedback process which makes this a cyclical event without it training
would be a linear process leading from initiating training through to its
implementation. The steps in the cycle are:-

Stage1: Identification of training needs. Examining what skills and


attributes are necessary for the job to be undertaken, the skills and
attributes of the job holder and the extent of the gap.

Stage2: Design, preparation and delivery of training.

Stage 3: Discovering the trainees attitude to training (reaction) and


whether the training has been useful from the point of view of training.
Reaction involves the participants feelings towards the training process,
including the training content, the trainer and the training methods used.
Learning is the extent to which the trainee has actually absorbed the
content of the learning event.

Stage 4: Discovering whether the lessons learnt during training have


been transferred to the job and are being used effectively in doing the
job.
Identification of
training needs

DESIGN,

PREPARATI
Reaction to and
learning from the
training

Transferring training
tot he work place

Evaluation of the
impact on the
organisation

Measuring perspective
effects.

Stage5: Evaluating the effects of the training on the organization. Thus


is the area on which there is perhaps most confusion, subsequently little
real action to clear it.

Stage 6: Reinforcement of positive behavior. It is optimal that positive


outcomes are maintained for as long as possible. It is not rare event for
changes in behavior to be temporary, with a gentle slide back to
previous ways of working. It is important to note the feedback loops.
Feedback on the process of actually delivering the training can come
from the reaction and learning stage, the transfer of the training to the
work place and the evaluation of the impact of the training. The main,
feedback for the identification of training needs comes from an
assessment of the transfer of work to the training and the evaluation of
the impact on the organization.

It is important to note that these feedback loops may consist of two very
different types of information.

• To determine the worth of training to the organization- a process best


done by quantitative methods and with hard, numerical data.

• Allowing insights into the method of learning, where the experience


of those involved are the main focus, thus using mainly softer,
qualitative information.

Identification of training needs

The procedure of identifying training and development needs is crucial


for the success of the training function and requires to be carried out
systematically on a regular basis, preferably every year.

How are training needs identified to match the organizational


requirements in terms of technology /task/ people? Has the training
bought the desired change in the individuals performance and if so, how
is it assessed? These are the focal points, which require attention of the
HR professionals to assess the training needs of the employees working
in the organization.

Many organization have their own system to identifying training needs


every year. However, need identification exercise can do real harm if
the needs are not met by conducting suitable programs. Managers must
perceive that their recommendations are grown due consideration and
suitable actions are initiated to satisfy the felt needs. Only then, they
will take this exercise seriously. Hence, formulation of suitable and
need based training programs and their timely implementation is very
important for the success of any training program.

Evaluation of Training Programs

Training programs are conducted with a view to help the employees to


acquire the knowledge, skills and attitude necessary to perform the task
assigned to them. They are conducted in order to bring about a planned
change which in turn involves substantial investment of money, time and
efforts. Therefore, one has to know whether such an investment in
training yielded the desired results. This desire naturally leads to
evaluation of training.

Evaluation means literally, the assessment of value or worth. Strictly


speaking the act of evaluating training is the act of judging whether or
not it was worthwhile in terms of some criterion of value, in the light of
the information available. Evaluation is the tool whereby information
about the result of trainees, interaction with the learning experiences
systematically collected and analyzed. Thus, evaluation can provide
useful data both for improvement of training and enhancement of
learning. In brief it is important in 3 ways.

• It indicates whether appropriate monetary investment is made on the


implementation of training programs.
• It determines the degree of effectiveness and success of the training
programs.

• It provides a basis for introductory the necessary corrective


measures.

The benefits of constructive, practical evaluation of training


substantially outweigh the costs six direct benefits of evaluating training
programs are:-

Quality Control: Quality control systems are designed to ensure that


products or services are fit for their intended purpose. Evaluation in
training will assess the extent to which work-related results can be
demonstrated to arise from the training. Successful, positive elements
of training can be maintained and reinforced, whilst negative elements
removed or revised. If results cannot be justified, then it becomes hard
to justify the commitment of any resources to the training activity and
they can be re-allocated to

where they may make a greater impact.

Efficient training design: It throws an emphasis on those elements of a


training system which matter, such as proper definition of objectives
and setting criteria on now these objectives are to be measured.

Enhanced professional esteem: Training professionals can gain


enhanced stature from having systematic evaluation of data rather than
initutive assessment of their contribution to the business. Being
assessed on their contribution to the ‘bottom-line’ of the business puts
the HRD function on the same footing as other functions, instead of
claiming that the nature of their work does not allow an application of
the same criteria. This helps to break down the barriers facing the
integration of HRD professionals within the organization.

Enhanced negotiating power: On much the same tack evaluation makes


it possible for the HR function to demonstrate a successful contribution
to the business over a period of time. When resources are to be allocated
and new investment decisions to be made, them being able to show the
outcomes of training would be invaluable.

Appropriate criteria of assessment: Individuals within an


organization will make judgements about how effective the training
function is, regardless of whether an evaluation system is in place or
not. Given this, it is very important that the HR controls the choices of
appropriate criteria, which it can most safely do on the back of a formal
evaluation process.

Intervention strategy: Evaluation can be a tool for changing the way


that training is integrated into the organization. It offers a means by
which the HR function can build on its enhanced esteem and negotiating
power to play a more active role in developing policies.
SYSTEMS MODEL FOR TRAINING

Assessment Phase
Assess Training
needs and
training
resources

Identify training
objective
Training and development
phase
Select training
Pretest methods and
Develop criteria
trainees learning
principles
Evaluation
phase
Compare
Conduct Monitor training
training training outcomes
against criteria

Feed back

BENEFITS OF TRAINING:

Training usually is a strategic human resource activity because it plays a major


role in determining the effectiveness and efficiency of an organization. A
successful training and development program will achieve the following benefits:

1. Improve the quality and quantity of work done.

2. Reduce the learning time required for employees to


reach acceptable standards of performance.
3. Create more favourable attitudes, loyalty and
cooperation.

4. Satisfy human resource planning requirements.

5. Reduce the number and cost of accidents.

6. Help employees in their personal development and


advancement.

7. Help organizations to respond to dynamic market


conditions and changing consumer demands.

Different jobs require different capabilities. These capabilities can be considered


under four categories:

1.Technical

2.Managerial

3.Behavioural

4.Conceptual

TECHNICAL CAPABILITIES:

They deal with the technology of the job or the tasks the employee is expected to
perform. They include information, skills and knowledge.

MANAGERIAL CAPABILITIES:

They include the ability to organize, coordinate, plan, monitor, evaluate and
redesign a variety of activities. As managers have the task of getting things done
by others with optimal use of resources for achieving the best possible results,
they need to possess managerial capabilities. Knowledge of management
techniques like PERT, systems analysis, performance budgeting etc. are evidences
of managerial capabilities. Management skills involve the application of these
techniques for better planning, better coordination, better monitoring, and for
better achievement of results.

BEHAVIOURAL CAPABILITIES:

These include leadership skills, ability to motivate others, communication skills,


ability to work as a team member, dynamism, initiative etc. Mere knowledge of
behavioral sciences does not ensure that person has behavioral capabilities.
Attitudes and orientations play an important role in determining the effectiveness
of the employees to a great degree.

CONCEPTUAL CAPABILITIES:

These involve conceptual understanding of one's own tasks in relation to those of


others, imagination, futuristic thinking, model building capabilities and perception
of various tasks and their interrelationships within the organization and outside it.

TYPES OF TRAINING:

1.Orientation/Induction Training:

The orientation or induction training is given to employees as soon as they join an


organization. The purpose of this training is to orient the employee to the
company and its tasks, to help his role in detail and see the link his role has with
other roles in the company, to help him understand the expectations of other
employees from him, and to give him a feel of the organization and feel part of it.
The induction training normally does not focus on skill development. It focuses
more on perspective development and understanding of the organization. Without
such understanding of the organization, its mission etc., the employee may soon
feel alienated. Induction training is one way in which culture and traditions are
established and maintained through socialization of the new employees into the
culture of that organization.

2.On-The-Job Coaching:

On-the-job coaching is another way of training employees. This type of training is


given to employees who are new to a given job (not necessarily to the
organization). The purpose of this kind of training is to equip the employee with
the capabilities required to perform various tasks of his job. This may involve skill
training by the supervisor of the employee, either on a day-to-day basis or
periodically. On-the-job training techniques also include job instruction training,
job rotations, internships, coaching and counseling. On-the-job training should be
particularly stressed upon during the early stages of their careers.

3.Apprentice Training:

Apprentice training is given to those who have just completed their studies and are
about to enter the organizational world. The apprenticeship involves practical
training under the guidance of one or more instructors designated by the
organization to train the trainees.

IN-HOUSE TRAINING:

In-house training programs are programs offered exclusively for the employees of
an organization by the organization. The Training Department assesses the
training needs of various categories of employees periodically, invite suggestions
from the senior executives of that company on the training needs as perceived by
them, keep in touch with the new developments taking place in the outside world
that have relevance to their own organizational activities and periodically invite
outside trainers to train their employees.

In the in-house training programmes, the training department may use its own
senior employees as trainers or may depend exclusively on outsiders or may use
both sets of resources.
DISTANCE TRAINING:

Distance training is the training conducted without the trainer being physically
present near the trainee. The most well known forms of distance training are
correspondence courses, auto-teaching machines, programmed instruction
materials, video and audio cassette programs, alumni bulletins etc. This form of
training is useful mainly to keep the trainee informed about various developments
in his field or to acquaint him with new technology, processes etc.

CAREER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS

Career Development programs help people grow and continue after they begin
their employment. Career Development refers to helping individuals plan their
future careers within the organization. The objectives of career development are to
help individuals achieve maximum self-development and also to help the
organization achieve its objectives.

INDIVIDUAL BENEFITS:

For the individual, the most immediate benefits of career development include a
better job, more money, increased responsibility, greater mobility, and the
acquisition of skills that improve productivity. Career Development also provides
less tangible benefits for individuals, such as increased job satisfaction, the
development of a career orientation rather than a job orientation, increased
involvement at work, greater exposure, a better understanding of what is expected
and broader knowledge of additional areas of career interest.

ORGANIZATIONAL BENEFITS:

Through the development of competent employees, organizations are able to


identify future managers and prepare them to achieve organizational goals. By
developing competent replacement managers, an organization is able to practice
promotion from within, which increases the level of motivation for aspiring
managers.

Employees who remain in the same position for an extended period typically
become obsolete, either because of a lack of training or a lack of motivation.
Career planning helps to prevent the problems of obsolescence by providing
employee training by moving employees into different jobs, and by motivating
employees to make valuable contributions to the organization. An organization
that tries to help employees’ plan their careers can benefit directly through lower
turnover and personal costs.

DEVELOPMENTAL PROGRAMS:

1. Mentoring:

Some organizations assign an experienced employee to serve as a mentor for new


employees. A mentor is a trusted counselor, coach or advisor who provides advice
and assistance. Effective mentors teach these new employees a number of things,
which include:

1. Provide instruction in specific skills and knowledge critical to successful


job performance.

2. Help in socializing them in the culture of the organization and


understanding the unwritten rules of the organization.

3. Answer questions and provide useful insights.

4. Offer emotional support and encouragement.

5. Serve as a role model.


6. Create an environment in which mistakes can be made without losing self-
confidence.

2.Career Counseling:

Most organizations provide some form of career counseling on various occasions:


during employment interviews when employees are first hired, during employees'
annual performance evaluation interviews, and as part of the special career
counseling that is provided for high-potential employees. Career counseling
typically occurs as part of the day-to-day relationship between a supervisor and a
subordinate. Moreover, some organizations provide special career counseling by
conducting psychological assessments of employees and helping them interpret
their individual results.

3.Career Pathing:

Career pathing refers to identifying a sequence of jobs through which an


individual can expect to progress towards high levels of management. Some
organizations provide job progression plans for all new employees, while others
do it only for exceptionally bright and promising candidates. Career path
information must be provided to the employees before a possible career path can
be charted out for them.

4.Career Development Programs:

Career development includes any and all activities that prepare a person for
progression along a designated career path. Career development usually involves
both formal and informal means. These programs maybe conducted in-house or by
external sources, such as professional organizations or colleges and universities
and are organized by the T&D department of an organization.
Internal Mobility

There is a possibility in organizations that over a period of time an employee will


change his role or position, from one job to another – laterally or vertically in the
organization structure. This kind of employees’ movement within an
organization is known as internal mobility. Internal mobility includes a cluster
comprising, may take place between jobs in section, sections, departments,
division or even between plants in multi - plant operations.

Promotion

Promotion is the upward reassignment of an individual in an organization’s


hierarchy, accompanied by increased responsibilities, enhanced status, and usually
with increased income, though not always so. On being promoted, the promoter’s
duties and responsibilities increase, and the higher one goes in an organization the
greater the implications of the individual’s decisions on the viability of the
enterprise. After promotion, an individual’s duties and responsibilities usually
becomes qualitatively different from those of this earlier job.

The following are the objectives of promotion:

1. It is recognition of a job well done by an employee.

2. It is a device to retain and reward and employee for his years of service to the
company.

3. It is to increase individual and organizational effectiveness.

4. It is to promote a sense of job satisfaction in the employee.

5. It is to build loyalty, morale and a sense of belongingness in the employee.


6. It is to impress upon others that opportunities are open to them also in the
organization, if they perform well.

An internal mobility system also needs as supportive information system to make


it viable.

It is desirable to have a central, maintain a detailed inventory of the skills of all


employees and coordinate all information – promo -table posts available, posts
vacant, number of employees on transfer, permanent and temporary posts.

When making internal mobility decisions, organizations tend to place emphasis on


their objectives, filling job vacancies, eliminating employee surpluses, correcting
behavioral problems, etc. Promotion maintains organizational effectiveness
through maintenance of employee moral and favorable attitudes towards the
organization. Demotions frequently used as from of disciplinary action since it
represents loss of status and earning.

Transfers are required in the process of organization job requirements, job


rotations and filling in absenteeism, separations and termination, such as discharge
and dismissal, from a part of the outward mobility of an organization.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

A number of studies on the identification of training needs in India are


available. Some of them deal with the general framework while others
are specific company based studies.

For training activity to be meaningful, Dayal (1970a) suggests that a


detailed study of jobs and skill analysis is absolutely necessary. The
training, thus, imparted would help the employee to adjust to their job
requirements. As far as the supervisory category is concerned. Sundaram
(19709) points out that the training needs for supervisors can be
identified through careful observation of their work which is indicative
of poor performance, low production, high cost, poor product quality,
high scrap, spoilage, wastage, accidents, absenteeism, and turnover. The
day-to-day complaints and grievances also form a useful sources for
identifying their training needs. Given that supervisors are the first
contact point for the workers. Ghosh (1984) stresses the need for
behavioral inputs in any training programme organized for managers.
Srinivasan (1977) recommends that their training programmes should
focus on corporate planning, organizational development, and personnel
management.

Bhatia (1981) sees a shift from knowledge to attitude as the main


objective of training. He identifies three areas of training- technical
skills and knowledge, knowledge of organization and external systems,
and conceptual and interpersonal skills. He suggests that the emphasis
on these three must vary according to the level of the employee. The
workers training should focus on technical skills and knowledge followed
by conceptual and interpersonal skills, and knowledge of orgnaisation
and external systems. In the case of supervisors, conceptual and
interpersonal skills should be emphasized followed by technical skills
and knowledge, and knowledge of organisation and external
environment. As far as managers are concerned, the sequence is the same
as that for supervisors except that the order of knowledge of organization
and external environment and technical skills and knowledge is
interchanged.

Seth (1984) administered a 720item questionnaire on 119 personnel


managers. The cluster analysis revealed personnel managers to be more
employee oriented; able to recognize the utility of group processes, and
having fait in workers ability to take initiative and handle responsibility.
On the basis of results. Seth suggested that training for personnel
managers should be directed towards attitudes and beliefs underlying
managerial philosophy and their inter relatedness.

As far as identifying training needs by the company is concerned, Glaxo


Laboratories considers the following factors.

1. Level and rapidity of technological and administrative changes

2. Level of individual and group performance.

3. Changing organizational structure

4. Perceived organisational imbalances.

At the individual level, the person himself identifies the need for
training and records it or the appraisee discusses the individuals training
needs in view of this deficiencies on the job. Since Glaxo uses the MbO
system, this process helps a great deal in making training useful to both
the employees and the organisation (lawande, 1980)
Studies on the identification of training needs thus emphasise not only
the organisational analysis but job and individual role analysis as well. It
is also useful to note that many studies emphasise the need for training in
human resources management.

Johnson (1967) suggests that clues for training needs can also come from
a number of written sources. He lists 17 sources for identifying training
needs. Some of them are highlighted below.

1. Articles: Articles published in journals or magazines often indicate


individual company’s experiences with personnel utilisations and the
ways organisations improve productivity. Such individual
experiences could be a good source of learning from the experiences
of others.

2. Books: Knowledge in training and development is increasing at a


faster speed today than before. Many books are published every year
on training and they provide useful sources in learning newer
techniques developed in identifying training needs.

3. Case studies: In an attempt to find solutions to specific problems


people often show gaps in understanding. These can become useful
themes for training.

4. Companies: All organisations in organizations provide useful data


for preparing people to not only face such situations but learn to
avoid them in future.

5. Crisis: Crisis situations in orgnaisations provide useful data for


preparing people to not only face such situations but learn to avoid
them in future.
6. Factual data: Factual information such aspects as absenteeism,
wastage, turnover, machine breakdown, sales, and the like also open
avenues to identify what can possibly be done to improve upon
them.

7. Grievances: Formal grievances are important sources to identify


training needs.

8. Reports: Often reports submitted by many departments provide


useful clues on what is lacking or what should be reinforced.

9. Rumours and grapevine: Taken seriously, they provide useful feed-


back on the total activity of an organisation and may often identify
gaps in various areas of orgnaisational functioning.

10. Suggestions: A number of organisations are very particular about


suggestions and take them very seriously. Since suggestions have a
base in experience they provide useful clues for training needs.

A more direct approach for identifying training needs was used by


Kanitkar et. al.(1994). Instead of going to HRM department, they
approached section heads and senior managers of 73 milk unions
associated with National Dairy Development Board. Their study revealed
five contents of training that were identified by a very large majority of
respondents. These were cost consciousness, loss control, marketing,
sanitation and hygiene, and operations and maintenance of utilities.

Who needs what kind of training was the focus of a study by Singh et.al.
(1998). In a study of 92 Anganwadi workers, they found that the need for
training correlated inversely with age and in service training. In other
words those who were older did not feel ten need for training and if
offered in service they did not want to go through it. However the need
for training correlated significantly and positively with education, years
of experience, communication skill, job satisfaction, knowledge level and
attitude towards integrated Child Development Service. Scheme.

Mayo and DuBois (1987) cite eight criteria for including a task in a
training course. Think about how you would apply these criteria to a task
area that you teach (e.g., performance appraisals,. World processing,
project management, etc.)

Criteria for selecting a Training task

1. The percentage of job incumbents who actually perform the taks

2. The percentage of total work time that job incumbents spend on the
task.

3. How critical the task is.

4. The amoung of delay that can be tolerated between the time when the
need for performance of the task becomes evident and the time when
actual performance must begin.

5. The frequency with which the task is performed.

6. The difficulty or complexity of the task.

7. The probability of deficient performance of the task on the part of


job incumbents.

8. How soon the task must be performed after a person is assigned to a


job that involves it.
SIGNIFICANCE

The significance of the study on training and development by the new


researchers, has increased due to rapidly changing technology and work
culture in industrial environment due to an increasingly skilled
workforce and very competitive global marketing.

Training is very much essential to upgrade skills of employees in this


scenario, for the development of self as well as the organization.

Thus, study on Training and Development is extremely important as it


reveals and identifies the lacunas in the training policy and the areas
where the organization can improve for the betterment of the
organization as well as the industry.
PROJECT OBJECTIVES

The objective of my study is to examine the training and development


process being followed by Apollo Tyres Ltd by-

• Honing up identified functional skill areas of personnel, for more


effective contribution to the organization.

• Providing platforms for professional growth and exploration


leading to overall improved organizational health and quality of life.

• Developing human resources in consonance with broader corporate


horizon and long range vision of the organization.

This will be done on the basis of four parameters which forms the basis
of the questionnaire-

1. Purpose of training- What is the purpose of training at Apollo

2. Identify training needs- How will the training needs be identified

3. Administration set up for training-What is the set up like

4. Effectiveness-How effective is the system

This analysis will be based solely on the perception of individuals who


have gone through this process. The outcome will depict whether
difference in perception exists between two levels of employees or not.
COMPANY PROFILE

• Apollo Tyres Limited was incorporated in the year 1972, in


technical collaboration with General Tyre International
Corporation, USA (now owned by Continental AG, Germany, the
fourth largest tyre company in the world). Apollo tyres limited is
one of the fastest growing companies in the world

• The first manufacturing unit located in Perambra near Cochin in


the state of Kerala began its commercial production in the year
1977.

• The Limda plant came into operation from the year 1991 and in the
year 1995, the company took over Premier Tyre Limited at Cochin
and Apollo brand products are being made there.

• In the year 1997, Apollo started a new tube plant at Ranjangaon at


Pune.

• The corporate office of the company is located at Apollo House, 7


institutional area, sector 32, Gurgaon and the Registered office is at
Cochin.

• Apollo’s workforce constitutes of 6,500 employee’s countrywide


and 140 employees in the corporate office.

• A latest state of the Art passenger Car Radial Plant has been set up
at Limda in 1999.

• Apollo tyres have been rated as the 6 th fastest growing tyre company
in the world by European Rubber Journal.

• Apollo is the market leader in the replacement segment. In truck


tyres, their brand like Hercules, Load Star Super, Amar, Xt-7, Xt-9
is very well accepted. In radials they have the Amazer XL and the
storm range of tyres and in a short span of time have achieved
market leadership position.

• The company has a large wide domestic marketing network


consisting of 97 offices, 2000 exclusive dealers and 1000 multi
brand dealers. The 2000 exclusive dealers are under the brand of
“Apollo Tyre World”. This network helps Apollo to ensure
excellent and timely delivery of products to the customer and also
helps to provide prompt after sales service.

• In 1998, Apollo tyre launched its Kaizen range mainly to develop


the multibrand dealer network by offering them world class
products.

• The company also sells its products, both to Original Equipment


Manufacturing (OEM) and institutional buyers other than the
replacement market. The state transport undertakings and the
government agencies are also amongst the customer base of Apollo.

• Apollo has identified export as the focus area, marketing its


products to Asian and American countries through Apollo
International limited a wholly owned subsidiary of Apollo tyres
limited.

• Its tyres meet the stringent quality standards of DOT (Department


of Transport) and FMVSS (Federal Motor Vehicle Safety
Standards).

• Apollo has another subsidiary company namely, Apollo Finance


Limited doing merchant banking, finance and leasing business.

• It was in the year 1982 that Apollo tyres limited formulated and put
in action a series of pragmatic profit generating policies geared to
take the company on the fast growth track. A new dynamic
management team under the leadership of Vice Chairman and
Managing Director, Mr. Onkar S Kanwar, took over the helm of the
company. Objectives were redefined with growth through quality
products and services coupled with an aggressive market
penetration strategy. With expense containments made the company
bear fruits in 1984. A modest profit of Rs. 57 lacs was made on a
turnover of Rs. 58 crores after wiping out the accumulated losses of
Rs. 27.8 crores till then.

• Apollo tyres has now reorganized itself using the profit center
concept for all its location and divisions. This has been done to
enhance effectiveness and efficiency at all units across the
locations.

• Today Apollo tyres limited is the best professional Tyre Company


in India. It has today more than 500 qualified professional working
for them, making them the employer of the highest number of
management graduates in the industry. The average employee age of
the company is only 35 years.
The driving Force of Apollo Success is its People

Apollo’s Vision, Goals and Values

Vision
‘A LEADER IN THE INDIAN TYRE INDUSTRY
AND A SIGNIFICANT GLOBAL PLAYER,
PROVIDING CUSTOMR DELIGHT
AND ENHANCING SHAREHOLDER VALUE’.

GOAL
5YHK
Achieve by 2005
A Gross Profit of Rs. 500 crores
And a turnover of Rs. 5,000 crores
At 1999 prices.

CORE VALUES
C- CARE FOR CUSTOMERS
R- RESPECT FOR ASSOCIATES
E- EXCELLENCE THROUGH TEAMWORK
A-ALWAYS LEARNING
T-TRUST MUTUALLY
E-ETHICAL PRACTICES
QUALITY PLEDGE

We, the people of


Apollo Tyres Ltd.
Will create an enterprise
Committed to quality
It is our policy to design,
Manufacture and service our
Products to provide the level of
Quality and value that meets
Every Customer need.
We will aim to generate
Customer enthusiasm through
Continuous improvements in
Our products and services.
We are committed to
Excellence in the way we
Work together within the
Organization as well as outside,
Aimed at total customer
satisfaction
BRIEF PROFILE

Perambra Baroda Kalamasse Ranjangao Conversion


ry n unit and
other sources

Land Area 3,44,000 5,26,000 2,84,000 1,30,000 TCIL, S


(m2) Kumar’s and
other flap
Building 36,000 63,600 32,600 13,000 manufacturer
Area (m2)

Installed 118 192 55 30


Capacity
(MT/Day)

TOTAL INSTALLED CAPACITY: 455 MT/Day

OUR PRODUCTION GROWTHS

Year Peram Baroda Premie Pune TCIL Other Total


Mt/Day bra r conver
sion
units
1975- 75 - - - - 10 85
89
1990 106 - - - - 10 116
1991 106 65 - - - 15 186
1992 106 75 - - - 20 201
1993 106 85 - - - 25 216
1994 106 100 - - - 30 236
1995 112 130 40 - 45 30 357
1996 112 150 45 - 45 35 387
1997 112 165 55 25 45 15 417
1998 118 180 55 25 45 15 438
1999 118 180 55 30 45 15 443
2000 132 190 55 30 45 15 469
WORLD TYRE INDUSTRY

World Company Trunover Rank is Country


Rank (US $ India if
million) Indian
Company
1 Michelin 12916.3 France
2 Bridgestone 12634.8 Japan
3 Goodyear 11311 USA
4 Continental 4334 Germany
5 Sumitomo 3750 Japan
6 Pirelli 3005.8 Italy
7 Yokohama 2193.5 Japan
8 Cooper 1447.4 USA
9 Toyo 1120.2 Japan
10 Kumho 965.5 Korea
11 Hankook 905 Korea
12 Ohtsu 616.1 Japan
13 MRF 537.7 1 India
14 Cheng Shin 497.5 Taiwan
15 Shanghai 461.7 China
16 JK Industries 357.7 2 India
17 Apollo 346.3 3 India
18 Shangdong 330.9 China
Triangle
19 Liantes 328 Mexico
20 Shangdong 326.2 China
Chengshan
21 China Tyre 314.8 Hongkong
22 Nizhnekamskshina 300 Russia
23 Ceat 295 4 India
24 BRISA 273.3 Turkey
(Bridgestone)
25 Titan 265 USA
26 Modi Rubber 22.8 5 India
27 Birla Tyre 142.8 6 India
28 Total Industry 660834.4

PRODUCT RANGE
Category Size PLY Brand Name Type
Rate
HCV 10.00-20 16 XT-7 LUG
HCV 9.00-20 16 XT-7 LUG
HCV 10.00-20 16 XT-9 LUG
HCV 9.00-20 16 XT-9 LUG
HCV 10.00-20 18 LOADSTAR LUG
HCV 10.00-20 16 HAULUG LUG
HCV 10.00-20 16 AMAR RIB
HCV 9.00-20 16 AMAR DELUXE RIB
HCV 10.00-20 16 AMAR DELUXE RIB
HCV 9.00-20 14&16 AMAR RIB
EXPRESS
HCV 9.00-20 16 ST-5 SEMILUG
HCV 10.00-20 16 ST-5 SEMILUG
HCV 9.00-20 16 ANCHOR SEMILUG
HCV 9.00-20 16 DUAL TREAD SEMILUG
PLUS
LCV 7.50-16 16 MILESTAR LUG
LCV 7.50-16 16 AMAR RIB
LCV 7.50-16 16 ANCHOR SEMILUG
LCV 7.50-R-16 16 RANCER RADIAL
LCV 9.00-16 16 DHRUV TRACTOR TRAILER
FARM 12.4-28 8 KRISHAK TRACTOR REAR
SUPER
FARM 12.4-28 12 KRISHAK TRACTOR REAR
SUPER
FARM 13.6-28 8 KRISHAK TRACTOR REAR
SUPER
FARM 13.6-28 12 KRISHAK TRACTOR REAR
SUPER
FARM 16.9-28 12 KRISHAK TRACTOR REAR
SUPER
FARM 12.4-28 8 POWER FUL TRACTOR REAR
FARM 12.4-28 12 POWER FUL TRACTOR REAR
FARM 13.6-28 8 POWER FUL TRACTOR REAR
FARM 13.6-28 12 POWER FUL TRACTOR REAR
FARM 16.9-28 12 POWER FUL TRACTOR REAR
FARM 5.50-16 8 SARPANCH TRACTOR FRONT
FARM 6.00-16 8 SARPANCH TRACTOR FRONT
FARM 5.00-19 6 BHIM ADV
FARM 6.00-19 8 BHIM ADV
FARM 7.00-19 10 BHIM ADV
FARM 8.00-19 10 BHIM ADV
CAR&JEEP 145/70-R-12 AMAZON XL PASSENGER RADIAL
CAR&JEEP 145/70-R-13 AMAZON XL PASSENGER RADIAL
CAR&JEEP 155/80-R-13 AMAZON XL PASSENGER RADIAL
CAR&JEEP 175/70-R-13 AMAZON XL PASSENGER RADIAL
CAR&JEEP 175/80-R-13 AMAZON XL PASSENGER RADIAL
CAR&JEEP 195/70-R-13 AMAZON XL PASSENGER RADIAL
CAR&JEEP 195/80-R- AMAZON XL PASSENGER RADIAL
15LT
CAR&JEEP 145/80-R-12 AMAZON PASSENGER RADIAL
CAR&JEEP 175/80-R-13 AMAZON PASSENGER RADIAL
CAR&JEEP 155/80-R-14 AMAZON PASSENGER RADIAL
CAR&JEEP 175/80-R-14 AMAZON PASSENGER RADIAL
CAR&JEEP 1+65/80-R- AMAZON PASSENGER RADIAL
15T
CAR&JEEP 195/80-R-15T STORM 4-MD RADIAL
CAR&JEEP 4.50-12 6&8 ARMOUR PASSENGER BIAS
CAR&JEEP 5.65-12 6 ARMOUR PASSENGER BIAS
CAR&JEEP 5.60-13 6 ARMOUR PASSENGER BIAS
CAR&JEEP 5.20-14 6 ARMOUR PASSENGER BIAS
CAR&JEEP 5.90-15 6 ARMOUR PASSENGER BIAS
CAR&JEEP 6.00-16 8 TROOPER JEEP BIAS
CAR&JEEP 6.00-16 6&8 GRIPPER JEEP BIAS
CAR&JEEP F78-15 6 GRIPPER JEEP BIAS
CAR&JEEP 6.00-16 8 HUNTER JEEP BIAS
CAR&JEEP 3.50-8 4 BLACKCAT SCOOTER
ULTRA
CAR&JEEP 3.50-10 4 BLACKCAT SCOOTER
ULTRA
CAR&JEEP 4.00-8 6 VIJAYTA 3 WHEELER
CAR&JEEP 4.50-10 8 VIJAYTA 3WHEELER
COMPANY SCENARIO OVER THE LAST
DECADE

HISTORY

The company commenced production at its first manufacturing facility


located at Perambra near Cochin in Kerala in the year 1977. From the
first year of operation, the company started incurring heavy losses. By
31 st October, 1989, the total accumulated loss suffered by the company
amounted to Rs. 27.80 crores. The accumulated loss was more than 3
times the equity share capital of the company which stood at Rs. 7.75
crores at that time.

TURNAROUND

During the year 1982 and 1983 the company put a lot of emphasis on
revamping the management set up through human resources
development. As a result, a new vibrant team was developed with well-
defined objectives in different areas of management. The new team
slowly but effectively brought about a transformation in the operation
of the company since 1984 the track record has been exceptional which
is evident from the turnover record.
BRIEF HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS

1974-1982, first phase- turbulent period.

• Problem with product, marketing and management

• Government takes over

1981, new CEO decides that unless productivity improves there is no


future.

• 1981 lot of in discipline

• Lock out declared

• Norms agreed upon to build 40 tyres.

1982 onwards total thrust on productivity.

• CEO was tough

• Productivity orientation came.

1980-93, welfare period by a CEO who joined from a public sector.

• Introduced welfare measure.

• Discipline was causality

• IR became bad.

• About 52 people were found not to do any work and just roam
around.
1994-new CEO-open and understanding and a team player.

• Tried to buy peace many times

• Cost has become a major factor

• Quality became important due to liberalization and globalization

1998, short spell of lock out

• things became clear

• Workers understood the importance of discipline and productivity


to some extent.

1999, Negotiations for long term settlement.

• Baroda lock out as the management was about to achieve a break


through in negotiations.

• Management advised to go slow.

• What seemed a break through was diluted.


MARKET POSITION

Over the last decade, Apollo has been in transition. It has moved from
being ‘One of the players’ to ‘A dominant player’. Now it aspires to be
internationally known. It presently occupies the number 2 position in
the Indian tyre industry. It aspires for the number 1 rank, which is
presently occupied by MRF tyres.

The company has a large and wide domestic marketing network


consisting of 97 offices, 2000 exclusive dealers and 1000 multi brand
dealers. In 1998, Apollo tyres launched its Kaizen range mainly to
develop the multi brand dealer network offering them world class
products.

The need for transition at Apollo arose primarily to the hindsight of the
CEO which in turn was in response to the changing external situation.
The organization realized that the weak players will be forced to close
down. Seeing the domestic and foreign competition, the company
realized it is time to consolidate and move forward. Apollo is not just
vying for numbers but considers being a significant global player as a
challenge.
MARKET SHARE (DOMESTIC) 1999-2000

MRF Modi
12% TCIL
19%
1%

VTL ATL
6% 18%

JK Premier
14% 2%
Birla
GY
Ceat 9%
6%
13%

Turnover

As can be seen from the table, the turnover for the last financial year
1999-2000 was 1348.75. Over the last 13 years the company has
increased its turnover from 146.19 to 348.75 crores, a nine fold
increase. In the next five years the company aspires to reach the 5000
mark.

The company’s goal states:-

5YHK

Achieve by 2005

A gross profit of Rs. 500 crores

And a turnover of Rs. 5000 crores

At 1999 prices
TURNOVER

Year Turnover (Rs. Gross Profit Net Profit (Rs.


Crores) (Rs. Crores) Crores)

1986-87 146.19 18.38 14.36

1987-88 152.03 16.42 14.79

1988-89 178.2 18.24 15.34

1989-91 (17 274.77 25.78 20.36


months)

1991-92 360.85 4154 33.01

1992-93 500.66 38.07 20.80

1993-94 685.59 33.74 15.63

1994-95 747.85 30.88 25.02

1995-96 1,237.69 49.64 35.3

1996-97 1,413.7 56.25 36.32

1997-98 1,365.19 62.77 40.68

1998-99 1,151.56 63.48 40.02

1999-2000 1,348.75 102.66 76.06


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The research process or methodology is the approach to the entire study- it is the

master plan. It is the blue print for achieving the objectives. The diagram shows

the systematic nature of the research process.

IDENTIFY TERMS OF REFERENCE

SURVEY PAST WORK

PLAN YOUR APPROACH

COLLECT THE DATA

ANALYSE THE DATA

DISCUSS YOUR FINDINGS

PRESENT THE FINDINGS


Data is effectively another word for information that can be found through

secondary or primary data collection.

Sampling Technique

A sample size of 40 was taken ,which consisted of 14 employees who


were senior managers and above and 20 employees who were of the level
senior officers to assistant managers

Primary

Questionnaire - A questionnaire was designed and administered to the


training incharge professionals, and employees drawn from various levels
and various departments in the organization.

Internal – Information regarding the training policies and procedures was also
obtained through personal discussions with trainers, senior managers and assistant
managers.

Secondary

This involved extensive research on apollo’s databases.

• Training / HRD manuals, Company reports, house journals records


etc.

• Latest books and magazines on HRD

The Questionnaire

The questionnaire consisted of 9 questions which were a combination of


multiple and open ended questions.
LIMITATION

The topic was such that it required vast and thorough study necessitating complete
enumeration of the organization and analysis of several issues that considerable
time which was a major limiting factor. Collecting information from people
during the working hours was also critical. Besides this, the issue of
confidentiality was a tough obstacle to conquer. But finally persuasion won and
the study was completed with a degree of comprehensiveness.

• Due to the busy schedule of the officers, they were not able to give more
time and attention.

• Biases in the responses cannot be ruled out as the HR Employees of the


company already filled the questionnaire.

• Sudden changes in the programmed of some of the HR Managers at the


time of the Interview led to the problem in getting the data.

• Certain important information were kept secret.


• TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT AT
APOLLO TYRES

Training and Development (T&D)at ATL is classified for two categories


of employees: New Recruits and Others. Currently, the T&D process is
evolving and undergoing many changes. This document provides the
current process as it exists as well as the new process as it is envisaged
by the Corporate T&D group.

Process As It Exists Future Requirement System should ATL to Give


Today if Different provide
I. New Recruits:
New recruits go through -same- Linkage from Recr. Sample
an Induction programme Module Programme
Introduction routing schedule
to be provided by Position chart
the system Recording
Recording of Format
Indusction Recording
programmes and Format
attendees Recording
of Training Details
for each attendee
Classroom Training exists -same- Drawing up
for groups joining Introduction list Recording
simultaneously (e.g. In from recruitment Format
Mkt. Currently) module Recording Recording
of Introduction and Format
attendees Recording
of Training Details
for each attendee
II. Other Employees:
Training Needs Analysis
– There are two kinds of
training needs that get Sample
generated for all Training
employees – Needs
Those that arise from the Sample
Appraisal (Appraisal Training
Trng needs) (Detailed Needs
after next bullet)
Those that arise from
Business Needs (Business
Trng. Needs) Only in
Marketing at present.
Needs analysed jointly by
Corp. Trng. Group and
Marketing

Appraisal Training Needs Appraisal


Analysis Format ISO
The appraiser at the end System to provide Formats
of the appraisal session, data from previous
completes the cycle training need
‘Identification of identified and
Training Needs’ form. The appraiser should training
complete programmes
attended,
HoD collects and sends the ISO form, which Action plan
these forms to Corp. HR could replace the generated,
Corp. HR copies each Identification of completed and rated
form onto an ISO format Training Needs Form
and sends it back to the
appraiser for signatures
Appraiser sends it back to
Corp. HR duly signed -same-
Corp. HR collates and Format for
sorts the training needs. -same- Automatic collation collation
needs and planning Format for
out of training deciding on
batches for each batches (e.g.
subjects Not more than
‘x’ number
from a
location,
grouped by
grades/locatio
ns etc.)
Calendar
format

Normination To be done by HoD, Nomination list to Nomination


HR decides on based on training be generated by format
nomination of employees calendar and list of system highlighting
across the company for persons with similar training completed
Training Programmes, needs, both to be against budget, past
based on training needs provided by HR year training data.
generated in the
appraisal. HR to send the System to generate
nomination letters, letter
HR sends the nominees’ addressed to the Sample Letter
names to respective employee, to be
HoD’s and letters to handed over by the
nominees HoD.

Training Session -same-


Training programme Held
Feedback from Trainee -same- Complication of Feedback
obtained -same- feedback format Action
Action plan follow Average feedback plant format
through after 3 months -same- scores of faculty, Action plan
Following records -same- faculty record follow through
updated: updation system format
Training Record -same- trigger and mails to
Training Card be sent out
-same- Snapshot history to Training
be stored?? record format
Training Card
format
Generation of Training Number of training System to generate Report format
Reports Does not exist at days attended by all reports to be provided
present given employee
against given budget:
Of 2 days per
employee in plants
7 days per employee
in Mkt.
2 days per employee
in Corp.
Number of training
days completed by
give
unit/location/departm
ent/group against
budget.
Number of training
days completed by
company as a whole
against budget.

Parallel Processes 1. -same-


Vendor Selection
The vendor for training -same-
programes can be either a
company or a faculty
member.
In case of a company, the -same- System to Profile format
crosscheck
Concerned faculty Profile against
member’s profile is template??
sought
In all cases faculty is first -same-
given a pilot programme
If average rating in Faculty card and Initiate and 2 Formats
feedback sheet is 4.2 or faculty record to be maintain company
avove for normal created, similar to and faculty record
programmes (or3.5 for Training card and
confrontational, lab type training record.
programmes), faculty is
finalised.

Parallel Process -sane-


2. Internal Faculty
(Trainer) Selection
There is a ‘Train the -same- Maintain records of Certification
Trainer’ programme internal trainers and format
which results in a prompt/suggest
certification process at names while
theend, for all internal compiling
faculty programme batches
GOALS OF HRD SYSTEM AT APOLLO

• To create on enabling climate that continuously identity, nurtures


and utilize the capabilities of employees.

• To develop the capacity of each employee as an individual

• To develop the capacity of each employee in relation his/her present


job/role.

• To develop the capacity of each employee in his/ her expected


future job/role

• To develop a mutually supporting relationship between each


employee and his/her supervision.

• To develop team spirit and effective functioning of every


subsystem of the organization.

• To develop overall health and self reasoning capabilities in the


organization.

The goals of HRD system at ATL are realized through various sub
systems practiced on the company. They are as follows:

• Performance appraisal

• Suggestion scheme

• Training

• Awards
• Grievance procedure for the employees

• Incentive and reward scheme

• Employee participation

• Communication policies

• Socio cultural activities

• Employee welfare and quality of work life

Training and Development

Keeping in view the principle of Right person for the management


position, ATL take adequate care while selecting the employee. Merit
is always recognized and given weightage.

To meet the demands of competition,high premium is attached to


training activities.

Training Objectives

High premium is placed on training and development activities in the


organization keeping in view the following objectives-

• To achieve systematic integration of training in the organizations


mission.

• To upgrade skills, abilities and capabilities of the employees.

• To establish a distinctive work culture in the organization.


• To meet the organizations need for success, better performance and
growth .

• To prepare employees the job meant for them while on first


application, on transfer or on promotion and impact to them ,the
required skills and knowledge.

• To assist the employees to function more effectively in their


present positions by exposing them to the latest concepts,
information, techniques and developing the skills that would be
required in the particular fields.

ATL is relentlessly trying to materialize these objectives to the fullest


extent

TRAINING SET UP

Main thrust areas of training

• Management training in house

• External programs

• Overseas programs

• Training of trainees

• Pre employee training scheme

• Apprentrenship training

• Vocation training coming from other institutions

• Other training programs


Training policy

Formulation of training policy

Training and development function

Responsibility of Training and development


RES EARCH FINDINGS

Q.1 < 5years 5-7 years >7 years and above

11 11 18

Q.2 Senior officer to Assistant Senior manager and above


manager

26 14

Q.3 Engg/PG Mgt Grad CA/ICWA Others

11 10 9 10

Q.4 < 25 years 26-34 years 35-45 yrs >45yrs

16 16 8

Q.5

Senior Mgr to Senior Mgr and


Ass. Mgr. above

Upgradation 1-26 16 10

2-9 7 2

3-5 0 5

Promotion 1-6 4 2

2-6 5 1

3-10 4 6

Future 1-6 6 0
assignment

2-9 5 4

3-7 3 4

Training in 1-5 3 2
allied fields

2-9 9 0
3-19 10 9

Preparing for 1-5 2 3


transfer

2-6 5 1

3-5 3 2

Develop 1-8 5 3
specific abilities
competencies

2-16 10 6

3-11 9 2

Q.6

Performance Discussion with Training dept Job Others


appraisal superiors rotatio
n

Senior Senior Senior Senior Senior Senior Senior Senior


off to Mgr.& off to Mgr. & off to Mgr. & off to Mgr. &
Ass.Mg above Ass. above Ass. above Ass. above
r Mgr. Mgr. Mgr.

14 5 7 4 4 6 0 0

19 11 10 0

Q.7 Senior manager and above

Outbound (Mr. Santosh Babu) -Ranibhet

1. Team building = 10

2. Internal audit =3

3. Dr. Atraya’s (W/SH =5

4. Proj. Mgt. (IIMA) =3


5. LMI Trg. =3

6. None =3

7. Vision goals and values =3

8. Train the trainers =3

9. IT networking related =3

Senior officer to assistant managers

1. Adventure in attitudes =3

2. Factory orients =4

3. None =8

4. Tech. Trg. =3

5. Compt. Trg. =5

6. Comm. Skills =3

7. SCM Trg and IIMB =3

8. MDP Dr. Srivastava =4

9. Proj. Mgt. IIMA =3

10. Team Building =3

11. Plant orient =3

12. Best prac. Benchmarking =3

13. Inv. Mgt. =3


14. Fin. For non fin. =3

15. HRIS =3

Q.8

Man days training’s Senior and above Senior to assistant

1-5 days 10 4

5-10 6 4

10 days or more 5 3

None 2 6

Q9.

Senior Officer to Senior Manager


Assistant Manager and above
Improving work 14 8
performance
Future growth 5 3
Not at all 7 3
Total 26 14

12

10

6 ANALYSIS AND CONCLUSION

4 Q.1. WORK EXPERIENCE AT APOLLO TYRES

0
Less than 5 years 6-7 Years More than 7 years
Senior officer to Assistant Manager Senior Manager and above
Q.2 DESIGNATION
30

25
No. of employees

20

15

10

0
Senior managerand Senior officer to
8
above assistant manager
7 Designation
Q.3. EDUCATION QUALIFICATION
6

0
Engg./PG Mgt. Grad CA/ICWA Others

Senior officer to Assistant Manager Senior Manager and above


Q.4. AGE GROUP
14

12

10

0
Less than 25 26-34 Years 35-45 Years Morethan 45
years Years
Senior officer to Assistant Manager Senior Manager and above
Q.5 Purpose of Training

Rank
Senior officer to Senior manager
assistant manager and above
Upgradation of abilities 1 1
Preparing for promotions - -
Preparing for future 3 3
assignments in same position
Training in allied fields 2 -
Preparing for transfers - 2
Develop specific abilities/ - -
competence
It is seen from the analysis that both the levels of employees think that
upgradation of training and training for allied fields is the least
important.

While senior officers to assistant managers feel that preparing for


transfers is the second most important purpose of training senior
managers and above feel that developing specific abilities/
competencies is the second most important purpose of training so a
difference in perception exists here.
PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

Senior Mgr.
and above
25.5%

Q.6 IDENTIFICATION OF TRAINING NEEDS

Senior
officer to
Asstt. Mgr.
74.5%
DISCUSSION WITH SUPERIORS

Senior Mgr.
and above
35.3%

Senior
officer to
Asstt. Mgr.
64.7%
TRAINING DEPARTMENT

Senior
officer to
Asstt. Mgr.
40%

Senior Mgr.
and above
60%

73.68% of senior officers to assistant managers felt that training needs


are identified through performance appraisal whereas only 2.6.31% of
senior managers and above felt the same.

66.63% of senior officers to assistant managers felt that discussion with


superiors is a method of identifying training needs whereas 36.36% of
senior managers and above felt the same.

40% of senior officer to assistant managers felt that training needs are
identified by the training department and 60% of senior managers and
above felt the same.

Hence a significant difference in perception exists between the two


levels when it comes to identifying training needs.
The analysis also shows that none of the employees at both the such
felt that after job rotation was a means of identifying training needs.

Q.7 Training programmes attended

The employees were asked to list any 3 training programme they had
attended in the last two years.

Most of the senior managers and above remembered attending the


‘Team Building Exercise by Mr. Santosh Babu at Ranibhaet and Dr.
Atraya’s Workshop.

A majority of the senior officers to assistant managers had not attended


a single training progrmame.

The few that had attended, had undergone a ‘Computer Training


Programme’.

As compared to this, there were only a handful of senior managers and


above who had not attended a single training progrmme. Some of the
other training programmes attended by them were ‘Train the Trainees’
and ‘Project Management at IIM Ahmedabad’ A few training
programmes attended by Senior Officers to Assistant Managers were
‘Project Management at IIM Ahmedabad and MDP by Dr. Srivastava.
Q.8 Man Days of Training

35% of the employees had attended upto 5 man days of training. Out of
this 71.5% were senior managers and above and 28.5% were senior
offices to assistant managers.

25% of the employees had attended 5-10 man days of training. Out of
this 60% were senior managers and above and 40% were senior officers
to assistant managers 20% of the of the employees had attended more
than 10 man days of training. Out of this 62.5% were senior managers
and above and 37.5% were senior officers to assistant managers.

20% of the employees had not attended a single man-day of training.


Out of this 75% were senior officers to assistant managers and 25%
were senior managers and above.

Q.9 How has the training provided helped you?

53.8% of senior officer to assistant managers felt that the training they
received helped them to improve their work performance and 57.1% of
senior managers and above flet the same.

19.2% of senior officers to assistant managers felt that the training they
received helped them for future growth and 21.4% of senior managers
and above felt the same.

26.9% of senior officer to assistant managers felt that the training did
not help them at all and 21.4% of senior managers and above felt the
same.
From this analysis, it can be seen that both the levels felt that the
training provided to them has helped them mainly in improving their
work performance.
RECOMMENDATIONS

1. Training should be given according to the job profile of the


employees.

e.g. Managers should be made to attend more of team oriented


workshops since they are required to work in teams. Whereas an
officer level employee needs to enhance his computer skills. Hence
training programmes have to be designed accordingly.

2. Since a few employees felt that the training they had undergone in
the last two years didn’t help them at all, a feedback session should
be made mandatory after every training session, in order to
ascertain whether the above idea behind the training programme had
been accomplished or not.

3. Every now and then the employees should be encouraged to identify


their own training needs which would enhance employee morale and
also shift the burden from the superior to the employee him self.

4. Rather than just investing money on various training programmes,


Apollo Tyres Ltd. should also concentrate on regular training
evaluation.
SCOPE OF FURTHER RESEARCH

The training needs analysis is the base for all training activities in

Apollo Tyres ltd. Efforts at all levels of the organisation are made to

identify and meet the training needs of the employees. Priority is given

to ‘need base training’ which can have direct impact on the employees’

performance and improve work efficiency. The training and

development department takes into consideration the annual appraisal

report of the employees for analysing the training needs.

The training programmes usually provided valuable inputs to the

trainees for performing present as well as future roles effectively.

Also, at the end of each training session trainers impressions about the

session should be recorded in a register which gives an weight into the

trainees performance during the training period. The timely feedback of

both the trainers and the trainees helps in taking corrective action for

future training programmes.

This analysis has depicted what common training and development

techniques are adopted by from and has provided an insight into the

training and development system followed by Apollo Tyres Ltd.

But still much more can be done. Suitable strategies can be framed to

develop a team of highly motivated and committed work force so that

the company can make inroads into the international markets and

build a favourable image there. The quest for improvement should never

end as it is an endless journey.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books:

• Mirza S. Saiyadain - Human Resource Management 2nd Edition


Publishers – Tata McGraw-Hill.

• V.K. Dubey – Management of Training and Development and Motivation


Skills.

• Organisational Behaviour – Stephen P. Robbins

Journals:

• Indian Journal of Training and Development (IJTD).


• Business Review, Human Development.

Website:

• HR.COM

• APPOLLO TYRES.COM
TABLE OF CONTENTS

 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

 INTRODUCTION

• Training and Development

• Review of Literature

 SCOPE OF PROJECT

• Significance

• Project Objectives

• Company Profile

 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

• Sample

• Data Collection

• Data Analysis

• Limitation

 RESEARCH FINDINGS

 ANALYSIS AND CONCLUSION

 RECOMMENDATIONS

• Scope of Further Research

 BIBLOGRAPHY
METHODOLOGY

Preparing a list of information needed

Frame questionnaire

Collect Information
ANNEXURES