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Network Infrastructure In Win 2003 Server

Introduction to Win 2003 Network Infrastructure include LAN, Remote Access,

Network, Internet, Intranet & Extranet Network.
1) Local Area Network

LAN use at corporate office and Net Café. It is a wire network where the system is
connected under one building. Managing and trouble shooting of LAN is easy.

2) Remote Access Network: - Remote access connection uses Dial Up Networking

with PSTN & ISDN telephone connection. This connection is slower & expensive
than LAN.
Server Server

Telephone Line
Modem Modem

1) PSTN Client Client


3) Lease line (city to city)

What is Internet?








TCP/IP  Transmission
At the ending 1960 ARANET (military Department) invent NCP.
IBM --------------------------------Telnet
AT & T ----------------------------FTP
Bell labs ---------------------------TCP
1981 --------------------------------IP
1982 --------------------------------TCP/IP
2005---------------------------------Development continue

DOD Model (Department of Defenses)

Application Telnet, FTP, HTTP,

Presentation SNMP, DHCP


Transport TCP UDP

Network IP ICMP AA

Data Link

DOD model consist of four layers

1) Application layer: - It contains all the TCP/IP application & services, TCP/IP
application/Client server base.




Telnet-------------------------------------------------Telnet Server
Microsoft FTP ---------------------------------------------------FTP server
HTTP-------------------------------------------------FTP server
HTTP -------------------------------------------------HTTPD (Demon Server)
Unix FTP --------------------------------------------------- FTPD

Ex. Telnet: - It is a terminal emulation utility. It is used to access the Remote system.
(Telnet server) From the remote client, telnet client (text)
From Services start the telnet service go to CMD type telnet IP address of Telnet Machine.
2) FTP: -It is an application & it is used to transfer of files uploading & downloading

3) HTTP: - (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) it is mainly used on web server. It uses
www. Service it support text graphic video.
4) SMTP: - It is used for simple mail on main server.
Ex. Exchange lotus notes. SMTP is used to sent mails and pop3 is use to receive mail.
5) SNMP: - Simple network management protocol SNMP service is used to monitor
TCP/IP statistics on SNMP client.
6) Host-to-Host Layer: - It consists of to communication protocol.
TCP: - Transmission communication protocol
• It’s a connection oriented protocol
• It uses acknowledgement.
• Packet Delivery is garn tied
• It is slower than UDP
UDP: - User Data gram protocol
• It is connectionless protocol
• It does not use acknowledgement
• Packet delivery is not garn tied
• It is faster than TCP

Internet Layer: -
IP: -IP is connectionless protocol by default IP is responsible to root IP packet to the
destination IP uses IP address for communication.
ICMP: - Internet control massage process. It is responsible for network massage and error.
ARP: - Address resolution protocol it maps the IP address network layer.
It is empty it does not contain any protocol. It handles LAN & WAN connection.

IP Addressing
IP address is 32 Bit logical address __. __. __. __=32 bit logical address
IP address consist of four octave
Classes of IP Address
A Class --------1 to 126
B Class --------128 to 191
C Class --------192 to 223
D Class --------224 to 239 (multicast)
E Class --------240 to 254 (future)
127 is reserve for default IP
EX. (A class)
The first octave identifies the class of octave.
IP address consist of the Network ID & Host ID
_____. ____. ____. ____
NT ID & Host ID

Subnet Mask It is 32 Bit logical address Subnet mask is used to identify the network ID and
Host ID in the IP address subnet mask contains value 255 & 0
255 identify the network ID & 0 identify the Host ID.

IP address ____. ____. ____. ____ =32 bit logical address.

Default Subnet Mask

A Class ____. ____. ____. ____= 16 million host
255. 0. 0. 0
B Class ____. ____. ____. ____= 65,545 Host
255. 255. 0. 0
C Class____. ____. ____. ____ =254 Host
255. 255. 255. 0
A ____. ____. ____. ____ Wrong
0 0 0
B ____. ____. ____. ____ Wrong
0 0
C ____. ____. ____. ____ Wrong
D ____. ____. ____. ____

Converting Decimal to Binary.

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
Ex. 170 if 128 is minus from 170 places 1 at first position if not minus place 0 then from
remaining value minus 64 if it can minus place 1 or not place 0 at second position.

170-128= 42, 42-64, 42-32=10, 10-16, 10-8=2, 2-4, 2-2=0, 0-1

1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0

Using DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)

Every Host installed with TCP/IP compulsory must have an IP address a TCP/IP Host is
assign IP address in two ways.
1) Static  Manually
2) Dynamic  Automatic
In a large network static address is not feasible. You must use DHCP server to assign IP
address to the entire Host in a network. to 20 Reserve for server
DC1 DC2 Web SRV Email-SRV Database SRV

DHCP SRV CLIENT IP address, subnet mask, default gateway, DNS, Wins

• Authorize the DHCP SRV
• Create Scope
Scope name  IP address range  Start __. __. __. __ End __. __. __. __
 Subnet Mask __. __. __. __
Excluding Range __. __. __. __
Lease Period: 8 days (till to 999)
Scope Option: y/n
A DHCP server assigns the following to the DHCP client.
1) IP address
2) Subnet mask
3) Default gateway
4) DNS
5) Wins
DHCP lease Generation process.

DHCP Client DHCP Server

1) IP lease request

DHCP Dissolver

IP lease offer 2)
DHCP offer

3) IP lease reflection
DHCP request

IP lease ACK 4)
Broadcast Net Bios
name, MAC
IP, SM, 255

If server is down the client 3 times tries for IP address if DHCP not responding
(Automatic Private IP address) when it get APIPA. When it get APIPA the machine
tries after every 10 min to connect DHCP and try to get IP address from DHCP.

DHCP Lease Renewal Process: -
50% ---- 4 Days
87.5%-- 7 Days
100% -- 8 Days

DHCP Server Scope Option: - There are four option on the DHCP
1) Address Pool: -This option display the IP addresses Range and the excluded
IP address range.
2) Address Lease: - This option display the information of DHCP client i.e. IP
address, client name, lease Expire date, Mac address of DHCP client.
3) Reservation: - you can reserve an IP address to DHCP client by
creating a reservation entry on DHCP server you need to specify 1) Client
name 2) IP address 3) MAC address.
4) Scope option: - This option you can use this option to provide
additional IP configuration address of router, DNS and Wins.
5) IP configuration: -You can configure IP configuration in the server
option if the IP configuration is same for all scope i.e. server
configuration option applied to all scope.
6) Super Scope: - Super scope combine two or more scope as single unit.

Using DHCP in Routed Network


Relay agent DHCP Srv


Router never allow to broadcast
So we need to install Relay agent
Other side of DHCP SRV

Implementing DNS in win 2003 (Domain Name System)
Introduction: -



C2 C4

DNS server Resolve Domain name to IP address.

DNS Query Process

1) Interactive Query: - The DNS server returns the best answer that it can provide
without help from other server.

DNS Server DNS Server DNS Server DNS Server

(gives ip of server1)

1 2 3 4 5

DNS Client
DNS client wants to connect to It will 1st ask its own DNS server,if it doesn’t
have then it will ask other DNS servers.After getting the IP address it will directly connect

2) Recursive Query: - The DNS server returns to complete answer to query not to
pointer to another DNS server.(DNS client will ask its own DNS server and that DNS
server will itself ask other DNS servers and get the IP and give it to the DNS client)

Creating Zone  Win2003 DNS supports different types of zone.

1) Primary Zone
2) Secondary Zone
3) Active Directory Integrated
4) Stub Zone


DNS Server DNS Server

Secondary zone Primary zone

Alternate DNS SRV

Read Only Read & Write

C1---------IP C1-------IP
C2---------IP C3-------IP
C3---------IP C4-------IP
C4---------IP C5-------IP
C5---------IP C6-------IP
If primary DNS goes down the secondary work as primary secondary is read only &
primary is read & write.

Primary Zone: - It contains a read & write version of the zone file i.e. told in a standard
text file. Any changes to the zone are recorded in that file you must create a primary zone
each time if you create a new zone.
Secondary Zone: - Secondary zone contains a read only version of zone file i.e. told in
standard text file any change to zone are recorded in a primary zone file and replicated to
the secondary zone file a secondary zone copy from primary zone.

Active Directory Integrated Zone


Active Directory Integrated Primary
Read & Write Read & Write

Active Directory Integrated Zone: - Stores the zone information in an Active Directory not
in a text file. Updated to the zone occur automatically during ADS replication. Active
Directory Integrated is read & write.
Subs Zone: - It is a new feature in win2003 stub zone contains address of the authoritative
DNS server.
Installing DNS win 2003
1) Win 2003 SRV
2) Static IP
3) DNS service Installed
Control panel  Add/Remove Programs  Windows Component  Network Service 
Details  DNS.
Forward Lookup Zone

Zone map domain name to IP address

Reverse Lookup Zone

Zone map IP address to domain name.

DNS Structure
Zone Com Com

Domain India Comp1 Comp1

Sub domain Pune

Host Comp1

FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name)
Creating Primary Zone: -
DNS SRV  Forward Lookup Zone  Right Click New Zone
 Primary
 Zone Name
 Zone Filename
 Dynamic Update (Y/N)
 Finish

Creating Secondary Zone: -

DNS SRV  Forward Lookup zone  Right Click New Zone
 Secondary Zone
 Zone Name
 IP address of master DNS (Name same as Primary Zone)
 Finish

Before You Create a secondary zone you must configure name & setting on a primary zone
On the primary zone properties  Zone Transfer Option
In zone Transfer
 Check the allow zone transfer
 Select the option below i.e. to any server

You can also set replication interval from primary zone properties SOA option.
Creating primary zone for Reverse Lookup Zone
 New zone
 Primary
 Specify the Net ID
 Filename of zone
 Allow dynamic Update (Y/N)
 Finish
Examining Zone File 
Resource record (RR)  RR in zone file contains a computers
2) IP address comp1 A
3) Alias CC cname
4) Pointer (PTR) PTR

If primary zone is deleted or courted you can change secondary zone to become a primary
zone you can configure single DNS Server to Host.
1) One or more Primary Zone.
1) One or more secondary zone.
2) Combination of primary and secondary zone.

Zone Transfer between primary & secondary a zone transfer is a process of replicating a
zone file to another to another DNS Server a zone transfer instituted the master DNS
server sends notification of zone changes of secondary DNS server in win2003 the DNS
Server is updated by incremental zone transfer.
You can configure zone transfer from
Primary Zone  Properties  SOA  (start of authentication)
SOA option contains
1) serial number
2) primary server
3) Responsible server administrator
4) Time interval, Refresh, Retry and TTL (Time To Leave)

Active Directory Integrated Zone

1) ADS zone date is stored in the ADS object
2) It replicate as port of DC
3) No Single point of failure
4) Fault tolerance
5) Provide secure only option a dynamic update

LINUX DNS server WIN 2003 DNS server

Zone Zone

200 Records Record

File Copy and Rename

File in Win 2003 server (windows\system32\DNS)

1)  Forward Lookup file which translate Host name to IP address
2)  The reverse Lookup file i.e. used to translate IP address to
host name
3) Cache.dns: - Contains the host for resolving name outside authorized domain.
4) Boot: - Controlled how the DNS server service start.

File Type Unix File name Win2003 File name

Boot File named.boot Boot
Forward lookup file db.domain name domain_name.dns

Reverse lookup file db.x.w.y

Dynamic Update

The DNS dynamic update protocol allows client to automatically update DNS server.

DHCP server Pre win 2000 / NT4.0/98

Win 2000/2003/XP

DNS server – enable dynamic update

(secure/ non secure)

If all the machines are Win 2000 / 2003/ XP then we will directly make them DNS client
and they are already enabled for dynamic updates. We will select non secure and secure on
the dynamic update of DNS server. All the information of the client will be automatically
updated BUT if there are pre win 2000 machines also, so we will have to take help of
DHCP. Will have to make all the machines including win 2000/ 2003 / XP DHCP clients
and the DHCP server will update the DNS server.

To enable dynamic update you need to configure DNS server & DHCP server.
Configure DNS server 
DNS  Zone  Properties  General  Dynamic Update  Non Secure & secure 

Configure DHCP server 

DHCP Server/scope  properties  DNS

Select Enable DNS Dynamic Update option

Dynamically update DNS A and Records only if requested by DHCP Cilents
Always dynamically update DNS A and PTR
Discard A and PTR records when lease Records is deleted
Dynamically Update DNS A and PTR records for DHCP Clients that do no request update
for example, Clients running windows NT 4.0
Secure are the computer in same Domain
Non secure means are computer outside domain

If the zone active directory integrated that you get secure only option in the Dynamic

Maintaining & Troubleshooting DNS

Reducing Network Traffic: -

Forwarder only catching

WAN link






Main DNS server

Catching only server perform name resolution on behalf of client computers and cache
DNS server  Properties  Forwarders  specify the IP address of DNS server to which
you want forward .
If the DNS server is root zone that it can not be forwarder maintain DNS Zone

Monitoring DNS
Test DNS: - You can test the simple and recursive query of DNS
DNS SRV  Properties  Monitoring.
Event Viewer
Enable DNS Server Debug logging
DNS SRV  Properties  Debug logging

Implementing wins in win 2003 SRV

WINS (Windows Internet Name Service)
Net bios Name: - It is a computer name Microsoft OS user net bios service and requires
compulsory computer name (net bios name) or the system net bios name must be unique in
the network A net bios name is of maximum 15 characters. Net bios name are used for
connecting the system in the network. Net bios names are registered net bios names the
enable users to locate comps that contains shared resources on the network

C1 C2

If a user at C1 Wants to access to Machine C2 then he goes

Start  Run  \\C2 this command is located is called net bios query.
Net bios name resolution
1) Net Bios name cache: - It contains the net bios name that the local computer recently
resolved and the name resoulation result.
Nbtstat -c
Command to check the cach list that is computer name and IP add recently connected
to,byour PC
Nbtstat –R
Command to clear the cach list

2) Net bios name server (wins server)

It maintains a data base of net bios name and IP addresses and responses to
the client name resolution request. In win 2003 net bios name server is win server.

3) Local broadcast

A net bios client can issue a broadcast on the local network for the ip address of
the destination net bios name

WINS server Netbios-------IP


Netbios name server

2 C2

1 Netbios cache
------ IP
------- ------

When C1 needs to connect to C2 it will 1 check its netbios cache list,if not there then 2nd it

will ask wins serve. If not there the 3rd it will broadcast

Lmhost file :
Lmhost is static


A3 C3

A2 Lmhost File C2 A1 A2 A3

A1 C1

Path of lmhost = windows\system32\drivers\etc\ lmhost

WINS Overview

When you configure a computer as WINs client, the clients computer register its
netbios name and IP address by sending a name registration request directly to the
primary WINs server. The client when register to the WINs server,in its request it takes its
netbios name and Ip address and also the service which it is registering.

WINS server

WINS Client

Netbios name
IP address
Win server IP add
Service type

1) WIN 2003 SERVER

Start  setting  control panel  add remove prog  windows component 
networking services  details  WINS  ok  next….

The wins client by default is registered with 2 services ie file server and work station. On a
wins client if a new service is started the wins client automatically register the new service
entry on the wins server

The default renewal interval for entries in the wins data base is 6 days. Renewal occurs
every 3 days because the registration renewal is of 50%


A wins client can use the netbios name of another wins client to obtain the IP add of that
client from the Wins server 1st it sends the query to the primary wins server, if it doesn’t
respond it will query to the secondary wins server if available, even if secondary does not
response, the client will the broadcast. A wins client can add up to 12 wins server

When you shout down the wins client properly, by using the OS shut down sequence or by
stopping a network service ,the client send sends the name release request directly to the
wins server for each requested name.
Supporting Non WIN Client

DNS & WINS inter operability

DNS client

DNS server 4 1

2 3 WINS Server
Comp1 IP address DATA BASE
is not available Comp1

Enabling WINS Forwarding

DNS  Zone  Properties  WINS  Selected WINS forwarding & Specify the IP
address of WINS server.
Using Static Mapping


WINS client WINS server

WINS client WINS client
Linux123 IP

Linux123 WINS client

Static mapping is a manual Entry in the WINS data base that the net bios name to IP
address. Static mapping mainly done for non Microsoft OS.
WINS  comp1  Active Registration  New Map static  Specify computer name, Net
bios Scope optional Type(Unique simple) specify IP address……


WINS database

Linux123 IP

WINS client WINS server

WINS client WINS client

LINUX 123 WINS client
(ping linux 123 it can ping)

Wins proxy is a computer to forward broadcast name resolution request to the win server
for name resolution.
Enable win proxy by using regedit.
My Computer\HEY.Local\Machine\System\current control set\services\netbt\prameter
Right Click  New  Dward value  Enable Proxy Double Click (O means off & 1
means on)
Ipconfig/all check
Check from status wins client.
WINS Replication

WINS Server WINS server

WINS client WINS client

WINS client WINS client

Replication Partner
1) Pull partners: - Request replica of database entry at specify interval it limits the
frequently of replication traffic but may cause less data synchronization.
2) Push Partners: - It notified replication partner when changes exceed specify
threshold (No of changes). It maintain synchronization but may increase traffic.
3) Push/Pull Partner: - It is configure as both push partner and pull partner. It ensure
synchronization regard ness no of changes.

Maintaining WINS Database

WINS display all records in the database and organized the information into a following
1) Record name  The register net bios name a following columns.
2) Type  The service that register the entry it includes the hexadecimal type ID.
3) IP address  IP address of the register WINS client.
4) State  The state of the database entry. It can be active, Release or Tombstone.
5) Static  Indicated whether the mapping is static.
6) Owner  The wins server from which the entry originated.
7) Version  A unique hexadecimal no. assign by the wins server
8) Expiration  It shows the entry which expire.

Deleting Wins Record

When you delete a wins record there are two methods.

1) Delete the record from this server this option remove the records from the database
and wins server that the database and wins server that you are configure.
2) Replicate deletion of records of other server (Tombstone) Remove the records from
database server that you are configure and also delete the records from other

Compacting Wins Database

1) Stop the wins

2) Jetpack win.mdb temp.mdb
3) Start the wins service
Path windows\system32\wins\wins.mdb

Backing Up Wins
Right Click win server  Backup database

Configuring Remote Access Connection

Remote access connection are between computer located in remote distance.
RAS user used different types of protocol & media

Connection Type

1) Public Switch Telephone Network (PSTN) : - PSTN uses analog telephone line and
modems. It is a cheapest remote access connection and not reliable.
2) Integrated Service Digital Network(ISDN): - ISDN is uses digital telephone
connection & modems. ISDN is expensive than PSTN. ISDN are reliable than PSTN.
3)Virtual Private Network (VPN): -


VPN client

VPN allows connection between LAN through Internet,the client has to intstall VPN &
became VPN client.
4) Null Modem Cable OR Serial communication between two computer

Data Transport Protocol

1) LAN Protocol
C) Apple talk

2) RAS Protocol

a) Point to Point Protocol(PPP): - PPP enable the remote Access point & server to
operate together in multi vender company it is default protocol or most commonly
use protocol in remote access.
b) Serial LAN Internet Protocol (SLIP): - SLIP is most commonly used telnet (Unix
based) Microsoft Windows 2000 & 2003 supports only slip client they do not
support SLIP server.

3) VPN Protocol: -
a) PPTP (Point to Point Tunneling Protocol)
b) L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol) more secure.

Configuring RAS Server

To make RAS Server
1) Install Modem
2) Configure & Enable R RAS
 Dial up (Remote Access)
 IP Assignment
Automatically (DHCP)
Specify Range (R RAS Server)
 No Radius
 Finish
To make RAS Client
1) Install
2) Make new Dial Up Connection

User must be in Dial in permission.

10 ----------VPN (PPTP—5) (L2TP--- 5)
By default the modem on R RAS server is configured only for in board connection if you
want dial through R RAS server to another R RAS server for select in board & outbound
R RAS server  Ports  Properties  select Port  Click configuration

Multi Link
Multi link allows users to combine analog & ISDN path. Multi link enable your computer
use to one or more communication port with bandwidth R RAS users PPP multi link
protocol windows 2003 also support BAP bandwidth allocations protocol for dynamic multi

Authentication Protocol: - There are five standard Authentication Protocol.
1) MS—CHAP V2 (Microsoft Challenge Hand Shake Authentication Protocol version
2) MS—CHAP (Microsoft Challenge Hand Shake Authentication Protocol).
3) CHAP (Challenge Hand Shake Authentication Protocol).
4) SPAP (Shiva Password Authentication Protocol).
5) PAP (Password Authentication Protocol).

Protocol Security Used Where OR Description

MS-CHAP V2 High When you have dial up
clients running
win2000/2003 or VPN clients
running NT 4.0 & win98
MS-CHAP High When you are running NT
4.0 and later win98.
CHAP High When you have client which
is not running on Microsoft.
SPAP Medium When connecting SHIVA
LAN Rorer and
win2000/2003 client base R
RAS server.
PAP Low Clients server can not
negotiate using more
validation user name &
password is sends clear text.

Authentication protocol must be same on R RAS and client.

Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP): - Supports customize authentication to RAS

server by using protocol
1) MD5- CHAP (Message Digest 5 Challenge Handshake Authentication protocol)
2) TLS (Transport layer Security )
3) Smart Card.

If the DHCP server is available RRAS obtains 10 IP address at a time. If DHCP
server is in available RRAS uses APIPA.

Monitor RRAS
You can monitor RRAS service from
1) Event viewer
2) Modem log-in  PATH  control panel  phone and modems  modem 
properties  diagnostics on record a log ( this will make a file where the
function of the modems will be recorded)
Where as in XPthere will be an option click on append a log (it will do the same but
wont overwrite the file it will make new files every time the modem is used).


Radius:- Remote Access Dial In User Service
It is an industry standard protocol. That provides the solution to authentication and
remote user accounting. In windows 2003 the combination of RRAS and IAS provide
support for Radius

Introduction to IAS
IAS proferms centralized authentication, authorization, auditing and accounting of
connections for dail up

Installing IAS
Path:- Control Pannel  add remove  windows components  network services 
IAS  ok  Finish.

Configure IAS
First register the IAS server on the domain.
Path – IAS  right click register server and active directory  ok

Confirm the IAS server computer a/c is the member of the RAS and IAS server group in
the DC.
IAS server act as a Radius server.

Add Radius client on IAS server

Path:- program  administrative tool  IAS server  radius client  new Radius
client specify friendly nameip address of Radius client  select client vender
Microsoft (radius standard) specify a shared secrete password.


There are 2 types of routers
1) logical router  NT/ 2000/ 2003/ linux
2) physical router hardware client (cicso,novel,3comp)

Routers allows communication between 2 different network or 2 machine. 1 is A class, 1

is B class. 2 different machines with same class but 2 different network no..
Router basic components
Router contains routing table which stores information of the network

Default entries in Routing Table - Default route - Loop back - Multi task – Broadcast

Dynamic Routing
Router use routing protocol to exchange information between routers to propagate
network address and connection information. The 2 most common routing protocols are
1) RIP Routing Information Protocol
a) for small to medium inter networks
b) uses a routing table
c) easier to configure and manage
d) does not scale well
e) support 15 router

2) OSPF Open Shortest Path First

a) for large heterogeneous inter network
b) uses a line state data base
c) complex to configure and manage
d) operates efficiently in large network

e) supports unlimited router

Making a Router
Programs administrative tool  routing and routing access  (right click computer) 
configure and enable routing and remote access  custom configuration  LAN routing
 finish  yes.

Configure the router

After the above, go to local computer  IP routing  general  local area connection 
properties  configuration  give IP  advance  add  IP add ok
On client specify router address right click local area connection and give default

Configure Internet Access for a Network

1) By using Router
a) Router optimizes network performance
b) It enables all user in the network to share a single connection to the internet.

2) By using firewall
Firewall prevents unauthorized access to your network. It enables you to specify the
type of traffic that is allowed into and out of your network.

3) connecting to internet by using NATing ( Network Address Transalation)

NATing hides the internal IP address of the computer & gives a

request to the internet by its own IP address.
By NAT the Internet gets the request from royter server & not the internal

1. The client sends the Packet to the computer running NAT.

2. The computer running NAT changes the packet header & sends the packet over the
internet to the Web server.
3. The Web server sendes yhe reply to the computer running NAT .
4. The computer running NAT determines the destination, changes the packet header
& sendes the packet to the client.


1. It is for small companies.
2. It does not caching..

Managing windows 2003 network:-
Windows 2003 provides two methods for administrating the network.

Remote desktop:-
Share the folder on 2003 server windows /system32 /TS client &
install it on windows 2000 professional or pre Win 2000 computer.
Right click my computerPropertiesRemoteEnable Remote desktop.

SNMP :- (Simple Network Management Protocol)

It is a industry standard management protocol ,use to manage network
Servers, Workstation, bridge, Switch, Routers.
SNMP Requires (SMS) System Management Service Software for
SNMP agent & management system belongs to a group called communities
which are identify by names.
Only agents & manager that are member of the same community can
communicate with each other (by default the community name is public).
Installing SNMP Client :-
Control panelAdd remove programes Add remove windows
componentsManagement & monitoring tools Simple Network Management


Text commands ;
1. Net helpmsg error no.
2. Net send IP massage
3. Net view.
4. Net share.
5. Net start service name
6. Net stop service name
7. Net user NAME Password /add
8. Net statistics server
9. Net statistics workstation

1. IPconfigIP, Subnet Mask, default Gateway.
2. IPconfigIP, Subnet Mask, default Gateway, DNS IP, WINS IP, MAC Address.
3. IPconfig/Flush DNS Purge DNS Cache.
4. IPconfig/Release It release IP Address given by DHCP.
5. IPconfig/Renew It renew IP Address given by DHCP

PING ----------Loopback
PING ----------Ping self
PING ----------DC
PING ----------Remote host.
If problem in network use above commands.

ARP –A ------------------IP to MAC Address information.
ARP –D ------------------Delete the ARP Cache.
ARP entries are deleted in three situations
1. 120 seconds are over.
2. arp –d
3. When you restart the computer.

ARP –S IP MAC Address ---Adding static entries.

Static entries are not deleted after 120 seconds.But only when you give ARP –D or
restart the computer.

NBTSTAT –C --------------------View Netbios cache.
NBTSTAT –R --------------------Purge/Deleting entries.