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Distribution

Transformer
Guide

Distribution Transformer Division


Athens, Georgia
Jefferson City, Missouri ISO 9001 CERTIFIED
June, 1979
Revised March, 2002
Foreword
The purpose of this guide is to assemble fundamental information
concerning common ratings, connections, and applications of distri-
bution transformers. The information presented is a summary of these
fundamentals and is intended as a reference for those who deal
occasionally with distribution transformer applications. This guide does
not purport to cover all aspects of selection and application; if ques-
tions arise or further details are required, contact ABB Inc.

1
Index
I. General Page
A. Application ................................................................................ 4
B. Physical Description ................................................................. 4
C. Protection and Accessories ...................................................... 11

II. Performance
A. Designation of Winding Voltage Ratings ................................. 17
B. Polarity ...................................................................................... 20
C. Terminal Designations .............................................................. 21
D. Short Circuit Ratings ................................................................ 22
E. Sound Level Ratings ................................................................ 22
F. Tolerance Definitions ................................................................ 23
G. Impedance Calculations ........................................................... 23
H. Efficiency Calculations ............................................................. 24
I. Regulation Calculations ........................................................... 24
J. Performance Example .............................................................. 26
K. Secondary Fault Current—120/240 Volt Systems ................... 27

III. Three-Phase Transformers and Banks


A. Application Considerations ...................................................... 34
B. Summary of Common Connections ......................................... 41
C. Common Three-Phase Banks Using Single-Phase
Transformers ........................................................................... 48

IV. Loading
A. Paralleling ................................................................................. 51
B. Delta-Delta Bank Loading ........................................................ 51
C. Overloading .............................................................................. 52
D. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Loading of Symmetrical and
Unsymmetrical Transformer Banks .......................................... 53
E. Dedicated Motor Loads ............................................................ 66

V. Voltage Unbalance
A. Effects of Voltage Unbalance ................................................... 71
B. Voltage Unbalance Definitions ................................................. 71
C. Causes of Voltage Unbalance ................................................. 73
D. Voltage Unbalance With Three-Phase Loading ...................... 73
1. Delta-Delta and Floating Wye-Delta Banks ........................ 74
2. Open-Delta Banks ............................................................... 75

VI. Reference Data


Solid and Concentric Stranded Aluminum and Copper
Conductors .................................................................................... 80
Temperature Correction Factors for Resistance of Aluminum
Conductors .................................................................................... 81
Logarithm Tables ........................................................................... 83
Nominal direct-Current Resistance, Ohms per 1000 Feet, at
20°C and 25°C of Solid and Concentric Stranded Conductors .... 85
Natural Functions of Angles .......................................................... 86
Typical Isokeraunic Map ................................................................ 87
Selected SI Equivalents ................................................................ 88

2
I. General Page

A. Application ................................................................................ 4
B. Physical Description ................................................................. 4
1. Pole Mounted ...................................................................... 4
2. Pad Mounted ....................................................................... 6
C. Protection and Accessories ...................................................... 11
1. General ................................................................................ 11
2. Types of Accessories and Transformer Protection
Packages — Pole Mounted ................................................ 11
3. Types of Accessories and Protection — Pad Mounted ...... 13

3
I. General

A. Application
ABB single-phase and three-phase, oil-filled, pole- and pad-
mounted distribution transformers are specifically designed for
servicing residential distribution loads; they are also suitable for
light commercial loads, and industrial lighting and diversified power
applications.

The transformers described herein are designed for the applica-


tion conditions normally encountered on electric utility power
distribution systems. As such they are suitable for use under the
“usual service conditions” described in ANSI C57.12.00 General
Requirements for Liquid-Immersed Distribution, Power and
Regulating Transformers. All other conditions are considered
“unusual service” and should be avoided unless specific ABB
Division approval is obtained.


B. Physical Description
1. Pole Mounted
• Meets Industry Standard ANSI C57.12.20
• 0.5 - 1000kVA
• 65° C temperature rise
• Insulation levels:
Rated Insulation Basic Impulse
Voltage Ranges Class Level (kV)
480- 600 1.2 30
2160- 2400 5.0 60
4160- 4800 8.7 75
7200-12470 1 15.0 95
13200-14400 18.0 125
19920-22900 2 25.0 150
-34400 34.5 200
1 Optional 125 kV BIL 12000 volts available
2 Optional 125 kV BIL 19920 volts available

4
Type CSP Type S
kVA High Low
Voltage Voltage
Pole Mounted (Single-Phase)
0.5 2400 through 120/240
1.5 34,400 volts 240/480
3
5
10
15
25
371/2
50
75
100
167
250
333
500
667
750
833
1000

Pole Mounted (Three-Phrase)


15 2400 to 208/120
30 13,800T 240x480T
45 480/277
75
1121/2
150
225
330
Three-Phase 500

JUMBO ® Step-Down Transformer. The ABB JUMBO


single-phase step-down transformer is especially use-
ful during utility system voltage conversions when it is
desirable to convert a portion of a substation or a
feeder to a higher voltage and still be able to supply
the remaining customers at the existing voltage. The
JUMBO ® is also available for industrial and commer-
Jumbo cial applications or for resale customers.
5
2. Pad Mounted

A single-phase, single service, low pro-


file distribution padmount transformer
available in loop or radial feed.

Designed to aesthetically, safely and


economically provide underground
electrical service to single loads,
particularly, rural residences, farms and
ranches.

Micro-Pak, 10-50 kVA

A single-phase, multi-service, full-line,


low profile padmount transformer
designed for loop feed or radial feed
on a grounded wye underground dis-
tribution system.

The Mini-Pak can be furnished in a


complete line of ratings and in a wide
range of configurations to fully meet the
reliability, safety and operating require-
ments of any distribution system.

Mini-Pak, 10-167 kVA

The Maxi-Pak is designed specifically


for those customers requiring straight-
up feed (Type I) rather than cross feed
(Type II). The additional height of the
Maxi-Pak allows installation of air load
break switching in this low-profile
design.

Maxi-Pak, 10-250 kVA

6
ABB single-phase padmounted Distribution Transformers meet the
following Industry Standards:
ANSI C57.12.00 - IEEE Standard General Requirements for Liquid
Immersed…Transformers
ANSI C57.12.25 - Pad-Mounted…Single-Phase Distribution
Transformers with Separable Insulated
High-Voltage Connectors…
ANSI C57.12.28 - Pad-Mounted Equipment - Enclosure Integrity
or
ANSI C57.12.29 - …Pad-Mounted Equipment - Enclosure Integrity
for Coastal Environments
ANSI C57.12.70 - …Terminal Markings and Connections
ANSI C57.12.80 - IEEE Standard Terminology…
ANSI C57.12.90 - IEEE Standard Test Code…
NEMA Tr-1 - Transformer Standards
IEEE 386 - …Separable Insulated Connectors
ABB recommends the use of ANSI C57.91 - IEEE Guide for Loading…for
the establishment of proper distribution transformer loading practices.
Ratings @65° Rise
kVA: 10,25,371/2, 50, 75, 100, 167, 250 1
HV: 4160GY/2400 through 34500GY/19920V 3
BIL: 60, 75, 95, 125, 150 kV
LV: 240/120, 480/240, 277 V, 120/240 3, 240/480 2
1 Maxi only
2 Available only on micros with cable lead secondary
3 Mini and Maxi only (micros available thru 24940GY/14400)

Standard Features:
1. Equipped with two universal high voltage bushing wells for loop
feed. (Only one bushing well is provided for radial feed.)
2. A removable flip-top hood and heavy-duty 3/8 '', stainless steel hinge
pins provide safe and durable service.
3. A recessed locking assembly with padlock provisions and a
pentahead locking bolt is standard for tamper resistant operation.
A hex-head locking bolt is available.
4. All tanks are constructed of heavy gauge steel. Tank seams are
welded and each unit is pressure tested and inspected for leaks
prior to shipment. In addition, all single phase transformers are sup-
plied with:
a. / ''-11 stainless steel lifting bosses
5 8

b. Oil level/fill plug


c. Oil drain plug
d. Self-actuating pressure relief device
e. Two ground bosses, 1/ 2''-13 NC tapped hole 7/16'' deep.
5. The front sill latches with the flip-top hood, is attached on the side
of the tank, and is removable.
6. The high voltage universal bushing wells are externally clamped
and removable. A parking stand between the bushing wells is pro-
vided for attachment of bushing accessories.
7. Externally clamped low voltage epoxy bushings.
8. Tamper-resistant design that exceeds ANSI C57.12.28.
9. NEMA safety labels per NEMA Publication 260-1982.

7
Minimum/Maximum Design Dimensions 1

Micro-Pak Mini-Pak Maxi-Pak


A B C D A B C D A B C D
Min. 24 24 30.25 14 24 32 30.25 14 32 32 30.25 14
Max. 24 24 35.50 16 42 44 46.00 20 42 44 46.00 20

1 Actual dimensions will vary according to voltage, loss evaluation,


and accessories.

Optional Accessories
1. Overcurrent Protection
a. An internal primary protective
link to remove the transformer
from the system in the event of
an internal fault.
b. A secondary breaker provides
protection against secondary
overloads and short circuits.
Dimensions are in Inches c. An oil-immersed bayonet-type
fuse link to remove the trans-
former from the system in case
of an internal fault (fault sensing)
or secondary short overload
(overload sensing). This fuse is
a drawout design and is supplied
in series with an isolation link. A
drip plate is provided to prevent
oil from dripping onto the bush-
ing or elbow.
d. A current limiting fuse mounted
in a dry well loadbreak canister.2
• The high interrupting rating of
the CL fuse permits its use on
systems where the available
fault current exceeds the rat-
ing of normal expulsion fuses.
“C”+6
e. A partial range current limiting
CABLE OPENING fuse mounted under oil within
the transformer tank.2
5.0 • An expulsion fuse is supplied
5.0 in series with the partial range
“B”+6 CL fuse.
Recommended Pad • Available at 95, 125, and 150
Dimensions kV BIL.

2. Switching
a. Externally operated tap changer.
b. Externally operated dual voltage
switch.2
c. Externally operated loadbreak
oil rotary (LBOR) switch.2
d. EFD CL fused air loadbreak
switch available for either radial
or loop feed.3

2 Not available on Micro


3 Maxi only

8
3. Primary Connection
a. Universal bushing wells (stan-
dard) and loadbreak inserts.
b. Integral (one piece) loadbreak
bushings.

4. Secondary Connections
a. Copper studs with rotatable
spade type bushings.
• Four-hole, NEMA type, tin-
plated copper alloy spade.
• Four-hole, in line, tin-plated
copper alloy spade.
b. Cable lead secondary. 4

5. Corrosion Resistance
a. ANSI C57.12.29 Full 400 Series
Stainless Steel
b. Partial Stainless Steel
• Mini-Skirt™ and Sill
• Sill Only
• Sill and Hood
• Mini-Skirt™, Sill, and Hood
6. Miscellaneous
a. Cleats for anchoring sill to pad.
b. Polypad mounting base. 4

4 Micro only

9
The ABB MTR is an oil-filled, three
phase, commercial padmounted distribu-
tion transformer specifically designed for
servicing such underground distribution
loads as shopping centers, schools,
institutions and industrial plants. It is
available both live front and dead front
construction, for radial or loop feed
applications, or without taps.

Industry Standards
ABB three-phase MTR units meet the
following industry standards:
The ABB MTR Padmounted ANSI C57.12.00 - IEEE Standard General
Transformer Three-Phase Requirements for Liquid Immersed…
45-2500 kVA Transformers
ANSI C57.12.22 - Pad-Mounted…
Three-Phase Distribution Transformers
with High Voltage Bushings
ANSI C57.12.26 - Pad-Mounted…Three-
Phase Distribution Transformers…
With Separable Insulated High-Voltage
Connectors
ANSI C57.12.28 - …Pad-Mounted Equipment
- Enclosure Integrity
or
ANSI C57.12.29 - …Pad-Mounted
Equipment - Enclosure Integrity
for Coastal Environments
ANSI C57.12.70 - Terminal Markings
and Connections…
ANSI C57.12.80 - IEEE Standard
Terminology…
ANSI C57.12.90 - IEEE Standard Test
Code…
NEMA Tr-1 - Transformer Standards
IEEE 386 - Separable Insulated
Connectors
ABB Recommends the use of ANSI C57.91
- IEEE Guide for Loading…for the estab-
lishment of proper distribution transformer
loading practices.
Ratings
• 45 through 2500 kVA
• 65°C average winding rise over 30°C
average ambient.
• Low voltages: 1 208Y/120, 216Y/125,
460Y/265, 480Y/277, 480d, 240d and
240d with 120 volt mid-tap in one phase.
• High voltages: 4160 Grd Y/2400
through 34,500 Grd Y/19,920 for
Grounded Wye systems; 2400 through
34,500 for Delta systems; various dual
high voltages.
• Taps: All voltages are available with or
without taps.
• Insulation classes: 35 kV (200 kV BIL)
and below.
1 208Y/120, 216Y/125, 240d not avail-
able above 1500kVA.
10

C. Protection and Accessories
1. General

The distribution transformer functions as an integral part of the


distribution system and consideration must be given to proper
protection of the transformer from system disturbances. In
addition, it is normal practice to apply overcurrent protection
on the primary side of the transformer so that a faulted trans-
former is isolated from the primary system. Protection from
excessive voltage transients and severe overcurrents should
be provided. Protection considerations include:

(1) Protective devices must be rated for the conditions


anticipated.

(2) When the transformer(s) is provided with overcurrent


devices — coordination with system devices should be
achieved to allow proper fault isolation.

Caution: Operation of a primary protective device may indi-


cate a faulted transformer. Re-energizing should be performed
from a remote location unless the cause of device operation is
positively identified and corrected. To do otherwise presents a
hazard to life and property in the event of violent transformer
failure.

2. Types of Accessories and Transformer Protection Packages—


Pole Mounted

ABB offers four basic transformer types: S, SP, CP and CSP ®.


Together they represent a wide range of protective capabili-
ties to meet nearly every application.

• Conventional “S” Transformers


This type transformer contains no protective equipment.
Therefore, lightning, fault and overload protection for these
transformers must be provided by the purchaser.

• Surge-Protecting “SP” Transformers


The “SP” transformers include transformer-mounted lightning
arresters and internally-mounted high voltage protective links,
but omit the internally-mounted low voltage circuit breaker.

• Current-Protecting “CP” Transformers


The “CP” transformers are equipped with the internally-
mounted low-voltage circuit breaker and high voltage
protective links, but omit the lightning arresters.

11
Types of Accessories and Transformer Protection Packages—
Pole Mounted (Continued)

• Self-Protecting “CSP ® ” Transformers


In a “CSP” transformer the arrester protects the transformer
from over-voltage caused by lightning and/or high voltage
switching surges. The protective link operates to remove a
defective transformer from service if an internal failure occurs,
thereby protecting the system. The breaker provides the trans-
former a degree of protection from overloads and short circuits
on the secondary side of the transformer. This type trans-
former offers the most protection of all protected transformers
except for a “CSP” with a current limiting fuse.

a. CL Fuses
Two basic types of current limiting fuses exist—partial
range and general purpose (full range). The partial range
fuse requires a protective link applied in series while the
general purpose fuse does not. The partial range fuse is
available on pole-type transformers (bushing mounted)
and padmounted transformers (internally mounted). The
general purpose fuse is only available on padmounted
transformers.

b. The Distribution Surge Arrester protects the transformer


(and other electrical equipment) from dangerous over-
voltages, whether caused by lightning surges, switching
surges or other transients.

The Type LV Surgemaster™ valve type arrester has one


or more arc gap assemblies connected in series with one
or more current limiting “valve” blocks. Under high volt-
age surge conditions, the resistance in the blocks drops,
providing a low-resistance path to ground. Once the surge
has passed, however, the block resistance rises again,
restricting the flow of current. The gaps will then interrupt
this low-magnitude current flow, restoring the arrestor to
an insulator.

The LVBB Surgemaster™ valve type arrester is a big


block (heavy duty) design which is capable of discharg-
ing a 100 KA surge. The big block arrester operates the
same way as the LV with additional protection capability.

The HMX gapless metal oxide arrester is a heavy duty


design utilizing the non-linearity of a metal oxide resistor
to provide protection levels equivalent to gapped silicon
carbide arresters. The metal oxide distribution arrester
offers the benefits of reduced complexity, improved reli-
ability and improved performance characteristics.

The LV, LVBB Surgemaster™ and HMX distribution


arresters are available for either pole, crossarm or trans-
former mounting.

12
c. The Secondary Circuit Breaker provides the transformer
with a degree of protection from secondary overloads and
short circuits. It is mounted under oil, usually on the core/
coil assembly, connected between the coil’s secondary
leads and the secondary bushings. The breaker is cali-
brated to trip when its bimetal reaches a predetermined
temperature. An additional instantaneous magnetic trip
element which responds to high fault currents is available
on some breakers.

3. Types of Accessories and Protection—Padmounted

For system and transformer protection from surge currents,


short circuits and overloads, ABB offers a number of devices
including a protective link, distribution surge arrester, second-
ary circuit breaker and current limiting fuse.

a. The Protective Fuse Link is an internal, oil-immersed,


expulsion type fuse consisting of a fiber tube supporting
and surrounding the fuse element usually made of copper
and EVERDUR ®. The link is sized to operate only in the
event of a winding failure, isolating the transformer from
the primary system. Interrupting rating is 3500 amperes
at 7.2kV.

Protective Fuse Link

b. The Bayonet-Type Fuse Cartridge contains an oil-im-


mersed expulsion type fuse with an interrupting rating of
3800 amperes at 8.3 kV. It is a hookstick-operable,
drawout loadbreak design available through 19.9kV1.
Two types of fuse links are available—overload-sensing
and fault-sensing—and an internal isolation link is sup-
plied in series for additional safety. The fault-sensing link
is sized to operate only in the event of a transformer fail-
ure; the overload-sensing link is sized for additional pro-
tection from secondary system faults or prolonged heavy
overload conditions.

Standard Ratings:
Voltage Interrupting L.B. Amps
Class Amps (RMS) At .8 PF
8.3 kV 3800 135
15.5 kV 2000 135
23.0 kV 600 45

Bayonet-Type Fuse

13
c. Current Limiting Fuses are available through 15 kV in
either the EFD air loadbreak switch or in a drawout,
loadbreak dry fuse well.

Some applications may require parallel current limiting


fuses to obtain sufficient full-load or inrush current ratings.
A mechanical interlock with a loadbreak oil switch (LBOR)
is recommended when using parallel drawout, loadbreak,
dry well fuses. Some of the higher kVA designs may
require current fuse ratings that are not available—contact
Division.

Partial range, internal, block-mounted current limiting


fuses, which are applied in series with an internal protec-
tive link, are also available through 23 kV.

Loadbreak, Drywell Current Limiting Fuse Canister

d. The EFD is an loadbreak air switch available for radial


feed applications. Switching, flexibility and safety are
made possible by a compact, “dead front” type construc-
tion that enables the switch to be externally-mounted on
the tank in the terminal compartment. A sealed, silver sand
current limiting fuse is normally provided to the switch’s
transformer connecting pole. High voltage cables are con-
nected to the switch contacts by means of solderless,
clamp-type connectors capable of accepting cable sizes
ranging from #6 to #4/0.

14
EFD Switch Ratings
Continuous current ................ 200 A
Loadbreak ............................. 200 A
Close-in ................................. 5,000 A
Momentary ............................ 10,000 A

e. The LBOR (Loadbreak Oil Rotary) switch is gang-operated


and available for either radial or loop feed switching. The
stacked deck rotary switch has a unique, springloaded
cam-operated kicker system which provides quick make
and break action to the contacts.

LBOR Ratings:
BIL 95 kV 125 kV 150 kV
Maximum Voltage
(L-L) 15.5 kV 27 kV 38 kV
(L-Grd) 8.9 kV 15.5 kV 21.9 kV
Continuous and
Interrupting Current 300 A 1 200 A 300 A
Momentary and
Making Current 12 kA/ 12 kA/ 10 kA/
(RMS Sym./Assym.) 19.2 kA 19.2 kA 16 kA
1 200 A 3c rating also available.

LBOR Switch

f. The Tap Changer and Series Multiple Switch. Both are


oil-immersed, externally-operated, and are designed for
de-energized operation only.

Tap Changer
Operating Handle

15
II. Performance Page

A. Designation of winding voltage ratings .................................... 17


B. Polarity ...................................................................................... 20
C. Terminal designations .............................................................. 21
1. Pad-Mounted ....................................................................... 21
2. Pole-Mounted ...................................................................... 21
(a) 1c pole-mounted ........................................................... 21
(b) 3c pole-mounted ........................................................... 22
D. Short circuit ratings .................................................................. 22
E. Sound level ratings ................................................................... 22
F. Tolerance definitions ................................................................ 23
G. Impedance calculations ........................................................... 23
H. Efficiency calculations .............................................................. 24
I. Regulation calculations ............................................................ 24
J. Performance example .............................................................. 26
K. Secondary fault current—120/240 volt systems ...................... 27

16
II. Performance
A. Designation of Winding Voltage Ratings
(from ANSI C57.12.00)

1. Single-Phase
Symbol Example Typical Diagram

E 12000

Usage E shall indicate a winding of E volts which is suitable for g


connection on an E volt system.

E/E1 Y 2400/4160Y

Usage E/E 1Y shall indicate a winding of E volts which is suitable for


g connection on an E volt system or for Y connection on an E 1 volt
system.

E 1 GrdY/E 12 470GrdY/7200

Usage E 1 GrdY/E shall indicate a winding of E volts with reduced


insulation at the neutral end. The neutral end may be connected directly
to the tank for Y or for single-phase operation on an E 1 volt system,
provided the neutral end of the winding is effectively grounded.

E/2E 120/240

Usage E/2E shall indicate a winding, the sections of which can be


connected in parallel for operation at E volts, or which can be con-
nected in series for operation at 2E volts, or connected in series with
a center terminal for three-wire operation at 2E volts between the
extreme terminals and E volts between the center terminal and each
of the extreme terminals.

2E/E 240/120

Usage 2E/E shall indicate a winding for 2E volts, two-wire full kVA
between extreme terminals, or for 2E/E volts three-wire service with
1
/2 kVA available only, from midpoint to each extreme terminal.

V x V1 240 x 480

Usage V x V1 shall indicate a winding for parallel or series operation


only but not suitable for three-wire service.

Notes:
(1) E = line-to-neutral voltage of a “Y” winding, or line-to-line voltage of a delta
winding.
(2) E 1 = CF3F E

17
2. Three-Phase
Symbol Example Typical Diagram

E 2400

Usage E shall indicate a winding which is permanently g connected


for operation on an E volt system.

E1Y 4160Y

Usage E1 Y shall indicate a winding which is permanently Y connected


without a neutral brought out (isolated) for operation on an E 1 volt
system.

E1Y/E 4160Y/2400

Usage E1Y/E shall indicate a winding which is permanently Y con-


nected with a fully insulated neutral brought out for operation on an
E1 volt system, with E volts available from line to neutral.

E/E1Y 2400/4160Y

Usage E/E1Y shall indicate a winding which may be g connected for


operation on an E volt system, or may be Y connected without a neutral
brought out (isolated) for operation on an E 1 volt system.

E/E1Y/E 2400/4160Y/2400

Usage E/E 1Y/E shall indicate a winding which may be g connected


for operation on an E volt system or may be Y connected with a fully
insulated neutral brought out for operation on an E 1 volt system with
E volts available from line to neutral.

E1 GrdY/E 12470GrdY/7200

Usage E1 GrdY/E shall indicate a winding with reduced insulation and


permanently Y connected, with a neutral brought out and effectively
grounded for operation on an E1 volt system with E volts available
from line to neutral.

Notes:
(1) E = line-to-neutral voltage of a “Y” winding, or line-to-line voltage of a delta
winding.
(2) E1 = CF3F E

18
2. Three-Phase (continued)
Symbol Example Typical Diagram

E/E1 GrdY/E 7200/12470GrdY/7200

Usage E/E1 GrdY/E shall indicate a winding, having reduced insula-


tion, which may be g connected for operation on an E volt system or
may be connected Y with a neutral brought out and effectively
grounded for operation on an E 1 volt system with E volts available
from line to neutral.

V x V1 7200 x 14 400

Usage V x V 1 shall indicate a winding, the sections of which may be


connected in parallel to obtain one of the voltage ratings (as defined
above) of V, or may be connected in series to obtain one of the volt-
age ratings (as defined above) of V1 . Windings are permanently g or
Y connected.

Notes:
(1) E = line-to-neutral voltage of a “Y” winding, or line-to-line voltage of a delta
winding.
(2) E1 = CF3F E

19

B. Polarity
The lead polarity (or polarity) of a transformer is a designation of
the relative instantaneous directions of currents in its leads. Primary
and secondary leads are said to have the same polarity when at a
given instant the current enters the primary lead in question and
leaves the secondary lead in question in the same direction as
though the two leads formed a continuous circuit. The lead polar-
ity of a single-phase transformer may be either additive or
subtractive. If one pair of adjacent leads from the two windings in
question is connected together and a small voltage is applied to
one of the windings, then the connection behaves as an auto trans-
former with the secondary voltage adding to or subtracting from
the primary voltage. The polarity determination is as follows:

a. The lead polarity is additive if the voltage across the other two
leads of the windings in question is greater than that of the
higher voltage winding alone.

b. The lead polarity is subtractive if the voltage across the other


two leads of the windings in question is less than that of the
higher voltage winding alone.

Additive
E3 > E1
Subtrative
E3 < E1

By industry standards, single-phase distribution transformers 200


kVA and smaller, having high voltage windings rated 8660 volts or
less have additive polarity. All other single-phase transformers have
subtractive polarity.

The polarity of a three-phase transformer is fixed by the internal


connections between phases as well as by the relative locations
of leads; it is usually designated by means of a vector diagram
showing the angular displacements of windings and a sketch
showing the marking of leads. The vectors of the vector diagrams
represent induced voltages, and the recognized counterclockwise
direction of rotation of the vectors is used. The vector representing
the voltage of a given winding is drawn parallel to that represent-
ing the corresponding voltage of any other winding having the
same phase.

20
C. Terminal Designations

1. Pad Mounted
The terminal designations for pad-mounted distribution trans-
formers are clearly marked at the terminals of both the high
and low voltage.

2. Pole Mounted
For pole mounted distribution transformers, the terminal
designations follows:

(a) Single-Phase Pole Mounted


Connection Additive Polarity Subtractive Polarity

E/2E
with three
external
low-voltage
terminals

Series or
Three-Wire

Parallel

E/2E
with four
external
low-voltage
terminals

Series or
Three-Wire

Parallel

Note:
The H1 terminal for either additive or subtractive polarity is located on the left-
hand side when facing the low-voltage terminals.

21
Terminal Designations (Continued)

(b) Three-Phase Pole Mounted

All three-phase pole mounted distribution transformers have terminal


designations as shown above regardless of internal connection.

Neutral terminals (HV and/or LV) will exist as required by the winding
connection and will be noted on the transformer nameplate.

D. Short-Circuit Ratings (ANSI C57.12.00)


The short-circuit ratings for distribution transformers are set by industry
standards. The maximum magnitude required for units with secondary
voltages rated less than 600 V is as follows:
1 c kVA 3 c kVA Rating (times normal)
5-25 15-75 40
37.5-100 112.5-300 35
167-500 500 25
750-2500 1/ZT*

Two winding distribution transformers with secondary voltages rated


above 600 volts are required to withstand short-circuits limited only by
the transformer’s impedance.
The duration of the short-circuit current is determined by
500 kVA and Below
________________ 750-2500 kVA
___________
1250 t = 1.0
t=
l2
where: t = duration (seconds)
I = symmetrical short-circuit current (per unit)
*1/ZT = The short circuit current will be limited by the trans-
former impedance only. ZT is transformer per unit
impedance.

E. Sound Level Ratings (NEMA TR-1)


The sound level ratings for distribution transformers are set by industry
standards. The maximum sound level (A weighted response curve) is:
kVA Rating Sound Level (dB)
0-50 48
51-100 51
101-300 55
301-500 56
-750 57
-1000 58
-1500 60
-2000 61
-2500 62
22

F. Tolerance Definitions (ANSI C57.12.00-1987)
1. Impedance (two-winding transformers)

The impedance of a two-winding transformer with impedance


voltage larger than 2.5% shall have a tolerance of ± 7.5% of
the specified value; and the tolerance for those with impedance
voltage 2.5% or less shall have a tolerance of ± 10% of the
specified value.

Differences of impedance between two duplicate two-winding


transformers when two or more units of a given rating are pro-
duced by one manufacturer at the same time shall not exceed
7.5% of the specified value.

Transformers shall be considered suitable for operation in


parallel if impedances come within the limitations of the fore-
going paragraphs, provided turns ratios and other controlling
characteristics are suitable for such operation. (See Paralleling)

2. Losses

The total losses of a transformer are the sum of the excitation


losses and the load losses at rated load (with winding tem-
perature at 85°C).

Unless otherwise specified, the losses represented by a test of


a transformer, or transformers, on a given order, shall not exceed
the specified losses by more than the percentages below:

No Load Total
No. of Units Basis of Losses Losses
On One Order Determination (Percent) (Percent)

1 1 unit 10 6
2 or more each unit 10 6
2 or more average of 0 0
all units


G. Impedance Calculations
Transformer impedance is shown on the transformer nameplate
(Note: transformer impedance, reactance and resistance are typi-
cally given in percent or per unit). If the transformer load losses
are known, the impedance may be separated into its reactive and
resistive components.

Z - impedance (percent)
R - resistance (percent)
X - reactance (percent)
kVA - transformer kVA rating
Cu - load loss at rated load at 85°C (watts)

Cu
R=
10 kVA
X = CFF
Z2FFFF
– R2

23

H. Efficiency Calculations
The efficiency of a transformer is defined as the ratio of the output
power to the input power. It can be calculated at any load and
power factor if the transformer losses are known.

E - efficiency (percent)
L - load (per unit)
kVA - transformer kVA rating
Cu - load loss at rated load at 85°C (watts)
Fe - no load (excitation) loss (watts)
a - power factor angle

L.kVA.cosa.10 5
E= percent
(L.kVA.cosa.10 3) + Fe + L2.Cu

At rated load and unity power factor


kVA.105
E= percent
kVA.10 3 + Fe + .Cu

Regardless of the load power factor angle, it can be shown that


the per unit load which results in maximum efficiency is:

L (maximum efficiency) =

I. Regulation Calculations


The voltage regulation of a distribution transformer is the change
in output voltage which occurs when the load is reduced from
rated value to zero with the primary terminal voltage maintained
constant. The regulation can be calculated from the equations
below or by the nomograph which follows:

R - resistance(percent)
X - reactance (percent)
REG- percent voltage regulation
a - power factor angle (positive for inductive load)

REG = [R2 + X2 + 200. (X .sina + R.cosa) + 10,000] /2 – 100


1

For unity power factor

REG = [R2 + X2 + 200R + 10,000] /2 – 100


1

24
Regulation Chart

Place straight edge at percent resistance, scale one, and at percent


reactance, scale nine. Read the percent regulation at different power
factors as given by scales two to eight inclusive

25

J. Performance Example
Example Transformer Ratings (Typical)

Single-phase kVA 25
High voltage 7200v
Low voltage 120/240v
No load (excitation) loss 104 watts
Total loss at rated load 419 watts
Impedance 1.6%

For the above transformer determine the following:

(1) Nominal reactance


(2) Minimum impedance
(3) Minimum efficiency at rated load
(4) Expected efficiency at 50% load
(5) Expected regulation

Assume an inductive power factor (cosa = 0.85)


1. Nominal Reactance
Cu (419–104)
R = ______ = _______ = 1.26%
10.kVA 10 .25
X = CFF
Z2FFFF
– R 2 = CFF
FFFFFFFF
1.62 – 1.262 = 0.99%

2. Minimum Impedance
Minimum Z = (1 – 0.10) . (Nominal Z)
= 1.44%

3. Minimum Efficiency at Rated Load


Maximum total loss = 1.06 . 419 = 444 watts

kVA . cosa . 105


E=
kVA cosa . 10 3 + (Fe + Cu)
.

(25) . (.85) . 105


= = 98.0%
(25) . (.85) . 10 3 + (444)

4. Expected Efficiency at 50% Load

L= 0.5
L . kVA . cosa . 105
E=
L kVA . cosa . 10 3 + Fe + L2 Cu
.

(0.5) . (25) . (.85) . 10 5


= = 98.3%
(0.5) (25) (.85) . 10 3 + 104 + (0.5)2 . (419 – 104)
. .

5. Expected Regulation
REG = [R2 + X2 + 200. (X.sina + R. cosa) + 10,000] /2 – 100
1

= [1.262 + 0.992 + 200.(0.99.0.53 +1.26.0.85) + 10,000] /2 –100


1

= 1.596

26

K. Secondary Fault Currents — 120/240 Volt Systems
Service to individual residences in the United States most always is
single-phase three-wire operating at 120 volts from phase-to-neutral,
and 240 volts from phase-to-phase. In order to select service
entrance equipment with adequate interrupting rating, or to coor-
dinate over-current protective devices in the transformer-secondary
systems, the available currents for a bolted fault (short circuit)
must be known. This section presents equations and data which
can be used to calculate the available currents for both phase-to-
phase (240 volt) and phase-to-neutral (120 volt) faults. The
equations for calculating these currents are quite simple and can
be easily evaluated with a handheld pocket calculator

Fault Current Equations


Figure K.1 gives, for convenient reference, the equations
necessary for calculating the available currents for both 240 volt
and 120 volt bolted faults, and defines the terms appearing in the
equations. Before explaining the use of the equations, the as-
sumptions used in arriving at these are discussed.

Figure K.1

27
The impedance of the primary system supplying the distribution
transformer is very small in comparison to that of the distribution trans-
former and secondary circuit up to the point of fault. The effect of this
assumption is to make the calculated values of current for a bolted
fault in the secondary system slightly higher than those which result
when the effect of primary impedance is included. Increasing the
“stiffness” of the primary system, reducing the kVA size of the trans-
former, or increasing the secondary circuit length to the fault point
reduces the difference between the approximate and more exact cal-
culated values of bolted fault current. In contrast, the difference between
the approximate and more exact values will be greater for “weak” primary
systems, large distribution transformers, and short secondary circuits.
For most cases where the calculations are made to determine avail-
able fault current at the service entrance for sizing equipment, or to
determine maximum currents at which overcurrent protective devices
must coordinate, the difference resulting from the assumption is negli-
gible. However, for those cases where the calculated current using
methods neglecting primary impedance is slightly higher than the
interrupting rating of a fuse or breaker in the secondary system, or
where the calculated current is slightly above the value at which
overcurrent protective device coordination can be achieved, then
including the effect of primary system impedance may show that a
“problem” does not exist. Calculations including the effects of primary
system impedance are not contained in this guide.

Reference to Figure K.1 shows that the expressions for calculating the
available current for the 240 volt and 120 volt bolted faults are different.
While the 240 volt fault current can be calculated from a knowledge of
the “full winding” impedance of the transformer, the calculation of the
120 volt fault current requires a knowledge of the transformer “half
winding” impedance. As the relationship between transformer “half
winding” and “full winding” impedance is not fixed and can vary from
design to design, the most typical relationship for present day designs
was used in arriving at the equation for 120 volt fault current. Letting
RT + jXT be the “full winding” impedance in percent on nameplate kVA
rating looking into the primary winding, the “half winding” impedance in
percent on nameplate kVA can be approximated by 1.5 R T + j2.0 XT.

Also notice from Figure K.1 that the equations do not include the effect
of any metering impedances which may be present in the circuit, or
any “fault” impedance. Including these impedances will further reduce
the calculated values of fault current.

28
The steps to follow when using the equations in Figure K.1 to calculate
the bolted fault currents are as follows:

1. Calculate the transformer resistance in ohms at secondary termi-


nals X1-X3 (RT in Figure K.1). This requires that the transformer
total losses at full load in watts, and no load losses in watts be
known (WTOT and WNL respectively in Figure K.1).

2. Calculate the transformer leakage impedance in ohms at second-


ary terminals X1-X3 (Z T in Figure K.1). This requires that the
transformer nameplate impedance in percent (Z%) be known.

3. Calculate the transformer leakage reactance in ohms at secondary


terminals X1-X3 (X T in Figure K.1).

4. Determine the resistance of the secondary circuit in ohms per


1000 feet for a 240 volt fault (RS). Also determine the reactance of
the secondary circuit in ohms per 1000 feet for a 240 volt fault (X S).
Typical values for RS and XS in ohms per 1000 feet are given in
Tables 1 and 2 for circuits using aluminum phase conductors under
the header “240 V FAULTS”. The values in Table 1 are for triplex
cable, and those in Table 2 are for rack mounted conductors. From
these tables notice that the resistance values are the same, but the
reactance values are greater with the rack mounted conductors.
This is due to the larger spacing.

5. Calculate the available current for a 240 volt bolted fault (I 240) using
the equation in Figure K.1 and the values calculated in steps
1 through 4.

6. Determine the resistance (R S1) and reactance (X S1) of the second-


ary circuit in ohms per 1000 feet for a 120 volt fault. typical values
for RS1 and X S1 in ohms per 1000 feet are given in Tables 1 and 2
for circuits using aluminum conductors under the header “120 V
FAULTS”. In both tables, the values listed are for circuits using a
reduced size neutral conductor. If a full size neutral conductor is
used, then the impedance values given under the header “240 V
FAULTS” should also be used for the calculation of the 120 volt
fault currents.

7. Calculate the available current for a 120 volt bolted fault (I 120) using
the equation in Figure K.1 and the values calculated in steps 1
through 3 and step 6.

29
Example Calculations
The use of the equations in Figure K.1 is illustrated with the following:
A 50 kVA transformer with total losses at full load of 759 watts, and no
load losses of 204 watts has an impedance of 1.75 percent. A service
entrance circuit which is 80 feet in length using 3/0 aluminum triplex
with reduced neutral is connected directly to the transformer terminals.
What is the available current for both a 240 and 120 volt bolted fault at
the end of the service? From the statement of the problem:

WTOT = 759 watts Z = 1.75 percent


WNL = 204 watts L = 80 feet
kVA = 50

The calculations proceed following the steps outlined.

759 – 204
1. R T = 0.0576 = 0.012787 ohms
502
1.75
2. Z T = 0.576 = 0.02016 ohms
50

3. X T = CFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
.020162 – .0127872 = 0.015586 ohms

4. From Table 1, the resistive and reactive components of the imped-


ance for a 240 volt fault with 3/0 aluminum triplex cable are:
R S = 0.211 ohms per 1000 feet
XS = 0.0589 ohms per 1000 feet

5. Placing these values of R T, X T, RS, X S, and L into the equation for


I 240 in Figure K.1 gives:
I 240 = 6676.6 amperes rms symmetrical
Note that the large number of significant digits included in these
calculations is not to suggest that they are accurate to the last digit,
but to aid those who want to check their own calculations.

6. From Table 1, the resistive and reactive components of the imped-


ance for a 120 volt fault with 3/0 aluminum triplex cable (reduced
neutral) are:
R S1 = 0.273 ohms per 1000 feet
X S1 = 0.0604 ohms per 1000 feet

7. Placing the above values into the equation for I 120 in Figure K.1
gives:
I120 = 4071.1 amperes rms symmetrical

For this example notice that at a distance of 80 feet from the trans-
former, the available current for the 120 volt bolted fault is considerably
less than that for a 240 volt fault. However, from the equation for I 240
and I120 in Figure K.1, notice that for a fault at the transformer second-
ary terminals (L = 0.0 feet), the available current for a bolted 120 volt
fault is greater than that for a 240 volt fault. Thus at some distance L
from the transformer, I 240 and I 120 would be equal, and at distances
greater than this, the available current for a 240 volt fault will be higher.

30
Figure K.2 is a plot of the available current for both the 120 and 240
volt bolted faults vs. the distance from the transformer terminals to the
fault point in feet. The curves are for transformer sizes of 50, 75, and
100 kVA supplying a secondary circuit made with 3/0 aluminum triplex
with reduced neutral. From these curves notice that:

Figure K.2

(a) The available current for both the 120 and 240 volt faults is
rapidly reduced as the fault is moved away from the transformer,
even for the rather large 3/0 aluminum service conductor.

(b) With the 3/0 aluminum service conductor, the available current
for a 120 volt fault is less than that of a 240 volt fault at distances
greater than about 10 feet from the 50, 75, or 100 kVA trans-
former. For most all single-phase services rated 200 amperes
or less, the available current at the service entrance for the 120
volt fault is less than that of the 240 volt fault.

(c) As the distance from the transformer to the fault location be-
comes large, the available current for both the 120 and 240 volt
faults becomes independent of the transformer size, especially
for the 120 volt fault.

31
Table 1. Typical Impedances for 120/240 Volt Circuits With Triplex Cable Notes:

32
(1) Resistance values based on a conductor temperature
Aluminum Phase Cond.
___________________ Aluminum Neutral Cond.
____________________ 120 Volt Faults
____________ 240 Volt Faults
____________ of 25°C.
Size No. of Size No. of RS1 XS1 RS XS (2) Reactance based on following:
(AWG or MCM) Strands
___________ ______ (AWG or MCM) Strands
___________ ______ (j/1000
________Ft.) (j/1000
________Ft.) (j/1000
________Ft.) (j/1000 Ft.)
________ (a) 600 volt insulation with all 3 insulated conductors in
2 7 4 7 .691 .0652 .534 .0633 contact.
1 19 3 7 .547 .0659 .424 .0659 (b) For 120 volt (Phase-to-Neutral Fault), all current
returns in the neutral conductor with no current
1/0 19 2 7 .435 .0628 .335 .0616
returning in the earth.
2/0 19 1 19 .345 .0629 .266 .0596
(3) Insulation thickness is 0.062 inch for #4 to #2, 0.078
3/0 19 1/0 19 .273 .0604 .211 .0589
inch for #1 to 4/0, and .094 inch for 250 to 500 MCM.
4/0 19 2/0 19 .217 .0588 .167 .0576
(4) For secondary circuits with full size neutral, use resis-
250 37 3/0 19 .177 .0583 .142 .0574 tance and reactance values given for 240 volt fault for
350 37 4/0 19 .134 .0570 .102 .0558 both 120 and 240 volt faults.
500 37 300 37 .095 .0547 .072 .0530

Table 2. Typical Impedances for 120/240 Volt Circuits With Rack Mounted Conductors Notes:
(1) Resistance values based on a conductor temperature
Aluminum Phase Cond.
___________________ Aluminum Neutral Cond.
____________________ 120 Volt Faults
____________ 240 Volt Faults
____________ of 25°C.
Size No. of Size No. of RS1 XS1 RS XS (2) Reactance values based on secondary rack with 12 inch
(AWG or MCM) Strands
___________ ______ (AWG or MCM) Strands
___________ ______ (j/1000
________Ft.) (j/1000
________Ft.) (j/1000
________Ft.) (j/1000 Ft.)
________ spacing between conductors with neutral in top posi-
2 7 4 7 .691 .223 .534 .217 tion and phase conductors in the two lower positions.
1 19 3 7 .547 .217 .424 .212 Resistance and reactance values given for 120 volt fault
assume fault is to phase conductor in middle position
1/0 19 2 7 .435 .211 .335 .204
in rack.
2/0 19 1 19 .345 .205 .266 .199
(3) For secondary circuits with full size neutral, use resis-
3/0 19 1/0 19 .273 .199 .211 .193
tance and reactance values given for 240 volt fault for
4/0 19 2/0 19 .217 .193 .167 .188
both 120 and 240 volt faults.
250 37 3/0 19 .177 .189 .142 .184
350 37 4/0 19 .134 .182 .102 .176
500 37 300 37 .095 .174 .072 .168
III. Three-Phase Transformers
and Banks Page

A. Application Considerations ...................................................... 34


1. Types of distribution systems ............................................. 34
a. Primary (source) systems .............................................. 34
b. Secondary (service) systems ......................................... 34
2. Angular displacement (phase shift) .................................... 35
3. Neutral grounding ............................................................... 35
a. Primary neutral grounding ............................................. 35
b. Secondary neutral grounding ......................................... 35
4. Ferroresonance ................................................................... 36
a. Primary winding connections which can result
in Ferroresonance .......................................................... 37
b. Primary winding connections which can prevent or
minimize the possibility of Ferroresonance ................... 38
B. Summary of Common Connections ......................................... 41
1. Delta-delta ........................................................................... 41
2. Delta-wye ............................................................................ 42
3. Wye-delta ............................................................................ 43
4. Wye-wye .............................................................................. 44
5. Grounded wye-wye ............................................................. 45
6. T-T (O degree angular displacement) ................................ 45
7. T-T (30 degree angular displacement) ............................... 46
8. Open Wye-Open Delta ........................................................ 46
9. Open Delta-Open Delta ...................................................... 47
C. Common Three-Phase Banks Using
Single-Phase Transformers ..................................................... 48

33
III. Three-Phase Transformers and Banks
This section presents many important factors to be considered when
selecting the connections used for both three phase transformers and
three-phase banks of the single-phase transformers applied in three-
phase distribution systems. A summary of commonly encountered
connections is provided. In addition, connection diagrams using single-
phase transformers for three-phase banks are shown.

A. Application Considerations


1. Types of distribution systems
A three-phase distribution transformer, or a bank of single-
phase distribution transformers should be thought of as a
system component which connects the primary to the second-
ary system. Since it is a system component, proper application
and determination of permissible connections requires an
understanding of the characteristics of both the primary sys-
tem which will supply the transformer, and the secondary
system which will be supplied by the transformer.
a. Primary (Source) Systems
Distribution systems are either effectively grounded,
impedance grounded, or ungrounded. Most electric utility
distribution systems in this country are three-phase 4-wire
multi-grounded neutral systems which are effectively
grounded. (An effectively grounded system is one where
at any point in the system the ratio of zero-sequence
reactance to positive-sequence reactance is less than three,
and the ration of zero-sequence resistance to positive-
sequence reactance is less than one.) With a 4-wire
effectively grounded neutral system, the primary windings
of the distribution transformers can be connected from either
phase to phase or phase to neutral. This permits usage of
the following connections: Delta, open delta, grounded wye,
open wye, floating wye, and T. Whether the neutral point of
wye connected primary windings should or should not be
connected to the system neutral depends upon the con-
nections used for the secondary windings.
Although they are not commonly used by electric utilities
for distribution, impedance grounded or ungrounded
systems are frequently found in industrial plants. These
systems provide no path to carry neutral load current. Thus,
distribution transformers applied must be connected phase
to phase using either delta, open delta, floating wye, or T
connected windings.
b. Secondary (Service) Systems
Secondary systems supplied from distribution transformers
and operating at 600 volts or less usually are either 3-wire
ungrounded, or 4-wire grounded. To supply a 3-wire
ungrounded (delta) system, the transformer secondary
winding may be connected in delta, open delta, floating
wye, or T.
Loads which require both single-phase 3-wire 120/240
volt service and three-phase 240 volt service can be
supplied by a 4-wire service consisting of transformers
with secondary windings connected delta or open delta

34
with a center tap ground on one leg of the delta. In the
4-wire grounded (wye) system, the transformer second-
ary windings must have a neutral point which can be
grounded. The 4-wire grounded secondary service can
be supplied by either the wye connection or the T con-
nection with the neutral point grounded.
2. Angular Displacement (Phase Shift)
For standard three-phase connections the phase-to-neutral
voltage on the primary side either leads that on the secondary
side by 30° or is in phase with the phase-to-neutral voltage on
the secondary side. The delta delta and wye wye connections
produce no phase shift. The delta wye and wye delta connec-
tions produce the 30° phase shift. The T-T transformer can be
designed to exhibit either a 30° or a 0° phase shift.
When paralleling three-phase transformers or banks, the phase
shift of each must be the same. In addition, the 30° phase shift
has an effect on the coordination of overcurrent protective devices
located on the primary and secondary sides of the transformer.
For unsymmetrical faults the line currents do not transform in
proportion to the voltage ratings. Of particular importance is a
line-to-line fault on the transformer secondary. For the connec-
tions which have a 30° phase shift, this fault produces a fault
current in one primary phase which is 1.15 times the secondary
fault current on a per unit basis. This additional 15% must be
considered to achieve selective coordination.
3. NeutraI Grounding
Some transformer connections or winding connections (wye
or T) have a neutral point on either the primary windings,
secondary windings, or both, which can be grounded. That is,
the neutral point of the primary windings can be connected to
the multi-grounded neutral conductor of the primary system,
or the neutral point of the secondary windings can be grounded
to establish a 4-wire grounded wye system. Whether the neutral
point of windings should or should not be grounded depends
on factors discussed below.
a. Primary Neutral Grounding
For the primary neutral point to be grounded, the primary
source must be a 4-wire multi-grounded neutral system.
In addition, it is generally undesirable that a distribution
bank act as a ground source for the primary system. To
prevent creation of a grounding bank, a primary wye
should only be grounded if the secondary is also con-
nected in wye and a T primary should never be grounded.
Note however that the open wye connection must be
grounded at the neutral point to function properly.
b. Secondary Neutral Grounding
To supply phase to neutral connected load on the sec-
ondary, a low impedance ground source must be
established. This can be achieved by grounding the neutral
of a secondary wye connection provided that the primary
is connected either delta or wye grounded supplied by a
4-wire multi-grounded neutral (effectively grounded)
source. The neutral of a secondary T connection may also
be grounded. In addition, a delta or open delta winding
may be grounded at any one point.

35
4. Ferroresonance
Ferroresonance is a non-linear resonance which can occur
during open conductor (single-phase) conditions in the distri-
bution system. When ferroresonance occurs, it is characterized
by high overvoltages whose waveform contains appreciable
harmonics. The transformers involved in the ferroresonant
circuit may emit unusual noises which frequently are described
as rattling, rumbling, or whining sounds. These are considerably
different than those which emanate from the transformer when
energized at rated frequency and voltage. Overvoltages of
five times normal and higher have been measured during
ferroresonant oscillations in test circuits. Some causes of open
conductor conditions which may result in ferroresonance are:
(1) the operation of single-pole overcurrent protective devices
such as fuses or single-pole reclosers, (2) normal switching
operations with single-pole devices such as distribution cut-
outs to energize or de-energize a transformer, and (3) failure
to connect jumpers.
Whether ferroresonance will occur during open conductor con-
ditions depends to a great extent upon the connections used for
the primary windings in a distribution transformer bank or in a
three-phase distribution transformer. Under normal conditions
where all three primary phases to the transformer bank are
energized through a continuous path from the source, ferro-
resonance will not occur for any of the connections used for the
primary windings. But when an open conductor condition occurs,
the non-linear inductance of a transformer or transformer bank,
with certain connections, can be placed in series with system
capacitance. If the capacitance lies within a specified range,
ferroresonance may result. However, with other transformer
connections, ferroresonance will not occur during open conduc-
tor conditions because the non-linear inductances cannot be
inserted in series with system capacitances.

Figure 4.1: Cable-fed transformer with single-pole switching


devices located at the junction between the overhead
and underground circuits.
Figure 4.1 illustrates a frequently encountered system condi-
tion which produces ferroresonance. An unloaded three-phase
pad mounted transformer with delta connected primary wind-
ings is supplied from an open-wire line through a cable circuit.
At the riser or transition pole, the cable circuit is connected to
the open wire line using distribution cutouts. Notice that during
the switching operation (open conductor condition) where only
36
the switch in phase A is closed as illustrated, the non-linear
inductances of the transformer windings between phases A
and B, and phases A and C, are placed in series with the cable
capacitance on the open phases. This makes a series L-C
circuit where the L is non-linear, and if the parameters are in
the proper range, ferroresonance will occur.
a. Primary Winding Connections Which Can Result in
Ferroresonance
Theoretically, ferroresonance can occur during open conductor
conditions in either one or two phases if the primary windings of
the distribution transformers are connected in delta, open delta,
floating wye, or tee. Whether it does or does not occur with these
“ungrounded” connections for the primary windings depends
upon the amount of capacitance between the open conductor
and transformer, the transformer internal capacitances, the
transformer size, the system voltage, and the amount of load
connected to the secondary terminals of the transformer, or the
amount of load on the primary circuit between the open conduc-
tor and transformer. Studies have shown that ferroresonance is
more likely to occur with cable circuits (due to higher capaci-
tance) than open-wire lines, with small transformers, at higher
primary voltage levels (more likely at 35 kV than 4 kV voltage
level), and with unloaded transformers.
Industry experience has shown that in overhead distribution
systems operating at 15 kV and below, overvoltages and
ferroresonance usually do not occur during open conductor con-
ditions, even when the ungrounded primary winding connections
are used for transformers. Ferroresonance became an impor-
tant concern in the utility industry with the advent of underground
distribution and the use of 25 and 35 kV class voltages.
In higher voltage (25 kV and 35 kV) overhead systems, over-
voltages and ferroresonance have occurred when single-pole
switching is performed at the terminals of small transformer banks
with their primary windings connected in floating wye or delta.
This is due to the internal capacitances of the transformers.
Figure 4.2 summarizes in a qualitative fashion the probability of
ferroresonance occurring in 15, 25, and 35 kV class overhead
systems when the switching is performed at the terminals of
small banks made from single-phase units.
The probability of ferroresonance and the associated overvolt-
ages is very high if the circuit between the location of the open
conductor and the transformer is made from shielded cable and
operates at voltage levels in either the 15, 25, or 35 kV class.
This is because the capacitance per unit length of a cable circuit
is in the range of 50 times that of open wire lines. A system
illustrating this situation is shown in Figure 4.1. Because of the
high probability of ferroresonance in underground systems using
conventional single-pole switching devices, many system
operators will not use the ungrounded primary winding connec-
tions in cable-fed transformers.
If, however the transformer primary windings are ungrounded,
as with the delta, open delta, wye, and tee connections, and the
circuit between the transformer and possible location of an open
conductor (single-phase) condition is made from cable, the
possibility of ferroresonance can be minimized with the follow-
ing measures.

37
(1) Application of only three-pole gang operated switches and
fault interrupters. This minimizes the possibility of having
single-phase conditions.
(2) Location of the single-pole switches and overcurrent pro-
tective devices only at the transformer terminals.
(3) Connection of resistive load to the secondary terminals
of the transformer during remote single-pole switching.
Although these measures can be very effective, many opera-
tors of underground systems consider them unacceptable for
either economical, operational, or technical reasons. Instead,
they prefer to use transformer connections which have either
a zero or very low probability of ferroresonance during open
conductor conditions at a location remote from the transformer.

Figure 4.2: Probability of ferroresonance in overhead systems


when switching is performed at the terminals of small
transformer banks made from single-phase units.
b. Primary Winding Connections Which Prevent Or
Minimize Possibility of Ferroresonance
When the primary windings of single-phase distribution trans-
formers used in a bank are connected in open wye or grounded
wye, or if a three-phase unit with the grounded wye primary
windings employs triplex construction, ferroresonance will not
occur during most open conductor conditions in the primary
system. This is true for both overhead and underground
systems operating up through 35 kV. But if either a floating
wye or delta connected shunt capacitor bank is installed on
the primary line between the transformer bank and location of
the open conductor, ferroresonance may occur. However, the
use of these connections for capacitor banks is very uncom-
mon in distribution systems operating in the 15 kV class and
above. If there is a very long length of open wire line between

38
the location of the open conductor and transformer bank with
grounded wye or open wye primary windings, and no other
load is connected to the line beyond the open point, ferro-
resonance can occur because of the phase-to-phase
capacitance of the open wire line. The probability of such con-
ditions existing, even in 25 and 35 kV rural distribution systems,
is very remote. Thus, for practical purposes, ferroresonance
will not occur when the grounded wye or open wye connec-
tions are used for the primary windings with single-phase units,
or a three-phase unit with triplex construction.
The probability of ferroresonance is zero when the switching
is performed at the terminals of transformer banks in over-
head systems with the grounded wye or open wye connected
primaries at all voltages as illustrated in Figure 4.2.
When the grounded wye-grounded wye or grounded wye-
floating wye connections are used in a transformer constructed
on a four- or five-legged core, overvoltages and ferroresonance
may occur during open conductor conditions at a remote point
when cable circuits are involved. Test data shows that crest
voltages as high as 2.35 per unit are possible, but usually they
are considerably less than this. In contrast, overvoltages of
5 per unit and higher are possible when the transformer has
the ungrounded primary winding connections. Furthermore, the
length of primary cable circuit which can be used with trans-
formers with four- or five-legged core and grounded-wye
primary is in the range of 50 times that possible when the
ungrounded primary connections are used when the voltage
on the open phase is limited to 1.25 per unit.
Although the use of triplex construction essentially eliminates
the possibility of ferroresonance in cable-fed three-phase trans-
formers with the grounded wye primary, such construction
generally makes the transformer larger, heavier, and more
costly than conventional four- or five-legged core units. Most
system operators, based on the good experience and perfor-
mance they have had with the grounded wye primaries on four-
and five-legged cores, have not been able to justify the added
cost for triplex construction.
If it is necessary to further minimize the possibility of ferro-
resonance when the grounded wye primary is used on a four-
or five-legged core, the measures listed below can be
employed:
(1) Application of only three-pole gang operated switches and
fault interrupters. This minimizes the possibility of having
single phase conditions.
(2) Location of single-pole switches and overcurrent protec-
tive devices only at the transformer terminals.
(3) Connection of resistive load to the secondary terminals
of the transformer during remote single-pole switching.
The preceding discussion of ferroresonance is both very brief
and very qualitative in content. As it may be necessary to quan-
tify certain aspects of ferroresonance, such as determining the
maximum length of cable circuit which can be used between a
switch and transformer if voltage is to be limited to a specified
value, the reader is referred to the many references which exist
on the subject. A few are listed below.

39
References
1. Schmid, R. L. “An Analysis and Results of Ferroresonance”. Trans-
mission and Distribution, pp. 114-117, Oct. 1969.

2. Kratz, E. F., Manning, L. W., and M. Maxwell. “Ferroresonance in


Series Capacitor-Distribution Transformer Applications.” AIEE
Transaction (Power Apparatus & Systems), vol. 78, pp. 438-449,
August 1959.

3. Young, F. S., Schmid, R. L., and P. I. Fergestad. “A Laboratory


Investigation of Ferroresonance in Cable Connected Transform-
ers,” IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol.
PAS-87, pp.1240-1249, May 1968.

4. Crann, L. B., and R. B. Flickinger, “Overvoltages on 14.4/24.9 kV


Rural Distribution Systems.” AIEE Transactions (Power Apparatus
and Systems), vol. 73, pp. 1208-1212, Oct. 1954.

5. Smith, D. R., Swanson, S. R., and J. D. Borst. “Overvoltages With


Remotely-Switched Cable-Fed Grounded Wye-Wye Transformers.”
IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-94,
pp. 1843-1853, Sept./Oct. 1975.

40
B. Summary of Common Connections

DELTA-DELTA Connection
Phasor
Diagram:

Angular Displacement (Degrees): 0

Source: Suitable for both ungrounded and effectively grounded


sources.

Service: Suitable for 3-wire service or for 4-wire service with a mid-
tap ground.

Notes:
1. With one unit out of service, a bank of single-phase units can be
reconnected as an open delta, open delta bank. With one of
three identical units out of service, the rating of the bank when
supplying only three-phase load is about 57.7 percent of the
bank rating when all three units are in service.

2. Caution: Each unit in a bank of single-phase units must be con-


nected for the same voltage ratio, otherwise high circulating
currents can occur. Prior to completing a closed delta second-
ary connection, the voltage between the two transformers closing
the delta should be checked to verify the voltage ratios and
connections.

3. Impedance mismatch among units of a single-phase bank will


require derating of the bank.

4. Single-phase units having a secondary breaker should not be


used for a bank providing 4-wire (mid-tap ground) delta service.

5. Frequently installed with mid-tap ground on one leg when sup-


plying combination three-phase and single-phase load where
the three-phase load is much larger than single-phase load.

6. Single-phase transformers with primary windings rated E volts


usually are used for this bank.

41
DELTA-WYE Connection
Phasor
Diagram:

Angular Displacement (Degrees): 30

Source: Suitable for both ungrounded and effectively grounded


sources.

Service: Suitable for 3-wire service or for 4-wire grounded service with
a XO grounded.

Notes:
1. With XO grounded, the bank acts as a ground source for the
secondary system.

2. Fundamental and harmonic frequency zero-sequence currents


in the secondary lines supplied by the transformer do not flow in
the primary lines. Instead these zero-sequence currents circu-
late in the closed delta primary windings.

3. When supplied from effectively grounded primary system, ground


relay for primary system does not see load unbalances and
ground faults in the secondary system.

4. Single-phase transformers with primary windings rated E volts


usually are used for this bank.

42
WYE-DELTA Connection
Phasor
Diagram:

Angular Displacement (Degrees): 30

Source: Suitable for both ungrounded and effectively grounded


sources.

Service: Suitable for 3-wire service or for 4-wire delta service with a
mid-tap ground.

Notes:
1. Neutral point of primary windings with unbalanced and/or single-
phase secondary load is locked at ground potential if each unit
in bank has same impedance. Even with different units in the
bank, neutral point of primary windings is essentially locked at
ground potential.

2. Grounding the primary neutral of this connection would create a


ground source for the primary system. This could subject the
transformer to severe overloading during a primary system
disturbance, or load unbalance.

3. With one unit out of service, a bank of single-phase units can be


reconnected as an open wye—open delta bank provided that
the source is 4-wire effectively grounded. With one of three iden-
tical units out of service, the rating of the bank when supplying
only three-phase load is about 57.7 percent of the bank rating
when all three units are in service.

4. Single-phase units with secondary breakers should not be used


whether there is or is not a center tap ground on one leg. Open-
ing of breaker in one leg causes severe voltage unbalance and
wave form distortion.

5. Frequently installed with mid-tap ground on one leg when sup-


plying combination three-phase and single-phase load where
the three-phase load is much larger than the single-phase load.

6. When used in 25 and 35 kV three-phase 4-wire primary systems,


ferroresonance can occur when energizing or de-energizing the
bank using single pole switches located at the primary termi-
nals. With smaller kVA transformers in the bank, the probability
of ferroresonance is higher.

7. Single-phase transformers rated E/E1, Y volts usually are used


for this bank (E1 = CFF
3 E).

43
WYE-WYE Connection
Phasor
Diagram:

Angular Displacement (Degrees): 0

Source: Suitable for both ungrounded and effectively grounded


sources.

Service: Suitable for 3-wire service only, even if XO is grounded.

Notes:
1. This connection is incapable of furnishing a stabilized neutral
and its use may result in phase-to-neutral overvoltage (neutral
shift) as a result of unbalanced phase-to-neutral load.

2. When supplied from effectively grounded source and made from


single-phase units, very high third harmonic voltage (of the order
of 50%) appears between neutral point of primary windings and
ground (tank).

3. When supplied from ungrounded source and made from single-


phase units, third harmonic voltages appear from neutral point
of primary windings and ground, and from primary lines to ground.
Division of total third harmonic voltage (of order of 50%) depends
upon capacitances of primary lines and transformers.

4. If a three-phase unit is built on a three-legged core, the neutral


point of primary windings is practically locked at ground potential.

44
GROUNDED WYE-WYE Connection
Phasor
Diagram:

Angular Displacement (Degrees): 0

Source: Suitable for a 4-wire effectively grounded source only.

Service: Suitable for 3-wire service or for 4-wire grounded service with
XO grounded.

Notes:
1. Three-phase transformers with this connection may experience
stray flux tank heating during certain external system unbalances
unless the core configuration utilized provides a return path for
the flux.

2. Fundamental and harmonic frequency zero-sequence currents


in the secondary lines supplied by the transformer also flow in
the primary lines (and primary neutral conductor).

3. Ground relay for the primary system may see load unbalances
and ground faults in the secondary system. This must be con-
sidered when coordinating overcurrent protective devices.

4. Three-phase transformers with the neutral points of the high volt-


age and low voltage windings connected together internally and
brought out through an HOXO bushing should not be operated
with the HOXO bushing ungrounded (floating).

To do so can create very high voltages in the secondary systems.

T-T Connection
Phasor
Diagram:

Angular Displacement (Degrees): 0

Source: Suitable for both ungrounded and effectively grounded


sources.

Service: Suitable for 3-wire service or for 4-wire service with XO


grounded. Can also supply 4-wire delta service.

Notes:
1. Because of winding voltages required, this connection is gener-
ally only available as a three-phase transformer.

2. Neutral point of primary windings, if available, should not be


grounded unless it is desired that the transformer serve as a
grounding bank.

45
T-T Connection
Phasor
Diagram:

Angular Displacement (Degrees): 30


Source: Suitable for both ungrounded and effectively grounded
sources.
Service: Suitable for 3-wire service or for 4-wire service with XO
grounded. Can also supply 4-wire delta service.
Notes:
1. Because of winding voltages required, this connection is gener-
ally only available as a three-phase transformer.
2. Neutral point of primary windings, if available, should not be
grounded unless it is desired that the transformer serve as a
grounding bank.

OPEN WYE-OPEN DELTA Connection


Phasor
Diagram:

Angular Displacement (Degrees): 30


Source: Suitable for a 4-wire effectively grounded source only.
Service: Suitable for 3-wire service or for 4-wire delta service with a
mid-tap ground.
Notes:
1. When two units of the same kVA rating are used to supply only a
balanced three-phase load, the combined rating of the two units
must be 115 percent of the three-phase load if the load on each
transformer is not to exceed nameplate rating.
2. Single-phase units with secondary breaker can be used, even
with a mid-tap ground on one leg. However, with the secondary
breaker open in only the grounded leg, high voltages due to
capacitive coupling may appear from each terminal to ground of
the transformer in the other leg. Sufficient phase-to-neutral con-
nected load will limit these voltages.
3. Can be connected to either a three-phase or V phase primary
line.
4. Frequently installed with one large and one small transformer to
supply a combination of single-phase and three-phase load where
single-phase load is much larger than the three-phase load.
5. With ungrounded secondary windings (3-wire service), voltage
to ground from one or more secondary phases can be greater
than secondary phase-to-phase voltage due to unbalances in
the capacitance network. With sufficient length of secondary
circuit or connected load, phase-to-ground voltage for each phase
will approach in magnitude the phase-to-phase voltage divided
by CFF 3.

46
6. When primary terminals H1 and H2 are supplied from the same
system phase, the open circuit phase to phase voltage from
secondary terminal X1 to X3 is two (2) times normal phase to
phase voltage.

OPEN DELTA-OPEN DELTA Connection


Phasor
Diagram:

Angular Displacement (Degrees): 0


Source: Suitable for both ungrounded and effectively grounded
sources.
Service: Suitable for 3-wire service or for 4-wire delta service with a
mid-tap ground.
Notes:
1. When two units of the same kVA rating are used to supply only a
balanced three-phase load, the combined rating of the two units
must be 115 percent of the three-phase load if the load on each
transformer is not to exceed nameplate rating.

2. Single-phase units with a secondary breaker can be used, even


with a mid-tap ground on one leg. However, with the secondary
breaker open in only the grounded leg, high voltages due to
capacitive coupling may appear from each terminal to ground of
the transformer in the other leg. Sufficient phase-to-neutral
connected load will limit these voltages.

3. Can be connected to only a three-phase primary line.

4. Frequently installed with one large and one small transformer to


supply a combination of single-phase and three-phase load
where single-phase load is much larger than the three-phase
load.

5. With ungrounded secondary windings (3-wire service), voltage


to ground from one or more secondary phases can be greater
than secondary phase-to-phase voltage due to unbalances in
the capacitance network. With sufficient length of secondary cir-
cuit or connected load, phase to ground voltage for each phase
will approach in magnitude the phase-to-phase voltage divided
by CFF 3.

47

C. Common Three-Phase Banks Using Single-Phase
Transformers
Phase Relation Diagram Angular Polarity Connection
Displacement Diagrams

HV Connection Diagrams

48
LV Connection Diagrams

* Represents opposite end of winding from X1; may be X2, X3, or X4


depending upon the low voltage rating (2, 3, or 4 bushing).

49
IV. Loading Page

A. Paralleling ................................................................................. 51
B. Delta-delta bank loading ........................................................... 51
C. Overloading ............................................................................... 52
D. Single-phase and three-phase loading of symmetrical
and unsymmetrical transformer banks .................................... 53
E. Dedicated motor loads .............................................................. 66

50
IV. Loading

A. Paralleling

Transformers or transformer banks may be connected in parallel


to increase capacity by connecting terminals of like designation
together provided that the frequency and voltage (including tap
setting) ratings are the same. In addition, three-phase transformers
or banks must have the same phase shift.

Mismatched impedance between the parallel units or banks


requires a derating because the load does not then divide in pro-
portion to the kVA ratings. This derating can be approximated as
follows:

K 1 - Capacity of the unit or bank with the larger percent


impedance
K 2 - Capacity of the unit or bank with the smaller percent
impedance
Z 1 - Impedance of unit or bank 1
Z 2 - Impedance of unit or bank 2

Z2 .
Derating factor = e K 1 + K 2 f / (K 1 + K 2)
Z1

Example: 25 and 50 kVA single-phase transformers with 1.6 and


2.0 percent impedance respectively.

1.6
Derating factor = e 50 + 25 f / (50 + 25) = 0.87
2.0

Parallel rating = 0.87 (50 + 25) = 65 kVA


B. Delta-Delta Bank Loading

Unequal turns ratios (voltage rating and tap setting) in delta-delta


connected transformer banks can cause large circulating currents
within the deltas. Thus, a requirement for such banks is equal
turns ratios for all units.

Similarly, an impedance imbalance can cause a small circulating


current which makes it necessary to derate the bank. For units of
equal capacity with one odd impedance, the derating for balanced
loading is approximated in the following table:

Ratio of odd unit impedance Derating


to impedance of other two units
_________________________ Factor
_______
1.6 0.91
1.5 0.93
1.4 0.94
1.3 0.95
1.2 0.97
1.1 0.98
10 1.00
.9 .97
.8 .93
.7 .90

51

C. Overloading

The overloading of distribution transformers is a complex subject


requiring knowledge of load characteristics, transformer param-
eters and environmental conditions to be accomplished without
damaging the transformer. ABB distribution transformers are fit
for planned overloading providing that such overloading is in accord
with the ANSI Loading Guide (C57.91). The table below shows
the approximate peak overload capability for a typical distribution
transformer for normal life expectancy (these values are extracted
from C57.91). The table applies to a 30°C ambient; the load
capability at other ambients (0–50°C) can be estimated by (1)
decreasing the load capability by 1.5% for each degree C that the
ambient exceeds 30°C or (2) increasing the load capability by
1.0% for each degree C that the ambient is below 30°C.

Peak Loading Capability For Normal Life Expectancy (Per Unit)

Peak Load
Duration Equivalent Continuous Preload (per unit)
(Hours)
_____ 0.50 0.75 0.90
________________________________
1 2.12 1.96 1.82
2 1.79 1.68 1.57
4 1.50 1.44 1.36
8 1.28 1.25 1.21
24 1.08 1.07 1.07

52

D. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Loading of Symmetrical
and Unsymmetrical Transformer Banks

Single-phase distribution transformers can be connected in banks


to supply a combination of single-phase and three-phase load.
The transformer bank supplying the combination load may be either
symmetrical or unsymmetrical. A symmetrical bank is one con-
sisting of three identical single-phase transformers. Most often
the primary and secondary windings are connected in either wye
or delta. An unsymmetrical bank is one containing only two single-
phase transformers, or a bank with three single-phase transformers
where all three transformers are not the same. (Note: for loading
considerations [not ferro, tank heating], a three-phase transformer
can be considered to be a bank consisting of three identical single-
phase transformers.)

The “4-wire delta” system is a common type used to supply a


combination of single-phase and three-phase load. These sys-
tems are supplied from a transformer bank with the secondary
windings connected in either delta or open delta with a center tap
ground on one leg of the delta. The service to the three-phase
load is 3-wire at 240 volts, and the service to the single-phase
load is 3-wire at 120/240 volts. Transformer banks with their sec-
ondary windings connected in grounded wye can also be used to
supply a combination of single-phase and three-phase load. In a
4-wire grounded wye system supplied from such a bank, the single-
phase load may be connected from either phase-to-neutral or
phase-to-phase.

When known single-phase and three-phase loads are to be fed


from a transformer bank, frequently it is necessary to know the
load which will be supplied by each transformer so that it may be
properly sized. Equations for calculating the load supplied by each
single-phase transformer in the bank are given in Figures D.1
through D.8. The basis and assumptions used in deriving these
equations are discussed in the following.

Basis For Loading Equations

A cursory look at the loading equations in Figures D.1 to D.8 shows


that they can be easily evaluated numerically using a hand-held
pocket calculator. In order to arrive at these relatively simple equa-
tions, it is necessary that certain assumptions be made concerning
the characteristics of the three-phase and single-phase loads; and
both the primary and secondary systems.

The three-phase load is assumed to be a constant “current sink”'


which draws only balanced (positive-sequence) currents. Losses
in the secondary conductor between the transformer terminals
and both single-phase and three-phase loads are negligible such
that the phase voltages at the load and transformer are the same.
The single-phase load supplied from a delta or open delta sec-
ondary is balanced between the two phase wires and neutral wire
such that current does not flow in the neutral. Furthermore, the
voltages impressed on the primary windings of the transformer
are of a magnitude and angle which results in balanced output
voltages from the transformer secondary terminals. Although these
conditions rarely exist in practice, they are the assumptions
traditionally used in the industry, although not always stated, to
arrive at these simplified loading equations.

53
If it is desired to make more exact calculations for the kVA load sup-
plied by each transformer in the bank, providing sufficient information
is available for representing the load and system, then the methods
originally developed by Neupauer 1,2, or by Seematter and Richards3
may be used. However, these methods do not result in simple expres-
sions similar to those given in Figures D.1 to D.8, but require the use of
a digital computer for implementation.

Load Equations For Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical


Transformer Banks

Use of the simplified loading equations is discussed in the following


sections for the more common symmetrical and unsymmetrical trans-
former connections. Examples are given to demonstrate the use of
these equations.

Open Wye—Open Delta Bank

With the open wye-open delta transformer bank, the single-phase load
may be connected to either the lagging phase as shown at the top of
Figure D.1, or to the leading phase as shown at the top of Figure D.2.
The transformer across which the single-phase load is connected is
sometimes referred to as the “lighting leg” and the other transformer is
referred to as the “power leg.” These are designated as L and P
respectively in Figures D.1 and D.2. Equations for calculating the load
in kVA supplied by the lighting leg transformer (kVA L) and that supplied
by the power leg transformer (kVA P) are given in Figures D.1 and D.2.
Furthermore, the symbols used in these equations are defined in the
Figures. The use of the equations is illustrated with the following
example.

Open WYE—Open DELTA (Lagging)

Figure D 1: Load equations for the open wye-open delta bank with
the single-phase load connected to the lagging phase.

54
An open wye-open delta bank supplies a single-phase load of 70 kVA
at 0.95 lagging power factor, and a three-phase load of 30 kVA at 0.8
lagging power factor. The power factor angles (a3 and a1) are the arc
cosine of the power factors.

Thus:

a3 = arc cos (.8) = 36.87°

a1 = arc cos (.95) = 18.19°

The load in kVA supplied by the lighting leg and power leg transformers
for both the leading and lagging connection will be determined. First,
consider the lagging connection in Figure D.1. The numerical values
for the symbols in Figure D.1 are as follows:

Next, consider the leading connection shown in Figure D.2. The


expression for the load in kVA supplied by the power leg transformer is
the same as for the lagging connection. The expression for the load
supplied by the lighting leg transformer is identical to that for the lag-
ging connection except for the argument of the cosine term. Evaluation
of the expression for kVA L in Figure D.2 shows that the lighting leg
transformer supplies 82.47 kVA with the leading connection.

For most combination loads, the power factor of the three-phase load
is less than that of the single-phase load. Thus a3 – a1 is positive in
sign, and m is a positive number. For expected values of m, the magni-
tude of the argument of the cosine term in the expressions for kVA L will
be greater for the leading connection, and thus the cosine of the argu-
ment will be less. Consequently, when the leading connection is used
the kVA load supplied by the lighting leg transformer usually is less
than for the lagging connection.

55
Open WYE—Open DELTA (Leading)

Figure D.2: Load equations for the open wye-open delta bank with
the single-phase load connected to the leading phase.
Open DELTA—Open DELTA Bank (Leading or Lagging)
The equations for calculating the load in kVA supplied by the lighting leg
and power leg transformers in the open delta-open delta bank are the
same as for the open wye-open delta bank. Thus the equations in Fig-
ures D.1 are used for the lagging connection, and those in Figure D.2
are used for the leading connection of the open delta-open delta bank.
Figure D.3 is a loading curve chart for the open delta-open delta
(leading) connection.

• Transformer output limited


to 100% of rated
• Upper number — required
kVA of power leg
• Lower number — required
kVA of lighting leg

Figure D.3

56
Floating WYE—DELTA

Figure D.4: Load equations for the floating wye-delta connected


transformer bank.

Floating WYE—DELTA Bank

Equations for calculating the load in kVA supplied by each transformer


in the floating wye-delta bank are given at the top of Figure D.4. Notice
in these equations that a double subscript is used to specify the phases
to which each transformer is connected, and the single-phase load is
connected from phases b-to-c. Since the primary windings of the trans-
formers in the bank are connected in floating wye, the single-phase
load division is independent of transformer characteristics and zero-
sequence current cannot circulate in the secondary delta. Because of
this and the assumptions concerning the characteristics of the three-
phase load, the equations in Figure D.4 for determining the load supplied
by each transformer are independent of transformer impedance. Use
of the equations is demonstrated with the following example.

A floating wye-delta bank is to supply a three-phase load of 100 kVA at


0.8 power factor lagging, and a single-phase load of 50 kVA at 0.95
power factor lagging. What is the smallest size transformer which can
be used in each leg if the load supplied by each transformer is not to
exceed nameplate rating? From the specified power factors:

a3 = arc cosine (.8) = 36.87°

a1 = arc cosine (.95) = 18.19°

57
Evaluating the equations in Figure D.4 with K 3 equal to 100, K 1 equal
to 50, and m equal to 18.68 degrees results in the following:

KVA ab = 40.09

KVA bc = 65.78

KVA ca = 47.15

Thus the transformers connected between a and b, and between a


and c should be 50 kVA units. The one between b and c should be a 75
kVA unit.

Figure D.5 is a loading curve chart for the floating wye-delta connection.

• Transformer output limited to 100% of rated


• Upper number – required kVA of power leg
• Lower number – required kVA of lighting leg

Figure D.5

58
DELTA - DELTA

Figure D.6: Load equations for the delta-delta connected bank


with identical transformers in each power leg, and a
different unit in the lighting leg.

DELTA—DELTA Bank

The equations for calculating the load in kVA supplied by each trans-
former in a delta-delta bank are given at the top of Figure D.6. The
assumptions used in deriving these equations are the same as previ-
ously outlined, plus it is assumed that the impedance of the transformers
between a and b, and between a and c are identical. These two units
are sometimes referred to as the “power leg” transformers, and their

59
leakage impedance is designated as Z P. Across the transformer con-
nected between b and c is the single-phase load. This unit is referred
to as the “lighting leg” transformer and its impedance is designated at
Z L. Although the equations in Figure D.6 may seem rather complicated,
their evaluation is quite simple as illustrated by the following example:

A delta-delta bank containing a 50 kVA unit in each power leg and a


75 kV unit in the lighting leg supplies a 100 kVA three-phase load
(0.8 power factor lagging) and a 50 kVA single-phase load (0.95 power
factor lagging). The impedance of each transformer in percent is:

Z P = 1.1 + j1.3 % on 50 kVA base

Z L = 1.0 + j1.5 % on 75 kVA base

From the previous examples where the three-phase and single-phase


power factors also were 0.8 and 0.95 respectively:

m = 18.68 degrees

Notice that the three equations at the top of Figure D.6 for calculating
the load supplied by each transformer contain the terms M 1, M 2, M 3,
M 4, b 2, b 3, b 4. These are real numbers which are a function of Z P and
Z L. The M’s are the magnitude of the impedance functions as shown in
the figure, and the b ’s are the angles in degrees for the impedance
functions. The equations for calculating the M’s and b ’s are also given
in the Figure. To calculate these, first put Z L on the same kVA base
as Z P.

50
Z L = (1.0+ j1.5) = .6667 + j1.0 % ON 50 kVA
75

Placing the values of Z L and Z P into the equations yields the following:

M1 = 2.702
M2 = .9802 b 2 = -113.47°
M3 = .7835 b3 = 4.84°
M4 = .9199 b 4 = 115.12°

Placing these values plus the values of K 3, K 1, and m into the loading
equations gives the following for the load in kVA supplied by each trans-
former.

kVA ab = 33.66

kVA bc = 73.04

kVA ca = 43.15

60
If the delta-delta bank is made from three transformers with the same
leg impedance (on a common kVA base, or in actual ohms), then the
loading equations reduce to the simpler form shown in Figure D.7. Notice
that these are the same equations as used for the floating wye-delta
bank in Figure D.4.

If the delta-delta bank is supplying only three-phase load, but one of


the units has a different impedance, the loading equations in Figure
D.6 reduce to the relatively simple form shown in Figure D.8 if all trans-
formers have the same impedance angle. When the impedance of each
transformer is the same, the load supplied by each is 1/3 of the total
three-phase load. Figure D.11 is a plot of the per unit load supplied by
each transformer as a function of the ratio of Z L to Z P where the imped-
ances are on a common base. One per unit load is the load carried by
the transformer when all three have the same impedance. From this
plot, notice that reasonable difference in impedances do not produce
large unbalances in loading. Thus, although it is desirable that each
transformer in a delta-delta bank supplying a three-phase load have
the same impedances, this is not an absolute necessity. However, in
contrast, these transformers must have the same voltage rating and
tap settings as discussed in Section III.B.1.

DELTA-DELTA with Equal Leg Impedances

Figure D.7: Load equations for the delta-delta connected bank


with identical transformers in each leg.

61
DELTA-DELTA, Three-Phase Load, Same Impedance
Angle for Z P and Z L

Figure D.8: Load equations for the delta-delta connected bank


supplying only a three-phase load. Equations apply
only when impedance angle of all transformers are
the same.

Grounded WYE-DELTA Bank

The equations for calculating the load supplied by each transformer in


a grounded wye-delta bank are the same as those for a delta-delta
bank as given in Figure D.6. However, for reasons previously discussed
in Section III, this connection is not recommended to supply distribu-
tion loads.

62
DELTA-Grounded WYE Bank

With the delta-grounded wye bank, the single-phase load on the sec-
ondary may be connected from either phase-to-neutral as shown in
Figure D.9 or from phase-to-phase as shown in Figure D.10. The equa-
tions for calculating the load supplied by each transformer are given at
the top of each figure. The terms appearing in each equation are the
same as used in the equations for the other connections for which
examples have been given.

DELTA-WYE, Phase-to-Neutral Single-Phase Load

Figure D.9: Load equations for the delta-wye connected bank


when the single-phase load is connected from phase-
to-neutral.

63
DELTA-WYE, Phase-to-Phase Single-Phase Load

Figure D.10: Load equations for the delta-wye connected bank


when the single-phase load is connected phase-to-
phase.

Grounded WYE-Grounded WYE Bank

The grounded wye-grounded wye bank also is used to supply a combi-


nation of three-phase and single-phase load. Single-phase secondary
load may be connected either phase-to-neutral, or phase-to-phase.
The load supplied by each transformer in the grounded wye-grounded
wye bank can be calculated using the equations for the delta-grounded
wye bank in Figures D.9 and D.10.

64
Figure D.11: Per unit load supplied by each transformer in a delta-
delta bank to a three-phase load when one of the
transformers (connected between phases b and c with
impedance Z L) has a different impedance. The trans-
formers between phases a and b, and between phases
c and a have impedance Z P as shown in Figure D.6.

References

1. J. C. Neupauer. “Unbalanced Open-Wye Open-Delta Transformer


Banks.” A.l.E.E. Transactions PAS., Vol. 75, pt. III, pp. 570-572,
August 1956.

2. Neupauer, J. C., and C. L. Smith. “Motor-Starting Lamp Flicker on


Open-Delta Transformer Banks.” A.l.E.E. Transactions PAS., Vol.
77, pt. III, pp. 1568-1576, February 1959.

3. Seematter, S. C., and E. F. Richard. “Computer Analysis of 3-Phase


Induction Motor Operation on Rural Open Delta Distribution Sys-
tems.” I.E.E.E. Trans. on Industry Applications, Vol. 1A-12, No.5,
pp. 479-485, Sept./Oct. 1976.

65

E. Dedicated Motor Loads

Many different types of motors are used today and are an impor-
tant consideration in sizing a transformer to supply power to a
given load. For most transformers supplying individual and multi-
unit residences, the motor load can be ignored because it
represents a small percentage of the total load connected to the
transformer, and the motors are only started on an infrequent basis.
When applying transformers to commercial or industrial loads, the
motors that are to be served can present a major limiting factor on
what size transformer is necessary to serve the load.

Motor Starting Load

The major consideration in sizing transformers for Motor Applica-


tion is limiting the starting current so that it will not shorten the life
of the transformer due to thermal or mechanical damage from the
starting pulse. Extensive data has been gathered on pulse duty
on power transformers and the conclusion was that if the current
pulses per hour exceed

4.25 f 4 where n = number of starts per hour


n = e
lp Ip = the pulse current in per unit
of transformer rated current

then the transformer will fail prematurely due to the repeated


mechanical strains placed on the coil. (See Curve 1.)

66
Curve 1

Maximum Allowable per Unit Pulse


Number of Current Pulses Per Hour

67
Dedicated Transformers
(One motor is the entire load on the transformer)

When a transformer is dedicated to supplying the power to only one


motor then the problem of sizing the transformer can be solved very
methodically. On squirrel cage induction motors Nema Standards call
for a starting code letter which corresponds to the kVA per horsepower
required to start the motor; a table giving this relationship is shown on
Curve 2. Curve 2 is based on the locked rotor code letters but it can be
used for any motor by selecting the curve that corresponds to locked
rotor kVA/HP of the motor that the transformer is being sized for.

The procedure to size the transformer proceeds as follows:

1. If the starting kVA or starting code letter is unknown, calculate the


motors locked rotor kVA (kVA’s = CF3F x V R x IS x 10-3)

Where IS = starting current at rated voltage

V R = rated phase-to-phase voltage of motor

2. Determine the number of starts per hour planned for the motor
under normal operating conditions.

3. On Curve 2 find the curve letter that corresponds to the locked


rotor kVA/HP of the motor. Enter Curve 2 on the abscissa at the
correct starts per hour for the motor application.

4. Move up to the intersection of the starts/hour and the correct locked


rotor code letter curve and read the kVA of transformer required
per horsepower of motor.

5. MuItiply the kVA/HP found in “Step 4” by the rated HP of the motor


and that is the smallest transformer that should be used in that
application. Sizing the transformer with this procedure is conser-
vative since it assumes that the voltage maintained at the motor
terminals during starting is motor rated voltage.

6. Most motors require 60–80% of rated voltage at the terminal under


locked rotor conditions to successfully start. After the transformer
has been sized so that it can withstand the starting pulse due to
the motor, the voltage regulation of the system must be checked
to determine if the voltage is adequate under locked rotor condi-
tion to start the motor.

68
Curve 2
NEMA StartingCode Letter
Code Locked-Rotor
Letter kVA per Hp
A 0 -3.15
B 3.15 -3.55
C 3.55 -4.0
D 4.0 -4.5
E 4.5 -5.0
F 5.0 -5.6
G 5.6 -6.3
H 6.3 -7.1
J 7.1 -8.0
K 8.0 -9.0
L 9.0 -10.0
M 10.0 -11.2
N 11.2 -12.5
P 12.5 -14.0
R 14.0 -16.0
S 16.0 -18.0
T 18.0 -20.0
U 20.0 -22.4
V 22.4 and up

69
V. Voltage Unbalance Page

A. Effects of Voltage Unbalance ................................................... 71


B. Voltage Unbalance Definitions.................................................. 71
C. Causes of Voltage Unbalance .................................................. 73
D. Voltage Unbalance With Three-Phase Loading ....................... 73
1. Delta-Delta and Floating Wye-Delta Banks ......................... 74
2. Open Delta Banks ................................................................ 75

70
V. Voltage Unbalance

A. Effects of Voltage Unbalance
Voltage unbalance in secondary distribution systems affects the
performance of induction motors, with motor derating required
when voltage unbalance exceeds 1.0 percent. Figure 5.1, extracted
from NEMA MG1-14.34, dated June 1980, gives the derating factor
for fractional and integral-horsepower induction motors. The
performance of semi-conductor rectifier circuits also can be
affected by voltage unbalance, with proposed revisions to ANSI
C34.2 indicating the application is unusual if either the negative-
or zero-sequence component of voltage exceeds 5 percent of the
positive-sequence component. This level of unbalance usually is
not present in utility distribution systems. However, some voltage
unbalance will be present in any type of low-voltage system,
whether it be 4-wire wye, 3-wire delta, or 4-wire delta.

The subject of voltage unbalance in secondary distribution system


is a very complex matter, due to the many system and trans-
former parameters which affect unbalance, and does not allow a
detailed discussion in this Guide. Considered in the following
sections are several special cases where the transformer bank
is supplying just a balanced three-phase load through a sym-
metrical secondary circuit, with each transformer in the bank
having the same kVA rating, although not necessarily the same
impedance. Furthermore, the primary system voltages are
assumed to be balanced. For these special cases, the following
points are noteworthy.

1. With either the floating wye-delta or delta-delta bank supply-


ing three-phase load, it is not necessary from a voltage
unbalance standpoint that low impedance transformers be
used. For these banks, voltage unbalance is caused by
impedance differences between the single-phase transformers
in the bank. Reasonable differences in impedances are toler-
able and will not cause objectionable voltage unbalance.

2. With either the open wye-open delta or open delta-open delta


banks supplying just three-phase load, voltage unbalance is
caused by the dissymmetries of the transformer bank (due to
use of only two transformers), regardless of transformer
impedance magnitudes. Voltage unbalance with the open delta
bank can be significantly higher than that with a closed delta
bank supplying the same load.


B. Voltage Unbalance Definitions
Three different definitions are employed to quantify voltage
unbalance. The one used depends upon the task being performed,
for example, calculating unbalance from measured quantities or
developing equations for unbalance. When quantifying voltage
unbalance in 3-wire and 4-wire delta circuits under unfaulted
conditions, all three definitions give nearly the same result.

71
In NEMA induction motor standards, percent voltage unbalance
is defined as:

Percent Maximum Voltage Deviation from


Voltage Average Phase Voltage
= x 100
Unbalance Average Phase Voltage

When phase-to-phase voltages are measured at an actual instal-


lation, voltage unbalance is easily calculated with this definition,
the one frequently preferred by individuals not familiar with sym-
metrical components. For example, with phase-to-phase voltages
of 235, 230 and 222 volts, average voltage is 229 volts, maximum
deviation from average is 7.0 volts, and percent voltage unbalance
is 3.06 percent.

Some engineers have advocated that percent voltage unbalance


be defined as 100 times the ratio of the magnitude of the negative-
sequence voltage to the magnitude of the positive-sequence
voltage. When an analysis is performed with symmetrical compo-
nents to obtain sequence quantities, it is expedient to calculate
voltage unbalance with this definition as this eliminates the need
to calculate the phase-to-phase voltages required with the NEMA
definition. In a three-phase system where zero-sequence voltages
are not present, the ratio of the magnitude of the negative-
sequence voltage to the magnitude of the positive-sequence
voltage also can be found from the following equation.

In this equation a, b, and c are the magnitudes of the three line-to-


line voltages (or line-to-ground voltages when zero-sequence is
not present) and:

a+b+c
S=
2

For example, with phase-to-phase voltages of 235, 230, and 222


volts, the equation shows that the ratio of the magnitude of V2 to
V1 is 3.30 percent. In comparison, the percent voltage unbalance
for these voltages using the NEMA definition is 3.06 percent.

A third definition for percent voltage unbalance is 100 times the


per unit negative-sequence voltage, where the per unit value is
the actual value in volts divided by the system nominal voltage.
The voltage unbalance calculated in this fashion does not differ
significantly from 100 times the ratio of V2 to V1, as V1 is close to
1.0 per unit under loading conditions. In the curves in section V-D,
voltage unbalance is quantified in terms of negative-sequence
voltage.

72

C. Causes of Voltage Unbalance
Voltage unbalance in secondary distribution systems is caused
by dissymmetries in either the primary system, distribution trans-
former bank, secondary circuit, or loading on the transformer bank.
Transformer bank symmetry is defined in Section IV-D of this guide.
A symmetrical secondary circuit is one which has identical con-
ductors in each phase with the conductors arranged such that the
mutual impedances between its sequence networks are zero. An
unsymmetrical circuit is one where the same size conductor is not
in each phase, or the same size conductor is used but the spac-
ings are such that the sequence mutual impedances are not zero.
With a symmetrical primary system, the open circuit voltages at
the transformer are perfectly balanced.

Whenever a symmetrical transformer bank supplies a perfectly


balanced three-phase load (one where there is no coupling
between the sequence networks) through a symmetrical second-
ary circuit and the voltages at the primary terminals of the bank
are balanced, the voltages at the secondary terminals also will be
balanced. That is, a negative- or zero-sequence component will
not be present in the secondary phase-to-neutral voltages. How-
ever, when a symmetrical transformer bank supplies a perfectly
balanced three-phase load and a single-phase load, the second-
ary voltages will be unbalanced regardless of the symmetry of the
secondary circuit. Furthermore, when an unsymmetrical transformer
bank supplies only a balanced three-phase load, or both a balanced
three-phase load and a single-phase load, the secondary voltages
will be unbalanced irrespective of the secondary circuit symmetry.

The main parameters which can affect voltage unbalance in sec-


ondary systems are transformer bank connection, transformer
impedance, primary system impedance, secondary circuit char-
acteristics, three-phase and single-phase load magnitudes, load
power factors, and primary system voltage unbalance. Any one of
these parameters can have a significant effect on voltage unbal-
ance in secondary systems, with the only exception being primary
system impedance which usually has a minor effect. This is
because the impedance of the primary system typically is much
smaller than that of the distribution transformers.

A complete discussion on the effect of all of these parameters on


voltage unbalance is beyond the scope of this guide. Illustrated in
the following is the effect of distribution transformer impedance
on voltage unbalance for the situation where the unsymmetrical
transformer bank supplies only balanced three-phase load through
a symmetrical secondary circuit, is supplied from an infinite bus
primary system, and is made from transformers of equal kVA rating.


D. Voltage Unbalance With Three-Phase Loading
Figures 5.2, 5.3, and 5.5 show the effect of transformer imped-
ance on the maximum negative-sequence voltage in percent which
could appear in the secondary system with balanced three-phase
nominal loading on the bank. They apply respectively to the delta-
delta, floating wye-delta, and open delta transformer banks. For a
given bank, each transformer has the same kVA rating. Nominal
loading occurs when the positive-sequence current in the sec-
ondary windings equals winding rated current. Since, in general,

73
a negative-sequence component of current is present under nomi-
nal loading conditions, the actual winding currents may be
somewhat greater than or less than winding rated current. The
curves apply to banks supplying balanced three-phase loads. For
these loads, the positive- and negative-sequence impedances are
either the same or different, but there is no coupling between the
sequence networks representing the load. Loads with these char-
acteristics are three-phase induction motors, or impedances of
equal magnitude and angle connected in either wye or delta. For
the three-phase induction motor, the negative-sequence imped-
ance is less than the motor’s positive-sequence impedance,
whereas these impedances are equal for loads made from either
wye or delta connected impedances. Furthermore, the curves are
plotted assuming the primary system voltages are of equal mag-
nitude and 120 electrical degrees displaced from each other. Also,
the impedance angles of the transformers in a bank were assumed
equal, with the impedance magnitudes being the same or differ-
ent. It is emphasized that the curves give the maximum, or greatest
upper bound on negative-sequence voltage at the load in the sec-
ondary with nominal loading (three-phase) on the bank. Actual
unbalance can be considerably less, depending upon the rela-
tionship between the transformer bank impedances, secondary
circuit impedances, and the three-phase loads negative sequence
impedance.

1. Delta-Delta and Floating Wye Delta Banks

The curves of Figure 5.2 and 5.3 respectively show on the ordi-
nate the maximum negative-sequence voltage in percent in the
secondary system with balanced three-phase load supplied from
a delta-delta bank and floating wye-delta bank. The curves apply
to banks with transformers of the same kVA and voltage ratings.
Two transformers in the bank have the same leakage impedance,
designated as Z P, and the third unit’s impedance is Z L. Given on
the abscissa is the ratio of Z L to Z P.

The curves show that if all three transformers in the bank have
equal impedance, regardless of impedance magnitude, the bank
will not produce voltage unbalance with only balanced three-
phase load. Also with balanced three-phase nominal loading,
the maximum negative-sequence voltage (voltage unbalance)
will not exceed 0.6 percent, as long as the ratio of Z L to Z P is
between 0.5 to 1.5, and Z P is 3.0 percent or less on nameplate
rating. Thus, considering voltage unbalance when serving bal-
anced three-phase load, it is not necessary that all units have
the same impedance or low impedance in closed delta banks. If
one unit fails in a bank made from three “old” units of “low”
impedance, it could, in most cases, be replaced by a “new” unit
with a higher impedance without creating objectionable unbal-
ance. It is unduly restrictive from a voltage unbalance standpoint
to require the same impedance for all units in the delta-delta
and floating wye-delta bank supplying a three-phase load.
Reasonable impedance differences are tolerable.

For an example of the use of the curves in Figure 5.2, consider


the following situation. A utility had some 1500 kVA delta-delta
banks made from 500 kVA units with nameplate impedances of
2.2 percent. The utility decided to order several spare units and
requested units with 2.2 percent impedance. When the supplier

74
quoted units with an impedance of 1.9 percent, the utility objected
because it was thought that voltage unbalance problems would
be created by the “low impedance” units. If two units in the bank
have an impedance of 2.2 percent (Z P) and one has an imped-
ance of 1.9 percent (Z L), the curves of Figure 5.2 show that the
maximum negative-sequence voltage possible at nominal load
would not exceed 0.13 percent. If two units have an impedance of
1.9 percent (Z P) and one unit has an impedance of 2.2 percent
(X L), the maximum negative-sequence voltage possible at nomi-
nal load would not exceed 0.1 percent. For this situation, the
impedance differences will not cause significant voltage unbalance.

However, when one unit in the delta-delta bank has a different


impedance, it may be necessary to derate the bank for thermal
reasons. Section IV-B of this guide presents derating factors for
the delta-delta bank made from 3 units of equal capacity supply-
ing perfectly balanced three-phase load where one unit has a
different impedance. A perfectly balanced three-phase load, for
purpose of derating is defined as one which draws only positive-
sequence current. Figure 5.4 is a plot of derating factor as a
function of the ratio of Z L to Z P for the delta-delta bank.

2. Open-Delta Banks

The curves of Figure 5.5 show the maximum negative-sequence


voltage (voltage unbalance) in percent which could appear in the
secondary with balanced three-phase load supplied from either
the open wye-open delta or open delta-open delta bank. The
curves apply to banks made from two single-phase units with the
same kVA and voltage ratings. The impedance of one unit is Z P
and that of the other is Z L. For the open delta bank, nominal load
is that which makes the positive-sequence current in each sec-
ondary winding equal to rated current of the winding. Practically,
nominal load is when the positive-sequence kVA of the balanced
three-phase load equals 1.732 times the kVA rating of one trans-
former. When both transformers in the open delta bank have the
same impedance, the upper bound on negative-sequence volt-
age in percent at nominal load is the impedance in percent divided
by the square root of 3.

A comparison of Figure 5.5 with either Figure 5.2 or 5.3 shows


that the maximum negative-sequence voltage at nominal load is
much greater for the open delta bank than for the closed delta
banks. Even when both transformers have the same impedance
(Z L = Z P), the maximum negative-sequence voltage at nominal
load can be appreciably above 1.0 percent. Also, for any ratio of
Z L to Z P, the impedance of the transformers in the open delta
bank must be low if the negative-sequence voltage (voltage
unbalance) is to be limited to less than 1.0 percent.

For example, consider an open delta bank made from units with
3 percent impedance. This impedance is typical in units purchased
today by some users. From Figure 5.5, the voltage unbalance at
nominal load due to the open delta bank is 1.73 percent. This
would be the total unbalance (upper bound) at the load if the
primary system voltages were perfectly balanced. Recognizing
that the voltage unbalance of the primary system could be in the
1 to 2 percent range, a worst case upper bound on the voltage
unbalance at the load is in the range of 2.7 to 3.7 percent.

75
As another example, one utility was serving a 460-Volt load, pre-
dominately motors, from an open delta bank with two 1000 kVA,
5.8 percent impedance transformers, with a load of 1360 kVA or
about 79 percent of bank rating. Measured voltage unbalance at
the service entrance was 2.3 percent. In comparison, the upper
bound on voltage unbalance with just three-phase load, assum-
ing a balanced primary, is calculated as 5.8 x 0.79/ CFF3 or 2.65
percent. When the open delta bank was replaced with three 500
kVA units with 4.8 percent impedance, the measured voltage
unbalance at about the same loading was less than 0.5 percent,
due mainly to primary system unbalance.

Considering voltage unbalance, successful operation of the open


delta transformer bank supplying balanced three-phase load
frequently is enhanced by the use of low impedance distribution
transformers. As transformer impedance decreases, the negative-
sequence voltage due to transformer bank dissymmetries
decreases. When primary voltages are balanced the negative-
sequence voltage at the load due to the dissymmetries of the open
delta bank will be reduced by either closing the bank (adding a
third transformer), by using transformers with the same kVA rating
but with lower impedance, or by using transformers of a higher
kVA rating. Using transformers with a higher kVA rating (same
percent impedance) corresponds to loading the bank to less than
“nominal load.”

When primary system voltages are unbalanced, the total voltage


unbalance (negative-sequence voltage) at the balanced three-
phase load fed from the open delta bank is the vector sum of that
due to the transformer bank dissymmetries and the voltage
unbalance of the primary system. Decreasing the component of
voltage unbalance due to the transformer bank by reducing trans-
former impedance may either increase or decrease the total
negative-sequence voltage at the load. The effect of reducing
impedance depends upon the relative magnitude of the primary
system voltage unbalance and the voltage unbalance due to trans-
former bank dissymmetries, plus the angle between these sources
of voltage unbalance. Under conditions where the two sources of
voltage unbalance are in-phase, reducing transformer impedance
reduces voltage unbalance at the secondary load.

Figure 5.1: Fractional and integral-horsepower induction


motor derating factor.

76
Figure 5.2: Maximum negative-sequence voltage at nomi-
nal load in the secondary system with balanced
three-phase load supplied from a delta-delta
bank made from three transformers with the
same kVA and voltage ratings.

Figure 5.3: Maximum negative-sequence voltage at nominal


load in the secondary system with balanced
three-phase load supplied from a floating wye-
delta bank made from three transformers with
the same kVA and voltage ratings.

77
Figure 5.4: Derating factor for a delta-delta bank made from
three units of equal capacity (kVA rating) with
the impedance of one unit being different from
that of the other two. Derating factor is approxi-
mate as it assumes perfectly balanced three-
phase load drawing only positive-sequence
current.

Figure 5.5: Maximum negative-sequence voltage at nominal


load in the secondary system with balanced
three-phase load supplied from an open delta
transformer bank made from two transformers
with the same kVA and voltage ratings.

78
Vl. Reference Data Page

Solid and Concentric Stranded Aluminum and Copper Conductors . 80


Temperature Correction Factors for Resistance of Aluminum
Conductors .................................................................................... 81
Logarithm Tables ........................................................................... 83
Nominal Direct-Current Resistance, Ohms per 1000 Feet,
at 20°C and 25°C of Solid and Concentric Stranded Conductors .... 85
Natural Functions of Angles .......................................................... 86
TypicaI Isokeraunic Map ............................................................... 87
Selected Sl Equivalents ................................................................ 88

79
Solid and Concentric Stranded Aluminum and Copper Conductors*

80
Conductor Cross- Solid Class B Class C Class D
__________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ _____________________ ___________________
Size, sectional
Nominal Approximate Weight, Number Nominal Approximate Approximate Weight, Number Nominal Number Nominal
Awg or Area, CM
Diameter, Pounds per 1000 Feet of Diameter Outside Pounds per 1000 Feet of Diameter of Diameter
kcmil _____________________ ___________________
Mils Wires of Each Diameter, Wires of Each Wires of Each
Aluminum Copper Wire, Mils Inches Aluminum Copper Wire, Mils Wire, Mils
20 1020 32.0 0.942 3.10 7 12.1 0.036 ………. 3.154 …. …… …. ……
18 1620 40.3 1.49 4.92 7 15.2 0.046 ………. 5.015 …. …… …. ……
16 2580 50.8 2.38 7.81 7 19.2 0.058 ………. 7.974 …. …… …. ……
14 4110 64.1 3.78 12.4 7 24.2 0.073 ………. 12.68 19 14.7 37 10.5
12 6530 80.8 6.01 19.8 7 30.5 0.092 6.13 20.16 19 18.5 37 13.3
10 10380 101.9 9.56 31.43 7 38.5 0.116 9.75 32.06 19 23.4 37 16.7
8 16510 128.5 15.20 49.98 7 48.6 0.146 15.5 51.0 19 29.5 37 21.1
6 26240 162.0 24.15 79.44 7 61.2 0.184 24.6 80.9 19 37.2 37 26.6
4 41740 204.3 38.41 126.3 7 77.2 0.232 39.2 129 19 46.9 37 33.6
3 52620 229.4 48.43 159.3 7 86.7 0.260 49.4 162 19 52.6 37 37.7
2 66360 257.6 61.07 200.9 7 97.4 0.292 62.3 205 19 59.1 37 42.4
1 83690 289.3 77.00 253.3 19 66.4 0.332 78.6 259 37 47.6 61 37.0
1/0 105600 324.9 97.13 319.5 19 74.5 0.373 99.1 326 37 53.4 61 41.6
2/0 133100 364.8 122.5 402.8 19 83.7 0.418 125 . 411 37 60.0 61 46.7
3/0 167800 409.6 154.4 507.8 19 94.0 0.470 157 . 518 37 67.3 61 52.4
4/0 211600 466.0 194.7 640.5 19 105.5 0.528 199 . 653 37 75.6 61 58.9
250 ………. …….. .…… .……. 37 82.2 0.575 235 . 772 61 64.0 91 52.4
300 ………. …….. .…… .……. 37 90.0 0.630 282 . 925 61 70.1 91 57.4
350 ………. …….. .…… .……. 37 97.3 0.681 329 . 1080 61 75.7 91 62.0
400 ………. …….. .…… .……. 37 104.0 0.728 376 . 1236 61 81.0 91 66.3
450 ………. …….. .…… .……. 37 110.3 0.772 422 . 1390 61 85.9 91 70.3
500 ………. …….. .…… .……. 37 116.2 0.813 469 . 1542 61 90.5 91 74.1
600 ………. …….. .…… .……. 61 99.2 0.893 563 . 1850 91 81.2 127 68.7
750 ………. …….. .…… .……. 61 110.9 0.998 704 . 2316 91 90.8 127 76.8
800 ………. …….. .…… .……. 61 114.5 1.031 751 . 2469 91 93.8 127 79.4
1000 ………. …….. .…… .……. 61 128.0 1.152 939 . 3086 91 104.8 127 88.7
1250 ………. …….. .…… .……. 91 117.2 1.289 1173 . 3859 127 99.2 169 86.0
1500 ………. …….. .…… .……. 91 128.4 1.412 1408 . 4632 127 108.7 169 94.2
1750 ………. …….. .…… .……. 127 117.4 1.526 1643 . 5403 169 101.8 217 89.8
2000 ………. …….. .…… .……. 127 125.5 1.632 1877 . 6176 169 108.8 217 96.0

•IPCEA Standard Publication S-66-524, NEMA WC 7-1971.


Temperature Correction Factors for Resistance of Aluminum
Conductors*

Temperature, Multiplying Factors for Reduction to


Degrees °C 20°C 25°C
0 1.088 1.110
5 1.064 1.085
10 1.042 1.063
15 1.020 1.041
20 1.000 1.020
25 0.980 1.000
30 0.961 0.981
35 0.943 0.962
40 0.925 0.944
45 0.908 0.927
50 0.892 0.910
55 0.876 0.894
60 0.861 0.878
65 0.846 0.863
70 0.832 0.849
75 0.818 0.835
80 0.805 0.821
85 0.792 0.808
90 0.780 0.796

The correction factors given in this table are satisfactory for most appli-
cations. They are based upon aluminum having 61 percent conductivity
and are derived from the formulae:

248
R1 = R 2
228 + T2
253
R3 = R 2
228 + T2

where R1 – Resistance at 20°C


R2 – Measured resistance at test temperature, T2
R3 – Resistance at 25°C

*IPCEA Publication S-66-524, NEMA WC 7-1971

81
Temperature Correction Factors for Resistance of Copper
Conductors*

Temperature, Multiplying Factors for Reduction to


Degrees °C 20°C 25°C
0 1.085 1.107
5 1.063 1.084
10 1.041 1.061
15 1.020 1.040
20 1.000 1.020
25 0.981 1.000
30 0.962 0.981
35 0.944 0.963
40 0.927 0.945
45 0.911 0.928
50 0.895 0.912
55 0.879 0.896
60 0.864 0.881
65 0.850 0.866
70 0.836 0.852
75 0.822 0.838
80 0.809 0.825
85 0.797 0.812
90 0.784 0.800

The correction factors given in this table are satisfactory for most appli-
cations. They are based upon copper having 100 percent conductivity
and are derived from the formulae:

254.5
R1 = R 2
234.5 + T2
259.5
R3 = R 2
234.5 + T2

where R1 – Resistance at 20°C


R2 – Measured resistance at test temperature, T2
R3 – Resistance at 25°C

For more accurate determination of resistance, allowing for different


conductivities, see

“Copper Wire Tables,”


National Bureau of Standards,
Handbook No. 100.

*IPCEA Publications S-66-524, NEMA WE 7-1971

82
Logarithm Tables

Four Place Mantissas for Common Logarithms

Proportional Parts
N 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

10 0000 0043 0086 0128 0170 0212 0253 0294 0334 0374 *4* 8 12 17 21 25 29 33 37
11 0414 0453 0492 0531 0569 0607 0645 0682 0719 0755 4 8 11 15 19 23 26 30 34
12 0792 0828 0864 0899 0934 0969 1004 1038 1072 1106 3 7 10 14 17 21 24 28 31
13 1139 1173 1206 1239 1271 1303 1335 1367 1399 1430 3 6 10 13 16 19 23 26 29
14 1461 1492 1523 1553 1584 1614 1644 1673 1703 1732 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27

15 1761 1790 1818 1847 1875 1903 1931 1959 1987 2014 *3* 6 8 11 14 17 20 22 25
16 2041 2068 2095 2122 2148 2175 2201 2227 2253 2279 3 5 8 11 13 16 18 21 24
17 2304 2330 2355 2380 2405 2430 2455 2480 2504 2529 2 5 7 10 12 15 17 20 22
18 2553 2577 2601 2625 2648 2672 2695 2718 2742 2765 2 5 7 9 12 14 16 19 21
19 2788 2810 2833 2856 2878 2900 2923 2945 2967 2989 2 4 7 9 11 13 16 18 20

20 3010 3032 3054 3075 3096 3118 3139 3160 3181 3201 2 4 6 8 11 13 15 17 19
21 3222 3243 3263 3284 3304 3324 3345 3365 3385 3404 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
22 3424 3444 3464 3483 3502 3522 3541 3560 3579 3598 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 15 17
23 3617 3636 3655 3674 3692 3711 3729 3747 3766 3784 2 4 6 7 9 11 13 15 17
24 3802 3820 3838 3856 3874 3892 3909 3927 3945 3962 2 4 5 7 9 11 12 14 16

25 3979 3997 4014 4031 4048 4065 4082 4099 4116 4133 2 3 5 7 9 10 12 14 15
26 4150 4166 4183 4200 4216 4232 4249 4265 4281 4298 2 3 5 7 8 10 11 13 15
27 4314 4330 4346 4362 4378 4393 4409 4425 4440 4456 2 3 5 6 8 9 11 13 14
28 4472 4487 4502 4518 4533 4548 4564 4579 4594 4609 2 3 5 6 8 9 11 12 14
29 4624 4639 4654 4669 4683 4698 4713 4728 4742 4757 1 3 4 6 7 9 10 12 13

30 4771 4786 4800 4814 4829 4843 4857 4871 4886 4900 1 3 4 6 7 9 10 11 13
31 4914 4928 4942 4955 4969 4983 4997 5011 5024 5038 1 3 4 6 7 8 10 11 12
32 5051 5065 5079 5092 5101 5119 5132 5145 5159 5172 1 3 4 5 7 8 9 11 12
33 5185 5198 5211 5224 5237 5250 5263 5276 5289 5302 1 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 12
34 5315 5328 5340 5353 5366 5378 5391 5403 5416 5428 1 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 11

35 5441 5453 5465 5478 5490 5502 5514 5527 5539 5551 1 2 4 5 6 7 9 10 11
36 5563 5575 5587 5599 5611 5623 5635 5647 5658 5670 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 10 11
37 5682 5694 5705 5717 5729 5740 5752 5763 5775 5786 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10
38 5798 5809 5821 5832 5843 5855 5866 5877 5888 5899 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10
39 5911 5922 5933 5944 5955 5966 5977 5988 5999 6010 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10

40 6021 6031 6042 6053 6064 6075 6085 6096 6107 6117 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 10
41 6128 6138 6149 6160 6170 6180 6191 6201 6212 6222 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
42 6232 6243 6253 6263 6274 6284 6294 6304 6314 6325 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
43 6335 6345 6355 6365 6375 6385 6395 6405 6415 6425 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
44 6435 6444 6454 6464 6474 6484 6493 6503 6513 6522 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

45 6532 6542 6551 6561 6571 6580 6590 6599 6609 6618 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
46 6628 6637 6646 6656 6665 6675 6684 6693 6702 6712 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 8
47 6721 6730 6739 6749 6758 6767 6776 6785 6794 6803 1 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 8
48 6812 6821 6830 6839 6848 6857 6866 6875 6884 6893 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 8
49 6902 6911 6920 6928 6937 6946 6955 6964 6972 6981 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 8

50 6990 6998 7007 7016 7024 7033 7042 7050 7059 7067 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 7 8
51 7076 7084 7093 7101 7110 7118 7126 7135 7143 7152 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 7 8
52 7160 7168 7177 7185 7193 7202 7210 7218 7226 7235 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 7
53 7243 7251 7259 7267 7275 7284 7292 7300 7308 7316 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 6 7
54 7324 7332 7340 7348 7356 7364 7372 7380 7388 7396 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 6 7

N 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

* Interpolation in this.section of the table is inaccurate.

83
Logarithm Tables

Four Place Mantissas for Common Logarithms (Continued)

Proportional Parts
N 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

55 7404 7412 7419 7427 7435 7443 7451 7459 7466 7474 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 7
56 7482 7490 7497 7505 7513 7520 7528 7536 7543 7551 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 7
57 7559 7566 7574 7582 7589 7597 7604 7612 7619 7627 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 7
53 7634 7642 7649 7657 7664 7672 7679 7686 7694 7701 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7
59 7709 7716 7723 7731 7738 7745 7752 7760 7767 7774 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7

60 7782 7789 7796 7803 7810 7818 7825 7832 7839 7846 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 6
61 7853 7860 7868 7875 7882 7889 7896 7903 7910 7917 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 6
62 7924 7931 7938 7945 7952 7959 7966 7973 7980 7987 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 6
63 7993 8000 8007 8014 8021 8028 8035 8041 8048 8055 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 5 6
64 8062 8069 8075 8082 8089 8096 8102 8109 8116 8122 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 5 6

65 8129 8136 8142 8149 8156 8162 8169 8176 8182 8189 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 5 6
66 8195 8202 8209 8215 8222 8228 8235 8241 8248 8254 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 5 6
67 8261 8267 8274 8280 8287 8293 8299 8306 8312 8319 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 5 6
68 8325 8331 8338 8344 8351 8357 8363 8370 8376 8382 1 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 6
69 8388 8395 8401 8407 8414 8420 8426 8432 8439 8445 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 5 6

70 8451 8457 8463 8470 8476 8482 8488 8494 8500 8506 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 5 6
71 8513 8519 8525 8531 8537 8543 8549 8555 8561 8567 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 5 5
72 8573 8579 8585 8591 8597 8603 8609 8615 8621 8627 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 5 5
73 8633 8639 8645 8651 8657 8663 8669 8675 8681 8686 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 5 5
74 8692 8698 8704 8710 8716 8722 8727 8733 8739 8745 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 5 5

75 8751 8756 8762 8768 8774 8779 8785 8791 8797 8802 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 5
76 8808 8814 8820 8825 8831 8837 8842 8848 8854 8859 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 5
77 8865 8871 8876 8882 8887 8893 8899 8904 8910 8915 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5
78 8921 8927 8932 8938 8943 8949 8954 8960 8965 8971 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5
79 8976 8982 8987 8993 8998 9004 9009 9015 9020 9025 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5

80 9031 9036 9042 9047 9053 9058 9063 9069 9074 9079 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5
81 9085 9090 9096 9101 9106 9112 9117 9122 9128 9133 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5
82 9138 9143 9149 9154 9159 9165 9170 9175 9180 9186 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5
83 9191 9196 9201 9206 9212 9217 9222 9227 9232 9238 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5
84 9243 9248 9253 9258 9263 9269 9274 927Si 9284 9289 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5

85 9294 9299 9304 9309 9315 9320 9325 9330 9335 9340 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5
86 9345 9350 9355 9360 9365 9370 9375 9380 9385 9390 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5
87 9395 9400 9405 9410 9415 9420 9425 9430 9435 9440 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
83 9445 9450 9455 9460 9465 9469 9474 9470 9484 9489 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
89 9494 9499 9504 9509 9513 9518 9523 9528 9533 9538 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4

90 9542 9547 9552 9557 9562 9566 9571 9576 9581 9586 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
91 9590 9595 9600 9605 9609 9614 9619 9624 9628 9633 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
92 9638 9643 9647 9652 9657 9661 9666 9671 9675 9680 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
93 9685 9689 9894 9699 9703 9708 9713 9717 9722 9727 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
94 9731 9736 9741 9745 9750 9754 9759 9763 9768 9773 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4

95 9777 9782 9786 9791 9795 9800 9805 9809 9814 9818 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
96 9823 9827 9832 9836 9841 9845 9850 9854 9859 9863 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
97 9868 9872 9877 9881 9886 9890 9894 9899 9903 9908 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
98 9912 9917 9921 9926 9930 9934 9939 9943 9948 9952 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
99 9956 9961 9965 9969 9974 9978 9983 9987 9991 9996 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 4

N 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

84
Nominal Direct-Current Resistance, Ohms per 1000 Feet, at 20°C and 25°C of Solid and Concentric Stranded Conductors*
Conductor Aluminum and Annealed Uncoated Copper
Size,
Awg or Solid
______________________________________________ Stranded Classes B, C and D
_____________________________________________ Annealed Coated Copper
_______________________________________
kcmil 20°C 25°C 20°C 25°C Solid Stranded Class B
____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________
Aluminum Copper Aluminum Copper Aluminum Copper Aluminum Copper 20°C 25°C 20°C 25°C
20 16.6 10.1 17.0 10.3 ……… 10.4 ………… 10.6 10.6 10.8 11.0 11.2
18 10.5 6.39 10.7 6.51 ……… 6.53 ………… 6.66 6.66 6.79 6.92 7.05
16 6.58 4.02 6.72 4.10 ……… 4.10 ………… 4.18 4.18 4.26 4.35 4.44
14 4.14 2.52 4.22 2.57 ……… 2.57 ………… 2.62 2.62 2.68 2.68 2.73
12 2.60 1.59 2.66 1.62 2.66 1.62 2.71 1.65 1.65 1.68 1.68 1.72
10 1.64 0.9988 1.67 1.018 1.67 1.02 1.70 1.04 1.04 1.06 1.06 1.08
8 1.03 0.6281 1.05 0.6404 1.05 0.641 1.07 0.654 0.646 0.659 0.666 0.679
6 0.648 0.3952 0.661 0.4029 0.661 0.403 0.674 0.410 0.407 0.415 0.419 0.427
4 0.407 0.2485 0.415 0.2534 0.415 0.253 0.424 0.259 0.256 0.261 0.264 0.269
3 0.323 0.1971 0.330 0.2010 0.329 0.201 0.336 0.205 0.203 0.207 0.209 0.213
2 0.256 0.1563 0.261 0.1594 0.261 0.159 0.266 0.162 0.161 0.164 0.166 0.169
1 0.203 0.1239 0.207 0.1264 0.207 0.126 0.211 0.129 0.128 0.130 0.131 0.134
1/0 0.161 0.09825 0.164 0.1002 0.164 0.100 0.168 0.102 0.101 0.103 0.104 0.106
2/0 0.128 0.07793 0.130 0.07946 0.130 0.0795 0.133 0.0811 0.0798 0.0814 0.0827 0.0843
3/0 0.101 0.06182 0.103 0.06303 0.103 0.0630 0.105 0.0642 0.0633 0.0645 0.0656 0.0668
4/0 0.0803 0.04901 0.0820 0.04998 0.0820 0.0500 0.0836 0.0509 0.0502 0.0512 0.0515 0.0525
250 ………. ………... ………. ……….. 0.0694 0.0423 0.0708 0.0431 ………. ………. 0.0440 0.0449
300 ………. ………... ………. ……….. 0.0578 0.0353 0.0590 0.0360 ………. ………. 0.0367 0.0374
350 ………. ………... ………. ……….. 0.0495 0.0302 0.0505 0.0308 ………. ………. 0.0314 0.0320
400 ………. ………... ………. ……….. 0.0434 0.0264 0.0442 0.0270 ………. ………. 0.0272 0.0278
450 ………. ………... ………. ……….. 0.0385 0.0235 0.0393 0.0240 ………. ………. 0.0242 0.0247
500 ………. ………... ………. ……….. 0.0347 0.0212 0.0354 0.0216 ………. ………. 0.0218 0.0222
600 ………. ………... ………. ……….. 0.0289 0.0176 0.0295 0.0180 ………. ………. 0.0183 0.0187
750 ………. ………... ………. ……….. 0.0231 0.0141 0.0236 0.0144 ………. ………. 0.0145 0.0148
800 ………. ………... ………. ……….. 0.0217 0.0132 0.0221 0.0135 ………. ………. 0.0136 0.0139
1000 ………. ………... ………. ……….. 0.0173 0.0106 0.0177 0.0108 ………. ………. 0.0109 0.0111
1250 ………. ………... ………. ……….. 0.0139 0.00846 0.0142 0.00863 ………. ………. 0.00871 0.00888
1500 ………. ………... ………. ……….. 0.0116 0.00705 0.0118 0.00719 ………. ………. 0.00726 0.00740
1750 ………. ………... ………. ……….. 0.00991 0.00605 0.0101 0.00616 ………. ………. 0.00622 0.00634
2000 ………. ………... ………. ……….. 0.00867 0.00529 0.00885 0.00539 ………. ………. 0.00544 0.00555

85
•IPCEA Standards Publication S-66-524, NEMA WC 7-1971.
Natural Functions of Angles

Deg. Sine Cosine Tangent Cotangent Deg.

0 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 oo 90


1 0.0175 0.9998 0.0175 57.2900 89
2 0.0349 0.9994 0.0349 28.6363 88
3 0.0523 0.9986 0.0524 19.0811 87
4 0.0698 0.9976 0.0699 14.3007 86
5 0.0872 0.9962 0.0875 11.4301 85
6 0.1045 0.9945 0.1051 9.5144 84
7 0.1219 0.9925 0.1228 8.1443 83
8 0.1392 0.9903 0.1405 7.1154 82
9 0.1564 0.9877 0.1584 6.3138 81
10 0.1736 0.9848 0.1763 5.6713 80
11 0.1908 0.9816 0.1944 5.1446 79
12 0.2079 0.9781 0.2126 4.7046 78
13 0.2250 0.9744 0.2309 4.3315 77
14 0.2419 0.9703 0.2493 4.0108 76
15 0.2588 0.9659 0.2679 3.7321 75
16 0.2756 0.9613 0.2867 3.4874 74
17 0.2924 0.9563 0.3057 3.2709 73
18 0.3090 0.9511 0.3249 3.0777 72
19 0.3256 0.9455 0.3443 2.9042 71
20 0.3420 0.9397 0.3640 2.7475 70
21 0.3584 0.9336 0.3839 2.6051 69
22 0.3746 0.9272 0.4040 2.4751 68
23 0.3907 0.9205 0.4245 2.3559 67
24 0.4067 0.9135 0.4452 2.2460 66
25 0.4226 0.9063 0.4663 2.1445 65
26 0.4384 0.8988 0.4877 2.0503 64
27 0.4540 0.8910 0.5095 1.9626 63
28 0.4695 0.8829 0.5317 1.8807 62
29 0.4848 0.8746 0.5543 1.8040 61
30 0.5000 0.8660 0.5774 1.7321 60
31 0.5150 0.8572 0.6009 1.6643 59
32 0.5299 0.8480 0.6249 1.6003 58
33 0.5446 0.8387 0.6494 1.5399 57
34 0.5592 0.8290 0.6745 1.4826 56
35 0.5736 0.8192 0.7002 1.4281 55
36 0.5878 0.8090 0.7265 1.3764 54
37 0.6018 0.7986 0.7536 1.3270 53
38 0.6157 0.7880 0.7813 1.2799 52
39 0.6293 0.7771 0.8098 1.2349 51
40 0.6428 0.7660 0.8391 1.1918 50
41 0.6561 0.7547 0.8693 1.1504 49
42 0.6691 0.7331 0.9004 1.1106 48
43 0.6820 0.7314 0.9325 1.0724 47
44 0.6947 0.7193 0.9657 1.0355 46
45 0.7071 0.7071 1.0000 1.0000 45

Deg. Cosine Sine Cotangent Tangent Deg.

86
Typical Isokeraunic Map

87
Selected Sl Equivalents

LENGTH TEMPERATURE
1 in = 25.40 mm 1°F (interval) = 5/9°C
1 ft = 0.3048 m temp (°F) = (9/5) temp (°C) + 32
1 yd = 0.9144 m Ice . point at 1 atm = 32°F
1 mile = 1.609 km = 0°C = 273.15 K
Triple-point of water
AREA = 0.01°C = 273.16 K
1 cmil = 506.7 um2
1 in2 = 6.452 cm 2 POWER
1 ft2 = 0.0929 m2 1 watt = 1 joule/sec
1 acre = 4047 m2 1 Btu/hr = 0.2931 W
1 mile2 = 2.590 km 2 1 hp = 746.0 W

VOLUME POWER FLUX


1 litre = 1 dm3 1 Btu/hr. ft2 = 3.152 W/m2
1 fl oz (US) = 29.57 ml
1 gal (US) = 3.785 litres POWER DENSITY
1 in3 = 16.39 cm 3 1 Btu/hr.ft3 = 10.34 W/m3
1 ft3 = 28.32 dm3
1 yd 3 = 0.7646 m3 SPECIFIC POWER
1 hp/lb = 1.645 kW/kg
VELOCITY
1 in/min = 25.4 mm/min STEFAN-BOLTZMANN CONST.
1 ft/min = 0.3048 m/min o = 56.7 nW/m2.K 4
1 mile/hr = 1.609 km/hr
THERMALCONDUCTIVITY
MASS 1 Btu/hr.ft F = 1.731 W/m.K
1 oz (avdp) = 28.35 gram
1 lb = 0.4536 kg THERMAL CONDUCTANCE
1 short ton = 0.9072 Mg 1 Btu/hr.ft2 F = 5.678 W/m2.K

DENSITY VISCOSITY, ABSOLUTE


1 Ib/ft3 = 16.02 kg/m3 1 poise = 0.1 Pa. 2
1 Ib/in3 = 27.68 Mg/m3 1 Ib/ft.sec = 1.488 Pa.s
1 lbf.sec/ft2 = 47.88 Pa.s
FLOW RATE
1 gal/min = 63.09 cm 3/s VISCOSITY, KINEMATIC
1 ft3/min = 0.4719 dm3 1 stoke = 10 -4m2/s
1 ft 2/sec = 0.0929 m2 /s
MASS VELOCITY
1 Ib/hr . ft2 = 0.08137 kg/s.m2 ELECTRICITY
1 coulomb = 1 ampere second
FORCE 1 volt = 1 joule/coulomb
2
1 newton = 1 kg.m/s 1 ohm = 1 volt/ampere
1 Ibf = 4.448 N 1 farad = 1 coulomb/volt
1 kgf = 9.8066 N 1 henry = 1 volt sec/ampere

PRESSURE MAGNETIC FLUX


1 pascal = 1 N/m2 1 weber = 1 volt second
1 mm Hg = 133.3 Pa 1 maxwell = 10-8 Wb
1 in H2O (60°F) = 248.8 Pa 1 kiloline = 10-5 Wb
1 in Hg = 3.377 kPa
1 psi = 6.895 kPa MAGNETIC INDUCTION, B
1 kgf/cm2 = 98.07 kPa 1 tesla = 1 Wb/m2
1 bar = 100 kPa 1 gamma = 10-9 T
1 atm = 101.3 kPa 1 gauss = 10-4 T

ENERGY MAGNETOMOTIVE FORCE


1 joule = 1 N.m 1 gilbert = 0.7958 amp-turn
1 ft.Ibf = 1.356 J
1 cal = 4.187 J MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH, H
1 Btu = 1055 J 1 oersted = 79.58 amp-turn/m
1 kW.h = 3.600 MJ
1 MWD = 86.40 GJ DIELECTRIC COEFFICIENT
1 farad/m = 1 coul 2 /N.m2
SPECIFIC ENERGY
1 ft.Ibf/lb = 2.989 J/kg PERMITTIVITY CONST.
1 Btu/lb = 2.326 kJ/kg = 8.8542 pF/m
b

O
1 Btu/ft3 = 37.26 kJ/m 3
1 Btu/gal = 278.7 kJ/m 3 PERMEABILITY CONST.
uo = 4n x 10-7 henry/m
SPECIFIC HEAT: ENTROPY c2 uoeo =1
1 Btu/lb.F = 4.187 kJ/kg.K
Gas constant:
R = 8.314 kJ/kg-mol.K
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