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AUTOMATION AND CONTROL OF

DISTRIBUTION USING SCADA


Authorised By
SANTOSH BHARADWAJ REDDY
Email: help@matlabcodes.com
Engineeringpapers.blogspot.com
More Papers and Presentations available on above site

ABSTRACT supervisory control and data acquisition

system. It is mainly used for remote and


In every power/substation certain
local supervision and control of
measurements, supervision, control,
electricity and distribution on medium
operation and protection functions are
voltage level. Distribution SCADA
necessary.
supervises the distribution system.
Traditionally these
In this paper we are
functions were performed manually by
presenting the distribution SCADA and
system operator from control rooms.
distribution automation & its benefits.
With the progress in digital electronics,
The application of SCADA system to
data processing, data communication
automate power for Hyderabad &
and microprocessors, a host of new
Secunderabad and streamline
devices and systems are being
APCPDCL electrical distribution
introduced for power system automation.
network is presented. The current
SCADA is a computer based
situation, present benefits, long term
programmable and distributed
benefits & future needs are explained.
Finally managing distribution is processing devices and power line
carrier/radio communication links. Every
explained.
power/substation has a control room the
relay and protection panels and control
Introduction: panels and man machine interface
Traditionally, the protective (MMI) installed in the control room.
system comprising of relays and circuit With the development of programmable
breaker were almost independent of digital systems i.e., microprocessor
control systems for tap changer control , based SCADA systems, the entire
voltage control, data logging, data supervisory functions, control functions,
monitoring and routine operations. protective functions can be combined.
Before 1985, the protective functions
were segregated from control functions. The main function of distribution
With traditional electromechanical SCADA is to control and supervision of
relays and earlier generation of hard- distribution of power to various
wired static relays, the functions of consumers with minimum outage and
protection systems were limited to minimum loss.
sensing faults and abnormal condition,
giving alarm, tripping circuit breaker,
auto enclosing of circuit breakers. Data Supervisory Control and Data
logging and some control and Acquisition (SCADA):
supervision functions were manually SCADA is a computer
performed by system operated from based programmable and distributed
control rooms.In traditional substation supervisory control and data acquisition
controls the three functions i.e., system. It is used to improve overall
protection, control and monitoring were system efficiency in case of both capital
not integrated fully. and energy and to increase reliability of
service to essential loads .Supervisory
In modern automatic Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)
SCADA systems, the functions are system enables to control , distribution
interlinked by means of digital equipment from a remote location. It
provides operating information, and architectures are used for power system
perform these additional services . SCADA and load SCADA.
• Feasibility studies
• System design SCADA Process classified into three
• Database design parts
• Communications Input
• Project management  Analog : Continuous
• Dispatcher training Electrical Signals Ex.Active
• Master Station specifications Power (MW), Reactive
• RTU specifications Power(MVAR), Voltage (KV),
Frequency (Hz).etc..
The application areas of SCADA can be  Digital : Switching Signals
categorized into the following groups: High(1) or Low(0) Signal
Ex.Breaker Close(high) or
Small SCADA systems with a selected Open(low), Isolator Closed(high)
number of functions, e.g. for distribution or Open(low).
networks and for electrical networks of Process
industrial complexes.  The signals are converted into
digital format
Medium-size SCADA and EMS with the  Implement protocol between
full spectrum of functions for Master and Slave
distribution and subtransmission  It operates with Real Time
networks, and selected functions for Operating System (RTO)
generation. Output
Large-scale SCADA and EMS with an  the results are exposed with user
extensive and sophisticated range of friendly environment
functions for transmission networks and  Through displays can be possible
generation. to control the substation and
generating station.
Distribution SCADA supervises the
distribution system. Similar system Distribution Automation:
It is an integrated system concept for the forcing utilities to monitor power quality
digital automation of distribution
issues and events as never before, thus
substation, feeder and user functions.. It
includes control, monitoring and storing large amounts of data is more
protection of the distribution system,
necessary than ever .Utilities are
load management and remote metering
of consumer loads. Distribution covering larger territories with the
automation systems provide utilities the
same personnel, so it is important to
ability to optimize the operations of their
distribution systems and directly optimize the use of the communication
improve reliability. Adding targeted
lines by using them for multiple
distribution automation capabilities can
be especially economical when they are applications Such as SCADA, REMOTE
an extension of existing investments in
IED CONFIGURATION, VIDEO
SCADA and in system operations.
Distribution automation can optimize SURVEILLANCE.
system conditions or solve a specific
Different Users, Different Needs:
problem for a specific area or customer.
Traditionally, SCADA systems have
The key for distribution automation
communicated with Remote Terminal
success is to target the highest value
results and not choose the wrong Units (RTUs) located at the substations,
technology. Interest is growing in
or in Distribution Automation
distribution automation as utilities look
to extend their automation beyond the applications, RTUs were also located in
substation and leverage the breadth of
the field. RTUs were traditionally
new communication technologies
available. connected to status and control points as
well as transducers to measure Voltage,
Current, Power, Frequency and other
Current Situation:
electrical parameters. RTUs connected
To automate and manage the power
in this way were only capable of
distribution system has been evolving
measuring parameters specific to the
for a few decades now, but has not yet
transducer type they were connected to.
been implemented widely to achieve the
Information such as phase angle was not
highly desirable benefits of improved
available, so calculated parameters were
customer service and retention. Today's
not available unless a dedicated
market conditions have made
transducer was installed.
distribution automation a critical part of
every utility's operation. Markets with
highly restrictive reliability standards are
This situation was relational database (SQL
solved once the "transducerless" RTUs compatible), either at the
were introduced. As they accept direct substation or at any remote
AC inputs from Voltage and Current location.
transformers, "transducer less" RTUs
can measure and calculate any electrical  Deploy as many local or remote
parameter (depending on the RTU's workstations as you need, so you
processing capability). With the can monitor and/or control your
introduction of electronic devices at the substation from anywhere in the
substation, the capability of providing world.
large amounts of data related to the
operation of the substations opened.  Segregate the information
Depending on your needs, you could: generated at the substation for
reporting to different "masters"
 Communicate directly with your (i.e. HMI, SCADA system,
IEDs without using an RTU or Power Pool, Independent Market
any sort of Data Concentrator in operator, etc.).
between.

 Display Video Surveillance (Live


 Configure any of your IEDs and Recorded) over the SCADA.
either locally or remotely using
the same communication line as Application :
the SCADA system. SCADA system to automate
power for Hyderabad & Secunderabad
 Retrieve non-SCADA related and streamline APCPDCL electrical
information from your IEDs distribution network .
(events, transients, oscillography,
etc.). APCPDCL (Andhra Pradesh Central
Power Distribution Company Ltd)
 Store an unlimited amount of commissioned a state of the art SCADA
historical information on any (Supervisory Control & Data
Acquisition) system supplied by ABB to restore normalcy in case of power
India to monitor and control the power outages. Load shedding can also be
distribution network for the twin cities of programmed in a systematic manner to
Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The avoid grid collapse and complete black
project scope encompassed design, out. There are 106 substations in
supply, erection & commissioning of the Hyderabad and Secundrabad feeding the
SCADA system with a control center at twin cities. This state-of the-art SCADA
Erragadda, Hyderabad for 132 kV and system will facilitate collection of all
33 kV substations in and around relevant information from these
Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The substations to be sent to the central
SCADA system will provide immediate computer system installed at the
benefits to APCPDCL in terms of APCPDCL Control Room. This will be
availability and quality of power as well done over a TDMA backbone and over
as lower outage and interruption time. digital UHF data radios covering an area
The SCADA of 1500 sq km. A similar SCADA
system has been installed to monitor and solution has already been implemented
control all substations in Hyderabad & by ABB for TNEB serving the city of
Secunderabad from a centralized Chennai.
location enabling complete management Present Benefits:
of power supply to serve consumers  Manual meter reading is being
more efficiently. The system offers replaced with automatic
operational advantages by integrating reporting.
distribution automation functionalities
like Automatic / Remote meter reading,  Real time alarms and data give
Load balancing, trouble call operators the information they
management etc. to facilitate effective need to respond quickly. The
distribution management. Utilities Division can be
APCPDCL increase proactive in providing quality
the uptime of its network and facilitate information to its customers.
optimum allocation of resources. It
willalso facilitate instant remedial action More effective load management:.
 Improved engineering, planning, As needed, generally after an
operation and maintenance of event, or upon query from building users
distributed systems. power users power quality records are
requested.
 Effective load shedding with Substation Security Fires and Door
minimum outage to important Alarms
consumers. Early on in the design of the
SCADA application, it was determined

 Reduced outages and increased that fire/smoke detectors were needed in

reliability and availability. all station switch gear rooms. This


function, along with door alarm contacts,

Long Term Benefits and Future provides the system operators with the

Needs: ability to respond instantly to these types

Power System Operators of events.

need to be able to continue to remotely Substation Battery Status

and instantaneously, identify electrical Loss of the critical function

power system failures at any location in of the battery system can be devastating

the distribution system. Accurate real for a switchgear breaker unit and

time alarming and historical information inability to trip a faulted circuit can be a

is needed to continually meet the needs disaster. Setting low voltage limits that

of a diverse community of energy users. alarm instantly, warns the maintenance

A continuation of the demands for high personnel who can respond quickly and

reliability and accurate performance and avert a major problem.

trending data is paramount. Outage Switching and Paralleling Operations

Record Confirmation of the physical

Post incident analysis is change in operator switch position was

required to prevent reoccurrence of not available prior to the use of remote

similar outages and power failures. SCADA applications.


Substation Primary Transformer
Status

Power Quality
Most substation transformer
status alarms and events are monitored
by the system. The annunciation and
display of alarm conditions ensures
timely investigation of the problem.
Remedial action can prevent future
equipment damage and power outages.

REFERENCES :
Conclusion: 1. DISTRIBUTION
Distribution scada AUTOMATION BY
improves over all system efficiency in WALTER.K.EICHELBURG
use of both capital and energy. 2. IEEE/PES TRANSMISSION
It increases reliability of service to AND DISTRIBUTION
essential loads. CONFERENCE

Improves quality of supply. 3. BUSINESS LINE(INTERNET


Improves continuity of supply. EDITION) FROM THE
HINDU GROUP OF
Distribution automation systems provide PUBLICATIONS
utilities the ability to optimize the
operations of their distribution. 2. SITES:
1. WWW.APTRANSCO.COM
Managers and engineers can view 2. WWW.SAT-
process data from their desktop whether AUTOMATION.COM
the data is on site or miles away. 3. WWW.ERCAP.ORG
DISTRIBUTION AUTOMATION SYSTEM
COMPONENTS OF SCADA