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Verb phrase is central element of clause,cause it expresses action or state to which other elements
relate,and it controls the other kinds of elements and meanings that can be in clause.2.Subject is the second most important
element.Structure:noun phrase,occurs with all types of verbs,pronouns are in nominative case:he she..,precedes the verb
phrase(except the inversion),determines the number of a verb phrase,the subject noun phrase can be moved after a verb=passive
form.Meaning:denotes the most important participant on the action or state denoted by a verb,generally the“doer”or agent of the
action,generally represents the topic:It is warm in here–it fills the place of the subject but has no content=dummy
pronoun3.Object is noun phrase,usually follows the verb,occurs only with transitive verbs,pronoun in accusative
case:him,her…,object noun phrase can be subject in passive clause,Direct object generally follows immediately after verb,it
denotes the entity of affected by the action or process of verb-We parked the car in the worst place.Take it easy Tina.-it is
dummy pronoun.Indirect object it occurs after ditransitive verbs such as give and tell and comes before direct object,generally
denotes people receiving something or benefiting from the action of verb Tom gave you(IO)additional
funding(DO)4.Predicative can be adjective,noun or occasionally prepositional phrase,it follows the verb or direct object,it
characterizes the preceding noun phrase.Subject predicatives characterize of specify the subject noun phrase-His skin was very
pink.It immediately follows the verb phrase;the main verb has to be a copular verb: be, become, seem; sometimes called subject
complement.Object predicative characterize or specify the direct object noun phraseOh,I can´t get this milk(DO)open(OP).,the
main verb has to be a complex transitive verb: make, find, consider, name; sometimes is called object
complement5.AdverbialsObligatory adverbials are adverbials,which are added to verb in order to complete their meaning.They
occur with two patterns:copular+complex transitive.Usually express place,direction,time or manner.Your toast is on the table

(A).Optional adverbials can be added to clauses with any type of verb,they are usually adverb,prepositional or noun phrases,can
be placed in different position within the clause,they add additional information to the clause:time,place ,manner,extent,attitude.I
only(A)bought one today(A).6.Truly peripheral-Conjunctions coordinating and subordinating,are fixed in initial position of the
clause,even ahead of other peripheral adverbials:and,because..Parentheticals are set off by parentheses.Prefaces are noun
phrases placed before subject,typically have the same reference as personal pronoun in clause.This woman,she is 90 years
old.Tags are usually added to the end of the clause.Noun phrase tags: It is nice that table anyway.//FRONTING AND
INVERSIONFronting means placing in initial position clause element which is normally found after the verb.In declarative
main clauses.Types:1.fronted object:ThisI do not understand.2.fronted nominals other than object3.fronted predicatives:Far more
serious were the severe head injuries.4.fronted non-finite constructions:fronted–ing and–ed constructions occur with
exceptionally long subjects,heavy subjects are moved to clause-final position,order of the elements in these clauses agrees with
information-flow end-weigh principles,new information is introduced in the subject and is at the end of the clause,subject can be
indefinite noun phrase:a/an,define noun phrases:the bed and pronouns it,its.5.fronting on dependent clauses(as,
though)Inversion: the verb phrase or the operator comes before the subject.B)EXISTENTIAL THEREis device used to state the
existence or occurrence of something.It is use d with intransitive or copular verb.Structure:there+be indefinite noun
phrase(+place or time position adverbial)There is bear(called national subject)sitting in a corner.C)OTHER TOPICS OF
WORD ORDERClefting:information is broken into two clauses,each with it´s own verb.Two types:It´s a man I want.What I
want is something to eat,now.//A)FINITE DEPENDENT CLAUSESComplement clauses:are controlled by preceding
noun,verb,preposition,adjective;also called nominal clauses;they are used as subject,predicative and object in main

clause;subordinator that or wh-word.Adverbial clauses:are used as adverbials in main clause.Placed in the middle,beginning or
at the end of the clause.If you go to bank,they´ll rip youup.Subordinators:if,before,when,although.Relative clauses:is
postmodifier in noun phrase,specify the reference of the head noun.Relativizer:who,which,that.Comparative
clauses:complements in adjective phrase or an adverb phrase,with gradable word as head.They use than(for unequal
comparison)and as(for equal comparison).Peripheral clauses:two types of dependent clause have peripheral role in the main
clause:reporting clauses and tag clauses.Tag clauses are loosely attached to the end(sometimes the middle)of another clause.Two
types:question tags and declarative tags.B)NON-FINITE DEPENDENT CLAUSESThey are regularly dependent on the main
clause.They do not have tense and modality.Infinitive clauses:syntactic role of subject,extraposed subject,subject
predicative,direct object,object predicative,adverbial,noun complement,noun postmodifier,part of adjective phrase.Ing-
caluses:syntactic role of to iste.Ed-participle clauses:syntactic roles of direct object,adverbial, noun postmodifier.Supplement
clauses:can be considered as peripheral type of adverbial clause.Mostly in written registers.By using a supplement clause,the
writer marks information as supplementary background information in relation to the main clause.There are:ing-and ed-
supplement clauses.Verbless caluses:special type of non-finite clause.//SIMPLE SEN-independent clause,contains subject and
verb,and it expresses complete thought,have one clause:Look!;The runner jumpedQuestions–Wh-questions open with wh-word
which indicates an element to be specified by the addressee.The rest is taken to be already known.Who´s calling.Yes/no-
questions open with the operator followed by the subject.All the elements are taken to be already specified,and the addressee is
expected to supply truth value,by answering yes or no. It is Thursday today?Exclamations-Use exclamations to express
emotional reactions and hence to evoke emotions in others,grab attention,ensure you align body language. To make this work

properly, you should be actually feeling the emotion you are demonstrating. Oh no! You can't go looking like that!! hat on earth
will they say! hat's terrible! (net)//CONCORDsubject+verb phrase agree in number and person.With the exception of the verb
be,this subject-verb concord is limited to the present tense.The basic grammatical rule is that the s-form of lexical verbs and the
primary auxiliaries is used with a third person singular subject in the present tense indicative.There is no subject-verb concord
with the modal auxiliaries,verb forms in non-finite clauses. I told her she could stay with me until she found a place, but she
insisted that she pay her own way//COMPLEX SEN.consists of one independent clause,and one or more dependent clauses,are
connected through either subordinate conjunction or relative pronoun.The dependent clause may be the first or second clause in
the sentence. If the first clause in the sentence is dependent,comma usually separates the two clauses:We had to go inside when
it started raining.CompoundSent.has at least two independent clauses;no dependent clauses:He finally read the book,or so I
thought//MAIN CLAUSE:may be embedded in larger structure,either as clause element or as part of phrase which realizes
clause element.There are layers of embedding.An embedded clause is called dependent clause.The superordinate clause,in
which it is ebedded,is termed the main clause.Maya is drinking her first bourbon tonight because Vern left today for San
Francisco State.The main clause:Maya is drinking her first bourbon tonight.Dependent clause: because Vern left today for San
Francisco state.///COORDINATORS:are used to build coordinate structures,both phrases and clauses.Unlike prepositions and
subordinators, which both mark the following structure as subordinate,they link elements which have the same syntactic role.The
main coordinators are and,but and or,with core meaning of addition,contrast,and alternative,respectively:At the end of the day it
´s just greed and profit to gain.It would damage those tentative,but increasing signs of recovery.Is this necessarily good or bad?
Or has a negative counterpart,nor,which is used after negative clauses:The donkeys did not come back,nor did the eleven

men,nor did the helicopter.Correlative coordinators-corresponding to each simple coordinator there is more complex form:The
couple were both shoved and jostled.Either you agree with it or you don´t agree with it.Everyone was testy as a result,and
neither Zack nor Jane had slept thet night,but they looked happy anyway.We use not only the colors reflected from mineral
surfaces but also the colors transmitted through minerals in microscopic thin sections/SUBORDINATORS:words which
introduce dependent clauses,have syntactic role,and this distinguishes them from other clause initiators,which can also have role
as subject,object...fall into3major subclasses:adverbial cl.:after, as, because if,since,(al)though,whether,while…,degree
clauses:as,than,that,complement cl.(or nominal clauses):if,that,whether.Complex subordinators – a number of subordinators
introducing adverbial clauses are multi-word units. Most of them end in as or that. Ending in: as: according as, as far as, as long
as, as soon as.Correlative subordinators-few subordinators have special relationship to form in the superordinate
structure.Subordinator+form it correlates with cooperate to express the relationship btw clauses:If we had moved in then we´d
have to spend fifty thousand pound to get it up to scratch.And El-ahraiah knew then that although he would not be mocked, yet
Frith was his friend.ACTIVE A PASIVE VOICE:Active voice:most common,unmarked voice,typical grammatical choice with
subject-verb-object.Pasive v:less common,discourse function,they reduced importance of agent of action.Most passive
construc.are formed with auxiliary be,ed-.(The result of one experiment are given in Table.),also get(It is about these people who
got left behind in Vietnam)/Pasive can occur as either short(agentless,agent is not specified)or long passives(contain by phrase
which, specifies agent of action.-The proposal was approved by the Project…)SHORT PASIVE:most common in academic
prose,in news-Often human actor(agent)is not important in academic writing.(We,researchers,exposed three communities to
elevated carbon dioxide concentrations)NEWS:make agent less important,focus of news story is an event that involves person or

institution,presenting only new space,which is desirable(Doherty was arrasted inNY)/LONG:with byphrase,common
academic writing,can be replaced by active clause with same meaning.Principle:1)to accord with inf.-flow-preference for
presenting new the end of clause,given placed before new inf.2)end-weigh “heavier”element of clause,In this case
agent,is placed at the end,where it does not hold up processing of the rest of clause.3)to place initial emphasis on element,which
is topic,of the occurent discourse.(with get,they are more dynamic describe processing of getting into that state,UNCOMMON
IN PV:single word transitive verbs:agree,exclaim,guess,hate,have;single-object prepositional verbs:belong to,bet on,cope with///