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Sir C.R.

Reddy College of Engineering Department of Information Technology

Unified Modeling Language (UML)


Unified Modeling Language: A system that allows a software designer to graphically layout and
model a software application. It gives designers a way to literally draw a map of how a piece of
software will be constructed and function.

Basic Building Blocks of UML:

Three Types

1. Things: Four Types


o Structural things: The nouns of UML models. These represent elements that are

conceptual or physical. There are seven kinds of structural things: Class, Interface,
Collaboration, Use Case, Active Class, Component, and Node.
o Behavioral things: Dynamic parts of UML models. The verbs which represent
behavior over time and space. There are two kinds of behavioral things: Interaction,
and State Machine.
o Grouping things: Organizational parts of UML. These are boxes into which
models can be decomposed. There is only one kind of grouping thing, the Package.
o Annotational things: Explanatory parts of UML. Used to describe, illuminate, and
remark any element of a model. There is only one kind of annotational thing, the
Note.
2. Relationships: Four Types
o Dependency: A semantic relationship in which a change on one thing (the

independent thing) may cause changes in the other thing (the dependent thing).
o Association: A structural relationship describing links between objects. May also
include labels to indicate number and role of the links. In the example shown below
there may be any number of employees (*) each of which has 0 or 1 employer.
o Generalization: A specialization/generalization relationship. Simply put this
describes the relationship of a parent class (generalization) to its subclasses
(specializations).
o Realization: Defines a relationship in which one class specifies something that
another class will perform. Example: The relationship between an interface and the
class that realizes or executes that interface.

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Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering Department of Information Technology

3. Diagrams: Nine Types


o Class Diagram: A set of classes, interfaces, and collaborations and their

relationships. Most often found in modeling Object Oriented systems.


o Object Diagram: A set of objects and their relationships. Represents static
instances of things found in class diagrams.
o Use Case Diagram: A set of Use Cases and actors.
o Sequence Diagram: An interactive diagram (set of objects, relationships, and
messages that may be exchanged) emphasizing the time-ordering of messages.
o Collaboration Diagram: An interaction diagram emphasizes the structural
organization of the objects that send and receive messages.
o State chart Diagram: Shows a state machine with states, transitions, events, and
activities.
o Activity Diagram: Special type of state chart diagram that shows the flow from
activity to activity within a system.
o Component Diagram: Shows the organizations and dependencies among a set of
components.
o Deployment Diagram: Shows the configuration of run-time processing nodes and
the components that are part of them.

Structural Things:

1. Class - An object with defined attributes and operations. A class in UML is very much like a
class in C++.

2. Interface - A collection of functions that specify a service of a class or component, i.e.


externally visible behavior of that class.

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Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering Department of Information Technology

3. Collaboration - A larger pattern of behaviors and actions. Example: All classes and behaviors
that create the modeling of a moving tank in a simulation.

4. Use Case - A sequence of actions that a system performs that yields an observable result.
Used to structure behavior in a model. Is realized by collaboration.

5. Active Class - Like a class but its represents behavior that runs concurrent with other behaviors,
i.e. threading.

6. Component - A physical and replaceable part of a system that implements a number of


interfaces. Example: a set of classes, interfaces, and collaborations.

7. Node - A physical element existing at run time and represents a resource.

Behavioral Things:

1. Interaction - A behavior made up of a set of messages exchanged among a set of objects in


a particular context to accomplish a specific purpose.

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Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering Department of Information Technology

2. State Machine - A behavior that specifies the sequences of states an object or interaction goes
through during its' lifetime in response to events.

Grouping Thing:

1. Package - A general purpose mechanism for organizing elements into groups.

Annotation Thing:

1. Note - A symbol to display comments.

Relationships:

1. Dependency - A semantic relationship in which a change on one thing (the independent thing)
may cause changes in the other thing (the dependent thing).

2. Association - A structural relationship describing links between objects. May also include labels
to indicate number and role of the links. In the example there may be any number of employees (*)
each of which has 0 or 1 employer.

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Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering Department of Information Technology

3. Generalization - A specialization/generalization relationship. Simply put this describes the


relationship of a parent class (generalization) to its subclasses (specializations).

4. Realization - Defines a relationship in which one class specifies something that another class
will perform. Example: The relationship between an interface and the class that realizes or
executes that interface.

Diagrams:

1. Class Diagram - A set of classes, interfaces, and collaborations and their relationships.
Most often found in modeling OO systems.

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Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering Department of Information Technology

2. Object Diagram - A set of objects and their relationships. Represents static instances of things
found in class diagrams.

3. Use Case Diagram - A set of Use Cases and actors.

4. Sequence Diagram - An interactive diagram (set of objects, relationships, and messages that
may be exchanged) emphasizing the time-ordering of messages.

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Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering Department of Information Technology

5. Collaboration Diagram - An interaction diagram emphasizes the structural organization of the


objects that send and receive messages.

6. State chart Diagram - Shows a state machine with states, transitions, events, and activities.

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Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering Department of Information Technology

7. Activity Diagram - Special type of state chart diagram that shows the flow from activity to

activity within a system.

8. Component Diagram - Shows the organizations and dependencies among a set of components.

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Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering Department of Information Technology

9. Deployment Diagram - Shows the configuration of run-time processing nodes and the
components that are part of them.

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Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering Department of Information Technology

CASE STUDY

Unified Modeling Language (UML)

As the head of information systems for Wylie College you are tasked with developing a
new student registration system. The college would like a new client-server system to replace its
much older system developed around mainframe technology. The new system will allow students
to register for courses and view report cards from personal computers attached to the campus LAN.
Professors will be able to access the system to sign up to teach courses as well as record grades.

Due to a decrease in federal funding, the college cannot afford to replace the entire system
at once. The college will keep the existing course catalog database where all course information is
maintained. This database is an Ingress relational database running on a DEC VAX. Fortunately
the college has invested in an open SQL interface that allows access to this database from college’s
UNIX servers. The legacy system performance is rather poor, so the new system must ensure that
access to the data on the legacy system occurs in a timely manner. The new system will access
course information from the legacy database but will not update it. The registrar’s office will
continue to maintain course information through another system.

At the beginning of each semester, students may request a course catalogue containing a list
of course offerings for the semester. Information about each course, such as professor, department,
and prerequisites, will be included to help students make informed decisions.

The new system will allow students to select four course offerings for the coming semester.
In addition, each student will indicate two alternative choices in case the student cannot be
assigned to a primary selection. Course offerings will have a maximum of ten students and a
minimum of three students. A course offering with fewer than three students will be canceled. For
each semester, there is a period of time that students can change their schedule. Students must be

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Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering Department of Information Technology

able to access the system during this time to add or drop courses. Once the registration process is
completed for a student, the registration system sends information to the billing system so the
student can be billed for the semester. If a course fills up during the actual registration process, the
student must be notified of the change before submitting the schedule for processing.

At the end of the semester, the student will be able to access the system to view an
electronic report card. Since student grades are sensitive information, the system must employ
extra security measures to prevent unauthorized access.

Professors must be able to access the on-line system to indicate which courses they will be
teaching. They will also need to see which students signed up for their course offerings. In
addition, the professors will be able to record the grades for the students in each class.

UML Diagrams for Course Registration:


USECASE VIEW

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Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering Department of Information Technology

Register for courses


(from Use Cases)

Student
View Report card
(from Actors)
(from Use Cases)

Course Catalog
Database
Login (from Actors)
(from Use Cases)
Students List
(from Use Cases)
+ getCoursesList()

Select courses to teach


(from Use Cases)

Professor
(from Actors)

Record grades
(from Use Cases)

Maintain Course Info


Registrar (from Use Cases)

(from Actors)
Billing System
(from Actors)
Close Registration
(from Use Cases)

Fig… Use case diagram for course registration

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Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering Department of Information Technology

Login
(from Use Cases)
Student
(from Actors)

User Professor
(from Actors) (from Actors)

Registrar
(from Actors)

Login
(from Use Cases)

Registrar
(from Actors)

Maintain Course Info


(from Use Cases)

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Close Registration Billing System


Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering Department of Information Technology

Login
(from Use Cases)

Registrar
(from Actors)

Maintain Course Info


(from Use Cases)

Close Registration Billing System


(from Use Cases) (from Actors)

Fig… Use Case diagram for Registrar

Activity Diagram for Course Registration System

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Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering Department of Information Technology

student Registrar Billing system

Approach
the registrar
Give the
application

Register the
courses

Give to
registrar

[not correct]
Return back the
application form

[filled correct]

Ask for
cash
Give the
cash

Submit to the Count the


billing system cash

[not equal to fee]


Take the [enough money]
money back Give the bill
receipt

Give back to
Bring required the student
money

Take the
receipt

Give the receipt


to student

Take the bill


receipt

LOGICAL VIEW

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Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering Department of Information Technology

Add student[ count < 10 ]

Initialization Add Student / set count = 0 Open


do/ Initialize course
entry/ Register student
exit/ Increment count
[ No student ]
[ count<3 && timeperiod expired ]
[ count = 10 ]

Cancel

Closed
[ No professor ]

Fig… State chart diagram for Course Registration

LoginForm
- username LoginController
- password - usersData

+ setUsername() + setUserData()
+ setPassword() + validation()
+ submit()

MessageBox
- message

+ display()
UsersDB
- usersList
OptionsForm
+ getAllUsersInfo()
+ displayOptions()

Fig… Class Diagram for Login

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Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering Department of Information Technology

LoginForm LoginController UsersDB MessageBox


: User

1: enter username and password

2: submit

3: setUserData

4: getAllUsersInfo

5:

6: validation

7: display(message)

Fig… Sequence Diagram for Login

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Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering Department of Information Technology

6: validation

1: enter username and password


2: submit
LoginForm 3: setUserData
LoginController
: User

5:

4: getAllUsersInfo 7: display(message)

UsersDB

MessageBox

Fig… Collaboration Diagram for Login

system
: User

1: enter username and passeword

2: submit

3: perform validation

Fig… Sequence diagram for Login

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Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering Department of Information Technology

LoginForm LoginController UsersDB OptionsForm


: User

1: enter username and password

2: submit

3: setUserData

4: getAllUsersInfo

5:

6: validation

7: displayOptions

Fig… Sequence diagram for Login Form

1: enter username and password


2: submit

LoginForm
: User

6: validation
3: setUserData
UsersDB
4: getAllUsersInfo

LoginController 5:

7: displayOptions

OptionsForm

Fig… Collaboration diagram for Login Form

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Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering Department of Information Technology

: RegistrationForm : RegistrationController
: Student

1: fillTheForm( )

2: submit( )

3: isRegstrationOpen( )

4: [Registrstion is open]

5: displayOptions( )

6: createSchdule( )

Sequence
7: modifySchedule( ) Diagr...

8: deleteSchedule( )

Fig… Sequence diagram for Course Registration

5: displayOptions( )
1: fillTheForm( )
2: submit( )
6: createSchdule( )
7: modifySchedule( )
8: deleteSchedule( ) : RegistrationForm

: Student
4: [Registrstion is open]

3: isRegstrationOpen( )

: RegistrationController

Fig… Collaboration diagram for Course Registration

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Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering Department of Information Technology

: : : CoursesCatalog
: Student : Course
RegistrationForm Registra...
Cata...
1: createSchdule( )

2: getAllCoursesList( )

3: getAllCoursesList( )

4: getCoursesList( )

5:

6:

7:

8: displayCoursesList( )

9: create( ) : Schedule

10: displayBlankSchedule( )

11: selectFourPrimaryCoursesAndTwoAlternateCourses( )

12: saveSchedule( )

13: save( )

Sequence
Diagr...

Fig… Sequence Diagram for Course Registration

8: displayCoursesList( )
10: displayBlankSchedule( )

2: getAllCoursesList( )
1: createSchdule( ) 12: saveSchedule( )
11: selectFourPrimaryCoursesAndTwoAlternateCourses( ) : RegistrationController
: RegistrationForm
7:
: Student

6:
9: create( )
3: getAllCoursesList( ) 13: save( )

5:

: CoursesCatalog
: Course Catalog
4: getCoursesList( ) : Schedule
Database

Fig… Collaboration Diagram for Course Registration

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Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering Department of Information Technology

COMPONENT VIEW

IUsers

Users Registration.exe

IBilling

ICourseC
atalog
Billing.dll

Course
Catalog.dll

DEPLOYMENT VIEW

Desktop
Desktop Desktop PC
PC PC

Registration

Printer

Course Catalog
Database
Billing
System

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Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering Department of Information Technology

MINI PROJECTS
1. Tele phone Billing System
2. Sports Club Management System
3. Real Estate Management
4. Venue Reservation System
5. Courier Service System
6. Address Book
7. Children Orphanage System
8. Electricity Billing System
9. Human Resource Management System
10. Blood Group Database Management System
11. Trading System
12. Toll Gate Automation System
13. Cab System
14. Database Explorer
15. Gas Agency Automation
16. College Administration System

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Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering Department of Information Technology

Project 1: Telephone Billing System:

The purpose of this project titled ‘Telephone billing system’ involves in generating the
bills, for the calls.

The software involves many features such as all the people’s addresses that have the
telephone connection, no of calls, &cost per call &total bill. This software can reduce the man
power and also reduces the working hours and it can work more efficiently.

This project consists of following modules,


1) Administrator
2) Viewer

The administrator can view & update the details of bills where as the viewer can only view
the bill details & pay the bill.

The project is developed by using JSP as the front end considering its advantages in web
application and SQL as backend.

Project 2: Sports Club Management System


Sports club management software has been designed to help organize, manage and to
reduce time consuming administration in key areas of membership, finances.

Sports club management software records information on membership, dues, game


schedules etc.., in database format. Comparing to an equivalent manual recording system, the time
saved without duplication is enormous.

The software involves the features such as the member details and the status of the member.

The project consists of following modules


• Administrator
• Members
• Game Schedule

The Administrator additionally can add, modify or delete users, change user passwords,
add, modify or delete club database fields, view all activities of each function, create, send and
track all email notifications, customize other club information and view all functional reports. The
Members can register for membership in sports club and also they have a facility for viewing their
status, schedules of the games, and results of the game.

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Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering Department of Information Technology

Project 3: Real Estate Management


Real estate market has been seeing multilevel rise in the past few years. Online Real Estate
provides a common platform for property owners, potential buyers and property dealers. The main
objective of the site is that it offers a facility to buy or sell a property. The site provides posting the
property details, posting the requirements. The property includes commercial land, industrial
property, house and apartments for sale.
The owner of the property who wants to sell must register. The buyer can specify his
requirements which include location, area measurements, side facing and budget. The seller posts
his advertisement which includes the requirements to the administrator.
The administrator posts the information to the module of the buyer in which a buyer can
view those information and intimates to the administrator with the reference of a property to buy
with the database which is regularly updated.
The seller and buyer should login to perform their actions. Once the transaction between
the owner and the buyer is completed manually, the information about that transaction is removed
from the database by the administrator and the posts are updated.

Project 4: Venue Reservation System


Venue Reservation System allows customers to reserve venues for functions, parties,
weddings, conference etc .In the present world the reservations of venues are done through some
agencies, electronic services and travel or venue provider. The user can make arrangements face to
face with the agent, depending on services provided by the agency. But the access may be limited
to physical hours of operation. Through venue provider, user can make one type of arrangements
per provider and have a direct contact with the provider. But they can give information only about
their own arrangements. To overcome the above problems we came up with this idea.
When booking a venue for an event, there are a few important things which must be
considered. The first thing which needs to be accounted for is the size capacity of the venue. There
is no doubt that the right venue cannot only compliment any event, but can also contribute to
making the event a success. In this system venues provider gives the profile of venues. Venues are
grouped according to state and city. First the user has to select the place. All the venues in that
place are displayed. The user can select a venue and can check for the availability of the venue by
specifying the date. Then the status of the venues in that place on specified date is displayed to the
user. This system avoids the overlapping of information or confusion regarding; the availability
status, arrival dates check in and checkout times. There is a possibility for the user to cancel the
reserved venue.

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Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering Department of Information Technology

Project 5: Courier Service System


The project entitled “COURIER SERVICES SYSTEM” will give the current status of
a parcel which is posted by a user. For this, the parcel has to be assigned with a register key.
By entering the key the user can know the current status and particulars of that parcel.
This system is maintained by the courier service staff. The user can also know the charges for
different services provided by the courier services company. The user can also post some
complaints through this system.
The purpose of this project “COURIER SERVICES SYSTEM” is to computerize and
to get the up to date records of the Parcels of the users. The user can view easily and get the status
of his bill payment and the other details of the parcel.
Here security is ensured by providing the user id and password to the staff for updating
data so that others cannot modify the data without proper authentication.

Project 6: Address Book


The software to be designed is a program that can be used to maintain an address book. An
address book holds a collection of entries, each recording a person's first and last names, address,
city, state, zip, and phone number. It must be possible to add a new person to an address book, to
edit existing information about a person (except the person's name), and to delete a person. It must
be possible to create a new address book, to open a disk file containing an existing address book to
close an address book, and to save an address book to a disk file, using standard New, Open, Close,
and Save ... Buttons.

The initial requirements call for the program to only be able to work with a single
address book at a time. A later extension might allow for multiple address books to be open, each
with its own window which can be closed separately. In this case, New and Open will result in
creating a new window, without affecting the current window.

The program will keep track of whether any changes have been made to an address
book since it was last saved, and will offer the user the opportunity to save changes when an
address book is closed either explicitly.

The program will keep track of the file that the current address book was read from or
most recently saved to, will display the file's name as the title of the main window, and will use
that file when executing the Save option.

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Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering Department of Information Technology

Project 7: Children Orphanage System


The main aim of our project “Children Orphanages Automation System” is to provide the
information about the orphans those are in need of help. It contains mainly two modules.
They are
1. Sponsor.
2. Donate.
In the sponsorship module, the user can sponsor a child in the monthly payment.
He can sponsor to one or more child at a time.
In the donate module, the user can donate a particular child from the list or he can donate to
the orphanage itself.
The payment is entirely offline. For both modules we will be generating an application
form with which the user can approach us to the address specified in our blog.

Project 8: Electricity Billing System


Electricity billing system is a computerized application used to record the number of units
utilized by the customers and generate bill every month.
The bill is calculated by the bill collector based on the number of units consumed.
Customer pays the bill to the office staff. He has to pay fine including the bill if he fails to clear it
within the specified period.
The relevant meter number along the customers address is maintained by the staff. The
staff checks whether there is any fine for a particular bill and then the bill is cleared and the receipt
is given to the customer.

Project 9: Human Resource Management System


The main aim of this project is to develop a Human Resource Management system for the
Intranet Automation of HR Software. HR system provides the information regarding the
employees of the company. The system has to facilitate good interaction or communication
facilities between the employees and HR administration.
The web pages about an employee are created dynamically based on the user id and
password and links are provided to web pages containing information about the employee general
details, contact details, skill details etc. A list of all employees is provided along with employee’s
Designation and Department.

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Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering Department of Information Technology

Project 10: Blood Group Database Management System


The project titled BLOOD GROUP DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM is designed
to maintain the details of all the blood donors within an organization.
The system is intended to provide the details of the donor to the person who is in the need
of blood. The administrator maintains the details of the blood donors based on type of blood group.
Only administrator is having the authentication to maintain the details. The details like name,
address, and contact number are maintained in the database by the administrator. The user can
view the details but can not update or change the database.
The person who is in need of blood can access the system to find the details of the person
by entering blood group. When ever the blood group is entered, the list of persons having that
blood group will be displayed. By developing this system, we can easily search for the blood
donors with a specified blood group.

Project 11: Trading System


The main objective of the trading module is to enable a registered user to place orders into
stock exchanges.
This project will provide Trading facility for Mediators and Traders. The Traders may be
Individuals, Partnerships firms, Pvt. Ltd. Companies and Public Limited companies.
The Mediator is directly registered with the stock exchange. He can in turn appoint Traders under
him. Once the trader is registered with the Mediator, Account Id and password will be issued to
them to log in on the site and do trades.

Project 12: Toll Gate Automation


The project titled “Tollgate automation” which is used to generate the bill for the vehicles.
Concepts of tollgate merged where the bridges and roads are constructed for transport on NHAI
which is having its own ministry.
Tollgate is engaged in processing the bill receipts which pass through the tollgate and also
the details of staff working in the tollgate.
The project “TOLLGATE AUTOMATION” aims at user convenience and manipulation of
data and system uses powerful DBMS and data retrieval and querying and also to save the user’s
valuable time. The tollgate staff which has to login to the system by providing their username and
password. By providing the required authentication they can login to the system

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Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering Department of Information Technology

Project 13: Cab System


The project titled “CAB SYSTEM”, the main aim of the project is to maintain the details
of all available cars for an organization.
In This “CAB SYSTEM” the organization maintains the details of all available cars of a
particular day. The existing system is maintaining these details manually. The maintenance of
these details manually is very typical task. In the Existing manual system, the maintenance of
these details takes many man hours. The proposed system is computerizing the existing manual
system, to avoid the conflicts in the manual system.
In this “CAB SYSTEM” the organization maintains the details of all available cars of that
particular day. Whenever an employee wants to use the particular car, then he can reserve the car
by using this system.
The administrator maintains the details of cars and amount to be paid to those cars. And he
can maintain the details of cars used at that particular day and also the details of car which are not
used. The administrator also maintains the details of cars hired and the return time of the cars. And
allots that car for the future use.

Project 14: Database Explorer


The project titled “DATABASE EXPLORER” mainly concerns with manipulation of data
that exists on the system. The main concerns of storage of data are to have a database for the
particular system, but the present situation is mainly concerned with the data manipulation through
interfaces. Here we are mainly concerned with the manipulation of data regardless of database
presence. The database explorer mainly concerns with the accessing of database that the database
may or may not exist on the System. Here we are making use of interfaces to access the data that
resides in the system.
The main part involved in this process is to develop a system that can maintain a database
independently. Hence we need to make use of software that can access the data independently
regardless of presence of the database. In general we are made use of databases like SQL, Oracle to
store the data on system. Hence in order to reduce the working time we are making use of database
explorer.

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Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering Department of Information Technology

Project 15: Gas Agency Automation


The project entitled “GAS AGENCY AUTOMATION” involves developing software for
atypical gas agency. The need for computerization arises due to increase in the consumption of gas
cylinders which in turn increases the work load.
The project consists of four modules there modules take care of customer maintenance,
stack monitoring, printing, bills and report generation. The customer maintenance module takes
care of adding, modifying, deleting and querying your existing database. The module stack
monitoring, tasks care of stack in the gas agency. Printing bills modules task care of printing bills
for every sale mode and finally the reports which are generated based on the transaction module.
The software provides user friend lines. This is the form of conductive and relevant screens
and means for the applications of the software.

Project 16: College Administration System


There are many departments of administration for the maintenance of college information
and student databases in any institutions. All these departments provide various records regarding
students. Most of these track records need to maintain information about students. This information
could be general details like student name, performance, attendance etc are specific information
related to departments like collection of data.
All the modules in college administration are interdependent .they are maintained
manually. So they need to be automated and centralized as, Information from one module will be
needed another modules. For example when a student needs his course completion certificate it
need to check many details like any dues ,year of study, exams attended and many other details. So
there is a need to maintain all the details.
This project is useful for easy interface. The system utilizes the powerful database
management, data retrieval, data manipulation and querying facilities. This project provides more
security of data than manually maintaining in the documents. This project is useful for saving
valuable time and reduces the large paper work.

Object Oriented Software Engineering Lab. 30 A.Y. 2008-09