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CHEMISTRY IN

DAILY LIFE

SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY:


Mr. DEEPAK AGGARWAL ASHIM
ADHIKARI H.O.D CHEMISTRY
CLASS: XII “SCI”
CHEMISTRY IN EVERYDAY LIFE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and foremost I thank my teacher Mr.


DEEPAK AGGARWAL who has assigned me this
project to bring out my creative capabilities.

I express my gratitude to my parents for being a


continuous source of encouragement for all their
financial aid.

My heartfelt gratitude to my class-mates and for


helping me to complete my work in time.

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SR. NO CONTENTS PAGE


NO.
1. CHEMISTRY OF DAILY LIFE: 4
2. HOW SOAP CLEANS? 4
3. VEGETABLES AND COLOURS 5-6
4. WHY MEALS ARE COOKED FASTER IN A 7
PRESSURE COOKER?
5. WHY DO ONIONS MAKE YOU CRY? 8
6. HOW TO MAKE INVISIBLE INK AT HOME? 8
7. WHAT IS CHOLESTEROL? 9-10
8. WHY SMOKING IS SO HARMFUL? 10-11
9. WHY THE SKY IS BLUE? 11
10. WHY COFFEE KEEPS YOU AWAKE? 12
11. THE CHEMISTRY OF LOVE - PART A 13
12. THE CHEMISTRY OF LOVE - PART B 14
13. LACTOSE INTOLERANCE 14-15
14. HOW IS COFFEE DECAFFEINATED? 15
15. ABOUT COMMERCIAL MILK 15
16. DIESEL FUELS AND THE FUTURE 16-17
17. THE OCTANES OF GASOLINE 17
18. BOUNCING POLYMER BALLS 18
19. WATER HARDNESS 18
20. CHEMOTHERAPY 18
21. SOME USEFUL MEDICINES 18
22. REFERENCES 25

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CHEMISTRY OF DAILY LIFE:


In this lens I'd like to talk you about the Chemistry of daily life. Chemistry is an exciting experimental
science which lets us to understand our world and makes our life easier. As you will read in the following
articles, chemistry is in our everyday life: in our body, at home, in the nature... in every second of our lives!

HOW SOAP CLEANS?


There are substances which can be dissolved in water (salt for example), and others that can't (for example
oil). Water and oil don't mix together, so if we try to clean an oily stain from a cloth or from the skin, water
is not enough. We need soap.

Soap is formed by molecules with a "head" which likes water (hydrophilic) and a long chain which hates it
(hydrophobic).

Because of this dualism, soap molecules act like a


diplomat, improving the relationship between water and
oil. How? When soap is added to the water, the
hydrophilic heads of its molecules stay into the water
(they like it!), while the long hydrophobic chains join
the oil particles and remain inwards (escaping from the
water). In that way, they form circular groups named
micellas, with the oily material absorbed inside and
trapped.

An emulsion of oil in water is then formed,


this means that the oil particles become
suspended and dispersed into the water.
Thus, those oil particles are liberated from
the cloth or the skin, and the emulsion is
taken away with the rinsing.
In summary, soap cleans by acting as an
emulsifier. It allows oil and water to mix
so that oily grime can be removed during
rinsing.There are more things involved in
this process, such as for instance changes
in the superficial tension of water, but this
is the general idea.

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VEGETABLES AND COLOURS
White light from the sun contains all the wavelengths, but when it impacts on an object some of its
wavelenghts are absorbed and some reflected. An object is coloured
because of the light that it reflects. For example red objects reflect
'red' light, which is light with a long wavelength. Many vegetables
and fruits are strongly coloured because they contain an especial kind of
chemical compounds named carotenoids. These compounds have an
area called choromophore, which absorbs and gives off particular
wavelengths of light, generating the colour that we then perceive.

The chromophore is formed by a sequence of linear carbon-carbon


double bonds (represented as C=C), much stronger than simple bonds
(represented as C-C), so the atoms remain closer to each other. In
general, it's necessary at least seven linear conjugated double bonds for a carotenoid to produce a colour.
Besides, the bigger the number of bonds conjugated, the bigger the wavelength of the light absorbed and
also the more red the vegetable, as you can see in this picture of the light spectrum:

The tomato is red because of


the carotenoid lycopene,
which contains 11
conjugated carbon-carbon
double bonds. You can count these bonds in the picture below, they are selected in red (the atom carbons are
omitted, only the bonds are shown). This compound is generated by the plant to protect itself from the air
oxidation. So it's a good antioxidant useful for us too, protecting our cells against the action of free radicals
(potent oxidants), which are one of the main responsibles of cardiovascular diseases, cancer and aging.

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VEGETABLES AND COLOUR The pigment present in carrots is the betacarotene, with
9 linear conjugated double
bonds, less than in
lycopene so they are no red
but orange (smaller
wavelength than red, check
it in the spectrum picture).
This compound is also a
potent antioxidant and
besides it's transformed in
our body into vitamin A, very important for the maintenance of healthy skin, good vision and a robust
inmune system.

Spinachs, parsley and plants in general are green because they contain chlorophyll, a pigment which enables
the plant to carry on photosynthesis, transforming solar energy and carbon dioxide into chemical energy in
the form of carbohydrates and oxygen. This is a process essential for life.

As you can see in the pic below, the structure of chlorophyll is very complicated, so let's simpy say that it
contains a big ring with a magnesium atom in the center. Curiously, the structure of hemoglobine (the carrier
of oxygen in our blood) is pretty similar to chlorophyll, though it has an atom of iron instead of magnesium
in its center.

The chlorophyll masks


the other colours in
vegetables and as its
amount decreases the
rest of colours become
evident. This explains
for example why
tomatoes are initially
green and then become
red when they ripen.

This is an example of
how Chemistry is everywhere, sometimes more evident, and sometimes much less

WHY MEALS ARE COOKED FASTER IN A PRESSURE


COOKER?
A pressure cooker is like any other pot but with a more elaborated lid that seals the pot completely. When
you heat water inside the pot it boils and the steam cannot escape, so it remains inside and starts to build up
pressure. Under pressure, cooking temperatures raise much higher than under normal conditions (higher than
the boiling point of water, that is 100ºC), so then the food is cooked much faster. Cooking times can be
reduced by a factor of three or four.

Besides cooking faster, this method retains more nutrients present in the food than other methods. And did

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you know that a pressure cooker is often used by mountain climbers? Without it, water boils off before
reaching 100ºC because of the lower atmospheric pressure at high altitudes, leaving the food improperly
cooked.

WHY DO ONIONS MAKE YOU CRY?


Who has never cried while cutting an onion? (well, apart from those who have never cut one hehehe). This
is a little explanation in easy terms.

Inside the onion cells there are some chemical compounds that contain sulfur. When you cut an onion its
cells are broken and those chemical compounds then undergo a reaction that transforms them into a more
volatile sulfured products, which are released into the air.

These sulfured compounds react with the moisture in your eyes forming sulfuric acid, which produces a
burning sensation. The nerve endings in your eyes are very sensitive and so they pick up on this irritation.
The brain reacts by telling your tear ducts to produce more water, to dilute the irritating acid. So you cry to
keep your eyes protected from the acid.

There are some tricks to make onion-dicing less problematic:


- Chop the onion under cold water. The volatile sulfured compounds will be released but then they react
with the water, instead of reaching your eyes.
- You can freeze the onion for 10 minutes before cutting it. The cold temperature of the onion will slow
down the chemical reaction which forms the volatile sulfured compunds.

HOW TO MAKE INVISIBLE INK AT HOME?


This is a funny experiment to do with kids at home.

You can play with your kids at home making invisible ink with basic products that you have in the kitchen.
There are many methods to make invisible ink. These are some of the easiest ones:

1) Lemon juice method

- Ingredients: just lemon juice.


Write your message on a piece of paper with a brush or tootpick embedded in lemon juice. Let it dry
completely.
To read the message heat the paper for a while (for instance hold it close to a light bulb) until the words
become visible. Warning: do not hold paper too close to the heat and be careful not to let it get too hot!
- Chemical explanation: Lemon juice is a mild acid that weakens the paper upon contact. So when you heat
the paper the part with the juice burns before the rest making your message visible.

2) Baking soda method


- Ingredients: baking soda and water in same amount (for instance 30 mL of each).
Mix them and use a toothpick or brush to write on a piece of paper. Wait until it dries completely.
To read the message paint the paper with a brush or a sponge embedded in concentrated grape juice. The
message should show up.
- Chemical explanation: You've made an acid-base reaction. The baking soda is a basic compound that

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reacts with the acid contained in the apple juice, forming a new compound that has a different colour,
making your message become visible.

WHAT IS CHOLESTEROL?
"Bad cholesterol" and "good cholesterol"... what's that?

Cholesterol is a fatty substance found in the blood of humans and also in the outer
lining of cells (membrane) in the body of animals. The cholesterol that we have in our
blood comes from two different sources:
- liver production
- diet: meat, fish, dairy products

After a meal, cholesterol is absorbed by the intestines, goes


into the blood and then it's packeged inside a protein coat.
These proteins are removed then by the liver.

When you go to the doctor, you are suggested to keep the "bad
cholesterol" in blood low and the "good cholesterol" high. Ok.
What does this mean?

- Bad cholesterol or LDL-low-density lipoprotein: These


proteins deposit cholesterol on the artery walls, causing the formation of a hard substance named
"cholesterol plaque". With the time, this plaque leds to narrowing of the arteries in a process called
atherosclerosis. Because of this, the arteries can get blocked, so LDL is associated with a higher riks of
coronary heart diseases.

When the liver has many LDL receptors, this helps to


remove more rapidly the LDL cholesterol from the blood,
helping to keep the bad cholesterol levels low. The
number of LDL receptors depends on both heredity and diet. For instance, people with familial
hypercholesterolemia have a very low number of LDL receptors, so they usually have high levels of bad
cholesterol. Besides, the bad cholesterol level can raise with diets high in saturated fats (certain vegetable
oils and products derived mainly from meat and dairy products).

- Good cholesterol or HDL-high-density lipoprotein: These particles extract cholesterol from the artery
walls and dispose them through the liver. So they prevent atherosclerosis.

Life style factors and other conditions influence HDL cholesterol levels. HDL cholesterol levels are for
instance lower in smokers, people who eat a lot of sweets, and also in those who are overweight and
inactive. On the other hand, estrogen increases the HDL cholesterol level, so usually women have higher
good cholesterol levels than men.

WHY SMOKING IS SO HARMFUL?

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The word "tobacco" is thought to derive from the Native American word "tabago," for a Y-shaped pipe used
in sniffing tobacco powder. Cigarettes and other forms of tobacco consist of dried tobacco leaves, and other
ingredients added for flavor and other properties.

Some facts related with smoking:


- Smoking is the second major cause of death in the world. It's responsible for the death of one in ten adults
worldwide.
- Smoking accounts for about 80-90% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
- Smoking is involved in 85% of all lung cancer deaths.
- Smoking is the major cause of cancer of the lips, tongue, mouth, pharynx, larynx and esophagus.
- Smoking has many other harmful effects in the body, a too long list to include it here.

Why smoking causes cancer? It's because tobacco and tobacco smoke contain more than 60 carcinogenic
compounds. In general, more than 4,000 individual substances have been identified in tobacco smoke,
including carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia and other toxic irritants.
Besides all the harmful effects of tobacco, it's addictive, and this explains why although 70% of smokers
want to quit and 35% attempt to quit each year, fewer than 7% succeed. The main reason why tobacco
becomes addictive is due to its content of nicotine, which alters brain functioning.

Nicotine is a naturally occurring liquid alkaloid. An alkaloid


is an organic compound made out of carbon, hydrogen,
nitrogen and sometimes oxygen. These chemicals have potent
effects on the human body. For example, many people enjoy
the stimulating effects of another alkaloid, caffeine.

When you smoke, nicotine is absorbed through the skin and


mucosal lining of the mouth and nose or by inhalation in the
lungs. Once in the body, it activates the same reward system
as do other drugs such as cocaine or amphetamine, although
to a lesser degree. In the brain, nicotine increases the level of
the neurotransmitter dopamine, which is a chemical in the
brain responsible for feelings of pleasure. The acute effects of nicotine subside within minutes, so people
continue dosing themselves frequently throughout the day to maintain the pleasurable effects of nicotine and
to prevent withdrawal symptoms. Nicotine:

WHY THE SKY IS BLUE?


We all can look up to the sky and see its beautiful blue colour. Why is it blue, and not red,
or white for instance?

As I commented in the "Vegetables post", an object is coloured because of the light that it reflects. The
white light from the sun contains all the wavelengths, but when it impacts on an object some of its
wavelengths are absorbed and some reflected. For example blue objects reflect 'blue' light, which is light
with a pretty short wavelength.

There is a phenomena named Rayleigh scattering, that consists on the scattering of light by particles much
smaller than its wavelength. This effect is especially strong when light passes through gases.

Each of the wavelengths of light suffers a different scattering when it encounters the gas particles that form

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the atmosphere (nitrogen, oxygen...). This effect is more prominent in the case of short light wavelengths,
that are the blue end of the visible spectrum, so the blue light becomes much more dispersed and it can be
seen from every direction, as you can see in the drawing below. This gives us the impression that the sky is
blue. On the other hand, the red
colour is scattered much less, so it
can be only seen from certain
directions. In the drawing below,
both Observer 1 and Observer 2 can
see the blue light, but only Observer
2 is in the right direction to see the
red one, and that's why we see those
beautiful red skies at sunset
sometimes.

Then, why the clouds are white?


Well, the water droplets that form
the clouds have a much larger size than the gas particles of the air, and they scatter all the wavelenghts of
light in the same extent, so all of them are reflected equally and we receive then the full colour of light, that
is white.

WHY COFFEE KEEPS YOU AWAKE?


It is well-known that the effect of coffee on mood is related to its content in caffeine (you can see its pic on
the right)

But why caffeine has such a strong effect on us? Caffeine operates using the same mechanisms of
amphetamines, cocaine, and heroin to stimulate the brain, though with milder effects. It manipulates the
same channels as the other drugs, and that is one of the things that gives caffeine its addictive qualities.

There is a chemical in our brain called adenosine, that binds to certain receptors and slows down nerve cell
activity when we are sleeping. To a nerve cell, caffeine looks like adenosine and it binds to the adenosine
receptors. However, as it's not really adenosine, it doesn't slow down the cell's activity like adenosine would.
So the cell cannot "see" adenosine anymore because caffeine has taken up all the receptors adenosine binds
to. Then, instead of slowing down because of the adenosine level, the cells speed up.

The pituitary gland sees all of this activity and thinks some sort of emergency must be occurring, so it
releases hormones that tell the adrenal glands to produce adrenaline. Adrenaline is the "fight" hormone, and
it makes your heart to beat faster, the breathing tubes to open up, the liver to release sugar into the
bloodstream for extra energy and your muscles to tighten up, ready for action. Because of this, after
consuming a big cup of coffee your muscles tense up, you feel excited and you can feel your heart beat
increasing. Moreover, as amphetamines, caffeine also increases the levels of dopamine, which is associated
with the pleasure system of the brain, providing feelings of enjoyment and reinforcement.

THE CHEMISTRY OF LOVE - PART A


Is there real chemistry behind love? This article is divided in two parts.

Answering the question of last week, yes, there's a lot of real chemistry behind love! Chemistry is in the
roots of every step in a relationship, and this field is under continuous research. When you fall in love, your
brain suffers some changes and also certain chemical compounds are released. Researchers consider three
stages in love: lust, attraction and attachment, each of them involve different chemicals (don't worry about
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the chemical names, simply get the essence!):

1) Lust
Lust is driven by initial physical attraction and flirting. This stage can depend on characteristics such as a
symmetrical face and proportionate body dimensions. Flirting can include gazing into the eyes, touching,
and mirroring in body language. The two chemicals that surface during this stage are the sex hormones
(testosterone and estrogen) and pheromones.

In the animal world, PHEROMONES are individual scent "prints" found in urine or sweat that dictate sexual
behavior and attract the opposite sex. The existence of human pheromones was discovered in 1986, finding
these chemicals in human sweat.

2) Falling in love - Attraction


When you fall in love you may have many physical symptoms: lose of appetite, can't sleep, can't
concentrate, palms sweat, butterflies in stomach... This is due to surging brain chemicals called
monoamines:

- DOPAMINE: it's commonly associated with the pleasure system of the brain, providing feelings of
enjoyment and reinforcement to motivate us to do certain activities. It's released by naturally-rewarding
experiences, such as sex or food. Some research studies show that when female rodents were injected
dopamine in the presence of a male rodent, the female will pick him out of a crowd later.

- PHENYLETHYLAMINE: It's a natural amphetamine like the known drug and can cause the same
stimulation effects. It contributes to that on-top-of-the-world feeling that attraction can bring, and gives you
the energy to stay up day and night with a new love.

- SEROTONIN: it controls impulses, unruly passions, obsessive behavior, aiding the sense of "being in
control".

- NOREPINEPHRINE is another neurotransmitter which induces euphoria in your brain, exciting the body
by giving it a booster dose of natural adrenaline. This causes the heart to beat faster and blood pressure to
rise. That's why you can experience a pounding heart or sweaty palms when you see someone you're
attracted to.

THE CHEMISTRY OF LOVE - PART B


Continuation of Part 1

3) Attachment - Staying together


There is a sense of calm and stability that we feel with a long-term partner, a sort of bond that keeps couples
together. This kind of love is driven these hormones:

- OXYTOCIN: it's sometimes known as "the cuddle chemical." It's the hormone best known for its role in
inducing labor by stimulating contractions. But recently it has been observed that it may influence our
ability to bond with others, as both genders release this hormone when touching and cuddling, with the
oxytocin level peaking during orgasm.

- VASOPRESSIN: also called as "the monogamy chemical". Researchers have found that suppression of
vasopressin can cause males to abandon their love nest and seek new mates.
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- ENDORPHINS: they are biochemical compounds that enhance our immune system, block the lesion of
blood vessel, have anti-aging, anti-stress and pain-relieving effect, and also help to improve your memory.

High levels of oxytocin and vasopressin may interfere with dopamine and norepinephrine pathways, which
may explain why with the time attachment grows as mad passionate love fades.

Well, as you can see, there is real chemistry taking place in our body when we are in love! This doesn't
mean that love is only chemistry, but at least now you can understand this feeling from a different point of
view, don't you?

LACTOSE INTOLERANCE
Some people suffer nausea or diarrhea after drinking milk or milk derivatives. The origin of this problem
can be the difficulty to digest lactose.

Lactose is the main complex sugar found in the milk. It's a pretty big compound formed by two smaller
components: glucose and galactose. Such a big compound cannot get through the intestinal wall and into the
bloodstream, so we need "something" to break it into smaller pieces. This "something" is an enzime named
lactase. The more milk and milk products we consume, the more lactase we need.

Normally there's plenty of lactase in the digestive systems of infants and children, but the ability to produce
lactase in big amounts decreases as we grow older, generating usually too little to handle more than one or
two glasses of milk at a time. When this drop in lactase production falls below certain minimums the
intolerance to lactose appears.

Without enough lactase in the digestive fluids, the lactose of milk and milk products isn't broken effectively,
so lactose passes along the intestinal path to a region where it undergoes fermentation to gases such as
carbon dioxide and hydrogen and to acid lactic, a bowel irritant. The combination easily produces gastric
distress and diarrhea.

I don't think there's any way to increase the amount of lactase enzyme the body can make, but fortunately
the symptoms can be controlled through diet. There are lactose-reduced milk products at most supermarkets
and even lactase additives available from drug stores without a prescription.

HOW IS COFFEE DECAFFEINATED?


There are different ways of removing caffeine from coffee:

- Water extraction: At the beginning solvents like dichloromethane or ethyl acetate were used because they
dissolve selectively the caffeine. But because of their toxicity nowadays water is used instead. Hot water
extracts both flavor ingredients and caffeine from green coffee beans. Then the extract is passed through
activated charcoal and most of the caffeine is removed. Finally, soaking the original beans in the
decaffeinated extract restores most of their flavor.

- Supercritical fluid CO2 extraction: Supercritical fluids have both gaslike and liquidlike properties, they
fill the container like a gas but can dissolve substances like a liquid. In the caffeine extraction process, this
fluid is forced through green coffee beans, it penetrates deep into the beans and dissolves most of the
caffeine present.

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- Genetic engineering: Some researchers are investigating ways to inactivate the gene that codes for
caffeine synthasa, the enzyme which catalyzes the caffeine synthesis. Then coffee plants unable to produce
caffeine could be grown.

Many everyday life objects and activities involve simple chemistry that can be subjected to scientific
investigation. This article suggests a few experiments that can be adapted to become full investigations using
the scientific skills tested at many High Schools around the world.

ABOUT COMMERCIAL MILK


Many types of milk are sold in the market nowadays: homogenized, pasteurized... Here you can understand
what all those names mean.

- Homogenized: Milk is an emulsion which contains droplets of fat dispersed in a mixture of water, sugars
and proteins. In the homogenization process the milk is forced through tiny tubes under pressure, so fat
particles are broken up and dispersed evenly. Then the cream will not separate out upon standing. Here you
can find more information.

- Pasteurized: This milk has been treated to destroy potentially harmful bacteria. Pasteurization consists on
heating milk to at least 72°C for about 16 seconds or 65°C for 30 minutes. This process increases also the
shelf life of milk up to 15 days. More information here.

- Ultrapasteurized (UHT): This milk is processed at higher temperatures (usually 140-150°C for 1-2
seconds). It is packed in presterilized brick-style cartons and can be stored without refrigeration for about six
months.

- Skimmed: This kind of milk is prepared by removing the fat from whole milk by using a cream separator.
Vitamin A and other fat-soluble vitamins are removed also in the process, so this form is not preferred for
infants and young children. Since the fat is removed it is suitable for many therapeutic conditions like,
diabetic, obesity, high cholesterol, heart diseases, hypertension etc. Sometimes those fat-soluble vitamins are
added at the end of the process, so that enriched skimmed milk will have more or less the same nutritional
properties as whole milk.

- Evaporated: Half of the milk’s moisture is removed by evaporation before it is canned. Then this milk can
be kept at room temperature for up to six months.

- Sweetened condensed: This type of canned milk is also made by removing half of the water from whole
milk, but then it is highly sweetened. As a result this milk is very high in calories.

- Powdered: To make this product, some of the water is evaporated and then the milk is sprayed into a
drying chamber to further reduce its moisture content, resulting in milk powder. The powder can be easily
reconstituted for use by adding water.

Of course it is healthy to drink milk, but the commercial milk is not the same after those processes. At least
we should know it when we drink it.

DIESEL FUELS AND THE FUTURE


Let's talk now about the diesel carburants. There are two main types of diesel, depending on its source:
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- Petrodiesel: a hydrocarbon mixture obtained in the fractional distillation of crude oil between 250 °C and
350 °C. Diesel is generally simpler to refine than gasoline and often costs less. It contains approximately
18% more energy per unit of volume than gasoline, which along with the greater efficiency of diesel engines
contributes to fuel economy (distance traveled per volume of fuel consumed). However, diesel fuel often
contains higher quantities of mineral compounds and sulfur. Nowadays they are trying to reduce the amount
of sulfur (ultra low sulfur petrodiesel fuel), so it will be better for the environment.

- Biodiesel: fuel made from natural, renewable sources, such as new and used vegetable oils and animal fats,
(which are hydrocarbons), or even algae. Fresh soybean oil is most commonly used, although it can be made
from mustard seed oil or waste vegetable oil (such as used oil from restaurant deep fryers). These
hydrocarbons are filtered and mixed with an alcohol, such as methanol, and a catalyst (sodium hydroxide or
potassium hydroxide), resulting in a chemical reaction whose major products are the biodiesel fuel and
glycerol. It's non-flamable, non-explosive, biodegradable and non-toxic, and it's used also as an additive to
petroleum diesel.

Biodiesel is one of the possible candidates to replace fossil fuels as the world's primary transport energy
source, because it is a RENEWABLE fuel that can replace petrodiesel in current engines and can be
transported and sold using today's infrastructure. A growing number of fuel stations are making biodiesel
available to consumers, and a growing number of large transport fleets use some proportion of biodiesel in
their fuel. But currently, biodiesel is more expensive to produce than petroleum diesel, which appears to be
the primary factor keeping it from being in more widespread use. Besides, current worldwide production of
vegetable oil and animal fat is not enough at the moment to replace liquid fossil fuel use.

The diesel equivalent to the gasoline octane rating is the cetane rating. The cetane rating number (usually 40
to 55 for medium to high speed engines) indicates how easily the fuel ignites and how fast it will burn. The
rating is obtained by measuring the time lapse between fuel injection and ignition. The higher the cetane
number, the easier the fuel ignites.

THE OCTANES OF GASOLINE


When you go to the gas station, you choose gasoline of 92 octanes, or 89, or 87... What do those octanes
mean?

The octane rating is a way to measure the gasoline's resistance to knocking. The knocking is a rapid pinging
or knocking sound which comes from an engine when it's pushed to produce a lot of power quickly. Usually
occurs when a car is accelerating, especially while going uphill.

Gasoline is a blend of more than a hundred hydrocarbons (compounds with only carbon-hydrogen and
carbon-carbon bonds). The more highly branched a hydrocarbon, the greater its tendency to burn smoothly
and to resist knocking. A combination of the hydrocarbon 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (mistakenly named
'isooctane' or even simply 'octane') and heptane is used to evaluate octane ratings. Because of its high ability
to burn smoothly and to resist knocking, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane ('octane') is assigned an octane rating of
100; heptane, with its great tendency to knock, receives an octane rating of 0. Mixtures of the two are given
octane ratings equal to the percentage of the octane they contain.

To determine the octane rating of any particular gasoline, they compare the knocking tendencies of that
particular blend with those of mixtures of "octane" and heptane. If, for example, a particular gasoline has
knocking tendencies identical to those of a mixture of 92% "octane" and 8% heptane, under standard test
conditions, they assign that blend of gasoline an octane rating of 92.

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In summary, the higher the octane rating of a gasoline, the lower knocking tendency, because it contains
more percentage of highly branched hydrocarbons.

BOUNCING POLYMER BALLS


A simple bouncing ball can be made by mixing a solution of half a teaspoon of Borax in two tablespoons of
warm water with white PVA glue. The consistency of the mixture can be altered by adding small quantities
of corn starch or glycerol. An investigation can be made into the properties of balls made with differing
proportions of Borax solution, glue, starch and glycerol. Measurable quantities include the height to which
the ball bounces when dropped from a fixed point, or the amount of force needed to stretch or break the
mixture.

WATER HARDNESS
The hardness of water depends on the amount of inorganic ions which are dissolved in it. Pure water is soft
because it has no ions, but water from an area where the rock is chalk or limestone, then it will be hard
because of the calcium and carbonate ions dissolved in it. An investigation into the hardness of a variety of
water sample can be done using a solution of detergent because harder water increases the amount of
detergent required to form a foam. Constant quantities of water should be used, as well as a constant
concentration of detergent. Small quantities of detergent should be added to the water sample and then
shaken vigorously, until a permanent foam is observed. The sample which requires most detergent solution
is the hardest.

ENERGY IN FOOD
Different types of food snacks contain different amounts of energy. If similar quantities of different snacks
like peanuts, potato crisps (chips), biscuits (cookies) etc. are burnt and used to raise the temperature of a
constant amount of water, then an idea of the relative quantity of energy contained in that snack can be
obtained. It is better to weigh the piece of food before and after increasing the temperature of the water by a
fixed number of degrees, because it is very unlikely that the whole sample will be completely burned. There
are several limitations to this experiment, which can be pointed out in the write-up to the investigation,
including the loss of heat to the surroundings.

CHEMOTHERAPY:-
Chemotherapy is the use of chemicals or drugs to selectively destroy infectious micro-organisms without
destroying the live tissues or the host. Paul Ehrlich called drugs as magic bullets and the first milestone of
his research was the discovery of Salvarsan for curing syphilis, in 1909. In 1935, Gerhard Domagk,
administered a dose of a dye called prontosil (inhibits the growth of streptococci bacteria) to cure his
daughter's fever. This laid the foundation for modern chemotherapy and got a Nobel Prize for medicine for
Domagk in 1939. Ernest Fourneau, a French scientist in 1936 proved that in the human body, prontosil
breaks down to give sulphanilamide. Sulphanilamide is the actual active agent that inhibits streptococci.
This study led to the discovery of sulpha drugs and from there on growth of chemotherapy has reached
amazing heights.

ANALGESICS:-

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Narcotics:-
These analgesics are mainly opium and its products. Some examples are morphine, codeine and heroin.
They are effective analgesics but cause addiction. Over dosage can cause sleep and unconsciousness.

TRANQUILLISERS:-
Tranquillisers reduce anxiety and tension. They are of two types:

a) Sedatives

b) Antidepressants (mood elevators or Pep pills)

ANTISEPTICS AND DISINFECTANTS:-


Sterilization is the process of complete elimination of micro-organisms. The chemicals used for sterilization
are classified as:

a) Antiseptics

b) Disinfectants

ANTI-FERTILITY DRUGS:-
With global population growing by the day, birth control has become essential. There are drugs that control
ovulation and if regularly consumed, function as effective contraceptives. Some examples of birth control
pills are orthonovum and Enovid. Orthonovum is a mixture of norethindrone (17a - ethynyl - 19 -
nortestosterone) and mestranol (17a - ethynyl - 3 - methoxy - 1,3,5(10), estratriene - 17 b - ol). Envoid is a
mixture of norethynodrel (17 a - ethynyl - 17 - b - hydroxy - 5 (10)-estern - 3-one) and mestranol.

ANTACIDS:-
Tension and mental stress escalate the level of acid in bile juice. This hyperacidity can be combated using
bases like calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide or aluminium hydroxide in the form of tablets or
aqueous suspensions. These react with hydrochloric acid in the stomach and neutralize it partially. Gelusil
and Digene are two examples of antacids.

ANTIHISTAMINES:-

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Histamine is naturally present in almost all body tissues. When the human body meets substances causing
allergies, histamine is released. For e.g., when a person is suffering from hay fever, histamine is released.
Amines that are used as drugs to control the allergy caused by histamines are called Antihistamines.

ANTIBIOTICS:-
They are produced by micro-organisms that are toxic to other micro organisms. Alexander Fleming in 1920
found that bacteria donot flourish in nutrient agar surrounded by the fungus Penicillium notatum westling.
He found that this fungus produces an antibiotic called penicillin. There are many varieties of pencillin with
the empirical formula C9H11O4SN2R.

Dyes - Meaning and Characteristics

Colored substances used for dyeing fabrics are called dyes. A true dye must:

* Have a suitable color

* Be able to attach itself to the material from solution or be capable of being fixed on it

* Be fast to light and washing when fixed. For this it must be resistant to water, acid and alkali

DYES – CHROMOPHORES:-
Unsaturated groups or groups with multiple bonds that impart color to the organic compound are called
chromophores. Examples are the nitro, the nitroso and the azo groups.

Auxochromes as Dyes:-
Auxochromes (salt forming groups like hydroxyl, amino) do not impart color to the chromogens in the
absence of chromophores. However, when the chromogen has a chormophore, the auxochrome deepens the
color of the chromogen. It is also used to make the chromogen a dye.

Classification of Dyes Based on Chemical Structure

Oldest synthetic dyes do not have much commercial importance

CLASSIFICATION OF DYES BASED ON APPLICATION:-

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Direct or Substantive Dyes

These can be directly applied by immersing the cloth in a hot solution of the dye in water. They can be again
classified into acid and basic dyes.

Acid dyes are sodium salts of sulphonic acid and nitrophenols. They are used for dyeing animal fibers
(wool and silk) but not vegetable fibers (cotton). The dye solution is acidified with sulphuric or acetic acid.

Basic dyes are salts of color bases with hydrochloric acid or zinc chloride. They can directly dye animal
fibers. They need a fixing agent called mordant (tannin) to dye vegetable fibers. These are used for dyeing
silk and cotton.

Methyl Orange as a Dye

This belongs to the azodyes. It is prepared by coupling diazotized sulphanilic acid with dimethylaniline.

Aniline Yellow (Amino azobenzene) as a Dye

This is another azodye and has little value as a dye. This is because it is sensitive to acids. This is the
simplest basic azo dye. This can be obtained by coupling benzene diazomium chloride with aniline.

Malachite Green as a Dye

Belongs to the triphenyl methane dyes. Prepared by condensing 1 molecule of benzaldehyde with 2
molecules of dimethylaniline (1:2 ratio) in presence of con H2SO4. The leuco base is oxidised with lead
dioxide and HCl to color base which further reacts with HCl to give the dye.

Natural Dyes (Alizarin and Indigo)

Dyes can also be classified as natural and synthetic dyes. Compounds extracted from plants are called
natural dyes. These were used in olden days to color fabrics. Alizarin (red) and indigo (blue) are two
examples. Synthetic dyes came into being to provide more varieties of colors.

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CHEMICALS IN COSMETICS:-
Chemicals find great use in cosmetics. Creams like cleansing creams, cold creams, bleaching and vanishing
creams are prepared synthetically from chemicals. Perfumes, talcum powders and deodorants are also some
other cosmetic substances that are obtained from chemicals. Lipsticks, nail polish and hair dyes also are
chemical substances.

PERFUMES
Perfumes have pleasant smell due to the esters used in their synthesis.

CARBON FIBRES
Carbon fibers are made of long chain of carbon atoms.

They are got from synthetic or regenerated fibers by heating them in the absence of oxygen. These fibers on
heating decompose to produce carbon fibers.

CERAMICS
Besides being useful, chemicals find use in artifacts as well. Ceramics, paints, varnishes, glass, cement are
various other useful substances that contain various chemicals as their components. Construction industry is
the major beneficiary of such substances.

MICRO ALLOYS
Micro alloyed steels are intermediate carbon steel alloys with 0.3 to 0.6% carbon content. They also include
vanadium, columbium (niobium), titanium and so on. These micro alloys are tougher than higher alloys.
Their enhanced strength is due to the precipitation hardening reaction where nitrides or carbonitrides are
formed in steel. Therefore, nitrogen level control is a key factor.

IMPORTANCE OF CHEMICALS IN FOOD


Actually speaking, natural food substances are various forms of chemicals. For e.g., rice is a carbohydrate.
Fruits contain carbohydrates and acids like citric acid. Vegetables contain proteins (amino acid blocks) and
vitamins. Besides these, chemicals are also used as preservatives for canned or bottled food items to increase
their shelf life. Chemicals also find use as edible colors and artificial sweetening agents.

CHEMICAL PRESERVATIVES
Chemicals added to food materials to prevent the growth of micro organisms or prevent spoilage and to
increase their shelf life are called preservatives.

ARTIFICIAL SWEETENING AGENTS

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For diabetic patients, sugar cannot be used as a sweetening agent. Artificial sweetening agents that are non-
nutritive in nature are used as substituents for sugar (specially in soft drinks). Examples are saccharin (500
times sweeter than sucrose) and cyclamates.

EDIBLE COLOURS AND FLAVOURS


Food colors are used in ice creams, dairy products, sweet meat, soft drinks, confectionery, etc. These colors
are also used in oral medicines like capsules, tablets, syrups and liquids to improve their appearance. Some
of the primary colors are water soluble. They are: quinoline yellow, tartrazine, sunset yellow FCF,
erythrosine, poncean 4R, carmoisine, amaranth and brilliant blue.

SOAPS AND DETERGENTS


Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of higher fatty acids like stearic, palmitic and oleic acids. Fatty acids
are organic acids that have more than sixteen carbon atoms in their molecular structure. The sodium soaps
are called hard soaps and the potassium soaps are known as soft soaps. Soaps are obtained from oils and
fats. For e.g., tristearin is got from beef and mutton tallow, tripalmitin from palm oil and triolein from lard
(pig fat), olive oil and cotton seed oil. In India, soap is commonly got from coconut, groundnut, til and
mahua oils.

SYNTHETIC DETERGENTS
They possess the desirable properties of ordinary soaps and can be used with hard water and in acidic
solutions as well. Synthetic detergents are sodium salts of long chain benzene sulphonic acids or sodium salt
of long chain alkyl hydrogen sulphates. Their calcium or magnesium salts are soluble in water.

ROCKET PROPELLANTS
Propellants are the fuels used in rockets for propulsion. For example, alcohol, liquid hydrogen, liquid
ammonia, kerosene, hydrazine and paraffin can be used as propellants.

INSECT REPELLENTS
The chemicals like dimethyl phthalate, N, N-diethyl - meta - toulamide (Deet), N - N - diethyl benzamide
are used as effective repellents against mosquitoes, flies and other insects. These are widely used in insect
repellant body creams.

PHEROMONES OR SEX ATTRACTANTS


Another way to get rid of insects is to use pheromones or insect sex attractants. These chemicals help induce
the mating urge and attract insects of opposite sex. When coated on poisonous baits, they prove fatal for
insects. Methyl engenol attracts the oriental fruit fly. Bombykol attracts the silk worm moth.

SUMMARY
Our body is made up of tissues, which are all composed of chemicals. We need an adequate supply of
chemicals in the form of food, vitamins, hormones, and enzymes, which are in turn chemicals. For taking
care of our health we need medicines. We find that chemicals and chemistry penetrate into every aspect of

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our life. Paper, sugar, starch, vegetable oils, ghee, essential oils, tannery, distillery, soap, cosmetics, rubber,
dyes, plastics, petroleum infact there is almost nothing that we use in our daily life that is not a chemical.
Continuing research will keep adding to this list.

REFERENCES:-
http://ezinearticles.com/?Chemistry-In-Everyday-Life&id=619643

http://www.tutorvista.com/content/chemistry/chemistry-iv/chemistry-in-life/chemistry-
in-lifeindex.php

http://www.silviamar.com/chemistry_everyday.htm

http://chemistry.about.com/od/everydaychemistry/Chemistry_in_Everyday_Life.htm

http://www.education.kerala.gov.in/englishmedium/chemistryeng/chapter5.pd

http://www.educomp.com/ContentDemo/ContentFlashVideo.aspx?id=6

http://mycbseguide.com/download/542/

http://www.squidoo.com/ChemistryOfDailyLife

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002571336

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