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1Generic: allopurinol

Brand: Apo-Allopurinol, Lupurin, Purinol, Zyloprine


Class: antigout drug, Xanthine enzyme inhibitor.
Action: Inhibits the enzyme xanthine oxidase, reducing uric acid synthesis.
Use: chronic gout, hyperuricemia associated with malignancies, recurrent calcium oxalate calculi, Chagas disease, cutaneous/visceral
leishmaniasis.
Dosage/Routes-Increased uric acid levels in malignancies: Adult-IV inf 200-400 mg/m2/day, max 600 mg/day. Child- IV 200
mg/m2/day, initially. Gout/hyperuricemia-Adult- PO 200-600 mg qd depending on severity, not to exceed 800 mg/day. Child-6-10 yr:
300 mg qd. Child<6yr: 150 mg qd. Impaired renal function-ADULT- PO Ccr 30-40 ml/min: 200 mg qd. Adult-PO Ccr <2o ml/min: 100
mg qd. Adult- IV Ccr 10-20 ml/min: 200 mg/day; Ccr 3-10 ml/min 100 mg/day; Ccr <3 ml/min 100 mg/day at intervals. Recurrent
calculi-Adult- PO 200-300 mg qd Uric acid nephropathy prevention-Adult and child> 10yr: PO 600-800 mg qd x 2-3 days.
Stomatitis-Adult mouthwash dose varies, do not swallow mouthwash.
SE/AR :ha, drowsiness, neuritis, paresthesia, retinopathy, cataracts, epistaxis, N, V, anorexia, malaise, metallic taste, cramps, peptic ulcer,
D, stomatitis, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, aplastic anemia, pancytopenia, leukopenia, bone marrow suppression, eosinophillia,
fever, chills, dermatitis, pruritus,purpura, erythema, ecchymosis, alopecia, myopathy, arthralgia, hepatomegaly, cholestatic jaundice, renal
failure, exfoliative dermatitis.
Nursing Considerations: assess for pain including location, characteristics, oneset/duration, frequency, quality, intensity or severity of
pain, precipitating factors. Monitor uric acid levels q2 wk; normal uric acid levels are 6 mg/dl or less; check I&O ratio; increase fluids to 2
L/day to prevent stone formation, toxicity. Monitor CBC, AST, BUN, creatinine before starting treatment, monthly; check blood glucose in
diabetic patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents. Monitor nutritional status: discourage organ meat, sardines, salmon, legumes, gravies
(high-purine foods), alcohol.
Pregnancy Cat: C
Reason for Use:

Reference: Mosby’s Drug Guide Drug Guide For Nurses