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Human error is still one of the most frequent causes of

catastrophe and ecological disasters. The main reason
is that the monitoring systems concern only the state of
the processes where as human contribution to the overall
performance of the system is left unsupervised. Since the
control instruments are automated to a large extent, a human
operator becomes a passive observer of the supervised
system, which results in weariness and vigilance drop.

Thus, he may not notice important changes of

indications causing financial or ecological consequences
and a threat to human life. It therefore is crucial to assure
that the operator’s conscious brain is involved in an active
system supervising over the whole work time period. It is
possible to measure indirectly the level of the operator’s
conscious brain involvement using eye motility analysis.


What is BlueEyes?
? BLUE EYES is a technology, which aims at creating computational machines that have perceptual
and sensory abilities like those of human beings.
? The basic idea behind this technology is to give computer human power.
? For example, we can understand humans’ emotional state by his facial expressions. If we add
these perceptual abilities to computers, we would enable them to work together with human beings
as intimate partners.
? It provides technical means for monitoring and recording human-operator’s physiological

What is BlueEyes not?

? Doesn’t predict nor interfere with operator’s thoughts.
? Cannot force directly the operator to work.
How was the term blue-eyes coined?
? Blue in this term stands for Bluetooth, which enables reliable wireless communication and the
Eyes because the eye movement enables us to obtain a lot of interesting and important information.

How are blue and eyes related?

? As the idea is to monitor and record operator’s basic physiological parameters, the most important
physiological activity is the movement of eyes.
? For a computer to sense the eye movement, wiring between operator and the system is required.
But, this is a serious limitation of the operator’s mobility and disables his operations in large control
? So utilization of wireless technology becomes essential which can be implemented through blue
tooth technology.

Need for blue eyes?

Is it necessary to make computer function what a human brain does?
? Yes, human error is still one of the most frequent causes of catastrophes (calamity) and ecological
disasters, because human contribution to the overall performance of the system is left
? The control instruments within the machine have automated it to large extent, thus Human
operator becomes a passive observer of the supervised system, resulting in weariness and vigilance
drop, but the user needs to active.
But Why?
Is it really needed that a human brain be active?
? He may not notice important changes of indications causing financial or ecological consequences,
which is a threat to human life.
? Thus, it’s crucial that operator’s brain is involved in an active system supervising over the whole
work time period.
What can we do with blue eyes technology?
? It has the ability to gather information about you and interact with you through special techniques
like facial recognition, speech recognition, etc.
? It can even understand your emotions at the touch of the mouse.
? It can verify your identity, feel your presence, and start interacting with you.
? The machine can understand what a user wants, where he is looking at, and even realize his
physical or emotional states.
? It realizes the urgency of the situation through the mouse.
? For instance if you ask the computer to dial to your friend at his office, it understands the
situation and establishes a connection.
? It can reconstruct the course of operator’s work.

Key features of the system:

? Visual attention monitoring (eye motility analysis).
? Physiological condition monitoring (pulse rate, blood oxygenation).
? Operator’s position detection (standing, lying).
? Wireless data acquisition using Bluetooth technology.
? Real-time user-defined alarm triggering.
? Physiological data, operator's voice and overall view of the control room recording
recorded data playback.

How can we give computer the human power?

? It uses non-obtrusive sensing method, employing most modern video cameras and microphones
to identify the users’ actions through the use of imparted sensory abilities.
? The blue eyes system checks the physiological parameters like eye movement, heart beat rate
and blood oxygenation against abnormal and undesirable values and triggers user-defined alarms
when necessary.
? Blue eyes technology requires designing a personal area network linking all the operators and the
supervising system.
? As the operator using his sight and hearing, senses the state of the controlled system, the
supervising system will look after his physiological condition.
? The use of a miniature CMOS camera integrated into the eye movement sensor will enable the
system to calculate the point of gaze and observe what the operator is actually looking at.
? Introducing voice recognition algorithm will facilitate the communication between the operator and
the central system and simplify authorization process.

? Blue eyes system consists of a mobile measuring device called Data Acquisition Unit (DAU) and a
central analytical system called Central System Unit (CSU).



? It maintains Bluetooth connections.
? Gets information from the sensor.
? Sends information over the wireless connection.
? Delivers the alarm messages sent from the Central System Unit (CSU) to the operator.
? Handles personalized ID cards.
? Jazz Multisensor:
• It’s an eye movement sensor, to provide necessary physiological data in Data Acquisition Unit
• It supplies raw digital data regarding eye position, the level of blood oxygenation acceleration
along horizontal and vertical axes and ambient light intensity.
• Eye movement can be measured using direct infrared oculographic transducers.

? Maintains blue tooth connections in the other side.
? Buffers incoming sensor data.
? Performs on-line data analysis.
? Records the conclusion for further exploration.
? Provides visualization interface.
? Users belong to three categories:
• Operators
• Supervisors
• System administrators
? Operator is a person whose physiological parameters are supervised.
? The operator wears the DAU.
? The only functions offers to the operator are Authorization to the system and receiving alarm
? Authorization: Operator has to enter his personal PIN into DAU, if PIN is accepted, authorization is
said to be complete.
? Receiving Alerts: This function supplies the operator with the most important alerts about his and
his co-workers’ condition and mobile device state.

? He is the person responsible for analyzing operators’ condition and performance.
? The supervisor receives tools for inspecting present values of the parameters (on-line browsing)
as well as browsing the results of the long-term analysis (off-line browsing).
System Administrator:
? He is the user that maintains the system.
? The administrator is delivered tools for adding new operators to the database. Defining alarm
? Configuring logging tools.
? Creating new analyzer modules.

? Blue Eyes system can be applied in every working environment requiring permanent operator's
? At power plant control rooms.
? At captain bridges.
? At flight control centers.
? Professional drivers.

? The wireless link between the sensors worn by the operator and the supervising system makes it
possible to improve overall reliability, safety and assures proper quality of system performance.
? These new possibilities can cover areas such as industry, transportation, military command
centers or operation theaters.
? Researchers are attempting to add more capabilities to computers that will allow them to interact
like humans, recognize human presents, talk, listen, or even guess their feelings.
? It avoids potential threats resulting from human errors, such as weariness, oversight, tiredness.

1.Carpenter R. H. S., Movements of the eyes, 2nd edition, Pion Limited, 1988, London.
2.Quinlan J. R., C4.5 programs for machine learning, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1993,San
Mateo, California.

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A researcher at Stanford has created an alternative to the mouse that allows a person using a
computer to click links, highlight text, and scroll simply by looking at the screen and tapping a
key on the keyboard. By using standard eye-tracking hardware--a specialized computer screen
with a high-definition camera and infrared lights--Manu Kumar, a doctoral student who works
with computer-science professor Terry Winograd, has developed a novel user interface that is
easy to operate.
"Eye-tracking technology was developed for disabled users," Kumar explains, "but the work
that we're doing here is trying to get it to a point where it becomes more useful for able-
bodied users." He says that nondisabled users tend to have a higher standard for easy-to-use
interfaces, and previously, eye-tracking technology that disabled people use hasn't appealed
to them.
At the heart of Kumar's technology is software called EyePoint that works with standard eye-
tracking hardware. The software uses an approach that requires that a person look at a Web
link, for instance, and hold a "hot key" on the keyboard (usually found on the number pad on
the right) as she is looking. The area of the screen that's being looked at becomes magnified.
Then, the person pinpoints her focus within the magnified region and releases the hot key,
effectively clicking through to the link.
Kumar's approach could take eye-tracking user interfaces in the right direction. Instead of
designing a common type of gaze-based interface that is controlled completely by the eyes--
for instance, a system in which a user gazes at a given link, then blinks in order to click
through--he has involved the hand, which makes the interaction more natural. "He's got the
right idea to let the eye augment the hand," says Robert Jacob, professor of computer science
at Tufts University, in Medford, MA.
Rudimentary eye-tracking technology dates back to the early 1900s. Using photographic film,
researchers captured reflected light from subjects' eyes and used the information to study how
people read and look at pictures. But today's technology involves a high-resolution camera
and a series of infrared light-emitting diodes. This hardware is embedded into the bezel of
expensive monitors; the one Kumar uses cost $25,000. The camera picks up the movement of
the pupil and the reflection of the infrared light off the cornea, which is used as a reference
point because it doesn't move.
Even the best eye tracker isn't perfect, however. "The eye is not really very stable," says
Kumar. Even when a person is fixated on a point, the pupil jitters. So he wrote an algorithm
that allows the computer to smooth out the eye jitters in real time. The rest of the research,
says Kumar, involves studying how people look at a screen and figuring out a way to build an
interface that "does not overload the visual channel." In other words, he wanted to make its
use feel natural to the user.
One of the important features of the interface, says Kumar, is that it works without a person
needing to control a cursor. Unlike the mouse-based system in ubiquitous use today, EyePoint
provides no feedback on where a person is looking. Previous studies have shown that it is
distracting to a person when she is aware of her gaze because she consciously tries to control
its location. In the usability studies that Kumar conducted, he found that people's performance
dropped when he implemented a blue dot that followed their eyes.

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