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-PIRATLA ADITYA

INDUSTRIAL POWER & AUTOMATION


DEPARTMENT OF ELICTRICAL ENGINEERING
NIT CALICUT
CONTENTS
vINTRODUCTION.
vMOBILITY.
vLOCALIZATION.
vNAVIGATION.
vCOMMUNICATION.
vPLANNING.
vINTERFACES.
vAPPLICATIONS.
vARMED UGV.
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INTRODUCTION
vUGV: UNMANNED GROUND VEHICLES
v Durrant-Whyte(2001) divided UGV technology into ‘5’
categories(1):
1. Localization.
2. Mobility.
3. Navigation.
4. Planning.
5. Communication.

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Prior Map,
goals,
values

COMMUNICATION

External
PLANNING
sensors

External
Internal LOCALIZATION NAVIGATION environmental
sensors sensors

MOBILITY

Vehicle

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FIG1:Relationships Between components of UGV(Durrant-whyte) (1)
LOCALIZATION
• Definition :methods through which robot updates or
calculates position.(2)
Localization

Relative Absolute

Landmark TOF active


navigation ranging
Odometry
Inertial Active Map
navigation beacons matching

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vRelative Localization: Onboard sensors like
Encoders, Gyroscopes, accelerometers are used.
vOptical absolute shaft ENCODER used in ODOMETRY (3)
v81000 pulses per revolution.
v 0.01µm resolution.
v GRAY CODE.

vRATE GYRO (4),(5) used in INERTIAL


NAVIGATION.

vConservation of
ANGULAR MOMENTUM.
vGyro fixed to vehicle frame.
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tpub.com
v Rotation along input axis
resisted.
v Precession calibrated for
output.

tpub.com
vACCELEROMETERS (4),(5) used for
acceleration measurement.

v Newton’s 2nd law of motion.


vRELATIVE LOCALIZATION sensors
Use integration to compute
position.

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Pulse counting ccelerometers 7
vDRIFT in measured data.
vShort durations.

vAbsolute Localization (2): Done using beacons, landmarks or


maps.
vNo integration for Localization.

vActive Beacons like satellite send signals.


vTriangulation & trilateration 2 commonly used
beacon techniques.
vExcept location of beacon no a-priori information
required.
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vAccuracy of GPS about 1-4m.
vAtmospheric & Geographic disturbance may influence signal
transmission.
vAbsence of signal.
v Active Beacons are Costly.

vLandmarks are fixed objects, either natural or artificial.


vSonar, infrared sensing & vision sensing.
vVehicle can be preloaded with landmark information.
vOr may use self learning tools.
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vNoise & uncertainty in sensor reading.
vOptimal use of sensed data critical.
vProbabilistic BAYESIAN ESTIMATION (6) can be
used
to account for uncertainty.
vBayesian estimation characterized by BELIEF.
vMarkov environment assumed.
vHigh dimensional sensor
reading mapped to
lower dimension.
vPrior & Posterior belief. 10
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vMap Matching Positioning.
vGlobal map matched with local maps.
vMainly used in indoor mapping.

vTOF active ranging.


vUltrasonic, RF, Optical energy sources used.
vLinear operation.
vAccurate as long reliable echo obtained.

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MOBILITY
vMobility (7) deals with vehicles mechanical
design.
vNATO Reference Mobility Model (NRMM).
vBecker Mobility Model
vMotion control technique.
vVehicle-Terrain interaction.
vAnalysis through principle of conservation of
energy.
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NAVIGATION
Prior Operator commands
knowledge

localization cognition

Motion
perception control

ugv

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Navigation control loop(2)
vNavigation(8)uses environment map from
Localization.
vMotion strategy.
vAccuracy should be in tune with vehicle
dimensions.
NAVIGATION

GLOBAL LOCAL PERSONAL

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COMMUNICATION

vWireless Communication.
vMulti Path Fading.
vReal Time Data Transfer.
vData Compression.
v>10 Kbps BW.

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vAd Hoc Networking(9):
i. Mobility.
ii. Self Organizing.
iii. Multi Hooping.
iv. Energy Conservation.
v. Scalability.
vi. Security.
vii. Connection to the internet.
a) Hybrid Wireless Networks
b) Opportunistically
extendable networks.
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PLANNING
vInput from all other blocks and
Peripherals.
vGlobal Path Planning(10).
vMotion Planning.
vNon-holonomic Path Planning.
vKino-dynamic Path Planning.
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vOutdoor Planning.
vIndoor Planning.
vAttributes of Planning:
a) Search space.
b) Configuration space.
c) Actions.
d) Time.
e) Initial state, Goal state.
f) Constraints.
g) Criteria.
h) Algorithm.
vCell decomposition.
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APPLICATIONS
vIN EXPLORATION vAUTOMATED
OF INHOSPITABLE TRANSPORTATION.
TERRITORY.

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vDEFENSE PURPOSE.
REFERENCES
1. Thanh Hung Tran P.H.D thesis on modeling and control of unmanned
ground vehicles, Sep-2007.
2. Dr. Georgios A. Demetriou , A Survey of Sensors for Localization of
Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs).
3. Wikipedia.org.
4. Integrated Publishing, tpub.com.
5. Measurement Systems, Ernest O Doebelin, McGraw Hill international
edition.
6. Sebastian Thrun, Bayesian Landmark Learning for Mobile Robot
Localization. 1997.
7. HyukChul Nho, Jonathan Salton, Barry Spletzer, Scott Horschel, Mobility
Analysis of Robotic Ground Vehicles Based on Energy Method.

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8. Jonathan Dixon, Oliver Henlich, final report, Mobile Robot Navigation
1997
9. Ad Hoc Networks Technologies and Protocols, Edited by Prasant
Mohapatra University of California‚ Davis Srikanth V.
KrishnamurthyUniversity of California‚ Riverside.
10. J. Giesbrecht, Defence R&D Canada – SuffieldGlobal Path Planning for
Unmanned Ground Vehicles.

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-THANK YOU

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