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TOWARDS AUTONOMY IN HOUSING


FOR THE HANDICAPPED
TOWARDS AUTONOMY IN HOUSING
FOR THE HANDICAPPED
I

Commissioned by the European Community's Bureau


for Action in Favour of Disabled People

A. de Jonge
J.H. Kroes
P.P.J. Houben

1989

RIW-Housing Research Institute


Berlageweg 1
2628 CR Delft
The Netherlands
Uitgave/distributie en produktie
PublIkatIeburo
Faculteit der Bouwkunde
Berlageweg 1 2628 CR Delft
Telefoon (015) 784737

In opdracht van
RIW, Researchinstituut voor Woningbouw, Volkshuisvesting en Stadsvernieuwing

Type-/korrektlewerk
Inge Kluivingh/lngrid Knijnenburg

Ontwerp/lay-out
Hany Lucassen

Ontwerp/Foto omslag
Bert Van der Meij

Druk
NKB Offset BV Bleiswijk

CIP-gegevens
Konin~lijke Bibliotheek Den Haag

Jonge,A.de

Towards autonomy in housing for the handicapped /


A. de Jonge, J.H. Kroes, P.P.J. Houben. - Delft:
Publikatieburo Bouwkunde.
Metlit. opg .

ISBN 90-5269 -024-3


SISO 314.7 UDC 351 .778.5-056.26-056.36 NUGI 655

Tref.w.: huisvesting: gehandicapten

Copyrlght© 1989 A. de Jonge/J.H. Kroes/P.P.J. Houben

All rights reserved . No part ol the matarial protected by this copyright notice may ba reproduced or utilized in
any lorm or by any means. eiectronic or mechanica!. including photocopying. recording or by any inlormation
storage and retrieval system , without written permission from the authors.
INHOUD

Introduction 5
Goals and format of the research project; the report 7
1.1 Goals of the research project 7
1.2 Format of the research project 9
1.3 The report 10
2 Definitions, differentiations and some data 13
2.1 Definitions and differentiations 13
2.2 Data and statisties 14
3 Housing policies and housing markets 15
3.1 Introduction 15
3.2 Housing policies 15
3.3 Housing markets 18
3.4 Conclusions 22
4 Housing for the physieally handieapped: knowledge available but
not applied 25
4.1 Introduction 25
4.2 Recent trends in housing 27
4.3 New developments in assistance 29
4.4 Conclusion 31
5 Housing for mentally handieapped: looking for improvement in a
period of public spendig cuts 33
5.1 Introduction 33
5.2 Trends and innovations 35
5.3 Conclusion 40
6 Housing for people with psychiatrie disorders: new developments
in spite of opposition 41
6.1 Introduction 41
6.2 Recent trends 43
6.3 Conclusion 47
7 Key themes for a new european policy in discus sion 49
7.1 Introduction 49
7.2 Key themes 50
8 Summary 59

Annexes
INTRODUCTION

This report "Towards autonomy in housing for the handicapped" is the result of a
research project executed by the RIW - Housing Research Institute of Delft
University of Technology. The study was commissioned to the Institute by the
Bureau for action in favour of disabled people on behalf of the European
Commission.
The material has been collected by SibylIe van Haastrecht, Anja de Jonge, Hans
Kroes and Piet Houben.
Administrative assistance, typing, lay-out, etc. was given by H. Lucassen, Inge
Kluivingh and Ingrid Knijnenburg. We would like to thank them for their help, as
weIl as André Mulder, who helped with the translation.
Finally we would like to express our thanks to all those people who helped us by
giving information and advice, sending material, addresses, etc.

Delft, October 20, 1987

6
1 GOALS AND FORMAT OF THE RESEARCH PROJECT; THE REPORT

1.1 Goals of the research project

The European Commision and the housing of people with a handicap.


One of the objectives of the European Community is to integrate people with a
handicap in society; and to minimize the barriers resulting from mental or physical
disabili ties.
The road towards the realization of these objectives leads via an analysis of these
barriers and subsequently the formulation of policy guidelines. These policy
guidelines are being developed for the areas of employment, education, transport,
care and housing. In this report the emphasis is on housing and the related care
aspects.

In the last years important steps forward have been made.


We specially mention:
- the first action program, 1982 - 1987;
- the ongoing work for the publication of a second action program, 1988 -1992;
- the development of an information network: Handynet.

The stimulus for the development of the first action program, was the adoption of a
resolution by the European Council on December 21, 1981. This action program
subsidized model projects. The idea behind these projects is that practical
experiments cannot only serve as sources of information but also as examples and
generators of new ideas for a successful improvement of the housing and living
conditions of handicapped people.
The resolution stated that:
"The basic objective (of the program) is to make more housing available, suitable to
meet the needs of the handicapped, including ease of access and use, links with the
public services and, where appropriate, workplaces or other centres of activity."
Another mentioned objective is: "to strengthen and improve the co-operation and
co-ordination between the different organizations and services involved in this
process". Essential in the approach is the aim to realize an increased involvement
of the handicapped themselves in the development of the policies. All this must
result in better opportunities for independent living.
To reach this greater independence, in many cases the introduction of innovative
elements is inevatable. Elements necessary to counter the traditional trend: the
intra-mural approach. Next to this, great attention is given to the development and

7
introduction of new technologies and an architectural design that allows maximum
flexibili ty.

Experiments are only effective if the results are disseminated at the largest
possible scale. This is one of the reasons why these model projects are also referred
to as example projects. This also explains why these projects are evaluated.
At th is moment the results of these evaluation studies are not yet available. Which
strategy will be chosen for the transfer of the acquired knowledge and experience is
consequently still unknown. Ideas ab out the contents of the second action program
are not yet made public.
The information network Handynet is still in the process of development, although
clear results have already been reached with re gard to the exchange of information
about technical tools and aid.

Policy reorientation.
Research is done to evaluate, and if necessary, to correct the policies of the
European Commision. The research institute ABT Forschung (now called Emperica)
produced descriptions of the actual trends and developments with regard to housing
and care for the handicapped. The report indicates that the emphasis is shifting
from the provision of intra-mural facilities to the development of forms of
independent living for the handicapped. As a consequence, more attention should be
given to the housing opportunities offered to them. What also should be considered
is that the group is most heterogeneous in composition. Generally speaking, there is
sufficient expertise available to select the right technical solutions, but not to
select the best societal and political approach.
The difficulty here is th at this approach al most directly conflicts with the general
institutional and societal resistance towards change. Hopefully, the contents of the
report, "Towards autonomy in housing for the handicapped", provides the European
Commission with adequate information to support new poli tic al initiatives in this
field: the housing of the handicapped.

Objectives and limitations of the project.


To inprove the possibilities for independence and for social integration of the
handicapped, firstly a picture has to be drafted of relevant developments in
legislation and in financial and practical rules and regulations. Secondly an insight
in innovative trends in the practice of housing for the handicapped is needed. This
concerns developments that increase the chances for social integration.
On the basis of these descriptions of institutional and societal developments, "key
themes" ·are formulated. These themes can be important as calalysts for a new
political approach of this problem.
The study had to be executed within certain practical limitations. These concerned
for example, the available amount of time and financial support and also the range
of the final report. The project aims at direct policy implementability. Already
during the execution of the study it rapidly became clear that is is not only difficult
to compare international material but also that a horizontal "European" comparison
is fairly useless and contains dangerous trapholes. As a result of different

8
standards, different definitions and different methods of collecting, it is difficult to
compare quantitative data from the various European countries.

The research question.


To support new political initiatives of the European Community it is necessary to
be bet ter informed about:
- developments and trends in initiatives by EC countries, concerning legislative,
financial, and practical measures that stimulate or frustrate the opportunities for
living independently;
- innovative trends in housing and care that support the objective of "social
integration".
Therefore "key themes" for a new and innovative policy were formulated (if
possible illustrated by examples of good practice, concrete strategies or solutions
applied in one or more of the EC countries).

1.2 Format of the research project

For the execution, the project was divided in three phases:


- orientation (September 1986 - July 1987)
- further development of potential "key themes" (March 1987 - July 1987)
- assessment of concept recommendations for a new policy (March 1987 - October
1987)
As a result of practical problems in the initial stage of the project, the start was
somewhat later than originally planned. A consequence was that the first two
phases largely overlapped each other.

Orientation.
During this stage the following activities were developed:
- establishment of contacts with representatives of governments and of
organizations of handicapped people: a first meeting with the members of the so-
called Liaison Group on April 16, 1986, was used as ar. opportunity for
establishing contacts; a second meeting (on February 12, 1987) offered the
opportunity to discuss problems with the collection of basic material;
- with the help of EC officials and through existing RIW-relations, contacts were
made with experts, institutions and organizations active in this field of housing
for the handicapped; interviews were made and (field) material collected in each
of the twelve countries;
- a rather extensive library of official documents, reports and research documents
was assembied;
- several relevant conferences were attended:
- IFHP conference (Malmö, Sweden, May 1986);
- congress "Mobility and Handicap" (Brussels, Belgium, January 29-31, 1987):
- meeting of the project leaders of District Network, (Venlo, the Netherlands,
April 13-15, 1987);

9
- workshop "Independent living" at the Annual General Meeting of Mobility
International (Thessaloniki, Greece, May 8-10, 1987);
- meeting of the Liaisongroup, projectleaders and evaluators (Port Laoise,
Ireland, June 4-5, 1987);
- congress "The Acessibility of Public Buildings and Facilities" (Utrecht, the
Netherlands, September 30- October 2, 1987);
- consultation of the Bureau for Action in Favour of Disabled People of the
European Community, to discuss the potential "key themes" (Brussels, Belgium,
April 29, 1987);
- production of an activity report (June 1987).

Further development of potential "key themes"


Potential "key themes" were already formulated in a fairly early stage of the
research procedure. These themes gradually evolved. This process ot change was to
a large extent based on comments received during the interviews with experts in
the different countries and consultations with representatives of the Bureau.
Extensive discussions within the multi-disciplinary research team resulted in the
final shaping of the themes.

Assessment of the concept recommendations.


The concept report, containing the concept recommendations, was submitted to a
group of experts and members of the Bureau of Action on Favour of Disabled
People and thoroughfully discussed. The result of this discussion, that took place in
Brussels in the autumn of 1987, helped to formulate the final recommendations and
proposals for further research.

1.3. The report

Structure of the rapportage


In this first chapter of the report, the structure and contents of the research
project are described. In chapter 2: "Definitions, differentiations and some data",
attention is given to the fact th at different kinds of handieaps ask for different
approaches and solutions. A relevant division in categories is made; the different
characteristies are defined.
The opportunities for the realization of housing desires depends heavily of the
situation on the housing market. This subject is discussed in chapter 3: "Housing
policies and housing markets" •
The next three chapters focus on the developments in the field of housing for the
th ree distinguished categories of handieapped persons. Chapter 4:"Housing for
physieally disabled persons: knowledge available, but not applied". Chapter 5:
"Housing for mentally handieapped: looking for improvement in a period of public
spending cuts" and chapter 6: "Housing for people with psychiatrie problems: new
developments in spite of opposition".
Finally, in chapter 7, the key themes are further developed: "Key themes for a new
European policy in discussion", followed by chapter 8, "Summary".

10
Annexe 1, lists the names of the many experts and government representatives who
have been interviewed.
Further material that can be found in the annexes are copies of the letter sent out
by researchers, the Bureau's letter of introduction and the concept "key themes".
Finally it includes a list of relevant publications.

Final remarks
The European Community consists of twelve member states, each of them with its
own history and pattern of sodal and cultural values and standards. This study was
executed, and the report procuced by a group of Dutch researchers. The
information was collected via Dutch eyes and ears. This almost inevitably contains
the danger of a biassed approach.
An extra reason for submitting the concept of the report to an international group
of experts and members of the Bureau for Action in Favour of Disabled People was
to reduce the number of prejudices voiced by the researchers to the minimum,
preferably to non at all.

The following experts and members of the Bureau provided their -for this process so
important- knowledge and expertise:
- Mr. P.E. Daunt, Head of Bureau for Action in Favour of Disabled People, Rue de
la Loi 200, 1049 Brussels, Belgium
- Mr. G. Leussink, Bureau for Action in Favour of Disabled People, Rue de la Loi
200, 1049 Brussels, Belgium
- Mr. J. Frederiksen, staffmember BMH, Hans Knudsens Plads IA, 2100
Copenhagen, Denmark
- Mr. P. Dollfus, Centre de Readaptation, 57, Rue Albert Cam us, 68093 Mullhouse,
France
- Mr. E. van der Poel, University of Maastricht, Postbus 616, 6200 MD Maastricht,
The Netherlands
- Mr. J. Knoops, district project Genk-Hasselt, Stadsomvaart 9, 3500 Hasselt,
Belgium
- Mrs. T. Ser ra, president of AIAS (Assodazione Italiana per Assistenza agli
Spastid), Via Rubens 35, 00197 Rome, Italy

11
2 DEFINITIONS, DIFFERENTIATIONS AND SOME DAT A

2.1 Definitions and differentiations

Unfortunately there is no generally accepted definition of the phenomenon


disability. The best known and most widely used are the definitions given by the
World Health Organization. Characteristic is the use of th ree terms to distinguish
the medical-diagnostic aspects of physical and social consequences.
Impairment emphasizes the medical aspects; it refers to a permanent or transitory
1055 or abnormality of a psychological, physiological or anatomical structure of a
function.
Disability describes the functional consequences of an impairment. Disability is the
1055 or reduction of functional ability and activity, that is considered to be normal
for a certain individual. It effects in particular the normal (daily) activities of a
person.
Handicap refers to the social consequences. It indicates to the effects of an
impairment or disability on the individual and his surroundings. This means that in
this terminology a person is handicapped if, as a consequence of a handicap or im-
pairment, he is limited in his possibilities and experiences problems to integrate in
norm al, social life.

In this report, the emphasis is on handicaps. Given the fact th at the main subject is
housing, and especially the housing opportunities for people with a handicap, a
distinction between three categories seems appropriate.
Category 1: the physically handicapped; this category includes (at least partially)
a group th at usually is regarded as a seperate one: the sensoriaIly
handicapped. They are included in the cases that their circumstances
result in special housing requirements.
Category 2: the mentally handicapped.
Category 3: the persons with psychiatric disorders.
It is very difficult to give a precise definition of the two last-mentioned categories
and to indicate the differences bet ween both groups; maybe one could say that
people with psychiatric disorders are as intelligent as everybody else, but have
emotional problems and/or problems in relating to ot her people, whereas the second
group has an intelligence th at is low and may have emotiQl'lal problems as weIl.
Not included in this study are people suffering from an illness -e.g. rheumatism or
multiple sclerosis- th at leads (or may lead) to progressive impairments. The reason
for their exclusion can be called "force majeur". Very little material is available

13
about the specific problems that they are facing. A fact that seems to be the result
of the often unpredictable development of their illness. Seen from a housing point
of view, it seems defendable to regard people belonging to this group as potentially
belonging to category 1 or category 2. The main difference being that in their cases
timely action to limit the problems can more easily be undertaken.

2.2 Data and statistics

As a result of a.o. definition problems no reliable international statistics are


available. One example:

Table 1 Handicapped population

Country Total population Total no of Handicapped as %


handicapped of total population
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Belgium 10 million 680.000 (a) 6,8-7%
700.000
Denmark 5,5 million 1.4000.000 (c) 25,5%
France 54 million 3 million (c) 5,5%
5,3 million (c) 9,8%
Germany 61 million 6.606.289 (a) 10,8%
Ireland 4,5 million 150.000 (a) 3,3%
Italy 57 million 1.700.000 (a) 3%
Netherlands 13,3 million 1.198.500 (b) 9%
Spain 37,5 million 1.145.544 (a) 3,1%
United Kingdom 56,6 million 1.334.682 (b) 2,4%
7 million (c) 13%

a =physically and mentally handicapped


b = physically disabled
c = not clear wether figures relate to physically disabled
or to both physically and
mentally disabled
Source: Travel and the disabled. Study of the problems and provisions. J.R.
Vordegger and C.J. Verplanke (Consumentenbond, The Hague). (Commissioned by
the European Community's Bureau for Action in favour of disabled people).

Because of the use of different sources and different definitions these figures can
in fact not be compared. The main reason for including this table was to stress this
facto
As a result of the lacking of reliable figures it is quite difficult to determine how
many people in the European Community belong to the three indicated categories.
It seems rather generally accepted that the total number of handicapped people is
around 10% of the population. The higher figures in some countries, especially when
they are concentrated in a certain age and sex group, can often be explained as the
result of military activities in which the country was involved.
Progression in science has given people who some decades ago would have died, a
chance of survival; babi es with severe disabilities can be kept alive and victims of
accidents or illnesses can survive as a result of recent developments in medicine
and technology.

14
3 HOUSING POUCIES AND HOUSING MARKETS

3.1 Introduction

A housing policy, in several respects, can be se en as an element of social policy.


And, in spite of European integration, these policies still vary extensively from
country to country. The explanation for this variation can be found in a combination
of cultural, social and economie factors. As a consequence of this, housing policies
can only be assessed within their own national context.
In general, a family's chances to find decent and affordable housing are closely
connected with its financial possibilities and the situation on the housing market.
Both the priee-income relationship and the availability of housing, usually are
elements of the national housing poliey. However, as mentioned, different
approaches obviously are possible.

In this chapter, attention is given to the way in whieh housing policies and housing
mark et conditions can actually influence the possibility to integrate people with a
handieap in society; to minimize the barriers resulting from mental or physieal
disabilities.

3.2 Housing policies

Over the years many authors, many organizations and many governments have made
efforts to define the fundamental right of access for everybody to affordable
housing of a decent quality. This does not mean that the situation is clear. In most
cases the definitions are so broad that it is diffieult to estimate the operational
value of them.

A housing policy can be se en as an element of the in every country existing


complicated network of social policies. Especially in that area, social and cultural
factors create a variety of nationally different meanings and interpretations, of
words and expressions that seem so identieal. Add to this the fact that the
definitions tend to include one or more normative elements and it will be clear that
efforts to define "the" european housing policy are, at least ambitious. This
conclusion is supported by the contents of official documents and newspaper
comments that appeared after the so called "Colloque de Rambouillet"; a meeting
of the ten European housing ministers that took place on January 17 and 18, 1985.

15
This colloqium ("Politiques publiques dans Ie domaine du logement urbain") that
aimed at an exchange of opinions and experiences between the housing ministers,
did not develop as smoothly as some had hoped.

Good housing requires impressive investments. This fact seems undeniably true in
all the countries included in this report. Large investments are necessary not only
to finance the construction of the buildings but also for the acquisition of the land
and the provision of the necessary infra-structure.
Also universal is the rising trend of these costs. For this development a variety of
factors is mentioned, ranging from speculation to the relatively slow increase of
productivity in the building industry.
Already more than a century ago, the "Royal Commission on Housing of the
Working Classes" reported about the worrying housing conditions in England. They
mentioned poverty, the imbalance between income and rent, as one of the main
explanations for the existing situation. Already then, a certain percentage of the
population had insufficient means to cover the expenses for decent houses.
Since then, house priees have risen more rapidly than incomes. This became
especially apparent shortly af ter the second world war. It was during this period
th at many European governments increased their involvement in housing affairs. In
many countries governments reduced the priees by granting increasing (housing)
subsidies to those who could not afford to pay the cost priee.

The changes in the world economy and administrative reforms tend to have a
negative influence on the housing prospects of the financially less privileged. Social
housing has been at the forefront of public expenditure cuts. Retrenchment and
decentralisation in some respects make the situation more complicated. In an era of
still rising costs, most governments are no longer increasing - and in some cases
even decreasing - their" financial support for the housing sector. The "consequences
of such a development are obvious: if no third party bridges the developing gap, the
tenants will have to pay more for their accomodation, or the general housing
quality will decline. Unfortunately, also a combination of both developments is
feasible.

In a recent study commissioned by The European Foundation for the Improvement


of Living and Working Conditions (Living Conditions in Urban Areas, an overview of
factors influencing urban life in the European Community , Luxembourg: Offiee for
Official Publications of the European Community, 1986), the following features and
concerns of contemporary housing policy in the EC are mentioned:
fiscal constraints and pressure on subsidiesj
monetary inflation and high interest ratesj
demographie change (smaller households, multiple earner households, fewer
households with children, growth of elderly housholdsj
a general reorientation of policy towards individual home ownership with the
parallel development of more residual policies for marginal groupsj
an overriding concern with economie restructuring and the recession.

16
Housing policies and the disabled
Not all housing is suitable, accesible for disabled persons. In general, one has to pay
for deviations from the standard. This would mean that to house handieapped people
asks for extra investments.
Concerning this subject, the information that we collected in the different
countries is far from clear. In the next chapter we will return to this point.

Our first conclusion when analyzing the material is th at a more detaHed study is
necessary to give an adequate answer to this question of costs.
Another step that could be made is to indieate clearly in the different national
housing policies that all housing should be accessible for (for example) wheelchair
users. Material from the various countries supports the idea that the more normal
the application of such a rule is, the lower the level of extra expenses involved.
The effective introduction of such a policy not only allows handieapped people more
freedom to live where they prefer, but also allows them access to the dwellings of
e.g. friends and relativesj a fact of social importance that of ten is underestimated.

Income and housing costs


We identified th at in most cases, to built housing for disabled people will cost more
money than the production of standard hou sing. Not only at the expenses side but
also at the income side handieapped househunters are in a less favourable position
than average. In many cases theircondition, or the present labour market
circumstances do not allow them to generate a sufficient income to meet the real
costs of housing. Many will need support fr om third parties to be able to meet their
living expenses. Statisties about the percentage of handieapped people with an
independent income were not available. In most countries some kind of "quota
poliey" existsj a policy th at stimulates employers to employ a certain percentage of
handicapped people.
In the northern countries of Europe this financial support usually (to a large extent)
comes from public sourceSj in southern Europe, supplementary support will have to
be provided by family, friends or charitabie organizations.

In both cases the solution has unattractive aspects. Being dependent of others, by
definition does not increase the feelings of independency and contains an element
of instability.

In countries with a developed social housing system the financial support given to
disabled people to meet their housing expenses, usually comes from different
sources, some times from different administrative levels. Income support schemes,
supplementary benefit schemes, housing subsidies, etc.j of ten a relatively unclear
mixture. In many cases one needs to be an expert to find the way in the maze of
subsidies and organizations.

For the authors of "Inquiry into British Housing" (NFHA, London, 1986) this unclear
situation is one of the main problems in the housing field. They strongly advocate to
abolish all the special housing subsidies and to replace them by an income support

17
scheme. By proposing this approach they implicitly define housing problems as
income problems. All financial assistance then can be channeled through one
organization, one ministry for example. They are convinced that this approach will
not only be much easier accessible for those who need support, but that it will also
result in a more equitable distribution of the available funds.
The lack of sufficient income is an important barrier on the road towards
independence.

Housing policies, health care policies, social policies; the need for coordination.
As indicated above, we found many examples of a lack of coordination, or even
competition between different ministries. This easily results in a situation th at is
very complex or even inaccessible for those who need support. Rules and
regulations are not always compatible, responsibilities not always clearly defined.
Especially in the present period of fiscal austerity this is dangerous. Austerity
measures taken by the one ministry can have effects in the policy area of another
department.

3.3. Housing markets

Housing policies are an indicator for government objectives. The possibilities for a
household to find at this actual moment the housing that it wants, depends very
much on the situation on the housing market now: is the right housing available at
the right time, at the right place, at affordable costs?
With regard to these questions a distinction should be made between countries (and
indeed also regions) where a quantitative shortage exists and those where the
market is in balance or where offer exceeds demand. Especially with regard to the
demand for "non-standard housing", the different situations demand for different
strategies.

Also here international statistics can be very misleading. Different countries use
different definitions, data are collected at different moments. Really reliable
figures that answer the question whether a housing shortage still exists, apparently
are not available. An extra problem is that especially fr om countries that joined the
European Community recently, of ten relatively little statistical material is
available. The extensive differences between the European countries, in
combination with the non-existence of an overall European housing policy make it
difficult to formulate conclusions and recommendations.

The housing stock


The necessary size of the housing stock naturally depends of the number of
inhabitants, or more precisely of the number of households. Before paying attention
to some of the characteristics of the housing stock, a general picture of the
demographic developments in the countries of the EC is given.

18
Table 2 Estimates of mid-year population (x 1,000.000) and the rate of change
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1980 1982 1983 1984 1985 rate of
country change
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Belgium 7.55 9.85 9.86 9.85 9.86 0,2
Denmark 5.12 5.12 5.11 5.11 5.11 -0.4
France 53.88 54.48 54.73 54.95 4.9
Germany 61.56 61.64 61.42 61.42 61.12 -1.2
Greece 9.64 9.79 9.85 9.90 6.7
Ireland 3.40 3.48 3.51 3.54 3.55 8.7
Italy 56.42 56,.64 56.84 56.98 57.13 2.5
Luxemb. 0.36 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 5.5
Netherl. 14.14 14.31 14.36 14.42 14.48 4.8
Portugal 9.90 10.03 10.10 10.16 10.23 6.6
Spain 37.43 37.93 38.23 38.51 38.60 6.2
U.K 56.31 56.34 56.38 56.49 0.8

source: Annual Bulletin of Housing and Building Statistics, 1986

The table shows fairly large variations in the rate of change. In countries like
Ireland for example, the population is still growing relatively rapidly, while in
countries like Germany and Denmark a decline can be seen. Although it may be
concluded that a growing population demands for more housing, it would be wrong
to suppose that a declining population implies that new building activities can be
stopped. Table 3 indicates why.

Table 3 Average number of persons per household

1970 1975 1980

Belgium 2.98 2.96


Denmark 2.69 2.48
France 2.88 2.76
Germany 2.74 2.60 2.48
Ireland 3.94
Italy 3.4 3.3 3.2
Luxemb. 3.13 2.84
Netherl. 3.2 2.95
U.K. 2.88 2.77 2.70

source: GEWOS, Wohnversorgung in Europa, 1983

In all the countries th at were included in the 1983 GEWOS-study we see the trend
of declining household size. A consequence of this development is that, even when
the population is stabie or declining, the total demand for housing will (or in the
last case, may) increase.
Table 4 shows the number of dwellings per 1000 inhabitants in each of the countries
included in this study. Also here large differences exist. Also with regard to this
table it must be repeated that the value of international comparisons is dubious.

19
The definition of a dwelling may differ from country to country. Another important
difference is that in some national statistics second, holiday houses are included
and in others not. More reliable are "horizontal" comparisons, i.e. per county.

Table ~ Dwelling stock per 1000 inhabitants

country 1980 1982 1983 198~ 1985


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Belgium 386 ~oo ~02 ~o~ ~05
Denmark ~22 ~27 ~70 ~7~ ~77
France
Germany ~13 ~23 ~30 ~38 ~~3
Greece
Ireland 265 271 271 276 278
Italy
Luxemb. 383
Netherl. 3~3 35~ 361 367 372
Portugal
Spain 390 39~ 398 398
U.K. 382 388 391 393

source: Annual Bulletin of Housing and Building Statistics, 1986

Many of the existing dwellings are not adapted to the requirements of handicapped
people. In general, it can be said that more recently built houses are easier to adapt
than older ones. Newer housing is usually of a higher quality; larger room
dimensions, more elevators, etc. The age of the housing stock therefore can be used
as an indicator for the percentage of the houses that is accessible or adaptable for
the use by handicapped people.

Table 5 Age of housing stock, (%)

pre 1919 19~6 post


1919 19~5 1960 1960
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Belgium 30 17 19 33
Denmark 23 20 20 37
France 38 16 11 35
Germany 27 15 25 33
Greece 18 2~ 58(figures: 1970)
Ireland 38 18 18 26
Italy 29 13 22 36
Luxembourg 33 19 19 29
Netherlands 17 22 21 ~O
Portugal ~O
Spain ~O
U.K. 32 22 18 28

source: Nationwide Building Society; Housing and Housing Finance in the European
Community

20
---- ------------ ----

In Northern Europe, France, Ireland, Luxembourg and the U.K. have a relatively
high percentage of old houses. Remarkable is the large difference bet ween the
situation in the Iberian countries (more than 40% of the existing stock built before
1919) and Greece. This difference is mainly the result of an enormous increase in
Greek building activities in the recent years.

Housing production
The chance to find a house depends of the number of vacant houses th at becomes
available annually. Important in this respect is the number that every year is added
to the already existing stock. The next tab les give an indication of the building
activities in Europe.

Table 6 Housing production (x 1000)

1980 1982 1983 1984 1985


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Belgium
Denmark 30.3 22.1 23.3 28.6 24.5
France 378.4 370
Germany 452.3 422.7 416.7 477.6 387.2
Greece 102.1 113.9 72.8
Ireland 27.8 26.8 26.1 24.9 23.9
Italy
Luxemb
Netherl. 126.3 117.6 117.4 103.4
Portugal 40.9 42.1 40.5 44.1
Spain 262.9 235.0 227.1 179.9
U.K. 252 195 219 230 220

source: Annual Bulletin of Housing and Building Statistics, 1986; L'Europe du


Logement, 1985

These figures can also be given in another form, as the next table shows.

Table 7 Dwellings completed per 1000 inhabitants 1980-1982/3

Belgium 3.7
Denmark 4.7
France 7.3
Germany 6.0
Greece 15.7
Ireland 8.1
Italy 4.4
Luxemb. 5.3
Netherl. 8.3
Portugal
Spain 7.0
U.K. 3.8

source: Living Conditions in Urban Areas

21
Rather worrying is the fact that the general trend in the production figures is
downwards. In some countries there may be good reasons for such a declining
production, but it at least is dubious whether this development is justifiable in
countries with a recognized housing shortage. Especially in some of the southern
European countries the real production figures may differ quite considerably from
the figures presented here; official statistics usually do not include the illegally
built houses.

The final table shows the same downward trend. This table shows the development
of investments in residential buildings.

Table 8 Investments in Residential Construction as a percentage of GDP

1980 1982 1983 1984 1985


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Belgium 6.4 3.3 3.2
Denmark 5.3 3.6 4.0 4.6 4.7
France 6.1 5.5 5.2 4.8 4.6
Germany 6.8 6.2 6.4 6.4 5.5
Greece 9.0 5.9 6.0 4.4
Ireland 6.3 5.5
Italy 5.3 5.3 5.1 4.8
Luxemb.
Netherl. 6.2 5.3 5.2 5.1 4.6
Portugal 7.3
Spain 5.5 5.1
U.K. 3.7 3.4 3.6 3.7 3.6

souree: Annual Bulletin of Housing and Building Statistics, 1986

3.4 Conclusions

What do these statistics tell us? In the preceeding paragraph we concluded that the
large majority of handicapped people cannot afford the real cost of hou sing. In a
really free market their chances to find decent shelter are very limited. To this
conclusion we now can add the statement th at these chances to find housing are
declining. The time of rapid expansion of the housing stock seems to be over; the
investments in building activities fall.
In the countries with a quantitative housing shortage this development will have
dramatic consequences, especially for the weaker parties in the housing market.
These concequences are even more severe since they of ten go hand in hand with
reductions in government spending for hou sing.
But also in countries where the housing shortage has been overcome the situation is
not promising. As a logical result of declining production figures, more and more
people will have to find the solution for their housing problems in vacant dwellings
in the existing housing stock. Most of those housing were designed for "standard"
families, with "standard" wishes. This means that especially persons and households

22
with "special" housing wishes will have problems to find an adequate dwelling.
It seems logical to allocate a relatively large part of the (declining) production for
these households. However, it is dubious whether this idea is supported by the
private developers. For understandable reasons they will not voluntarily target their
initiatives on fringe groups, but continue their preferenee for sectors of the market
where de mand is relatively large and risks of vacancy low.
It is the objective of the European Community to integrate people with a handicap
in society, a.o. by minimizing the barriers in the field of hou sing. The conclusion
seems to be th at this objective can only be realized with public help. Help in the
shape of an adequate housing policy, and of assistance for the handicapped when
entering the housing market.

23
4 HOUSING FORTHE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED: KNOWLEDGE AVAILABLE
BUT NOT APPLlED

4.1 Introduction

In chapter 2, we distinguished three categories: the physically handicapped, the


mentally handicapped and the psychiatric patients. With regard to integration, to
participation in normal life and norm al daily activities the problems faced by the
physically handicapped seem easier to solve than those faced by members of the
other categories.
In this chapter we concentrate on a group of people th at need help to transform
their desires into action. The necessary assistance can in some cases be provided by
technical equipment, in other cases human help is necessary.
Physically handicapped people are able to formulate their wishes. However, an
often mentioned problem is that these wishes are not always accepted.
Paternalistic tendencies seem difficult to get rid of. The process of seeing them as
fully normal members of society, capable to run their own lives and make their own
decisions has not yet everywhere reached the ultimate stage.

Another problem is the tendency to concentrate attention on people with severe


handicaps, forgetting th at the characteristics also for members of this category are
diverse. By doing so, the problems of the less severe handicapped citizens can easily
be overlooked. And simple solutions that can make buildings, offices or other work
places accessible for large groups with for example walking problems, or a length
that deviates from the average mentioned in the architects handbooks, are not
implemented. This is remarkable and disappointing for at least two reasons.
Firstly physically handicapped persons are better organized than representatives of
the other mentioned groups. They do not need help to formulate their wishes. In
many countries they founded already in the last century organizations to support
the individuals in their claims for a norm al life.
The second reason is th at especially with regard to the problems that they face and
the sometimes very simple measures that can be taken to remove those problems
relatively little wás reached. An impressive amount of literature appearedj it is
virtually impossible to count the number of design books that was published.
Nevertheless, the impact of all that work and all those publications remains
limited, so the main problem is that although the knowledge is available, it is not
applied.

The necessary assistance can be provided by people or by technical aids. In the past

25
the accent was heavily on personal assistance; help that was available in the house
of family of friends or in larger institutions.
Technological developments have increased the possibilities for physically
handicapped people to participate in norm al daily life activities. It is not without
cynici sm that the conclusion is drawn that large scale wars have contributed to the
development of those technical means. The combination of large numbers of
handicapped men and limited care facilities stimulated this. Or in the words of the
researchers of ABT -Forschung: "The second world war left many physically and
emotionally disabled. Many people were concerned and directly involved and the
demand for more and bet ter provisions grew. Disability was increasingly seen as
something that could happen to anyone and less the fate of a few misfits".

In the USA originated in the early seventies the philosophy of 'Independent Living';
the movement for IL stressed the right of disabled people to live as independently
as they want, and to live in community. Many people with a physical disability still
had to live in large institutions at that moment. It was started by students who
wanted to live on the university campus; maybe also the presence of soldiers who
got disabled in the Vietnamese war, played a role. Partly as a re sult of activities of
the IL movement it became obvious that many people, even with very severe
disabilities, can live independently. Important issues stressed are: the disabled
themselves know best wh at their needs are, and disabled people should live
integrated in the of community. Started by physcially disabled persons, later the
movement was joined by people with mental or psychiatric problems. In Berkeley,
California, the first Center for Inpendent Living was founded. in accordance with
the concept, at least 50% of the staffmembers working in the Center, has to be
disabled. By using methods like peer-counseling and role-modeling the workers at
the center help other disabled people to reach a higher level of independence.
Advice is also given in practical matters; in the field of housing potentially
adaptable dwellings are indicated, and information and advice is given on possible
adaptations and technical aids. In a way they see themselves as a "consumer
movement".
The ideas of IL crossed the ocean and gained influence in Europe.

The present, general trend is fr om institutionalization towards community care.This


does not mean that all fundamental problems are solved. Different opinions for
instance exist on the desired level of concentration and integration. In some
countries, like Spain for example, much energy is invested in a campaign to make
clear to everybody th at handicapped people not only exist, but that they also are
normal citizens. People with exactly the same rights as every other inhabitant of
the country. This "sensibilization" is regarded as the necessary first step towards
integration.
Continuing along this line, it seems logical to leave the ultimate decision about the
sort of housing, the living place and the organization of the support facilities to the
handicapped themselves.

26
4.2 Recent trends in housing

Three levels of access


In several interviews the rem ark was made that it is only useful to pay attention to
the actual dwelling af ter securing the possibility for handicapped people to reach it.
This means that the environment of the house or the estate must be accessible for
the prospective tenant. Attention not only for the design of the urban environment,
but also for the accessibility of e.g. public transport facilities, reserved parking
places etc.
Naturally, these requirements are easier to meet in projected estates th at still are
in the design stage than in already existing areas. Especially in older quarters it
may be difficult to solve the problems; sometimes it is impossible. In this case the
objective of the study can only be reached by offering opportunities to the
handicapped person to move to another area.

The second level concerns the accessibility of the dwelling. It is surprising to hear
that in some countries, in spite of all the publications that appeared during the last
decades, still elevators are projected that are not accessible for wheelchair users.
Thus limiting, in an unnecessary way, not only the housing possibilities but also the
possibilities to visit friends and relatives. The example is depressing because a
slightly bigger elevator is not necessarily more expensive than the one used now:
adaptation after the construction of the building is virtually impossible. In other
countries rules concerning the accessiblitity of dwellings do only apply to housing
situated at groundfloor level. The effectiveness of this approach is very limited.
Especially in newer housing estates (but certainly also in existing inner cityareas) a
large percentage of groundfloor space is not allocated for housing purposes but for
shops and offices. It is difficult to find an explanation for the in some countries
existing unwillingness of the building industry to increase the accessibility of
residential buildings. However, an excuse may be that the situation really is very
complicated. Rules and standards may differ from region to region or even from
city to city. A good example of developed standardization can be found in Germany,
where the standards for an adapted dwelling (Ilbehindertengerechte Wohnung") are
laid down in socalled "DIN-norms".

The third level concerns the adaptability of housing. In many countries studies have
been made and architects competitions organized to find the ultimate answer to
this problem. Seeing the results of these efforts, and the variation in the results,
the conclusion seems to be that such an answer does not exist. We already
mentioned the many technical studies and the lack of standardization. On the way
towards improved accessibility and usability the moment seems there to collect and
analyze all these studies and produce one European set of design guidelines. The
adaptability of housing depends very much on the possibilities to alter the standard
lay out of the house; to add extra space where it is necessary. In this respect
constructions without load bearing walls inside the house offer good opportunities.
In some countries, the Netherlands for example, a large proportion of more recently
built housing allows this internal design freedom. A consequence of this method of

27
construction is that the designer has the freedom to decide where to position the
inner walls without the penalty of being confronted with (much) higher costs.

The question of higher costs is unclear. In the collected material we find estimates
rangeing from 3% extra to more than 100% extra. This seems illogical. But, more
detailed information and calculations are necessary to answer the question
decisively. The quality of decision making would improve if this material became
available for international use. We do not exclude the possibility that in some cases
estimates about the extra costs are not based on a realistic survey.

Adaptations
Measures to obtain maximum accessibility of a house are easier to apply to
buildings that are in the design stage than in existing ones. For many disabled
people a new house will not be available. For them, existing housing will have to be
adapted. Then it is extremely important that they get what they need and want.
Choosing and deciding is difficult; paternalism is imminent. Although much
information is available, it is not always "accessible", not easy to consult for the
user.
Different ways of providing people with information and advice are being tried. In
Ireland a district project of the EC was started for that purpose. The HILAC, the
Housing and Independent Living Advice Center,is a place where one can get the
necessary information on possibilities. Next to the centre, some houses have been
adapted with different equipment and aids; here people can take a look, and get
help to find out what adaptations and aids suit them best.
In the future the Handynet project may come to play an increasingly important role
in the supply of relevant information as weil.
Following the American model Centers for IL have been started in Germany (a.o. in
Cologne and Bremen) and in the United Kingdom. Some of them also give training in
practical skills.

For the financial consequences of adaptation many countries do have provlslons:


there are different sorts of loans and grants. Applying for this money however of ten
is a difficuit and time consuming procedure. To the user it is not always clear what
the rights and possibilities are; information on this subject is necessary.
Adapted housing should remain exclusively available for disabled people. In Berlin
e.g. adapted houses are not "reserved" for handicapped people, the new tenant isn't
necessarily a disabled person. By reserving adapted houses for this group the list of
people waiting for a house will get shorter and no capital will be destroyed.

With regard to the existing housing stock our critical remarks about architects's
competitions are not fully justified. Especially in countries where large quantities
of (more or less) identical dwellings were built in the past, adaptability studies and
design competitions are very useful. A good example of such a study exists in
Ireland.

28
4.3 New developments in assistance

Related to housing facilities are the services. Some obstacles on the road towards
independent living can be removed by technical innovations. The advantage of these
solutions is th at they are always available and do not ask for gratitude. But in many
cases human help cannot be missed. In this respect the situation, like always,
differs from country to country. Who provides this care and assistance and who pays
for it? The answer to this question varies from: unpaid volunteers, friends and
relatives, to full time (government) employed professionals. With regard to this
question no "best" solution can be indicated. The optimum depends of factors like
the national interpretation ot the "welfare state concept" and other nationally
defined social and cultural factors. Several ways to organize and finance assistance
for persons with a physical disability have been tested.
A weIl known example, that originated in Sweden, is the Fokus-system. This model
has been introduced in the Netherlands in the seventies and at this moment in
Belgium some compartable schemes operate. The Dutch Fokus-schemes do not
provide housing, but the necessary assistance. The help is organized from a service-
unit, where 24 hours a day assistants are present. They can be called whenever
necessary and will give the assistance required at that moment. They only give so
called ADL-assistance (ADL = Activities of Daily Life); help to clean the house or
do the shop ping has to be asked for elsewhere. The assistants regard themselves as
a sort of "extension piece" of the disabled person. Usually one unit services some 14
or 15 apartments or houses. The centres are spread over the neighbourhood to
prevent ghettoization.

In the Germany ambulatory services are growing quite rapidly at th is moment. The
oldest, VIF in Munnich, started some ten years agoj the concept has been taken over
in several other places. It started as a self help initiative. VIF e.g. was founded by a
group of disabled people in co-operation with workers in a center for persons with
disabilities. They saw the need for help and assistance, especially for people who
need many hours of (quite intensive) help, since especially they of ten are excluded
by the existing organizations. In the concept of VIF the disabled person decides how
much and what assistance is needed. The bureau of the ambulatory service only acts
as an intermediary bet ween user and attendantj those two parties wil 1 make an
agreement. Assistance can also be given in weekends, at night time, etc. The help
isn't limited to ADL-assistance. Depending of the needs, assistance with transport,
shop ping can also be given.
The attendants don't have a special training for the job. Some of them are
"Zivildienstleistende" (men who instead of doing their military service do other,
useful jobs). The decision chosen not to employ professionals is deliberate. It
prevents the attendants from becoming authorities who take the decisions for the
disables person since such a situation may create nwe dependencies.
The attendants of VIF receive a salarYj other organizatiq,ns also employ volunteers.
The financing of these services still is a problemj they don't fit in the traditional
pattern and work in a different way.

29
In Paris the GIHP (Groupement pour l'insertion des Handicapes Physiques) has taken
action to start a service for socalIed "auxiliaires de vie". Like in Germany existing
services organizations only worked during office hours, but assistance is also needed
during weekends and in the evenings. Because of the needs of disabled people GIPH
runs a flexible system, although this costs more. This system can operate grace to
subsidies granted by the city of Paris and the state. The service of GIPH is given
from 7.30 h. till 21.30 h. for the inhabitants of the quarter (some 15-20 persons use
this service). In Pontcanal 8 adapted apartments are inhabited by disabled persons,
who can get ADL-assistance 24 houres per day. The users have to pay; the more
help they need the lower the contribution per hour is.
Organizing this assistance is difficult: during the day and night only a few hours are
really "rush'hours", many persons then need help at the same time, on the other
hand there are hours that the assitants are idle. The attendants do not receive a
special training, but GIPH would like to introduce that. They would also like to
improve the wages, which are quite low at the moment.

If a person with a disability stays with family, those care takers mayalso need
assistance in one way or another. The Crossroad scheme provides help to the family
who takes care of a severely (physically or mentally) disabled person. Tt started in
the United Kingdom and was, later imported in the Netherlands. The scheme helps
in situations of crisis, e.g. when the relative who takes care is ill or in cases where
it becomes necessary to place someone in an institution, because the burden for the
family is too heavy. In such cases they replace the one who is taking care. In the
English scheme the aim is to prevent situations of crisis.
Because of the fact that there is someone, an organization, that can take over,
people can stay in their house and stay with the family.

Being dependent on human help can be an obstacle for autonomy, it limits the
freedom of choice. In many cases ho wever human help cannot be missed. An
important development with regard to this help exists in Denmark. The basic
approach is to provide the person needing assistance with sufficient tools to make
his own decisions on how the help should be provided. Crucial is to provide him with
sufficient financial means: an allowance. With this money a disabled person,
physicaly or mentally, can employ an assistant for the hours that help is needed; the
help is not limited to ADL-assistance.
The height of the allowance depends of the help needed.The level is determined by
a committee; the disabled person applies for it and states his wishes. As the
attendant's employer the disabled person has to fulfill certain obligations (Iike
savings for holidays, conform certain legal consequences, etc.) A model contract
has been made by the organizations that run these schemes, but conditions can be
adapted on the basis of agreement between the two parties. This gives a
considerable freedom to decide on how the assistance will be arranged.

Despite these initiatives there still are many problems in getting the right amount
and sort of assistance. Most existing services have strict conditions and operate
only during working hours; of ten they provide just one sort of assistance. More

30
coordination is necessary. Sometimes even "sneaky ways" have to be used to get
obtain necessary assistance. In Belgium, in a quarter where disabled people live
together with non-disabled people, an attendant care scheme for 24 hours per day is
operative. But as a consequence of the rul es and conditions, it has to deal with
three different organizations. Each of them with own working schedules and own
ways of financing. This obviously causes a lot of problems for the users.
One of the major problems for ADL-assistance that covers the need of the user is
to obtain the necessary funds. Especially in this period of economic recession
people point at the possibility of volunteers who could do the job.
Although some organizations work with volunteers only, others object to that
solution. There is the fear th at the continuity of the help can't be guaranteed.

4.4 Conclusion

Summarizing we can say that housing facilities, adapted to the needs of dis ab led
persons, are not available on insufficient. Next to this the housing market position
of disabled people is weak. Adaptable housing can be a solution. Unfortunately it
can only be applied in new-built housing. Since many disabled persons are dependent
on the existing housing stock adaptations are necessary. This can cause financial
problems, although most countries offer some sort of financial support. The
procedures to obtain grants of subsidies can be long and difficult. A lot of technical
information on technical adaptations is available, but it is amazing how little is
used. Awareness of the existence of disabled people will improve the situation and
may increase the number of architects and planners that use the knowledge and
expertise that is at their disposal.

To give people a real chance to live independently, it is necessary to ar range


support. Without the assistance, autonomy is not a real option. Services for ADL-
assistance should be financed and arranged such in a way that the are available for
anyone who needs them. Attention should be given to the fact that this support can
be necessary at any moment during the day and night and not only during office
hours.

31
5 HOUSING FOR MENT ALL Y HANDICAPPED: LOOKING FOR IMPROVEMENT IN
A PERIOD OF PUBLIC SPENDING CUTS

5.1 Introduction

Menta1 disability occurs in different degrees. Some persons have a light handicap
and are able to perform most daily activities quite independent1y, they need very
Iittle assistance. Others are severely disab1ed and need help with (almost)
everything, even e.g. with eating their meals. They may need a place where their
daily Iife is taken care of and in fact maybe taken over: where (almost) everything
is arranged for them. The requirements for housing facilities for those two groups
are very different. And in between the extremes a variety of handicaps with
different consequences for daily Iife, individual needs and potentials exists. It is not
one group, having all the same possiblitities for autonomy, but all these personal
differences have to be taken into account.
The group of multiple handicapped persons, with both an intellectual and a physical
disability, requires special aids and adaptations in a house, adapted to both their
handicaps. It can make high demands on the designer of the house, because both
handicaps have to be into account.

For a long time only two options have been available: staying at home with the
family, or living in an institution. When mental handicap wasn't recognised as such,
before a good diagnosis could be made, mentally handicapped persons sometimes
had to live with e.g. psychiatric patients or old people in the same residential
center; of ten an asylum for persons considered difficult or without another place to
stay. These centers changed, when it became clear that mentally disabled persons
are a different category, with specific problems. When it became clear that these
people could learn things, special provisions were considered useful and necessary.
When new ideas about handicap and care were developed, the asylum function of
those centers was rejected, other ideals became important.
In the Scandinavian countries normalization became the leading principle. A recent
definition given by Wolfensberger: "Utilization of means which are as culturally
normative (valued) as possible in order to establish, enable or support behaviors,
appearances and interpretations which are as culturally normative (valued) as
possible". In fact it contains three elements: to help persons th at are "a-typical" to
become more "typical", to give that help in such a way 1;,hat simularities instead of
differences are accentuated and to increase public tolerance regarding "a-typical"
persons. The goal that is to regard people formerly seen as abnormal as normal, and
to reach th is by app1ying normal means. In practice the result was that in Sweden

33
residential centers are closed down and substituted by group homes. Houses for
around 5 persons, each with an own room; some rooms and a bathroom are meant
for communal use. At least one member of the staff is present. Not only persons
with a light mental handicap but even severely disabled persons can get a pi ace in
such a house. They use the general services of the community; only when it's
inevitable a separate service will be created, but even than within the norm al
provisions and centers.
The philosophy of normalization is known in many other European countries, but
outside Sweden, never as the one and only principle.
Other ideas came to be important and many new experiments started. The general
direction: out of the institutions and into the community. It was feit that the
mentally handicapped person has a right to live a human life. Terms like
"integration" and "humanization" (of living conditions) became important in the new
way of thinking, and experiments started to give people a chance to become as
independent as possible and to live in the community. Parents played an important
role in these changes: they of ten took initiatives and organized themselves to
improve the situation of their children.
Special mention should be made of a philosophy th at originated in the seventies in
the Netherlands, the socalIed "verdunningsfilosofie" (dilution filosofy); the followers
of this idea wanted to integrate persons with a mental handicap and other people.
When first introduced in practice i t caused much uproar, now i t is applied in several
places.

Of course the developments haven't been the same in all the EC-countries. In
Germany almost a complete generation of mentally handicapped was killed during
the nazi-period; after the war many parents kept their mentally disabled child at
home; these "children" now are in their 30's and 40's, the parents too old to look
af ter them. It is clear' th at these children never had a chance to learn to live as
independently as possible, to use all their capacities. As a result of this
development, workers in the field and policy-makers now see themselves confronted
with a large group of grown up mentally handicapped waiting for a pi ace in a house
somewhere.
In Greece even today many children with a mental handicap are kept at home,
because their parents don't believe they can learn anything. When they send their
child to a day-center they sometimes are astonished to discover the possibilities
and capacities their child actually does have. Although most children are kept at
home, there do exist some institutions in Greece. An important question is: wilt
Greece follow the same route as other countries, making the same mistakes,
meaning: wilt they build large institutions to close them down af ter several years,
or will they avoid the mistakes made elsewhere? One of the advisors of the
government pointed out that they were starting services on a small scale, and
decentralised, and he wasn't very keen on building large provisions. Especially in
this respect European co-operation and exchange of knowledge and experience can
be very useful; it prevents people from inventing the wheel over and over again.

34
5.2 Trends and innovations

In the field of housing for mentally handicapped persons innovative developments


seem more or less a continuation and an improvement of ideas developed before.
Progress is made on the basis of what was felt necessary when evaluating the
experiences. No huge laps forward are made but there is constant evolution. Several
aspects of these ongoing developments will be given here.

Small scale facilities


Large scale institutions are out of fashion. Most new facilities are designed and
built on a smaller scale. Some.times the institutions themselves started to build new
and smaller facilities, in other cases private organizations, e.g. parents, took the
initiative. A home or a hostel set up by an institution, is sometimes built on the
grounds of the old center; in that case the residents of the house of ten use the
services provided by the institution (meals from a central kitchen, therapies,
laundry, etc.). Although they now live in a different, small house, their lives are
still run from the center and they have little more responsibility than before. There
will be little impetus to leave the grounds of the center and go to town.
Other solutions opt for houses built within a community. In that case it depends on
the amount of services provided by the institution whether the inhabitants have a
real chance of autonomy or not. There are many sorts of group homes, varying in
the amount of assistance and care, depending of the needs of the residents.
When care and assistance have to be very intensive, several units of ten are put
together. The idea is that otherwise staffing of the groups would hardly be possible
within the available budget. Sweden shows th at this is not necessarily true, even
severly handicapped people do live in small groups where several houses are put
together, the units consist of 5-8, sometimes 12 or more persons. Homes are
developed, where several groups can live, each group with separate rooms and often
a central staffroom. Bedrooms for personnel can be necessary, and e.g. extra large
bathrooms, wh ere members of the staff can help the residents.

For persons that are more independent, group homes and hostels are developed,
with as much assistance as they need. In most of the houses everybody has a private
room, sometimes with a bathroom, and there are some rooms for communal use,
like a kitchen, a sitting-room, etc.
Group homes are quite common nowadays and many examples could be given, each
with its own remarks, successes and failures. But even in Greece, a country where
many handicapped people are kept at home, and others are sent to institutions,
some initiatives have been taken that follow this line. One center built a house for
seven of their ex-pupils, who had no other place to go. They moved in several years
ago, and in the beginning every day a member of the staff would come and help
them. Gradually they didn't need that much assistance anymore, and now only once
a week somebody drops by, just to see how things are going. Another day-center
owns several houses in the city and is planning to move pupils there in October
1987. Before they leave, they are training at the center all tasks in and around the
house, like handling money, going to the post-office, etc. The plans are still in a

35
preparatory phasej the initiators are anxious to know more about what happens in
other countries.
In a group home people should have a choice with whom they want to share their
lives, they should have a vote when a new person is moving in. In some cases they
could also (co)decide about the hiring of new attendants. In a group home in Berlin
the residents did have a say in who was entering the group either as a tenant or as a
new attendant. Staffmembers felt that as a result of this system, very few changes
had taken place, continuity not only in the tenants group but also in the staff, was
bet ter secured.

Sometimes persons with a mental handicap live alone. In the Netherlands e.g. there
are schemes called "Begeleid Kamerbewonen" ("living alone with attendance"); in
Berlin the organization "Lebenshilfe" is running a model project for mentally
handicapped, who want to live alone or as a coupie. Several hours a week an
attendant will drop by and provide help in practical problems, like going to
authorities and help with everyday tasksj furthermore they assist with social and
emotional problems, like contact with other people, loneliness, etc. Before moving
in they give a training to the future tenants. The scheme also includes a research
project that will evaluate the experiences and will give recommendations.

A rem ark made by several people, concerned the importance of regular day
activities for people who are living quite independently. Persons living in a small
group or alone run a risk of getting lonely. In the residential centers everything was
arranged, including activities during the daytime and there were always other
people present. Moving out of the center and not having work to go to, they can
stay at home all day, get lonely, depressed and apathetic; there must be a reason to
go out of doors. A place where they can go to during the day and meet other people,
must be included in planning new facilities.

A center in Noordwijkerhout (the Netherlands) put the Dutch ideas of the


"verdunningsfilosofie" into practicej a special neighbourhood was built, called "de
Hafakker". There about hundred persons with a mental handicap will be living with
about the same number of not disabled people. Some of those handicapped have
lived in the institution for many years, they now move into group homes, where
they will live in groups of 3 to 8 persons. No central services of the institute will be
used. The other inhabitants of the quarter are not expected to pay special attention
to their neighbours, or to give assistance, the only condition to them is: "being good
neighbours", having contacts as in any other neighbourhood.

Training
To be able to live alone or in a group, outside an institution, requires certain
abilities. Practical things like cooking, shopping, cleaning, how to handle money,
etc, have to be learned and social skills have to be trained to be able to get in
contact with other people, neighbours, colleagues, etc. For this purpose several
training programs have been developed, among which the mentioned program in
Berlin. Sometimes homes are started to provide mentally handicapped people with a

36
pi ace where they can develop the necessary ski lIs. They stay there for maybe two
years, and move then to a group home or an individual apartment.

Assistance for those who take care of a disabled person


Possibilities to remain at home have in some countries been improved by services to
help not only the handicapped member but also the rest of the family. Short term
care can be of great importance to both the family and the handicapped person.
During the period the individual has been admitted to a unit, tests can be taken
which otherwise wouldn't be possible (because of lack of equipment or of skilled
staff, or because they take some time). For the family it can be arelief to be free
from taking care for a period of time, they can take a holiday, have some rest, etc.
In cases of crisis or ilIness it is good to know someone is taking care of the
handicapped relative. Some hospitals and institutions reserve places especially for
the purpose of short-term care. In Belgium special units have been set up, the so
called "Homes de court sejour". This solution has some disadvantages: the centers
are of ten too far away to enable the family to visit their relative and they may turn
out to be quite costly because the beds aren't always needed, while staff is present
all the time. Places in existing institutions may take less money, and they might be
closer to the pi ace where the family lives. Personnel will have the necessary
knowledge and expertise.
To give support to the family at home several schemes have been started. The
assistance can vary from practical help like being present for emergencies or
staying at home when the family wants to go out and can't leave the handicapped,
to help with emotional problems. In Germany socalIed "Familienentlastende
Dienste" (Family Relief Services) are set up; they can provide assistance, · thus
allowing the family to leave the house every now and then, for hobbies, etc. In
situations of crisis the availability of assistance is of crucial importance In the
United Kingdom the Crossroads scheme started, which later on also became known
in the Netherlands. Crossroads helps the persons who take care of severely
handicapped people, both physically and mentally, that are living at home. Help can
be given on a regular basis, (e.g. every evening helping someone to get in bed, or on
an irregular basis. In this way the move to an institution may be avoided (or at least
delayed).

Integration into community


New small-scaie facilities are often planned as parts of a larger community. The
idea is to promote the possibilities of integration. Family houses or apartments are
often used for group homes; the members living like a family, with staff coming in
as much as necessary. It is considered to be an advantage if the out si de of the home
doesn't look different from the rest of the neighbourhood. On the other hand many
family houses are not designed to be used by a group: bedrooms are too small to be
used as a bedsitter, kitchens may be too small to prepare a meal with more people
at the same time, etc.
In a house th at is designed for the purpose, the wishes of the users can be taken into
account, e.g larger rooms, and possibly a bathroom and toilet for every resident.
When extra and intensive care is needed extra facilities can be made. But also in

37
th at case it is important that outside of the building doesn't differ too much from
the other houses in the neighbourhood, it shouldn't give the idea of an institution
where a different sort of people lives.

The neighbourhood isn't always enthusiastic to get in contact with the new tenants.
In the past special programs we re made to prepare the community, but these were
mostly unsuccesful. A basic mistake in this approach seems to be that it labelled
the new tenants as different, people who could cause trouble. Most people are not
in favour of these programs anymore; the newcomers are tenants like the rest, and
like other people they don't have to announce their moving into the neighbourhood.
Especially when a small group, for example the size of a family, is moving in, no
special attention is given. If problems do arise, they can be dealt with at that
moment, not before.
However when a large group is moving in it may be useful to try to make contacts
in one way or another. In KasseI (Germany) the organization starting a new home
for mentally handicapped persons got into contact with the smallest local
administrative unit the socalled "Ortsteilbeirat" (council of a quarter of the city)
and explained the plans. All questions were answered and the way cleared. In that
way th is council was made responsible for what was happening, they we re a part of
it.
Visiting shops and the hairdresser in the area can be another method to get in
contact with the neighbours, or going to the same pub, clubs etc. Since acceptance
by the communitiy is of great importance, it is advisable to plan new facilities near
shops and other facilities (sport, recreation, cultural).
Another method used to facilitate integrations, is to invite people into the house,
for a party or to drink some coffee or to open the house to groups in the
neighbourhood, for lessons, meetings etc, when there is a large room available.

How are these developments frustrated?


Despite policy plans and good intentions to facilitate autonomy and different ways
of living, it of ten turns out that rules on financing and design favour traditional
institutional care. Sometimes a patient in bed brings even more money to the
institution than one walking around. The existing ways of financing are more
according to the needs of institutions than of other forms into account. This
impedes new developments and experiments, and especially private initiatives are
obstructed by many rules. Institutions get money for each place or bed, the money
isn't given to the residents. In this institutional model there is a budget for staff,
one for food, another for the building, etc. In new forms of living it is important
that each person has his or her own budget to pay for the house, the food, personal
expenses, etc. but when the house is part of an institution this is hardly possible. 50
financial dependence continues. In those new houses it is difficult to get money for
staff and other general expenses; when staff is employed by the residential center
there is no problem, but when they are hired for a certain scheme it may be hard to
find the right way to finance them. In fact rules tend to favour traditional and
known forms of care, where it is clear wh at is necessary, how much it costs.
Many new initiatives, especially when taken by (future) residents and/or parents

38
hardly stand a chance; first there is an abundance of rules they have to deal with,
secondly these rules often are very poorly coordinated. This makes it difficult to
find a way through. Private initiative is sometimes even not possible according to
the existing rul es.

Regarding the income position of mentally handicapped: work is often difficult to


find. Especially in this period of economic problems, the growing importance of
technology in industry takes away a lot of the jobs they traditionally did. In fact
many of them are dependent on social benefits, that is to say if those exist. When
living in an institution, they often just get pocket-money.
In Germany some houses are connected with workshops; staff is only present outside
the working hours; all residents are absent for 8 hours a day (part-time work is not
possible in those workshops). When someone doesn't go to work anymore the
consequence is that he has to leave the place, even if he may lived there already
for many years.

Staffing of new, and especially of experimental facilities can be a problem. In some


cases a group consists of more persons than considered best. When for instance four
or five persons would be ideal, it still may be necessary to double it, because of the
lack of sufficient funds and, consequently, staff.
Another problem is the lack of staff with expertise. Especially those new forms of
living require other capacities and attitudes than the traditional ones like the old
residential centers. Special training is necessary but often not available.

What are the chances for mentally disabled people to find the facility that fits
them best? Sometimes there is just not enough information on possible facilities to
be able to make a choice. There are many organizations, of ten working separately,
many services, etc. Sometimes people tend to choose the safe way, an institution,
where everything is available, instead of something they don't feel secure about and
for which they have to make arrangements themselves and take the risks.
A second question is: who makes the choice? The one who is moving in, the parents
or other relatives, professionals, etc.? The handicapped person isn't always
considered as able to make a choice, but who is then to decide? It isn't certain that
parents, relatives or professionals, though having the best possible intentions, do
what is best, or act according the wishes or needs of the mentally handicapped
individual. In that case an intermediary, a sort of "advocate", may be able to help;
he may try to understand the wishes and "negotiate" with parents and professionals
to find out what is best.
The absence of services in the community can force one to leave home and move to
a center or group home. But in many European countries there is a trend to close
these institutions, whilst alternatives are not always provided. This development is
dangerous and frustrates of new initiatives.

39
5.3 Conclusion

To meet the different needs and potentials of mentally handicapped persons a


variety of housing facilities is necessary. Small scale facilities are built, group
homes and schemes for living alone (with attendance) are developed. Most of the
new developments are improvements of already existing ideas; more attention is
paid e.g. to training schemes to live independently and to day activities.
New services like short term residential care, services that support the family that
takes care of a handicapped relative, and attended housing schemes give people
with a handicap more chance to live in the community and to be as autonomous as
possible.
Rules however sometimes frustrate new developments, since they are made for the
traditional forms of housing and care. Public spending cuts are another problem.
Austerity measures can easily hinder or even stop the development of new services,
while at the same time the old provisions are closed down. As aresult people are
getting in trouble, and may even become homeless.

40
6 HOUSING FOR PEOPLE WITH PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS:
NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN SPITE OF OPPOSITION

6.1 Introduction

It was not easy to obtain an insight in the developments in the field of housing for
persons with psychiatrie disorders. As a result of that, this chapter will be rather
impressionistie. We collected a lot of information about all sorts of problems that
this category of people face in all aspects of (everyday) lifej but relatively little
about housing. The impression that we got is that new developments exist, but that
the opposition against implementation is great. It seems th at they are not really
accepted and little notieed by policy makers. As a consequence this group is the
first to suffer from the present policy of public spending cuts.
Experts mentioned the fact that among the homeless the number of people with
psychiatrie disorders is growingj people without a place to go to or a person to turn
to for help.

Also this third category, consisting of persons with social and emotional disorders,
is very diversej not only because of a difference in the degree, the seriousness of
the disorder, but also in the nature. The World Health Organization uses this
definition: "All forms of illness in whieh psychologieal, emotional or behavioural
disturbances are the dominating features. This broad definition is used to cover
minor disorders (neuroses etc.) as weIl as major disorders (psychoses etc.)".
There are many sorts of psychiatrie problems, some of which can have serious
consequences for the situation in life of the person, both private and social. And
even after the disorder has disappeared people get a stigma when they have had
psychiatrie treatment. The social image of this group is more negative than that of
mentally handicapped and acceptance is far awayj factors like fear of aggressive or
other "deviant" behaviour, the impossibility to understand what's the very essence
of the disorder, what's happening with that person, feelings of guilt, etc, may be of
influence on the possibilities of social integration.
For a long time words like "insane" and "mad" were of common use to indicate
persons with psychIatrie disorders. They were kept at home if family and friends
could deal with it (or afford special help at home) or sent to institutions: some of
them were considered dangerous to themselves or to other people, whieh was (and
still is) a reason to loek them up. For others it was thought to be benificial to be
sent out of community, into free nature, where it was quiet and peaceful and they
could get rest. But of ten they were put institution with other "outcasts", mentally
handieapped for instanee or old, demented people, where not much was done about

41
their specifie problem. Institutions became asylums, where patients stayed for
years and years, or even their entire life. It is not impossible that the consequences
of the long hospitalization sometimes created a bigger problem, than the original
disorder that they were taken in for.

For many years social and emotional disorders were considered a disease, a medical
problem, that could be cured by medieal methods (medicine, electroshock, or even
surgery). The medieal model however isn't the only point of view anymore, new
theories on psychiatrie problems, causes, and therapies were developed; new visions
on the individual, society, disorders and treatment came to play a role and
introduced a lot of changes in the practiee of psychiatry including the way housing
should be arranged. These developments were not only started by professionals, but
also movements of (ex)patients led to important changes. De-institutionalization,
hospitalization syndrome, preventing that people become chronic patiens, ending of
segregation and promotion of integration, the role of society, etc. became major
issues in discussions.
In the sixties and seventies new ideas originated. In England the antipsychiatry
originated. The followers of this philosophy were against traditional psychiatry in
institutions (not against psychiatry in genera!) and used a social and interaction
model to describe disorders. In Italy the socalled "democratie psychiatry" became
important. The followers of the democratie psychiatry stressed that a psychiatrie
diagnosis doens't say anything about the handieaps of people, about which aspects of
life are difficult for them and where they are hindered in life. They were quite
pragmatie: where should one give help? Poeple are hindered in society, so there you
should find solutions. The followers of the democratic psychiatry did no more
believe in the traditional psychiatrie institutions and theories as the English
antipsychiatry had. Institutions can not "cure" those people; help to them should be
given within society, not outside the community. This meant creating alternative
ways of dealing with people with problems.
In 1978 a law was passed in !tal y to close down all psychiatric insti tutions. Patients
should stay in the community and get help there; only in case of crisis, some sort of
intervention in a general hospital would be possible. Mental health care should
become integrated in general health care. Alternatives had to be developed, to give
persons leaving institutions the therapies, as si stance etc. that they needed and
wanted. This asked for a lot of inventive thinking and improvisation.

No other country has the way of closing down institutions by law, but ot her ways to
reduce toeir importance for mental health care are tried.
In Germany a "Psychiatrie-Enquete" was held in the seventies and a
"Modellprogramm Psychiatrie" was started. The concept of a "therapeutie chain"
was introduced. The general idea was that a psychiatrie patient would have to pass
through several stages of help, care and assistance: from a lot of care, in a
residential center e.g., to houses with less and less support and more responsibility
to a pI ace where one lives alone, if necessary with some assistance. The more
serious the problem, the longer it would take and the more steps on this road would
be necessary.

42
In practiee ho wever this concept proved to be wrong. Apart from disadvantages like
the necessity to move regularly, it turned out that not the seriousness of the
problem was the decisive factor of being able to live alone, but the nature of the
disorder. Some persons, whose disorders were considered to be very serious, li ved
alone and managed bet ter than when they lived in a group home or an institution,
(possibly because they couldn't cope with people too close around them). On the
other hand, others who were considered "light cases", couldn't live alone, but did
need people around them. Another important aspect was the capacity to run a
household; those who had learned to keep house before, even if it had been many
years ago, regained the skill quite easily. Those who never had a chance to learn it,
have great diffieulty in learning it later.

The central issue in the field of housing should be: whieh social environment does
this individual need? Social functioning often is a major problem, so the social
context is very important. Starting point should be the individual needs.
One of the experts distinguished three major groups, according to their needs.
Sometimes people have temporary disorders, what they may need is a change of
place. A second group of people has been in hospital many times and can't live on
their own. They need special housing. The third group consists of people who need
specifie at ten dance in the house. For some of them it will be a temporary need.
others have long term needs. Many patients do remarkably wel! in community, but
they need attendance as a "buffer". The second and third group may do wel! in
apartments with communal facilities.
Many people don't belong to one of these groups; a large group has been
institutionalized by a long stay in residential or semi-mural (sheltered housing)
facili ties.

6.2 Recent trends

Housing
To diminish the importance of residential care new initiatives have been started.
Firstly, as a consequence of the growing awareness of the harmful aspects of
hospitalisation, institutions try to improve the living conditions inside. Buildings get
divided into smaller units, where a form of group housing is possible, large wards
disappear. In Italy some psychiatrie hospitais, very old buildings sometimes, were
changed into apartments, where people, ex-patients, find a place to live. Sometimes
some serviees of the former hospital still are provided, a central kitchen for
example. Assistance comes from outside the former center. The tenants are called
"guests" to indicate their new status.

Alternatives for residential care are promoted at this moment in more countries. In
the Netherlands it is a goal of government policy to substitute a certain number of
beds in psychiatrie hospitals by places in smal! scale housing facilities. These
socalled "Beschermende woonvormen" (sheltered housing) are considered a better
method of housing for persons with psychicatrie disorders than a residential setting.
In fact reintegration is the aim of the houses, but th at doesn't always work out.

43
Many sorts of group homes, hostels, etc., are started. Some of them are meant for
chronie patients, to gi ve them a better , more pleasant life than in the old
ins ti tut ion. Others are meant as a pi ace where one is prepared for living in the
community again, a form of half-way housing, between residential center and life in
society. Grouphomes vary very much: in some much assistance is given, in others a
weekly visit is paid by the helper.
With regard to the number of people in a group no optimum seems to exist; it
depends of individual needs. Sometimes the size of a family (4-6 members) is
considered best; other people however like to be a bit "anonymous" within a group,
they want to have the opportunity to withdraw easily and be alone, and make
contact when they feel up to it. In that case, a somewhat larger group will be
preferred. Furthermore staffing and financing can be a factor that determines the
groupsize. Facilities too differ: sometimes a standard family house is used, but in
that case the bedrooms often are too small to be used as bedsitters. In other cases
houses are designed and built for the purpose with rooms that are large enough, and
a central kitchen.
In a new house in Kassei the rooms were of an acceptable size, but without a
private bathroom. The organization wanted to prevent that residents would isolate
themselves, not leaving their room, so they decided to leave out private bathrooms.
Basie furniture like a bed, a table and achair, is provided by the organization,
because they know many of the fut ure residents don't have the money to buy it
themselves. Unfortunately there is no place to store the furniture, when somebody
wants to bring in his or her bed or tabie.
However, a phenomenon new for Kassei was introduced in the house: a socalIed
"Begegnungsstatte" (meeting place). Here people fr om outside can come, and groups
can meet there, and especially other people with psychiatrie problems who have
left hospi tal or sheltered housing can come and have a coffee, read a newspaper,
etc. Inviting people in has been done by various organizations, in this example here
they already took it into account in the design of the building. On the other hand
this solution may have a disadvantage. People don't have to leave the house for
recreation or contacts with other people anymore, they can go downstairs to this
room to meet other people instead of leaving the building.

Alternative organizations have started housing facilities tooi an example can be


found in a project in Nijmegen, called "De Uitriehting", (whieh means something
like "the extitution"), where five persons, who have been in a psychiatrie hospita!
(or run a chance of having to go there), can live in an apartment and get a form of
ambulatory care. Housing and assistance are separated. The assistance is given by
voluntary workers; the organization has chosen for this form of support, because
they want to avoid inequality in the relationship between the "expert" helper and
the dient and in their opinion, support should be given on a basis of solidarity. The
workers get supervision and can turn to a professional organization if necessary, to
ask for help. A problem is the lack of continuity, workers of ten change. For
staffmembers, one unit in the same building as the apartments, is available. This
unit is also used as meeting place.
When assistance is no longer required, the tenants don't have to move; they have

44
rented the apartment themselves and can stay there. Important difference with
"institutional" sheltered homes is the fact that here people do have an income and
pay their rent, etc., themselves, instead of getting pocket money via the
institution. A fundamental condition is of course that their income is sufficient.

Other people are living all alone, with someone visiting them on a regular basis;
therapies, if necessary, are provided by ambulatory services. In KasseI an
organization gives this kind of attendance to a few psychiatric patients who are
living on their own. Although these persons rented the flats themselves, the
landlord knew there was this organization looking after the new tenant; it was felt
as a sort of guarantee, th at e.g. the rent would be paid.

The ideas of the Dutch "verdunningsfilosofie", that wanted to mix persons with a
handicap with other people, is not only applied for mentally handicapped but also in
the field of psychiatry.
A psychiatric hospital in the Netherlands has taken the initiative to open its
grounds and buildings to society and give the people who originally lived th ere a
chance to integrate and regain their own responsibilities. In the old buildings a
number of apartments were realized for 1 up to 4/5 persons, furthermore some new
houses were built on the grounds as weIl as in the village. The apartments are easy
to adapt to the si ze of a group, when changes take place. People choose the other
group members themselves, (with the help of an independent agency), the staff does
not interfere in this procedure.

Community care
Community care is meant to be care in the community, not by the community. It
should be an integrated system, induding housing, social and health services, with a
coherent approach. This should make reintegration of persons in society more easy.
This type of menthal health care should prevent people having to go to hospital, it
may not be necessary to move them there if the right assistance is given
immediately. In many countries community care is being reinforced.
In the United Kingdom community based services are a very popular issue. A
network of mental health services is set up within a city or district. People with
mental health problems can turn to this service and get help, therapies, be involved
in day-activities etc. The community teams are multi-disciplinary, in some teams a
key-worker is assigned to persons asking for help. The advantage is that the patient
has to deal with only one person and does not have to teIl his story every time fr om
the beginning. All groups of persons with a handicap can make use of the services.
Mind, the organization for the inter ests of psychiatric patients in the United
Kingdom considers this form of care very important, but has formulated some
conditions. The consumer or dient should be treated as a full citizen with rights
and responsiblities. The services should be locally accessible and provided to the
dient in the usual environment. Dependence should be minimized, self-
determination of the individual responsibilities stimulated, etc ••
Unfortunately these beautiful policy-initiatives don't always fulfill the
expectations. It seems easier to reduce beds than to build up alternatives.

45
Sometimes it is lack of the necessary financial means that stops alternative ways of
care and assistance, sometimes it is a lack of coordination between the various
departments. 50, in many cases the wards are closed but the new networks, serviees
etc. aren't there, because the financing of the work, whieh should be arranged by
another authority, isn't done (and sometimes never will be, because there is no
money). In that way it is just words and good intentions but the people who need the
help are (sometimes literally) out in the cold.
The same goes for the work in institutions: also there cuts in public spending of ten
are felt: too many patients and too few staff members, an unhappy combination
that makes real progress diffieult.

In Italy socalled "Centri di Igiene mentale" were started. Two examples: in the
province of Arezzo centers were initiated, that provide ambulatory care, as well as
assistance for persons who have been admitted in a general hospital in a situation of
crisis. The staff works in the center and makes house calls; they try to help not only
with the psychiatrie problems, but also try to solve the practieal diffieulties, like
finding a job or a house, help budgetting or spending the leisure time. This is done
because these things are se en as important for the situation in life of clients. In
Triest the center has some beds where people can spend the night. But also her, like
in Arezzo house calls are made and help is given in case of crisis. The staff also
assists five groups in the area, each consisting of of 23 persons. The kitchen
provides meals, not only for the clients of the center, but also for the
neighbourhood and there is a "cassa" (cash desk) to help people to control their
money.

In the Netherlands the social workers of the city of 's Hertogenbosch started a
project when they were confronted with the needs of ex-pyschiatrie patients. They
created a place where they could come whenever they wanted, for a. talk, help, or
just a cup of coffee. Furthermore they started groups: the members of a group, who
meet once a week, help each other with practical and emotional problems, and they
can contact each other whenever necessary. A form of self-help was created. The
needs of the users of the serviee are the starting point, that's where help is focused.
After the first period of the project some people who would have to go to hospital
were taken in the groups as well; in most cases hospitalization could be prevented.
By now the project is becoming independent of the municipal organization.

As said before, in this period of public spending cuts the group of homeless people is
growing and among them there are many persons with psychiatrie disorders. Very
recently however, in the Netherlands it was discovered that in some facilities for
homeless people, or in pensions, many persons with psychiatrie disorders are living.
Some of them are moving from one place to another, others stay in the same
facility. It seems th at many of them are doing fine that way. They often have their
private income (a social benefit) and, what is more important, they have a social
network and a role in the place where they are staying. For some persons that kind
of housing seems to be acceptable, or even a good solution, one that fits their
nee ds. Further research is necessary on how these facilities function and the

46
advantages as weIl as the disadvantages of this sort of living conditions for some
people with psychiatrie disorders.

An issue that always returns in conversations with people is the need for
information. In the United Kingdom a project caIled "Good Practiees in Mental
Health", started, to encourage exchange of information on local mental health
serviees. The project collects data about projects and makes them generally
available. They publish reports with descriptions of projects that are judged to be of
special interest to follow up. The information is used by workers in the health and
welfare services, and also by ot her groups of workers who may be caIled on to
advise people with problems related to mental illness.

Formal rights of psychiatrie residents aren't very weIl developed. In the


Netherlands for example psychiatrie residents officiaIly have the same rights as any
other citizen, but the opportunity to exercise these rights doesn't always exist. Two
new developments are important: first the introduction of the socalIed "trusted
representative of patients" ("patientenvertrouwenspersoon"). This person has to
fight for the rights and the interests of the patients that come to him, he has to
defend them. They are employed by a special organization, not by the hospital to
guarantee their independence. Their task is to treat complaints of patients and help
them to sort things out. As a matter of principle they are on the side of the patient.
Secondly new legislation on the judicial position of patients in general is in a
preparatory stage. A few elements of this legislation (that is going to be inserted in
existing laws) are: the consent of the patient is required for any medieal treatment;
the right to information and last but not least the protection of privacy. A new law
on being committed is also prepared.

6.3 Conclusion

New smaIl scale facilities are built, and ways to promote integration in com munity
for this group are tested via a number of new initiatives. A special role is played by
serviees for outpatient care and community based services. However, research is
necessary on many subjects. EspeciaIly in this period of economie recession these
people seem to become the first vietims; among the growing group of homeless
people many (ex)psychiatrie patients can be found, who are excluded by provisions
and in fact live outside society. Despite some new developments the possibilities
for th is category seem limited; acceptance is far off.

47
7 KEY THEMES FOR A NEW EUROPEAN POLICY UNDER DISCUSSION

7.1 Introduction

Key themes in the research process


Draft key themes played an important role in the interviews with experts. They
were discussed during a meeting with members of the Bureau for action in favour of
disabled people on April 29, 1987. During each interview one or more of the key
themes were introduced, depending upon the orientation and experience of the
persons interviewed.
These draft key themes were discussed during the formal interviews but also at
other meetings with experts, employees of projects that were visited,
representatives of national and local governments and organisations. They were also
viewed in the light of the literature consulted.

This chapter summarizes the outcome of those discussions. The rapportage is based
on the resulting new, definitive key themes. It gives an insight into the
transformation that the original key themes (see annexe 3) underwent. The new
themes are presented in the form of statements; they are the outcome of the
. (thinking) process of the study.

The key themes


Overall theme: Toward autonomy in housing for the handicapped.
Key theme 1: More awareness and attention in European policies concerning the
handicapped, also in the perspective of the growing number of
elderly people.
Key theme 2: Better data, to make the housing situation of the handicapped more
visible.
Key theme 3: A clear definition of the entitlement of the handicapped to housing
and care, to prevent discrimination and to stimulate participation in
decisionmaking.
Key theme 4: National building codes, insuring the accessibility and adaptability of
all new and renovated buildings are more adsivable than special
housing for the handicapped; general services are preferred over
services exclusively for the handicapped.
Key theme 5: The improvement of the social-economic position of the handicapped
is more important than good housing and services; in this respect
Europe as an important authority in the economic field has a task.

49
Key theme 6: A further stimulation of the de-institutionalisation processes by
improving and extending care and services in local communities.
Key theme 7: Especially at the European level the stimulation of new
developments in housing and meeting the demands of the disabled is
very usefull; th is implies a.o. a better, innovative development
program and a better education of European architects and policy
makers.

In these new themes attention has shifted from elements in the draft key themes
concerning care and support, to policy developments at the European level. The
issues concerning care, like "support made to measure", proved to be an "open door"
and thus less relevant than topics regarding developments in (European) policy.

Key themes as a method for policy making


By formulating key themes we intend to stimulate the development of factual
policy perspectives. Without such perspectives policy making is very diHicult. It
might be useful not only to reach agreement over a general objective, but also over
policy themes. Both are crucial for the direction in which new policies are to be
developed; the themes should what is expected of fut ure policies. The word "theme"
makes clear th at we are not dealing with policy implementation. The current state
of affairs concerning housing for the disabled in Europe prevents this. Furthermore,
since each European country has its own traditions and opportunities in this field,
the idea to develop one policy th at can be "universally" implemented is unrealistic.
The previous chapters show, that this is even more so since housing for the disabled
is closely interrelated with health and social services, employment, physical
planning etc.

By offering an overall theme and a limited number of key themes, disçussions about
the process of policy making, and its limitations, are facilitated. The overall
concept should also be recognizable as a stimulating "slogan" for students and
people working in this field. For this reason we aimed at the formulation of a
compact definition of the overall theme for policy making. During the interviews
we used the concept of "autonomous living" a concept also referred to that has
returned in the title of th is report.

7.2 Key themes

Overall theme "Towards autonomy in housing for the handicapped"


This theme emphasizes the rights, financial possibilities and general provisions for
the handicapped. The handicapped are normal European citizens. They should not be
discriminated as a result of inaccessible and unadaptable housing, the obligation to
live in specific places and institutions, a (sub-)minimal income level or other
physical and social barriers.

50
Key theme 1: more awareness and attention in European policies concerning the
disabled, also in the perpective of the growing number of elderly
people.

Economie co-operation has always been one of the main components of European
policy. Within this economie approach, social aspects played an important part.
Since a couple of years attention is given to the position of disabled people, this
resulted in the formulation of the first action program. When assessing the present
state of affairs it should be noticed that, as a result of the economie recession and
world wide trade wars within Europe, attention for minority groups has decreased.
The international Year for the Disabled helped to raise awareness and stimulated
policy making, both at the European level and at that of the individual countries.
However, since then, attention has switched to economie problems. Policies
concerning housing, heaJth and social services are influenced by:
- public spending cuts;
- privatisation;
- stressing the responsibility of citizens to solve their own problems (by hel ping
themselves and their neighbours, by using volunteers etc.).

This shift in policy has a major and al ready visible impact. It should be notieed that
individual policies often work in the same direction. On the one hand they force
individuals, groups and organisations to become less dependent of the authorities
and to develop new forms of housing and care. On the other hand these policies may
limit the opportunities of minority groups to participate in society. A clear
indieater is the increase in the number of homeless people. Many of them are
people with psychiatric problems, forced to leave the institutions an insufficiently
helped by the traditional housing and social services sectors.

Just Iike many other groups within Europe, the disabled face declining incomes (in
real terms). On top of this problem, the current level of unemployment in many
countries, makes it, especial!y for the disabled, hard to find a job. Growing numbers
of handicapped people are dependent upon social security payments and this makes
it even more difficult for them to pay for housing according to their needs.
Decreasing incomes also make it more diffieult to take part in different kinds of
social actitivities. As a result more time has to be spent at home. But these homes
are not very appropriate for this situation. Rooms may be too smal!. For those
living independently, neighbourhood activity centres are not always available; or
are closed down. When an individual, disabled or not, can not develop himself by
meeting and co-operating with other people, serious health problems may arise.
Therefore Europe has every reason to consider its general policy in the light of its
effects for the disabled. It may wel! be that the present state of affairs shows
several unexpected and undesired elements.

Quite remarkably, during some of the interviews in the "richer" EC-countries, like
Denmark and the Netherlands, the following question was asked: "Would it not be
better if the funds for services for the disabled were re-allocated?" Possibly this

51
question emerged as a result of certain feelings of guilt. One thinks about the
situation in the poorer southern countries as being even worse and wants to help.
But the same time it is stressed th at the situation in the richer countries, is
worsening recently. It is regarded as inacceptable that improving the situation in
other countries may further deteriorate the situation for the handicapped in the
own countries. From this discussion we draw the conclusion that extra efforts for
the disabled and a redistributing force are needed at the European level, in order to
neutralise the shift of attention to national economic policies.

Many of the people we interviewed considered the division, made at the European
level, between the disabled and the elderly as an actual or potential group at risk as
being artificial. In the past it was decided that policies concerning the disabled
could only include people within the age group of potential wage earners. As a
result of that reason only little attention was paid to, handicapped children while
handicapped pensionners we re excluded. Some of the people we interviewed
objected however.
- The proportion of elderly people in Europe is growing. The problems of the
elderly and the disabled show many similarities. Both policy areas are strictly
seperated in most countries and it would be a major improvement if the people
concerned could learn from each other.
- Many elderly people were not handicapped during (most of) their working lifes
and, for this reason, do not fall within the European definition of disabled
persons. However, their complaints may be a result of the work the did. A society
that allowed those working conditions to exist should at least care for its victims.

Some experts point at the mobility problems of pregnant women, mothers with
perambulators and houswives with shopping trollies. Also for them the accessibility
of buildings, houses and' the environment is an important factor.
Special attention has to be paid to disabled "guest workers" and disabled immigrants
from former colonies. These people of ten have extra problems to find a job in a
period of declining labour market conditions. Help for these people can be
considered a task at a European level. Their problem is not only unemployment and
the resulting low income. The cultural gap between them and the society in which
they live is also important. Language problems, and sometimes social judgements
and taboos within these cultural minority groups, may prevent handicapped
members of these groups to express their problems and have them recognized. The
combination of migration, unemployment and being handicapped can as such be a
hazard to one's mental health. If one can not find the right words to express it, the
problem becomes even more worse.

Key theme 2: Better data to make the housing problem of the disabled more visible

For several reasons the housing problem tends to be overlooked at the European
level. Factors mentioned during the interviews were:
lack of recent, mutually comparable statistics;
- lack of an undisputed classification of handicaps;

52
lack of nomenclature of services, which makes it hard to get a good insight in
what is on offerj
- decentralisation of policies, diminishing the need to collect data and statisticsj as
a consequence an overall view of the situation is absentj
- special housing and care are more designed for the individual (in comparison with
the large scale facilities), making it hard to develop standards and preventing
them being made into statisticsj
- some categories of handicapped people are only smalI, especially at the local
levelj for this reason they can easily be overlooked by the decision makersj
- in most countries a large number of different organisations for the disabled existj
this may prevent them fr om standing up for their common interestj especially the
mentally handicapped and people with psychiatric problems are placed at a
disadvantage.

It is clear th at a policy, based upon sufficient information, can hardly be developed.


It was pointed out to us that the European level could be very suitable for
collecting this information. Small groups of people with a special handicap would
still be counted if figures were collected at this level. It would also allowan easier
comparison between housing and services for each category between the European
countries. Furthermore, it could be an advantage for the larger categories, like the
mentally handicapped and people with psychiatric problems. Especially for these
two categories the search for what is the best solution continues. There is astrong
need for information in the field (see also theme 7).
From all these remarks we draw the conclusion that, in order to improve policies,
bet ter information is of vital importance. The national level doesn't seem
appropriate for focusing attention to the smaller categories and to judge
experiments.

As we have seen, decentralisation and individualisation have side-effects. It


becomes more difficult to compiIe statistics at a national level. The people with
whom we discussed this problem emphasized th at both tendencies as such are to be
judged favourably. However, they stressed th at governments remain responsible for
the impact of policies, however decentralised and individualised they may be.
Information at the national level is needed to asses the effects of new trends in
policy and to have a good view on the developments.

A great number of organisations for the disabled exists, every disease and disability
seems to have its own organization. Apart from this, but considering the complexity
of European societies, the existence of a whole range of organisations is hardly
surprizing. The European administrative level could give these organisations better
opportunities to present themselves, because of the greater number of people that
they then represent. For improving housing and services for the disabled it is vital
that they themselves can put forward their opinion and needs. Support by a
powerful European institution which can give good information on the situation
would be of great help (compare for example the economomic statistics on
European level).

53
Key theme 3: A clear definition of the entitiement of the handicapped to housing
and care, to prevent discrimination and to stimulate participation in
decisionmaking.

For a variety of reasons, the people interviewed, didn't really believe in the
usefulness of describing the rights of the disabled in special rules and regulations.
- Rules and regulations are not always effective (e.g. the compulsory use of certain
minimal measurements in new buildings that are prescribed in several countries
in order to make them accessible to wheelchair users);
- Rules and regulations are useless if there is no money available to implement
themj public spending cuts have shown what so called "rights" are really worth.
- Rules and regulations are also useless if there are no penalties for offenders.
- Special rules and regulations for the disabled are conflicting with the principal of
equal rights for every member of society.
- Special rul es and regulations for minority groups seem to affirm the presumption
th at the people concerned are "different", which can result in keeping them
isolated.
- Special rul es and regulations are not in line with the concept of normalisation,
which only became accepted after severe efforts.
Rules and regulations can easily lead to dependencej when asking for something
one has to prove one's handicap and one has to fit in with the standards that apply
to the service that is needed.

Af ter studying these objections one tends to think that no rul es and regulations is
the best solution. However, when discussing these matters more deeply, it becomes
clear th at a wide gap exists bet ween the positition of the disabled, above all the
mentally handicapped and people with psychiatric problems, and that of other
citizens. At the European level important steps were made to help the "liberation"
of women (e.g. equal rights in social security). Now the same effort is needed for
the liberation of the disabled. It is very stimulating that they can go to the
European Court of Justice and refer ot their rights when claiming accessible
housing, good service systems in the neighbourhood ans so on. This has a very great
impact on the public opinion in a country and the awareness of policy makers at the
local level. Many of the people with whom we discussed these topics are interested
to know what legal solutions were found in other countries. One such legal solution
is the appointment of "trusted representatives" for pecple with psychiatric
problems in the Netherlands. Another interesting field are the standards for
accessible buildings.

Key theme 4: National building codes, insuring the accessibility and adaptability of
all new and renovated buildings are more desirabie than special
housing for the handicappedj general services are preferred over
services exclusively for the handicapped.

When developing new policies for the handicapped it is important to distinguish


between:

54
attention at a political level;
2 research and development;
3 laws and regulations defining the rights of groups and individuals;
4 actual provision of housing, care etc.

The first three activities do not necessarily mean that the creation of actual
provisions exclusively for the members of a minority group. When we distinguish
bet ween policy development and legal instruments on the one hand and actual
provisions for the every day life on the other hand this means an important step
forward towards social integration. By making priori ties within the general process
of policy making and by providing legal instruments one can help the minority
groups to strenghten their posi tion. Building houses and by creating services
accessible for everybody pre vents th at some groups of people are isolated in
everyday life. This is an important step towards the social integration of the
disabled.

More specifically:
- in every country there must be a building code for all buildings (houses, offices,
public buildings etc.) urban renewal and renovations to make buildings accessible
and adaptable for the handicapped;
- this building code will differ from country to country depending on level of
prosperity, cultural standard, climatic conditions and so on (thus no European
standards);
the implementation of such a code should result in sufficient number of
accessible houses; then it is no longer necessary to have special housing
regulations and livings for the handicapped;
- it is equally true that, when the general services and care-facilities are at a such
a level that they can handle the problems of the handicapped, it is no more
necessary to have specific services and facilities;
- the lesser specific buildings and facilities especially designed for handicapped
people, the sooner the disabled will be integrated in society.
Many of the people that we interviewed indicated the neighbourhood level as the
optimal level at which the planning of housing and services should take place. This
is even more so since many people, like pensioners and unemployed, (but also
working people with shorter working weeks), tend to spend more time in their home
and its immediate surroundings. The neighbourhood replaces of the work floor as
the focusing point for everyday life. Work is no longer the most important thing in
many people's life. This means that there is a demand for unpaid activities
(voluntarily jobs) and the opportunity to meet people. The neighourhood should offer
better opportunities for those who cannot easily go elsewhere. Of course this type
of social integration doesn't come out of the blue. However it can be expected that,
when more people get acquainted with a disabled persons, the original bias will be
replaced by understanding and friendliness. Attention the reception of the disabled
in the neighbourhood is vital for sol ving the housing problem. This goes for old as
weIl as for new neighbourhoods.

55
Key theme 5: The improvement of the social - economic position of the disabled is
more important than good housing and services; in this respect
Europe as an important authority in the economic field has a task.

The creation of excellent housing facilities for the disabled, is necessary but not
sufficient. The main cause of the social problems of the disabled is the fact that
they are treated differently. Discrimination on the labour market means a social
disadvantage for the disabled. Social security payments have decreased as aresuIt
of public spending cuts. This results in a lower level of independency, but the
services that should render help are often also cut back as a result of decreasing
public grants.
The people that we interviewed state the importance of a regular job for all
handicapped people th at can work. A job will give them a more equal position
within society. A sufficient income or a budget, and the freedom to decide about
standards of living and care, adds to this equality.
The over-all concept autonomous living, can only be reached if the disabled have a
sufficiently high income, that allows them to make their own decisions concerning
care etc.

Key theme 6: A further stimulation of de-institutionalisation processing by


improving and extending care and services in local communities.

As already mentioned, the growing number of the homeless people is a c1ear


indicator for the failure of the European countries to cope with people with
psychiatric problems. Some of the people th at we interviewed feel ashamed about
this growth. It indicates in their opinions th at society doesn't really care about
many of its citizens. Everyone agrees that the proces of de-institutionalisation,
although good in itself, quite of ten was not followed up by an extension of care
outside institutions. They think that by stressing the need to help oneself and one's
neighbours, governments only hope to make their privatisation program mes and
public spending cuts more acceptable to the public. The speed with which some new
policies now are implemented has almost inhuman consequenses. For this reason
some people think th at the roots of European civilisation are at risk. Everybody
emphasizes that the de-institutionalization processes have to be stimulated by
improving and extending care and services in local communities.
Sometimes, basing their statements on conclusions on cost-benefit studies, experts
stay that, at the macro level, independent living of the handicapped people is
cheaper than living in institutions. Several respondents say that many of those now
living in institutions can live outside with minimal to medium level support. The
interests of the established institutions conflict with the tendency towards
independent living. It is necessary to rechannel the money streams from the
intramural sector to the extramural one and to a1low the handicapped themselves to
choose the way of living and care that they want. There is a lack of good economic
analyses on this topic
Very important is the way in which service systems are organized and the way in
which the local community is involved. As an example of a new vision on these

56
topics we give here the definition of community psychiatry; an approach that is
developed on the base of Italian experiences. This definition can be transformed for
the other categories and also for the older people with geriatric problems. Tansella
(zie annex) proposes the following definition of: "A system of care devoted to a
defined population and based on a comprehensive and integrated mental health
service, which includes:
- out patient facilities;
- day and residential training centres;
- residential accomodation in hostels;
- sheltered workshops;
- in-patient units in general hospitais;
and which ensures
- multidisdplenary teamwork;
- early diagnosis;
- prompt treatment;
- continuity of care;
- sodal support;
- a close liaison with other medical and sodal
community services and, in particular, with general
practioners" •

Key theme 7: Espedally at the European level the stimulation of new


developments in housing and meeting the demands of the disabled is
useful; this implies a.o. better, innovative development program and
bet ter education of European architects and policy makers.

Under key theme 2 we pointed at the "invisibility" of the housing problems of the
disabled at a European level. We stated that the small numbers of people in some
(sub) categories make the international level the best one for the development of
information systems and polides. Most of the people that we interviewed expressed
great interest in an international interchange of ideas. In order to create bet ter
aids, housing opportunities and care, one is anxious to know what developments are
taking place elsewhere. Many of them are also interested in the rules and
regulations th at all ow these developments.

The working visits of experts to projects abroad, show that this interest is sineere.
It is interesting to trace the routes that some new developments took as a result of
these working visits. Denmark for instanee is often visited, while the Danish at
their turn use Sweden as an example for the housing and education of and care for
the mentally handicapped. Italy was visited by many experts from the Netherlands
after it closed its psychiatric hospitais. Experiments in the Netherlands, to disperse
people with psychiatric problems over the neighbourhood, partly inspired by the
Italian example, are now being visited by the Danes and other foreigners. The
"independent living movement", originating from the United States, was introduced
in Great Britain and now serves as an example for other Western European
countries.

57
During the interviews the suggestion was made to organise employee interchange
programmes. By asking people to work one or two weeks in an other setting they
can see for themselves that alternatives exist.

Working visits are also essential for building experts, to show them new housing
opportunity schemes and accessible housing projects. Many building experts were
convinced that in the training of people, not enough attention was paid to the
problems and needs of the disabled, ergonomics and social and institutional barriers.
As far as technical accessibility is concerned, this is highly remarkable, because
technical text books are generally available. Working visits seem to offer good
opportunities to convince students and architects of the problems they cause and
the interesting solutions th at have been developed in building practice. Some
experts plead for amending the curriculum for the architect-title with knowledge of
ergonomics for the handicapped and the elderly and the needs of these categories.

As they stress the need for information about new projects and solutions the
positive attitude to the principle of European demonstration projects, part of the
first action programme (1982 - 1987), hardly comes as a surprise. However, there is
also some criticism, leading to recommendations to improve the way demonstration
projects are being set up.
- Whatever can be learned from demonstration projects should reach those who can
put it into practise. Until now the people who know about these projects are
often those who meet each other at conferences,
- New experimental projects should be part of an innovative policy of a country. In
other words: experiments should only take place if the national government is
ready to use the experience to change its policy. This also means that
experiments should take into account the cultural and political background of the
country concerned.
- More money should be made available for experimental projects because of the
complexity of the problem. As it is, the program is not sufficient to be seen as an
important European innovative project. If compared with other European
innovative projects, e.g. on technology and economic developments, it is only
peanuts.
- Universities should be asked to pay more attention, both in education and
research program mes, to the handicapped, their needs, possibilities for
independent living and ergonomics. Incentive grants can be very helpful. Until
now those university teachers and researchers that do their best in this field are
quite 9ften not taken seriously. Some European support would be very welcome.
- Better evaluation and the introduction of scientific development projects would
make innovative policies more substantial. Therefore the results would be more
easily accepted by decision makers. Very important are good comparable co st-
benefit studies of the several proposed solutions. Special attention should be
given to the cost-benefits of adaptable building and de-institutionalization
solutions especially for the categories: mentally handicapped and people with
psychiatric disorders.

58
8SUMMARY

To support new policy initiatives the European Commission wanted to be better


informed about new developments and trends, not only in policy making but also in
practical measures, that stimulate or frustrate the opportunities for living
independently; furthermore innovative trends in housing and care had to be
described. A number of "key themes" had to be formulated that could be used to
indicate new directions.

An important problem turned out to be the definiton of handicap and disability.


Many definitons are being used. As aresuIt it is difficult to find reliable statistics.
Especially when international statistics are used it turns out that most of the time
figures can't be compared. The lacking of reliable figures and data is a problem for
policy making.
In chapter 2 we distinguished three categories: the physically disabled, the mentally
handicapped and the persons who suffer fr om psychiatric disorders. This division has
been used in this report.

As stated in chapter 3, housing is a part of national policy; the situation of disabled


people on the housing market is related to other aspects of social policies, to the
economic situation, etc. Their chance of finding suitable housing facilities depends
upon two factors: the general situation on the housing market and their income.
When in a country a shortage of housing (and of building activities) exists, they will
have little chance of finding a home, especially one that suits their needs, needs
that are different from the needs of people without a handicap. Secondly, as their
income of ten is too low to afford a house, they may need extra financial support.
These two factors do limit their chances of finding housing on the free market, so
public help is necessary. Because of decreasing of investments on the one hand and
privatisation in Europe on the other hand the situation of disabled people on the
housing market for disabled people only is deteriorating.

The problems of physically disabled people can be diminished by the right


adaptations and technical aids in their house; in this way their autonomy can be
increased. In chapter Ij. three levels of access to the house were distinguished: the
environment of the house must be accessible in order to be able to reach the house,
then the dwelling itself must be accessible, and, finally, the house should be usabIe,
meaning adaptable.
Much might be gained by rules that oblige to build all new houses accessible to for

59
instanee wheelchair users. Also a social reason can be given for choosing this
solution: people will be able to visit friends and relatives, because all their houses
are accessible. However it will be difficult to make this a rule: private investors
don't like to build for small groups, with needs that differ from the "standard"
needs. Besides many people are sceptic about introducing new rules in this field.
Adaptable building seems to be a good solution, although the extra costs aren't
quite clear, but this is only a solution for new houses. Many disabled people ho wever
are dependent of housing out of the existing stock; these dwellings may have to be
adapted in order to make them suitable for a handicapped person. In a number of
countries there are provisions, financial support schemes for people needing to
adapt their homes; however most of these regulations are too complicated to be
really effective.
It is amazing how much technical information on accessiblity, adaptablity and aids
is available, but even more amazing it is to see how little this information is
actually used. With small changes sometimes a home can be ready for a disabled
person, but of ten nobody thinks about simple solutions. Archi tects and policy
makers don't use the available konwiedge; they don't seem to be aware of the fact
that disabled people exist in society and need housing; therefore this subject should
be part of their training and education.
On the other hand the "consumer" of these aids and adaptations needs information
as weIl; this is provided by several organizations.
Besides technical solutions disabled people may need help with daily activities.
Several services are started to provide this assistance in one way or another. It is
important that these schemes are flexible and "made to measure"; they should
provide help not only during working hours (as many of the traditional services did),
but also in weekends, during night-time, etc. Financing and coordination of services
that give assistance is a problem in many countries. ft shouldn't be necessary to
apply for each sort of help to a different organisation. When arranging assistance
the needs of the user should be starting point. In that respect the Danish system of
an attendance allowance seems to offer possibilities: in this system the person with
a disability gets an allowance to hire an attendant. The disabled employs the
assistant and determines for instanee on wh at times assistance is needed.

For mentally handicapped new developments are more or less a continuation and an
improvement of ideas developed before. Small scale facilities, integrated in
community, forms of attended living schemes, be it alone or in a group, are
developed in most countries. To give people a real chance of becoming independent,
it turnec\ out to be important th at they had a training before moving into such a
scheme. Furthermore it is important that there is a possibility for day activities
nearby, especially for those people who don't work. To promote integration, people
are living in family houses in a neighbourhood, near shops, recreational facilities,
etc.
To increase the possibilities for staying at home, services are started to assist the
family that takes care of a handicapped relative.
However, as pointed out in chapter 5, rules on financing and design of ten favour
traditional institutional care; in th at way it becomes very hard to start new

60
initiatives, new forms of living and care for this group. The present economie
situation makes the situation even worse. Facilities are closed down and policy
makers promise replacing serviees, whieh should improve the possibilities for
integration. But it turns out that sometimes facilities, institutions, serviees stop
before these alternative provisions are made. This causes much problems.

For the third category, persons with psychiatrie disorders, new developments are
also directed towards small scale facilites, more integration in community, offering
more possibili ties for autonomy. Schemes for (different sorts of) group homes,
living alone with attendance, etc., are developed at several places.
Ambulatory care, care in the community, is getting more important for persons
with psychiatrie disorders. However this group faces more problems in getting
accepted; they are in a way rejected by society. In policy making they don't play a
very important role. As stated in the sixth chapter, they are the first to suffer the
consequences of the economie reces sion , the first that are becoming vietims of the
present policy of public spending cuts. Consequences of the lack of support for this
group can be seen in some cities on the streets: among the growing group of
homeless people there are many persons with psychiatrie disorders, partly ex-
psychiatrie patients, who were released from institutions, but had no place to go, no
place to turn to for help.

Chapter 7 contains the definitive key themes, that were formulated as a result of
the discussions held during the research project. Special attention is paid to policy
developments at the European level. The themes can be considered as first steps for
developing a new policy.

The key themes:


Overall theme: Towards autonomy in housing for the handieapped.
Key theme 1: More awareness and attention in European policies concerning the
handieapped, also in the perspective of growing number of elderly
people.
Key theme 2: Better data to make the housing situation of the handieapped more
visible.
Key theme 3: A clear definition of the entitlement of the handieapped to
housing and care, to prevent discrimination and to stimulate
participation in decisionmaking.
Key theme 4: National building codes, insuring the accessibility and adaptability
of all new and renovated buildings are more desirabie than special
housing for the handieapped; general serviees are preferred over
services exclusively for the handieapped.
Key theme 5: The improvement of the social-economie position of the
handieapped is more important than good housing and serviees; in
this respect Europe as an important ~uthority in the economic
field has a task.
Key theme 6: A further stimulation of the de-institutionalisation processes by
improving and extending care and serviees in local communities.

61
--- - - - - - ---------------------------------------------

Key theme 7: Especially at the European level the stimulation of new


developments in housing and meeting the demands of the disabled
is very usefull; this implies a.o. a better , innovative development
program and a better edueation of European arehiteets and poliey
makers.

62
ANNEXES
ANNEXE 1 Names and addresses of persons who were interviewed

Belgium
Laboratoire de Pedagogie Experimentale, Mrs. J. Beekers, Universite de Liege, au
Sart Tilman, 4.000 Liege I Belgium

Similes, Groeneweg 151,3030 Heverlee/Leuven, Belgium

HIVA, Universiteit van Leuven, Mr. E. Samoy, E. van Evenstraat 2e, 3000 Leuven,
Belgium

EC districtproject Genk-Has~elt, Mr. J. Knoops, Stadsomvaart 9, 3500 Hasselt,


Belgium

Ministerie van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap, Mr. G. Hertecant, Nijverheidsstraat 37,


1040 Brussel, Belgium

Vlaamse Federatie Gehandicapten, Mr. B. Rubens, St. Jansstraat 32/38, 1000


Brussel, Belgium

Katholieke Vereniging voor Gehandicapten, Mr. P.J. Meirens, Arthur Goemaerelei


66, 2018 Antwerpen, Belgium

Vormingsinstituut voor de Begeleiding van Gehandicapten (VIBEG), Mr. S. Schoofs,


Guimardstraat 1, 1040 Brussel, Belgium

VZW Monnikenheide, Ms. G. PIessers, Zoersel, Belgium

Interact, Ms. M. Kyriazopoulou and Mr. L. Joniaux, Square Ambiorix 32, Brussel,
Belgium

Denmark
Hoskov Centre, Danagervej 26, 8260 Viby (Aarhus), Denmark

Boinstitution Esbjerg, Mrs. B. Hensen, Aadalsvaenget 2, 6710 Esbjerg, Denmark

BMH, Mr. J. Frederiksen, Hans Knudsen Plads IA, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark

Nat. Board of Social Welfare, Mr. P. Senderhof, Kristineberg 6, 2100 Copenhagen,


Denmark

The Danish Building Research Institute, Mr. I. Ambrose, Postboks 119, 2910
Horsholm, Denmark

Set. Hans Hospital, Mr. F. Jorgensen, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark

France
Ministere des Affaires Sociales et de l'Emploi, Direction de l'Emploi Sociale, 124,
rue Sadi-Camot, 92 Vanves, France
CTNE RHI (Centre Technique National d'etudes et de recherches sur les handicaps
et les inadaptations) 124, rue Sadi-Camot 92 Vanves, France

Projet Euramis, Mr. G. Zribi, 2 Avenue Marthe, AFA-ACR Champigny, France

Pont Canal, Mr. Millot, 24-26 rue des Ecluses-Saint-Martin, 75010 Paris, France

GIPH (Groupment pour I'lnsertion des Personnes Handicapees Physiques), Mr. P.


Saint Martin, 10, rue Georges de Porto Riche, 75014 Paris, France

Federal Republic of Germany


EC district project Berlin-Spandau, Landes Versorgungsamt, Mr. J. Schneider,
Postfach 310929, Berlin, FRG

"Behindertengruppe KasseI", researcher for "Berufliche Rehabilition" University


KasseI, Ms. G. Hermes, Parkstrasse 47, 3500 KasseI, FRG

Gesundheitsamt Stadt KasseI, Mr. P.L. Eisenberg, Wilhelmshoher Allee 32A, 3500
KasseI, FRG

Diakonie Wohnstatte Nordhessen e.V., Ms. H. Lauer, Bergshauserstrasse 1, KasseI,


FRG

Bundesministerium fur Arbeit und Sozialordnung, Mr. H. Haines, Lengsdorfer


Hauptstrasse 80, Bonn, FRG

Ms. Moya, Empirica (formerly ABT -Forschung), Kaiserstrasse 29-31, Bonn, FRG

Greece
Ministry of Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works, Ms. A. Leventi and
Ms. K. Skountzou, Amal1ados street 17, Athens, Greece

Ministry of Health, Welfare and Social Security, Mr. N. Vrionis, Aristotelous 17,
Athens, Greece

Chairman of the National Association of the Blind, director of the Institute of the
Deaf, Mr. I. Vardakastanis, Athens, Greece

Ireland
Department of Health, Mr. J. Robins, Hawkins House, Dublin 2, Ireland

National Rehabilitation Board, Mr. T. Page, 25, Clyde Road, Dublin 4, Ire1and
National Association of the Mentally Handicapped of Ireland (NAMHI), Mr. G. Ryan,
5 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2, Ireland

Italy
Comunita di Capodarco, Mr. A. Battaglia, Mr. A. Matteo and Mr. M. Bucerelli, Via
Lungro 3, 00178 Roma, Italy

AIAS, Mr. R. Belli, Via Giuliano Bugiardini 10,50143 Firenze, Ita1y


Ministerio del Lavoro, O.G. Affari Generale ePersonale, Mr. N. Agnini, Via Flavia
6, 00184 Roma, Italy

A.N.C.E. (Associazione Nazionale Costruzioni Edili) , Mrs. P. Inserra, Via Guattani


16,00161 Roma, Italy

E.N.A.I.P., Mr. Calmarini, Via Marcora 18/20, Roma, Italy

Regione di Lazio, Mr. F. Vescovo, Lungotevere Testaccio, 15,00153 Roma, Italy

AIAS, Mrs. T. Selli Ser ra (presidente), Via Rubens, 35, 00179 Roma, Italy

S.I.V.A., Don Gnocchi (Servizio Informazione Valutazioni Ausili), Mr. R. Andrich,


Via Gozzadini J, 20148 Milano, Italy

Luxembourg
Ministere de la Famille, du Logement Social et de la Solidarite Sociale, Ms. C.
Greisch, 14 Avenue de la Gare, Luxembourg

Netherlands
Stichting Fokus, Mr. E. Wiersma, Burg. Triezenbergstraat 30, Ten Boer (Gr.),
Netherlands

Department of Welfare, Health and Culture, Ms. Brenninkmeyer, P.O.Box 5406,


2280 HK Rijswijk, Netherlands

Mr. J.F. van Leer, Tollenslaan 8, Aerdenhout, Netherlands

St. Nederlandse Gehandicaptenraad, Mr. M. van Ditmarsch and Mr. D. Vogelzang,


St. Jacobsstraat 14, 3511 BS Utrecht, Netherlands

E.C.- district project Drechtsteden, Mr. F. v.d. Pas and Mr. M. Kamp, Stadskantoor,
room 180, Spui boulevard 300, 3311 GR Dordrecht, the Netherlands

University of Nijmegen, Prof.dr. T. Guffens, Thomas van Aquinolaan 4, Nijmegen,


Netherlands

Portugal
Secretariado Nacional de Reabilitacao, Dr. F. Fouto Polvora, Avenida Conde
Valbom, 63, 1200 Lisboa, Portugal

Secretariado Nacional de Reabilitacao, Mrs. M. de Lurdes Machado Faria, Avenida


Visconde Valrnor, 63, 1000 Lisboa, Portugal

Mr. J. Pires Marques, Av. Sidonio Pais, 20 - 1 0, 1000 Lisboa, Portugal

NIPRED, Camara Municipal de Lisboa, Av. 5 de Outubro, 213, Lisboa, Portugal


Spain
Direccion General de Accion Social, Subdirectora General de Program as de
Servicios Sociales, Ms. T. de Benavides Castro, Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad
Sodal, Jose Abascal 39, 28003 Madrid, Spain

Coordinadora Estatal de Minusvalidos Fisicos, Mr. M. Pereya Etchyerria, Eugenio


Salazar 2, Madrid, Spain (and Subdirector Tecnico del Hospital Nacional de
Paraplejicos, Toledo)

Director de Centro Estatal de Avudas Tecnicas para Minusvalidos INERSO, Mr. P.


Gil de la Cruz, Augustin de Foxa 31, 28036 Madrid, Spain

United Kingdom
Centre on Environment of the Handicapped, Ms. S. Langton-Lockton, 35 Great
Smith Street, London SWIP 3BJ, UK

Department of Environment, Mr. S. Goldsmith, 2 Marsham Street, London SW lP


3EB, UK

Lambeth Accord, Ms. R. Pickersgill and Mr. D. Leaman, 336 Brixton Road, Brixton,
\ London SW9 7 AA, UK

Camden Society for Mentally Handicapped People, Mr. S. Codling and Ms. H. Jarvis
245 Royal College Street, London NW 1, UK

Centre for Independent Living, Mr. P. Swain, 112 Hamlin Gardens, Exeter, Devon,
UK

MIND (National Association for Mental Health), Ms. J. Every, 24-32 Stephenson
Way, London NW 1 2HD, UK

Department for the Disabled, Fr. C. Webb, Diocese of Westminster, 73 St Charles


Square, London WIO 6EJ, UK
~I- U Deltt IU\.' -
R~ \1~
l'\S'~l1\ 'Tt
1
Rl}; ii1_~ 1 >{: R!:.~, _"t', Ji

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~ 31 15 78X)1.6
Ttiex tntw 381S1
ANNEXE 2- I

().lr rcl eJ"'I!:lce Dl. ree t l1ne IBte


CJR-87-27 31 15 78):)58 Hly 27, 1987

Dear Sir, Madam,

!he European Communi ty has asked the lnstltute for Bousing Research,
RIW, of the Technlcal University Delft to do a research on ne~
developments and trends In the housing of d1sabled persons (Including
physlcally aod sensorlal d16abled, .entelly disabled and mentally 111)
In the memberstates. Through the Bureau for Action In favour of Dlsabled
People we recelved your Dame as one of the e~perts In your country.
Besldes the iDformatlon requested In the letter hereby lncluded ve vould
llke to have ansvers to the folloving questions:
1. Could you give US some impressions of trends in your country on
housing for dlsebled persoDs over the past ten years?
2. Which are the Il1O st important points of view regarding houslng for
dlsabled people? (as Illustrated In artlcles, at meetings, etc.; any
documentatlon 6uch as artlcles, summarles of reports etc, or tltles,
yould be very helpful to us).
3. Whlch developoents do you foresee In your country and vhat do you
personally thlDk should happen In thls field? (please refer to
relevant projects lf posslble).
4. The European Comrnunlty vants to promote lntegratlon of dlsabled
persons In 60clety. Unt11 D"'" the Com~n1ty has glven financiel
support to e DUJ:lber of projects In the 12 memberstates end has
8tarted an Information network, called Randynet. Is thefe anythlng
else the EC should do accordlng to yOu, do you have any Buggestlons
about the role of the C~mmunlty?

We vould t:>e very pleased 1f you vould vant to help us, 1f posslble
before July 15, 1987. We look forward to hearing from you.

Yours slncerely,

~s . Anja de Jonge,
~s. Slbylle van Haastrecht.
Direct contacts ",ith ~xperts are vital for the success of this study.
Please inform US before January 8, 1987 about their naDes, eddress€s,
phonenUI:Jbers end profession. \.Ie ",ould apprec1ate it very IllUch if you
could eend us this information by telex. !he nurnber is 38151 bhthd nl.

For information you cen reach the researchers d1rectly by ph one.

Yours sincerely,

S.C. van Raastrecht,


Contactperson RI\.I-study
'Trends in the housing for
the disabled in the
European Community'

Enclosure(s): 2

Researchers Phonenumbers (direct lines)


Mr. J.H.Kroes (31) 15 78 3065
Ms. S.C. van Raastrecht (31) 15 78 3058
Mr. P.P.J. Houben (31) 15 78 3077

- 2 -
Rl\,' - Rf.S[)..1(Ql ! N':,lTI\JIL POR HJJS N;
Delft lhiwrs1ty

~~I
Z628 CR 0ClFT
'!he ~therla!)d6
'lhlex 38151 lntW nl

&Jbject ~ f e l"'e1l:e Date


!hls 1.ng for the ~ led EIR.! Svll/JvdB lke::ber 16, 1986

For the progress of the RIW-study 'Trends in the housing for the
disabled 1n the European Comrnunity' we ask your cooperation and
attention for the follo~1ng:

The emphasis of this study is on housing facilities for adult


physically and/or mentally - disabled people.

Referring to· the introduction letter sent to you by the Bureau for
Action in Favour of Disabled People last November, we would like to ask
you to send written information as indicated in that letter before
January 15, 1987 to:

RIW
Delft University
Berlage~eg 1

2628 CR DELFT
The NetherlaDds

- 1 -
A""EXE 2-)
-.ÇOMMISSION
OF THE Brussel s .... Nov.e",be r .. 1986
EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
OI"EClO"A H-GE"ERAL
[MPlOYMEN1 . SOC iAl AFF .... IRS
A"O EDUCAllON
V.C.3

TO WHOM lT MAY CONCERN

The Commission of the European Community, in its work to support the


full integration of disabled people is promoting, among other things,
the improvement of their housing conditions as an essential pre-
requisite to the successful achievement of this aim.

The Commission wi shes to expand the frame of reference for its future
housing policy and,in order to see if an adjustment of its current
policy would be desirable or necessary, has asked RlW lnstituut voor
Huisvestingsonderzoek (lnstitute for Housing Research) to study and
report on the "Trends in hous i ng po licy development for disabled
people in the ~ember Stat es of the European Community".

ln its work, the RlW lnstitute is interested to receive in particular


the following informat i on:

policy documents, leg i slation and other regulations, possibilities


for receiving subventions and grants and other stimulation measures
(eg. experimentaL programmes), in particular these that further
independent living of the handicapped;
reviews Iwith figures) and re cent reflections in reports, books or
artieles on hous i ng of the ha ndicapped and the development of this;
concrete data of e xperimental projects, innovating initiatives or
suggestions (na me, place, person to contact, possible written
documentation) aimed at a renewed approach;
names of knowledgeable personIs) who can be contacted in the Member
States;
names of experts well informed about situation in a Member State
and/or known for their assessment or surveys at the internationaL
level:

shall, therefore, be most grateful for any assitance y_ou are able to
give to R.l.W. in the preparation of this report.

P. E. DAUNT
Head of Bureau for Action
in Favour of Disabled People

ProviSÎona! aclcites$ . Rue de 18 LOl 200 • 8 -1049 Brussels - Belgium


Telephone : Telephone exchange 235" , 1 / 23611 " - Dlrecl IIne 23 .
re/ex COMEU B 2' 877 - Te1egraph,c acldress · COMEUR Brussels
ANNEXE 3 Concept key-themes

These concept key-themes are iormu:ated in April, after a iirst search ior relevant
documentation and visits to several countries. In the next mO:lths, these therr,es will
be discussed with experts in the other member-States oi the European Community.

Central theme: AUTONOMOUS LIVING

1. strengthening juridical position


2. needs during the liie-cycle as policy-input
3. participation and grants ior extra costs
4. awareness among architects
5. general housing schemes ior everybody
6. support made to measure
7. de-institutionalization and integral approach of services
8. integrat ion in the neighbourhood

1. Strenghtening juridical position


Strengthen the juridical position of disabled persons. An important example of anti-
discrimination legislation is the 'Human Rights Act' in Canada. In the field of
housing disabled citizens have the same rights as any other citizen to choose where
and how they want to live; they should be regarded as consu:ners of housing and
social services, not as patients.

2. Needs during the life-cycle as policy input


The needs of a disabled person during his or her life-cyc]e as input for policy
development. Disabled persons should participate in the process of policy and
decisionmaking, since they are experts on their needs and potentials. Their ideas
should be taken into account in the planning and designing of housing and social
services.

3. Participation and grants for extra costs


Disabled persons should be able to a full participation in the society. Therefor the
extra costs for daily living should be met.

4. Awareness among architects and policy-makers


Architects and policy-makers as weIl as any other person involved in housing
matters should be aware of the existence and of the needs of disabled persons.
Attention should be paid to this subject in their training and education.

5. General housing schemes for everybody


Provide general housing schemes accessible for everybody, not for special
categories. Weil designed ordinary houses, products and physical environment can
prevent the disability to become a handicap (adaptable and visitable housing). As
far as possible, the present housing of disabled persons should be adapted according
their disabilities.
6. Support made to measure
The support should be made to measure and flexible. Giving the disabled person
more help than what he needs is undervaluating him, giving him less help will do
harm to his possibilities for his realization as human being. Therefor an attitude of
discretion and dialogue from care assistants is indispensable, as well as the
assurance of 24-hours available help if needed. Also different needs according to
cultural differences must be taken into account.

7. De-institutionalization and integral approach


De-institutionalization together with an integral approach of services in the
communit). The entire life of a person with a physical or mental disability must not
be taken over by an institution. By providing a range of accomodations and a
coherent network of community-based services an optimal choice can be given to
meet individual preferences. Collaboration between authorities of different
disciplines is important.

8. Integration in the neighbourhood


Inform and prepare the neighbourhood to increase awareness and understanding of
needs and potentials of disabled persons. Attention must be paid to possible
communication problems from both si des.
ANNEXE 4 Literature

Accesbilidad para las personas con minusvalia, Madrid, 1987;

Acts of the European seminar "Mobility and Handicap", Brussel, 1987;

A home of their choice, implementation of the all-wales mental handicap strategy,


the All Wales Advisory Panel, september 1986;

Behindertenaufzuge, Bau- und Wohnforschung, 04.066, Bonn, 1981;

Beispieldokumentation Behindertenfreundliche Umwelt, Bau- und Wohnforschung,


04.4070, Bonn, 1981;

Beispielhafte Behindertenwohnungen, Bau- und Wohnforschung, 04.092, Bonn, 1983;

Bereitstellung von Behindertenwohnungen, Bau- und Wohnforschung, 04.109, Bonn,


1985, (nr 10 1233);

Bericht der Bundesregierung uber die Lage der Behinderten und die Entwicklung der
Rehabilitation; Bonn, 1985;

British Council of Organisations of Disabled People, Schemes and Initiatives,


London;

Centres for Independent Living, Seminar Report, Centre on Environment of the


handicapped, London, 1983;

Commissie van de Europese Gemeenschappen, Mededeling inzake modelacties op


huisvestinggebied ter bevordering van de sociale integratie van gehandicapten en
migrerende werknemers, Brussel, 1980, (COM (80) 491);

Die Wohnsituation der Korperbehinderten in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Bonn,


Bau- und Wohnforschung, 04.017, 1976;

Exeter Health Authority, Exmouth Community Mewal Health Team, Policy, March
1987;

Familienentlastende Dienste, Marburg/Lahn, 1986;

Geboden Toegang, handboek voor het toegankelijke en bruikbare onderwerpen en


bouwen voor gehandicapten mensen, Stichting Nederlandse Gehandicaptenraad,
Utrecht 1986;

Housing and living conditions of disabled people, Abstracts of the reports and
recommendations, Commission of the European Communities Rehabilitation
International, Comite National Francais pour la 'Readaptation des Handicapes,
Seminar, Bois Larris - Chantilly, 12 - 14 November 1984;
Housing, the foundation of community care, National Federation of Housing
Assodations and MIND, London, 1987;

Information of the EC district project of Midlands (Ireland) on HILAC and the


Technical Advice Panel, 1985;

Intergration of disabled persons into community life, United Nations, New York,
1981; (ST/ESA/111)

La cas a senza barriere, Quaderni del segretariato generale del CER (Comitato per
l'edilizia residenziale), Roma,1985;

Making a reality of community care, A Report by the Audit Commission for Local
Authorities in England and Wales, London, 1986;

On employment of assistants in own home, Instructions re. the scheme and re. the
general lines to be followed, Arhus Kommunes Soda1 - and Sundhedsforvaltning,
Sodal Afdelingen;

Profielschets, Integratieproject gehandicapten Drechtsteden, Dordrecht, 1986;

Simposio sobre supresion de barreras arquitectonicas y urbanistacas, real patronato


de prevendon y de atendon a personas con minuvalia, Madrid, 1985;

Toelichting op de beschikking geldelijke steun huisvesting gehandicapten, Ministerie


van VROM, 's-Gravenhage, 1986;

Towards a full life; green paper on services for disabled people, Dublin;

Tweede Kamer, Vergaderjaar 1982-1983, Beleidsnota, Geestelijke Gehandicapten,


17900, nr. 1-2;

Tweede Kamer, Vergaderjaar 1983-1984, Nota Geestelijke Volksgezondheid, 18463;


nrs. 1-2

Voorstel van wet tot wijziging van het Burgerlijk Wetboek en enige andere wetten
in verband met de opneming in het Burgerlijk Wetboek van bepalingen omtrent de
overeenkomst inzake geneeskundige behandeling, Memorie van Toelichting, 's-
Gravenhage, 1987;

What does the "Friendship Quarter" represent?, brochure;


Wijziging van het Burgerlijk Wetboek en enige andere wetten in verband met de
opneming van bepalingen omtrent de overeenkomst tot het verrichten van
handelingen op het gebied van de geneeskunst, 's-Gravenhage, 1987;

Wohnungsumbau fur Rollstuhlbenutzer, Bau- und Wohnforschung, Bonn, 1985;

Woonschrift, Woonwensen van gewone mensen, Antwerpen, 1979;

ABT Forschung, Ontwikkelingen en trends in woonvormen en woon- gerelateerde


zorg voor de gehandicapten in de Europese Gemeenschap, Bonn, 1985;
ABT Forschung, Report lIl: Compendium: Housing Schemes and Related Services for
Handicapped People, Bonn, 1985;

Barille, E., Logement et Handicap, Les Nouvelles de Delta 7, Hiver 1984/85, p. 5-6;

Bick, 0., Nouvertne, K., Wessel, H., Betreutes Wohnen als Alternative zur
Psychiatrischen Anstalt, Solingen, 1985;

Blach, K., A study of the need for information on acces to buildings for disabled
people, Report submitted to the Commission of the E.C, Denmark, 1986;

Borsay, Anne, Do Housing Pqlicies Stigmatise Disabled People?, Housing Review


Vol. 35, No. 5, September-October 1986, p. 150-153;

Breemer ter Stege, C., Psychiatrie staat voor gigantische


samenwerkingsorganisatie, HZH, 15-22 aug. 1985, p.p. 541-544;

Chadderdon, L., Malhotra, S., Goals of Independent Living Movement Undermined


by Conflicting Policies, The Interconnector, Vol VI no.l, East Lansing, Michigan,
1982, p.1-4;

De Jong, Gerben, The Movement for Independent Living: Origins, Ideology, and
Implications for Disability Research, East Lansing, Michigan, 1979;

De Jong, G., Independent Living & Disability Policy in the Netherlands: Three
Models of Residental Care& Independent Living, Boston, Massachusetts, 1984;

Frieden, Lex and Joyce, Gini Laurie, Living independently: three views of the
european experience with implications for the U.S., New Vork, 1981;

Galjaard, J., Toegankelijkheid van openbare gebouwen voor gehandicapte mensen,


Rapport in opdracht van het "Bureau voor de activiteiten ten behoeven van
Gehandicapten" van de Europese Gemeenschap, Oktober 1986;

Gailly, J.P., Le logement des handicapes, Institut National du Logement, Bruxelles,


1981;

Galluf Tate, D., Ph.D. Linda M. Chadderdon, B.A., Independent Living: An Over view
of Efforts in Five countries: Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany, Yugoslavie,
Costa Rica and Japan, Independently Living, Michigan, 1982;

Goldbach, A., B. Paschke, "Betreutes Einzelwohnen geistig Behinderter", I.


Zwischenbericht des Modellversuchs, 1985-1986 en 2. Zwischenbericht des
Modellversuchs, 1986, Lebenshilfe, Berlin;

Guffens, Th., Building design for the handicapped in the Netherlands, not published,
Nijmegen, 1986;

Guffens, Th., J. van Westerlaak, Biografie van het E.G. - districtenproject voor
gehandicapten in Nederland, Beginsituatie, Nijmegen, 1985;
Guffens, Th., E. Hijmans, "Je staat er niet bij stil", ervaringen van gehandicapten in
de openbare ruimte, Nijmegen, 1985;

Haen de, F., Wie beschermt de beschermende woonvormen?, Maandblad Geestelijke


Volksgezondheid, 1983, 2, p. 111-119;

Heginbotham, C., Webs and Mazes, Centre on Environment for the Handicapped,
London, s.a.;

Kooij, C.H. van der, De theorie hetzelfde, de praktijk niet, HZH 14, 31-7-'86, p.
518-519;

Kosters, R.H., W. Lans, R. Lijbers, H. Westra, Beschikking geldelijke steun


huisvesting gehandicapten, RIW, Delft, 1985;

Laane, W.L.J.M., Commentaar op het concept rapport van de Werkgroep


beschermende Woonvormen en Psychiatrische Hostels, Maandblad Geestelijke
Volksgezondheid 1982, nr. 2, p. 120-124;

Leijenhorst, R., De WHO en Malotaux als reisgids, Veldonderzoek naar de


organisatie van de psychiatrie in landen rond de Middellandse Zee, HZH, 13-2-
1986, p. 80-82;

Leijenhorst, R., Portugal koos voor de open-deur psychiatrie, HZH 10, 22-5-'86, p.
356-360;

Leventi, A., Public Audition Regarding, Transport - Transfer of special needed and
elderly people, European Parliament Commission of Transport, Brussels, 29-1-'87;

Lieshout, P .A.H. van, en P.L. Meurs, Geestelijke gezondheidszorg in Frankrijk.


Principes en praktijk van de "psychiatrie de secteur", Maandblad Geestelijke
Volksgezondheid, 1987,3, p. 282-294;

Lopez, Manuel A., P.A., Berra, E.N., Raez, Integracion Social de los Minusvalidos,
Madrid,7-4-1983;

Maassen, ir. C.J.J.M., OnderWIJS in Toegankelijkheid, Onderzoek naar de aandacht


die in het bouwkundig onderwijs in Nederland wordt besteed aan toegankelijkheid
voor lichamelijk gehandicapten bij het inrichten en vormgeven van de gebouwde
omgeving, Leidschendam, 1986;

Molleman, C., Bouwstenen voor een informatiesysteem over gehandicapten,


Deelrapport 3: Leefsituatieonderzoek van jong - volwassenen met een fysieke
handicap, Leuven, 1986;

Poel van der, E., Is er een leven na de inrichting, Marge 1982; no. 2, p.68-73;

Poel, E. van der, Democratische psychiatrie in Italie, Marge 1979, 12, p. 355-360;

Pries, H., E. van der Poel, A. ter Laak, D. Kal, Het 1evenna de inrichting,
Amsterdam, 1985;
Prinsen, J., Guffens, Th., Kropman, J., Evaluatie van ADL- Clusters en ir. Drouven,
L.E., Mols, J.F.J.M., Globale kostenvergelijking tussen het wonen van lichamelijk
gehandicapten in een ADL - cluster en het verblijven in een intramurale instelling
voor lichamelijk gehandicapten, samenvattingen, Den Haag, 1985;

Ratzka, Adolf D., Independent living and attendant care in Sweden: a consumer
perspective, New York, 1986;

Rutter, Jutta, Die entstehung und entwicklung selbstorganisierter ambulanter


hilfsdienste fur behinderte, AG SPAK, Munchen, 1986;

Saint Martin, M. Philippe, U" exemple d'alternative a l'herbergement en foyer: la


Residence "Pontcanal", Paris;

Samoy, E., Gezinsbegeleiding voor Gehandicapten, Brussel, 1982;

Samoy, E., Bouwstenen voor een informatiesysteem over gehandicapten,


Deelrapport 1: afbakening van de doelgroep, Leuven, 1985;

Samoy, E., Bouwstenen voor een informatiesysteem over gehandicapten,


Deelrapport 2: Kenmerken van de doelgroep, Leuven, 1986;

Shearer, A., Living Independently, London, 1982;


Steyaert, R., E. Samoy, C. Klynkens, Profiel van Gehandicapte Volwassenen in
voorzieningen van het Fonds 81, Leuven, 1987;

Thimm, W., Das Normalisierungsprinzipe Eine Einfuhrung, Lebenshilfe,


Marburg/Lahn, 1984;

Vanistendael, C., Fragmentatie kenmerkend voor het karakter van de Italiaanse


psychiatrie, HZH 2. 24-1-'85, p. 40-43;

Vanistendael, C., Integrale geestelijke gezondheidszorg is een realistisch ideaal in


Italie, HZH 3, 7-2-'85, p. 83-87;

Veen van der, H., Een pleidooi voor actieve resocialisatie, Maandblad Geestelijke
Volksgezondheid, 1983, nr. 2, p. 125-134;

Van der Voordt, D.J.M., Bouwen voor iedereen, inclusief gehandicapten, september
1983;

Vorderegger, J.R., C.J. Verplanke, Travel and the disabled, Study of the problems
and provisions, The Hague, 1985;

Wennink, H.J., Beschut wonen in een algemeen psychiatrisch ziekenhuis. Onderzoek


naar het effect van een nieuw zorgmodel voor chronisch psychiatrische patienten,
Maandblad Geestelijke Volksgezondheid, 3, p. 251-266;
"NNI',I': 'i

r-
DJ< (i!1,03 :

Äur.3f'rdclil rrflJrdNl di e inr{)I~(· hii/!Nl'r L fIH'llsrrw.:ulung S!f'Îg(·nrlr .l\nz;1\11 aitcr ;\li-Il Sr hrll die T3elilc ksir hli J!ung rl~'r
fliT n(' h indcr(e grl!endrn bi1.ulirlWIl AnforderuJlgt'1l in grötJrrl'lll \l:1Flt' ;11<\ hi~~!H' r.
Die '·erlllcidullg und !3f'sriligung h;lUlichC'r Hind!'rrd!'~(> t riigt. liber dir ~,pf'zi('!lC' Auf~~h(' liPT HdwhilitatÎon unt!
In{(>gration hinnll~! (,! anz aJlgr1llrin Î.ur I{r:11Jlllanisirruflg dry, Stidtdl,WS UIlO ,lI r St'haf fung ei/1rr I1H'llsC'lH.'llgcrl'rhtrll
Cmwl'lt wr$rntlich bri.
In f3l<1tt 1 diese r Norm sin d Mnf~\ni1hl1l(,11 grr.annt.. dil' dril lkhir--:t'rtrn uJln allC'1l ~jf'm('b(,11 gri';f3Pre l1ewegungsfY('i!lcil
c
und SiclwrlH'it nuf SlraCell, Pl iilzrn und Wrr. rn j· rmöglicJIPn. Uil \'urh'iI{' dip,cr ;\lar.'Jlahn1l:'n kul\1tn e!1 zlIglrich allen
anderen Persollengnlppf'n, inshèson dere Persone n mil Killdf'n\i1~('n od(> r Traglasten z\lgute.
" Die ~la()nahmen sind nkht nur bei N(~uha\lten . ~()lIdprn auch hri t/h.' n batJlichen "PI,indcrungen änzuwcnde n.

1. G0hw cge 2,3. Eine J\hsehrii gung Icdiglich der Bordkan(en reichl
nicht alls IInd isl wege n der Slurl.gefahr fUr fut:lgäl1ger
1. 1. Gehwegc miissen mindf'slrns 150 CI11, Grhwrgt> an
u "j :tr l ;i~sit!.
SamlllE'lstmf)cll mindC's tens 200 cm breit sein. Die licllle
Breile darf allenfalls durch Vcrkehrs7.0ichen. M,slen oder
2. '.1. Hordt' sin d dl/reh Ven"'r ndung farbigen ~taleriaJ5
Bäume . jcdoc h nichl durch Baulichkeilcn und ,ndere Ge·
op:'isr.h ahzuselzen. Das gilt insbesondeH' fLir ab~es('l': kte
genslände. eingeschränkl ,ein.
Bordr nach Ah,ehnill 2,2,
Allf die .. Richtlinicn flir die l\nlage \'on SI"dlslral3.n"
(RAST) ,) wird hingewi".n,
3. FLJt:lg,ing",iibrr\\'q~r
1.2, Da, Pa rken "uf dem G..tl\\'rg dilrf nur zugela,.,. n 3.1. An Fu r.,g;lngerübcrwt~gen sind di~ Bordr nac h
werde n, we nn neben den ~eparkl('n F~hr7.f'ug(.'I\ diE' er· :\b:;c hnitl 2,2. ahzusPl1kP II .
ford,'rliche (: ehweg,Mindcsl IJr"i !'c crh a llen bleihl.
3.2. Die ~farki('fullgt>n drr F Il!.~,!!;irgf'ri.;bt:' rw(' f.':' ~ur der
1.3. Gehwrge 3n anhaurreien Durchgangstra()rll C;ill d F :I~Hbélhn (Zf'hraslreir~n. LL'itlini('1l t1nd d~l.) sinc1 d:PIN'
gpgen die Félhrh::l:hn durch eilwn ausrcichrnd bre ilr n h3ft iHlS7.Llbildcn. Für dip IklCUt'.hllltlg der Fuf3gäng(' r·
Sch\llz~tr('ift.'n l\07.LH;renzen. l;hHWE'l:!(' Lc;( Dr~ G7 523 7.U tH'Clc!Jlrn. EirH' \'on dt>r
llbrigt'n Slra~t:-lIbf'll'uchtu"g 31l\\pichpndc Lirhtfa rhp i~t
lA. Crh\\'f'gp mil mehr al s \) ' -; Ljng"gpf~illl' sind mil CP;'dn~rhl ,
einf-r grifrig('Jl Ohrrnächr zu \"l'r~f'tH'n. Ge hw cgr mit
mehr als 8 ~ë Uingsgrfalle Si~ld ZlI \'f'rml? idpn. sov.eil 3.3. 7.\JIn c!aPF<'llwpisen l':1Pr(~uC'fp.1l von brp.itl'll Strar3PIl
nichl zwingrnde top og rafi~ (' h e Grgpbrnheitf'n Pl1tgpgen· - ~n'\ lw so ndf"u' mil il\~grsamt mellr als J Fah rstrC'ifrn ...
si eh en, wird di{> Anl'rdnuilg ','on Fu r3gi.i ngersrhut zinsp ln rll1pfoh·
I,'n ,
1.5, Im Gchwrghereich sim("" geeignelen Slellon Rllhe-
plät ze mil. Sitzbän ken anzlIornnf'!l. 3.3.1. DC'f FuI3g;ingl.' riibC'J'\\rg iiher t.'ine Sc lnl t.zinspi mur;)
Il:i!vlrstens 3L10 Cll\ brrit ,mg('I('~l sein. Einr Rr",jlp \'on
2. Bordhöl1rn mi :~( h '~lf'1l5 ,HW t.'1ll isl en..'iin~ cht.
2,1. 111 ;\nljrgflr~tra(3en un rJ ~anlmt'l:; tr~r3rn soli die f{öhe DI'" Ilo chhor d (' n(lr S('hut:dn~('l !-. i nn im Brrri('h d(' ~ F\I(j·

der Rnrde zwisdrt'l1 Gl'h\\'q: tlild F~ilrb(1hll auf minde· g;jJl~I'rii hrrwl'!-!l'''' nac h ,·\ bschnilt 2.2 ahzw:rnkl'll. Ah·
slpllS 6 c m und höchslells 1·1 c m hrgrenzl spi n. scrHitL 2.,1 iSl 7.U bp<!chlen.

2.2. An i:uR>gängeri..ihrrwp.g:l·n sind dit' Bordp nach 1; Zll bf'zi{'htJl ü be r die FI)cw hungsgcse Jlschafl fiir da s
l\!öglichk(> il Juf 3 CIll ah;,:uH'n}:rn, SI. r:I!~~'nbauwl';"f'Il, f> }\ ö ln, [\lélClstrichte r Str. -l~

Forlst~ lzung Spilt' 2

-----.. . --.----~- . _--_._._---~------- . ----. J


1--_ _ _ _ _ _ _ •_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . __ .. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _._.-,-
\1It' lfl._".~1\;'t:'r ... ; '~"1 1,!', .. III·'~I :'::: (;,,·· 1' .I.:!,";' n/.\' :.' tI_·tH:' 1.\'01'. J!j;·1 f' ... ·u;! r. ·J
11 ',' 1
SEite 2 DIN J 8021 IJlalt 1

3.3.2. Die Ticfe der Schulzin,el -- d. h. dir i\blllcssung 5.4. Durch Il(',childenlng ist auf d.s Vurhöndonsein nicht
der :n.elln Cehrichtung - sollte im Brrrich des FlIl3- nur der linter· oder Oberftihi1lng, sondern aueh der Rampen
gängeriiberweges 250 cm 2) belragen. Ein ~lind.slmal3 aufmerksam zu machen.
van 160 cm darf hlnesfalls lInlerschrittcn werden.
6. PKW-StcIJpJiitze
2.?::. Die Sc"utzinsel isl durch ein Verkehrszeichen, das
6.1. 3% der Pkw·Stellplätze auf örrelltlichcn Parkplät.zen
auf die Vorb<>ifahrl Io:--"'cisl, zu sirhelll. J)ie llelclIchtllng
sot lten fiir Schwerbehinderte (Cehbehinderle ader RolI·
des Verkehrszeichens ist erwünscht.
stuhlfahrer) .. serl'iert worden.

4_ Ful.\gängerubcrwege mit LichtzeichenregeJung 6.2. Die rur Schwerbehinderte reservierten Pkw·Stell·


4. 1. Zum Uberqueren verkehrsreicher Fahrbahnen solllen plätz. sind , um den Ein· und Ausstieg zu ermöglichen,
an geelgnelen Stellen lichtzeichengcregelle Fu~gnnger· 350 cm breit anzulegen.
überwege, deren Lichlzeichenanlage vam FlIt:lgänger Schmalere Stellplätze sind zulässig, wenn parallel eine-
selbst geschaltet werden kann, angeordnet werden. Der ireie Fläche von mindestens 150 cm Breite - z. B. ein
Schalter soli te in 105 cm Höhe angcbracht srin. G<-hweg - vorhanden ist.
AA Ful3gängeriiberwegen in der Nähe van Blindenzentren
und Altersh.imen sind zusätzliche akustische Signale 6.3. D\lfch Bl'schilderung ist auf da, Vorhandenseill der
zweckmäl.lig. Voraussetzung ist, dal3 Vcrwechselunge n Pkw·Stellpliitze rtir Schwerbehinderte aufmerk".m zu
- z. B. an Stral3enkreuzungen - ausgeschlossen·-sind. machen. .

_4.2. An Fahrbahnen, die wcgen entsprechender Licht· 6.4. Der Zugang zu dell Pkw·Slellpliilzen fur Schwerbe·
z.eichenregelung \'om FuGgi'tnger ctt!.ppenwC'ise überquert hinderte ist nach den i\hschnitlen 1 ulld 2 zu ge,!.alten.
werden müssen, sind die hierrur oriordrrlichen Schutz·
Insein nach Abschnitt 3.3 Ztl bemesse n und au,ws!.tten. 7. öfféntJichc Fcrnsprechstcllen
Der Zugang w öffcntlichen Fernsprechslellen sollte so
5. Ful.\gängerubcrwege in zw{'itcr Ebene geslaltet werden, dal3 RolIstuhlbenulzer unmiLtelbar bis
zum Fernsprechapparat gelangen können. Bei rernsprech·
5. 1. Wenn Ful3gängeriiberwege in einer zweiten Ebene stellen, die nicht durch Seitenwände begrenzt sind, ist
angelegt werden müssen (Unter· oder UbNruhrllng), der unmitlclbare Zugang am ehesten gewährleistet.
sind ~ut:ler den Treppen auch Rampen oder vertikale
Berórderungsmiltel vorzusehen.
8. Beschildcrung
5.1.1. Treppen durfen nicht gewendelt sein. Sie sind in FUr die Beschilderung (siehe Abschnitt 5.4 und 6.3) ist
ihrer ganzen Länge lInd beidseitig mil. Handläufen auszu· das im Bitd dargestellte internationale Bildzeichen zu
statten. Geg.benenfalls sind Zwischenpodeste zum Aus-
verwenden 3).
ruhen einzurugen.
~----------------~
Die Treppen mussen, zwischen den Handläufen gemessen,
mindestens 150 cm breit sein. Eine Breite von mindestens
250 cm wird empfohlen.
Die Sturen sind mit griffiger Obernäche zu versehen. Vor-
kragende Tritlstufen sind zu vermeiden. Ein Steigungs·
v.rhältnis "on 16/31 cm ist zweckmäl3ig.
Die Handläure mü,sen guten Zugriff und festen Halt
bieten.

5.1.2. Rampen - als Zugang zu Unter· oder OberfUh-


rungen - durien ein Cefalle von 8 'Tc nicht überschreiten.
Sie sind in ihrer ganzen wng. Ulld heidseitig mit Hand·
läufen auszuslaltpn. Rampl~n müssen - zwi~chen den
Handläufen gcmessen - mindestens 150 cm breit und
mit grifriger Obernäche versehen sein.

5.2. Unter· und überrlihnnlgen, Trl'ppen ulld Rampen 2) Damit wird auf Krankenfahrstühle Rückskht genom-
sind zu beleuchten. en. Starre SEtbstCahrer mil Armhebetantrieb haben
eine Länge von 210 cm.
5.3. Es wird empfohten, Oberfuhrungell, Treppen und 3) Die Dnrstellllng cntspricht nur der grafischen
Rampen gegen Vereisu ng init einer Cehwegheizung Gestaltung. Für die technische Ausfuhrung gilt
auszustatten. DIN 30 600 Blatt 496 (z. Z. noch Entwurn.

Hinweise au! wei/ere Nonnen


DIN 18024 matt 2 Bauliehe Mar.lnahmen flir l3ehinderte und alte Men;chen im öffentlichen Bereich; Plnnungsgrund-
lagen; Öffentlich zugängige Gcbäud., (z. Z. noch F:ntwurC)
DIN 18025 malt 1 Wohnung<n rur Schwerbehinderte; Ptanungsgnmdlagen; Wohnungen fUr Rotlstuhlbenutl.er
DIN 18025 Blatt 2 Wohnllngen rur Schwcrbehinderle; Planungsgrundlagen; Wohnungen ftir Btinde und wesentlich
Sehbehinderte
DKt~9.03:725:616-056.26 DEUTSCHL: NOliMEN April 1975

---T~n~Ei:I~.C~:n~~~~~~~e~lf~~tl~Ce:~~d~~~iCh. -[· 1'80 0'N24 I


Planungsgrundlagen
--1
~ ____ ._. __ Öff:lltliCh zugä~~ig_e Gebäude .•_~_
Construction measures for disabled persons and aid human beings in the pUblie field: design prineiples;
publie aecessible buildings

MaRe in cm

Zur Rehabilitation der Behinderten und zur Verbesserung der Lebensverhältnisse der alten Mensehen wurden in den
letzten Jahren erhebliche Anstrengungen aul vielen Bereiehe n unternommen. Eine der wichtigsten Voraussetzungen
lür den Erfalg aller MaBnahmen ist jedoch das Vorhandensein einer hindernisfreien bauliehen Umwelt. und zwar nicht
nur in der Wohnung ader am Arbeitsp'etz, sondern aueh im gesamten ölfentliehen Bereieh, das heiBt auf StraBen,
Plätzen und Wegen sowie in ölfentlieh zugängigen Gebäuden. Ziel ist eine weitgehende Unabhängigkeit van fremder
Hilfe.
AuBerdem erfordert die intalge höherer Lebenserwartung steigende Anzahl alter Mensehen die Berücksiehtigung der
für Behinderte geitenden baulichen Anforderungen in gröBerem MaBe als bisher .
Die Vermeidung und Beseitigung baulieher Hindernisse trägt, über die spezielIe Aufgabe der Rehabilitation und
Integration hinaus, ganz allgemein zur Rehumanisierung des Städtebaues und zur SehaHung einer mense~en­
gerechten Umwelt wesentlieh bei.
:n dieser Norm sind Ma8nahmen genannt. die den Behinderten und alten Mensehen gröBere Bewegungsfreiheit und
Sicherheit in öffentlich zugängigen Gebäuden ') ermögliehen. Die Varteile dieser MaBnahmen kommen zugleieh allen
anderen P'2rsonengruppen, insbesondere Personen mit Kinderwag'3n oder Traglasten zugute.
Die MaBnahmen sind nicht nur bei Neubauten, sond.ern aueh bei allen bauliehen Verändefungen anzuwenden.

') Oer gegriH "öHentiieh zugängig" ist im V(eites ten Sin ne zu verstehen. Wenn nur ein Teil eines Gebäudes öffentlieh
:!Jg;;ngig ist (z. B. eine Bankfiliale in zinem mehrgeschossigen Haus). sind die Festlegungen dieser Norm nur auf den
'3ntsprechenden Teil des Gebäudes anzuwenden .
.\Is öffenUich zugängige Gebilude dieser Norm geiten insbesandere:
a) Öffentlich zugängige Verwaltungsgebäude (z. B. Arbeits;;mter, Beratungsstellen, Finan,ämter, Gerichte, Geschäfts'
stellen van Kranken- und Sozialversieherungen, Gesundheitsämter, Pfarrämter, POlizeidienststellen, Postämter,
Sozialämter, Standesämter, '/erkehrs- und Reisebüros, Versorgungs;;mter).
b) Bahnhöfe, Flughafengebáude. Parkhäuser, Raststätten u. a.,
e) Gaststätlen und Beherbergungsbetriebe (z. B. Cafés, Hotels, Jugendherbergen, Kurheime, Restaurants),
d) Versarnmlungsräume (z. B. Gemeindesäle, Kinos, Kirchen, KongreBhallen, Theater),
e) Ausbildungsstätten (z. B. Hochschulen, Lehrwerkstätten . Schulen),
f) Spartanlógen (z. B. Freiloäder, Hallenbäder, Turnhallen, Stadien).
g) Läden, Warenhäuser,
h) Banken, Sparkassen,
i) Apotheken, Arztpraxen, Krankenhäuser, Kureinriehtungen,
j) Ausstellungsbauten, Bibliotheken, Museen,
k) Kindertagesstätten

I
z

Fortsetzung Seite 2 bis 4

FachnormenausschuB Bauwesen (FN8au) im DIN Deutsehes Institut für Normung e.v.


Fachnormenausschu6 Masehinenbau (FM) im DIN

._-------------~---- _._. __ __._------


._-_.
SeHe 2 DiN 18 024 Teil 2

Zugal1g ZUI11 Gcbäude 2.3 Die Pkw ' Slellplälzc für Schwerbehlnderle sind durch
Beschilderung kenntlich zu machen.
1.1 Ein Eingan g des Gebäudes. möglichst der Haupt·
eingang, muB stufenlos erreictlb8r sein . Oer Zugang ist
durch Beschilderung k(;nntlich IU machen. 2.4 Der Zugang zu den Pkw·Stcllpliitzen tür Schwer-
behinderte isl na eh DIN 18024 Teil 1. Ausgabe November
Rampp.n sind zulässig. Ihr Gefälle darf jedoch nicht mehr
1974. Abschnilt 1 und 2. zu geslalten.
als 6 "'0. Ihre Breite muB mindestens 120 cm bctragen. Sei
Rampenlängen von mehr als 6 mist ein Zwischenpodest
von mindestens 120 cm Länge erforderlich. Podeste v.on 3 Bewegungsfreiheit innerhalb des Gebäudes
miMestens 120 cm Länge sind auBcrdem am Anlang 3.1 Niveauunterschiede. deren Überwindung aus-
und am Ende der Rampe anzuordnen. Rampen sind mit schlieBlich über Stufen oder Treppen mbglich ist. sind
einem Handlaul auszustalten. unzulässig .

1.2 Der stulenlos erreichbare Eingang (siehe Abschnitt 3.1.1 In bes onderen Fällen (z. B. bei Gleisunterfütvungen
1.1) muB eine lichte Durchgangsbreite von mindestens aut Bahnhöfen) kbnnen zur Überwindung des Niveau-
95 cm aulweisen. Die Tür ist als Drehflügeltür') oder als unterschiedes Rampen zweckmäBig sein. Diese Rampen
Schiebetür auszubilden. Sie sollte mit automatischem sollen ein GetäHe von 8 % nicht überschreiten. Sie sind
Türbflner (Bodenkontaktschalter oder Lichtschranken- in ihrer ganzen Län ge und beidseitig mit Handläulen aus-
schalter) ausgestattet sein. Drehflügeltüren mit automa' zustatten. Sie müssen - zwischen den Handläufen
tischem TÜlo flner ctürlen nur bei Richtungsverkehr ver· gemessen - mindestens 150 cm breit und mit griffiger
wendet w€! den. Oberfläche'l verse hen sein .
Drehlüren und Pendeltüren sind für RolIstuhlbenutzer
3.1.2 Im übrigcn sind zur Überwindung von Niveauunter~
unpassierba r.
schieden vellikal e Betörderungsmittel (z. 8. Aulzug)
Schwellen und Niveauunterschiede sin d nur bis zu erforderlich.
2.5 cm ·zuI2ssig.
Der Fahrkorb minde stens eines Auf.i:uges ist wie folgt
Vor Drehflugellüren muB einc Bewegungsfläche nach den IU bemessen:
in Bild 1 dargesleillen MaBen gcsichert sein.
a) lichte Breite ;:: t 10 cm
b) lichle Tiete ;:: 140 cm
c) lichte Türbre ite ;:: 80 cm
und mit Haltegri:!en auszustatten.
In Gebäuden mit gröBerer Besucherzahl ist mindestens
ein Aulzug mit einer lichten Türbreit~ = 110 cm vorzu'
sehen .
Var den Aufzugszugängen ist eine Bewegungsfläche von
mindestens 140 cm X 140 cm erlorderlich.

3.2 in all~n Räumen (ausgenommen Sanitärräumen) muB


eine Bewegungsfläche von minde sten. 140 cm X 140 cm
Bild 1. Bewegungsfläche vor Drehflügellüren
vorhanden sein.

a b 3.3 Alle Türen müssen eine lichle Durchgangsbreite von


mindestens 85 cm aufweisen.
r----~______ _~! ________1_7_0______~ Vor Drehtlügeltüren') muB in dem Raum. in den die iür
schlägt. eine Bewegungstläche nach den in Sild 1 darge-
35 I 160
steilten Abmessungen gesichert sein.
45 150
r ----------- .. _---_.. __.. _....- - 3.4 An Durchgangssperren sollte eine lichte Breite von
• 55 140 85 cm nicht unterschritten werden .

Zwischenwerte in terpolieren. Fellgedruckte Werte 3.5 Zugänge zu besoneeren Plätzen tür Rollstuhl-
sind Vorzugswer1e. benulzer in Versammlungs- und Vcranstaltungsräumen
sind durch Seschilderung kenntlich zu machen.

3.6 Die über die Fesllegungen von Abschnilt 3.1 hinaus


2 Pkw-Stellplätze vorhandenen Treppen sollen mbglichst geradläufig sein.
2.1 Aut den tür den Publikumsverkehr anzulegenden Bei gewendelten Treppen sind Handläufe aut beiden
Parkplàtzen sind mindest.ns 3'l'o der Pkw-Stellplätze tür Seiten anzubringen .
Schwerbehinderte (Gehbehinderte oder RolIstuhl- Der H2ndlaut am Treppenauge dart nicht unterbrochen
benutzer) lU reservieren . Oiese Siellplätze sollen in sein. Der Wandhandlauf soli Antang und Ende des
Gebäudenahe liegen und moglichst überdach t sein . in Trerpenlaufs rechtleltig erke~nbar machen . Die Hand,
Par~häuse r n sollten diese Stellplätze in unmiltelbarer läute müssen guten Zugrrtl und sicheren Hall bielen.
Nähe der Aufzüge angeordnet werden.
Die Stufen sind mil griftiger Oberfläche zu versehen.
Vorkrägende Trittstufen sind zu vermeiden.
2.2 Die tür Schwerbehinderte resentierten Pkw~Stell~
plätze sind - urn den Ein~ und Ausstieg zu ermöglichen -
350 cm breit anzulegen. Schmalere Stellplä!ze sind zu-
lässig, w8nn parallel eine freie, Fläche yen mindestens ') Darstellung n"ch DIN 1356
'50 cm 8relte - z. 8 . ein Gehweg - vorhanaen ist. ') Z. B. GuBasphalt mit Quarzeinstreuung
,- ----------------------------------------------------------------

DIN 18 024 Tail 2 Seile 3

3.7 In Sporlbaulen sind enlsprechend bemessene 5.1 Das WC isl mindeslens mil
Umkleidekabinen tür Behinderle und mindeslens ein Spülklose1t b = 40 cm t nech Fabrikal
Duschplalz nach DIN 18025 Teil 1. Ausgabe Januar 1972,
Abschnitt 4.3, vorzusehen.
Handwaschbecken b;;: 40 cm t;;: 30 em
Ha Ilevorrichtungen
auszusla1ten .
4 Öffentllche Fernsprechstellen
Die Sitzhöhe des Spülklosetts soli 50 cm bet ragen. Es
In ötfenllich zugängigen Gebäuden soli mindeslans eine wird emptohlen, die Bedienungsvorrichlung tür die Spü·
öttenlilcha Fernsprechslelle sa geslaltel werden, daB lung seitlieh anzuordnen.
RoIIsluhlbenulzer unmiUelbar bis zum Fernsprech·
Aut einer Seile des Spülklose1ts muB eine 80 cm breile
apparal gelangen können. Bei Fernsprechslellen. die
Bewegungstläche vorhanden sein. Die treie Zutahrt zu
nichl durch Sei!enwända begrenzl sind, isl der unmiUa!·
dieser Bewegungstläche muB gesichert sein.
bare Zugang am etreslen gewähr!eislet.
Var dem Spülklose1t ist eine 120 cm tie te Bewegungs·
Nummernschalter (Wählerscheibe), Handapparal (Hörer)
tläche treizuhalten.
und Münzeinwurt soillen sa angeordnel sein, daB sie van
einem RoIIsluhlbenulzer bedient werden können. Abslände und Bewegungstlächen siahe Bild 2.
Die Fernsprechslelle isl durch Beschilderung kennllich
zu machen. 5.2 Die Türen dürfen nicht naeh innen autsehlagen,
Pendeltüren siM unzulässig.

5 Sanitärräume 5.3 Der Zugang muB den Festlegungen van Abschni1t 3


In Gebäuden mil gröBerer Besucherzah! isl mindeslens entsprechen.
je ein WC für Schwerbehinderle vorzusehen.
5.4 Das WC ist du rch Beschilderung kenntlich zu machen.
15 ~25
I

Cl
,I
o
C:!
Alt

Maae
/ wie linkes Bild

I
~85--1

15 ~30
:~
I :

./
oD
/
I
L __ ~
./
~2Z2Z22ZZZ2ZZZZ:1
MaBe
wie linkes Bild

Bi ld 2. Bemessung eines WC (spieg ell)ildl ich e ,~ n o rdnung möglich)


Se;le 4 DIN 18024 Teil 2

6 Beschllderung
Bei der Besehilderung (siehe Abschnilt 1.1,2.3,3.5,4 und
5.4) ist das in Bild 3 dargestellte internationale Bildzeichen
zu verwenden .).
A n mer kun g: Oas Bi/dzeiehen sollre auch in Reise-
führern, Sradrp/änen, Unrerkunftsverzelchnissen und dgl.
ror Kennzelchnung von Gebäuden, die d/eser Norm enr-
sprechen, verwender werden.

') Die Darsteliung entspricht nur der graphischen Ge-


staltung. Für die technische Ausführung gilt DIN 30 600
Blalt 496.

Bild 3. Internationales Bi/dzeiehen

Weitere Normen
DIN 18024 Teil 1 Bauliehe MaBnahmen !ür Behinderte und a/te Menschen im öHenllichen Bereich; Planungsgrundlagen;
SlraBen, Plätze und Wege
DIN 18025 Teil 1 Wohnungen tür Sehwerbehinderte; Planungsgrundlagen; Wohnungen für Rollstuhlbenutzer
DIN 18025 Teil 2 Wohnungen für Sehwerbehinderte; Planungsgrundlagen; Wohnungen tür Blinde und wesentlich Seh-
behinderte
DEUTSCHE N()I\~IE:"J Janu:!r 1972

r----"r-W~i;;;~l:ll~~;~ ~~:~~~;(;f~~~~ i ,;d erte - ---~ ~~~5--


b
-
Wohl1l1l1gcl1 fur HolIstuhlbcl1l1tzcr Blett 1
\\
D\\l".ng~ :or "'flously d"abled p"rsolls. de>lgn prlnelples. d\\ellings for \I heel ehalr users î\i.! eP!<lU
. T\u! ,..,' eT\stll>
oV).e T\ v).
fotO~ n \,e!\\e
Mal3e in cm II CrI ).

Roll stuhlbesitzer sind Personen. die sowohl im Freien wie innorhalb von Gebäuden auf Fahrzeuge angewiesen sind.
Uberwiegend halldelt es sich hierbei um Körperbehinderte, die an beiden Beinen gelähmt bzw. beidseitig beinamputiert
sind.
Jlau shalte, denen ein llollstuhlbl'llulzrr unbcliörl, haben einen ~rür.leren \I'ohnniichenbeuuf als vergleichbare.J\'ormal·
haush,lte. Im wesenl.lichen sind grö!>ere, dcm \\'elldekreis des Zimmerrollstuhls entsprecliende Bewegungsnächen
erfcrderlich. i\u13rrdem sind einige der ill DIN 18011 und DIN 18022 feslgeicgten Wnueslstellnächen breiIer zu
berne",en, da der Stauraum, der sich aufgrund der Mindl'stsll'I:f,jchcn nach DIN 18011 bzw. DIN 18022 ergibt, vam
RolIslllhlhenutzer infolge seines g('ringen Greifboreichs Ilichl voll g,·nulzl werden kann. Daneben isl eine Reihe beson·
dl'TCr GmndrifJ- \lncl Ausstflllungsmerkn!<1lc Z\I bC';Jchten, die d(' 111 I3chindrrtcn dasWohncn\lndWirlschaflencrleÎchlern.
Die vorlicgcnue Norm gehl davon aus, dall dem 1l0iLstuhlbenulzer jeder Raum der Wohnung zogängig und alle Einrich·
tungs- und Ausslnltungslcile erreichbar sein müssen. In Wohlll1ngl?n fliT t1lrhrere Per sonpn z. B. darf der Rollstuh)·
br!1utz(,T nichl [:!ezwung<'11 sein, sir h nur auf sc ine Schlaf· und Si'nitärr~ume zu b('schränken. DUJ ch entsprechende
Bemc5'tl ng und Jltlsslattung allrr Iliillille der Wolrnung wird uer Ilollstuhlbenutzer hingcgen in die Lage versetzt, nicht
nur I'On fremder Hilfe weilgehend unabhängig zo sein, sondern im ~lehrpersonen·Haushalt auch lätig milzuwirken.
Das triigl zu seiner Ilclrabililation wesentlirh bei.
Für edleillste hende RolIsluhlbenutzcr, die bei ihren Alilagsverrichlungen weitgehend oh ne fremde Hilfe auskommen,
sind Ein.Personrn .Wohnungen \'orlusehen.
Die ~orm gilt nichl fur Wohneinhei\.cn in Heimen.
Die in dieSel Norm enthallenen Hinwci~ auf DIN 18011 und DIN 18022 beziehen sich auf DIN 18011, Ausgabe
März 1967, und DIN 18022, Allsgabe Novomber 196'/. Sowei! diese Norm nichts anderes bestimrnt, sind die FestIe·
gungen der Normen DIN 18011 und DI~' 18022 sinngemiifl ~nzuwenden.
Die .ngegebenen LängenmaJ3e sind als AusbaumaJ3e zu vcr:;tenen.

1. Begriffe Benutzung der Ein richtung bzw. Ausslattung erforderlich


1.1 . Einrichtung ist, sowie die Flächen für in den Raurn schlagende Türen
ein.
Einrichtung im Sinne dieser Norm sind Gegenslände, die
vom Wohnungsnutzer einJ;<:bro.chl wl"rdcn. Zu den Ilewegungsnächen zählen darüber hinaus au eh
diejenigen Flächen, die nolwendig sind, urn zu allen
1.2. Auss\.altung Räumen sowie Ausslatlungs· und Einrichtungsteilen zu
Ausstatlung im Sinne dieser Nonn sind bauseitig einge- gelangen.
brachte und ioder eingebaule Teile des Innenausbaues.

1.3. Stcllnäche n
Stelln.iche n im Sinne dir,er Norm geben den Platzbedarf
der Einrichtungstcile nach Breile (b) und Tiefe (I) an. 2. Bemessung von Wohnzimmer, Freisitz, Flur
und Abstellraum
1.4 . Ikweguilgsniichen 2.1. \\'ohnzimmer
Bewrguilgsniirhen nach diesrr ~ofln sind die zwischen Für \\'ohnzimmer durfen folgende RaumgröJ3en nicht
den vorderen hzw. seitlichen Begrenzongen von Steil· unlerschritlen werden:
närhen bzw. Jlusstaltungsteiien a) in Wohnungen rur 1 Person 20 m 2
und gegenuberliegenden Stellnächen bzw. Ausslatlungs· b) in Wohnungen rur 2 bis 4 Personen 22 m 2
leilen IlZw. Wiinden c) in Wohnungen fur 5 Personen 24 m 2
frei bl"i benden Flnrhen. Sie schlier:len den Platz, der zur dl in Wohnungen fur 6 und mehr Personen 26 m 2

Fortsetzung Seite 2 bis 4

F:lchnornH'n;llIsschlll3 BallWCSt'n im Deulschc'n Normcn"ausschuB (DNA)

'""n-'i'-'"'-',-"u-r ,-
A ~"-":;:-",,,-
,,,.-
, ";;;:ï,-'-""-
,,,,-v-..,:;;;:.-C-''''':;·'-Il-,,-,,,,-.IO-u-,d-'~,,'n-­ DIN 18 025 81. 1 Jon. /972 Prcisgr."
, "7:'
Seile 2 !JIN 18025 Blalt 1

\lïrd - auet" dem Woh",.ill1l11cr - ein be~ondcrer Roul11 4.1.2. Fiir rolgende Einrichlllng sind Slellflächen
orlor I'oulllleil als El3plalz grm:ir.l DIN 18011, errorckrlich :
J\bschnitt 2.2, nachgewÎesen, ~o gpniigt flir das Wolm- a) ,t St! lr.l:1k hohr Einrich·
zÎllllller rille Héllll1lgrüt3c vun mindrslens 20 m2, je b 2: GO 1 ·60
tUllg,;I"i le J)
Vildurch;;khti,'e Teile der Fensterbrlislungen sollten -
rI", bosseren J\usblicks _. nicht höhcr als GO cm
b) tischhohcr I<iihlschrallk b 0: 60 2 ) t = 60

·reiche n. c) grol.le Arbt'itsplatte b ;;: 120 t = 60


DIN 18022, Abschllitt 3.1.1.2 und TabelIe 2, sind nicht
2.2. Freisitz anzuwrndcn.
Für jeele Wohnung ist ein Balkon, eine Loggia oder eine
Terras.'e mit den in DIN 18011, Abschnilt 2.3, geford.rten 4.1.3. fiir Wohnullgen fur 1 Person wird die Ànordnung
Mindcslabmcs.>lmge n vorwsehen. der Kiiche als ein dem Wohnzimmer angeschlossencs
Kochabteil el11prohlen. Alldern ralls is! in der Küche
Empfohlen werden Oberdochung und seitlicher Schu!z zlIsälzlich ei n Platz zlIr gclecrntlichC'1l Einnahme von
ge~en Welter u nd Sicht.
Mahlzeilen (siehe DIN 18022 Abschnitt 3.1.1.7) erfor·
Undurchsichtige Teile von vorderen BfÜstungcn dürren - derlich.
wegen d.. besseren Ausblicks - nicht höher als GO cm
reichen. 4.2. H.u s,crbci!sraum
2.3. Flur Flir lIauS:llbeitsräume gilt DIN 18022 Abschnitt 3.1.3.
Bewe~ungsfliichen in Fh",'n dûrren die Abmessung 4.3. S>llit"rräume
140 cm x 140 cm nicht unlel'schreiten. 4.3.1. f.~nil. ärr:\um in Wohnungen für 1 r~rso n
DIN 18011, Abschnitl 2.7, is! zu beachten. 4.3 .1.1. Folgende Ausslattllng isl errorderlich:
2.4. Abstollrallm a) Du sc:',~latz mil b;:: 140 ;;: 140
FuC:Jodrneiniauf
lnnerhalb der Wohnung ist J\bslellraum von 2 % der
1V0hnfliiche, jedoch von mindeslens 1 m 2 Grundfliiche b) Waschtisch b;;: 60 ;;: 50
edorderlich. In Wohnllngen ru, 1 Person ist Abs!ellraum c) Spiilk losett b - 40 t nach F"brikat
von mindes!cns 4 m 2 Grundfläche erforderlich, wenn der Duschplatz und Spiilldosett sind nebeneinande r anzuordnen.
Keiler· bzw. Bodenverschlag nicht stufenlos - z. B. über Der Duschplatz mul3 mit dem RolIstuhl befah"rbar sein.
einen Aufzllg - errcichbar is!, Si. Silzhëhe des Spülklosetls soli 50 cm belragen. Es wird
Begchbarer Abstellraum darf die Abmessung pmpr~t,len, die Bcdienungsrorrichtung fUr die Spülung
140 cm x 140 cm nicht unterschreiten. scitl'.' h . d. h. im Greifbereich des RolIstuhlbenutzers,
Abslellraum in Farm von Nischen darf höchsleo, 7G cm ilJl;.uo:dnen.
tief sein. Nach Ilozug der Wohnung sind am Duschplalz und neben
Der Abstellraum muJ3 einem Flur zugeordnet sein. dem Spiilklos.tt. den individuellen Errordernissen des
jeweiligen f\ollsluhlbenulzers angepal3l, Halte· bzw.
Stützvorriclltungen anzubringen. Slabile Verankerung isl
errorderlich.
3. Stcllflächen in Schlafzimmern
3.1. Einbettzimmer 4.3.1.2. ISl ein Hausarbeitsraum mil Wasseranschlut:\
(Slohe Abschnitl 4.2) nicht vorhanden, so sind im Sani ·
Flir folgenrle Einrichlllng sin d Stellflächen erfo rderlich : tijrraum Stellfläche und Anschllisse fur ei ne Waschmaschine.
a) 1 Belt b ;;: 205 t ;;: 100 b ;;;: 60 2), 1 = 60, erforderlich.
b) 1 Schrank b ;;: 120 t 65
4.3.1.3. Der Sanitnrraum mul3 unmiltelbar 1'001 Sehlaf·
c) 1 tischhohes Möbelstlick b ;;: 120 - 65 zimmN 7.ugängig sei n. Ein zweit er Zugang vom Flur wird
3.2. Zweilbet!zimmer emprohlcn.
Flir rolgende Einrichtung sin d Stellfächen erforderlich: 4.3.1.4. L;n.1bhängig da"on, ob der Sanitärrallm durch
a) 2 Betten je b;;: 205 t <: 100 rensIer beliJrtet wird, isl Lürtung durch ~Iotorkraft
errordorlich.
b) 2 Schränke je b 0:: 120 t 65
c) 1 tischhohes Möbelstiick b i': 120 t 65 4.3.2. Sani~ärrn\lm in \\'ohnunccn rür 2 Personen
4.3.2.1. In \\'ohnungen fur 2 Personen genligl ein Sanilär·
raum nach Abschnilt 4.3.1. Ein zweiIer Zugang vom Flur
4, J\usstnttllng und Stellflächen in Kiiche, (siehe J\b,rllllitl 4.3.1.3) ist jedoch slels erforderlich.
IInw;arbeilsraum und Sanitärriiulllen 4.3.2,2. En'pfohlen wird eine Lösung nach Abschnilt 4.3.3.
4.1. Küche
4.3.3. Sanitärräumc in Wohnungcn fl.ir 3 und
4.1.1. Folgende Aussl attung ist erforderlich: tn~l1t Pt"'r~oncn
a) Àbstellplalte. b ;;: 60 4.3.3.1. In Wohnungon rlir 3 und mehr Personen ist ein
b) Dopprlbcckcnsplilc b i! 80 dcm RolIstuhlbellutzN 1'0rbehaltenN. unmillelbar I'on
c) kleine J\rb\'itsplalle b ;:: GO seinem Sch l élrzimll1~r zugängiger Sanitärraum !lach
Abschnitl ·1.3.1.1 und 4.3.1.4 anzuordnen.
d) Ilerrlmulrle (mit mindestens
b nach Fabrikat
3 1<0cl"lollen) 1) In WohnungPIl rur 1 PN~on gcnligcn 2 schranl.; hohe
e) J\bslellplattc b ;;; 30 Einric:lt 1I Ilt!slrile.
Die Allss:altllng ist in rorstrlll'nder f\eihenfolge auf 2) Diesc~l:nd"stabmessllng wurde kleiner als in der
einer 85 cm hohen, rlurchlaurcnden Platte, I = GO cm, derzeitigen Fassung von DIN 18022 restgelegt, da
nnzuoruncn. inzwisc:hf'n (!Nartig(' Hau~haltsgeräte mil kleineren
IIf'rc1muldr, /\rlH'it!'pl;,Ul' ulld Spii!(· nlli ~("n unlC"rf.,hrbar i\hm(,~sllll!!en, aher mil ~Il'ic'her mier höhercr
!.:..,.·În. dit' (kIJft> J !illll' tlWfl da"lu mill(h~~ll'liS GIJ cm bl'tr;l~cn. Lci stllll1:. ;J1I1!t'uulen Wl' rI..Il'n.
DIN 18025 lJIatt 1 Seite 3

4.3.3.2. Daruber hinalls sind die üblieh"" Sa"it.irr'illme 6.5. 1\ n WohllllllgscillCOlngslün'I1,éln S;mitärrallmt Uren und an
I'.'(h DIN 18022, i\b,chnitl 3.2, anwordncn. 'l'lirrn. die ins Fede flihn'I1, sind Schwrllcn oder Niveau-
Der in DIN 18022, i\lJschnilt 3.2, 3.2.2 und 3.~.3. ge· unlersl' hiede bis Z\I 2,5 cm zwlä"ig. Weitere Sehwellen
nannte GrrnzwNl von .. Wohlllln~('n fijr Ille!lr Jls 5 oder :\i\'Cé~ullllter5Chic·dl· innrrhalb der Wohnllng sind
Per:iolwn" "'rh0hl ~ich, da ruT dril zum lIaushalt zjhlrn· un .:u l ~j~.s ig.
'". HolIstllhlbenutzer cin separater Sanilärrilum !lach
6.6. Var Türen muf.l in dem Raum, in den die Tür sch lägt,
Abschnitt 4.3.2.1 : o'eits vanusehen ist, auf ,.\\'ohnungen
eine !lewegungsOäche nach den in Bild 1 dargestelllen
fur insgesamt mehr als 6 Personen" ,
AbmC'ssungen gcsichert sein.

5. Abslände 7. Bc:;ondcre Anforderungen an die Ausstattung


5.1. Bei der Bemessung van Räumen bzw. Rallmteilen, 7.1. Alle Bedienungsvarrichlungen (Sleckdasen, Taster,
in denen ein Ef.lplatz nachgewicsen wird, und bei der Sicherungcn, Armatllfl'n, Griffe, Rolladengetriebe, Tür·
Bemessung van Schlafzimmern sind die i\bstandsregeln drucker, Briefklappen usw.) sind sa anzuardnen, daf.lsie
van DIN 18011, TabelIe 5, anzuwenden. im GreiOaereich des Rallstuhlbenutzers liegen . Es wird
empfahlen, die Höhe van 105 cm über dem FlIf.lbaden
5.2. Bei der Bemessung van Küchen, Hausarbeitsrällmen nicht zu überschreiten.
unr! Sanitärriiumen sind die i\bstandsregeln van Ansiclle van Schaltern werden Taslplatten empfahlen.
DIN 18022, TabelIe 8, anzuwenden.
7.2. In Sanilärriiumen nach Absc hnill 4.3.1, 4.3.2.1 und
4.3.3.1 sowie in Küchen und Hau sar bcitsräumen sind
6. Bewcgungsflächcn die \\'orlllwas,<,rzapfslcllen mil Tcmperaturbegrcnzern
G.1. Die Breite der zur BenlltZ\lng der Einrichtunr, bzw. all:i'l.lIslallen.
Ausstattung erfarderlichen llewegungsnächen ergibt Heif.l',\'asse rrahrc sind zu \'erkleiden.
sich aus der Breite der Stellmichen bzw. der Allsstattungs·
teile. 7.3. Als Beheizllng kommt nur Zenlralheizung '- mil
Heizkörpern ader Ful3baden·Slrahlllngsheizllng in allen
Bei L· und U·förmiger Küchenanardnung können Steil· }\ufrnthaltsrälllllcl1und Sanitärriiumcn - in Betracht.
fläehen flir tischhohe Einrichtungsteile lInmittelbar an die Die Heizung isl fur eine Raumtemperatur van 22 ae, in
Varderkante der Abstellplatten (Abschnitt 4.1.1 a Sanitiirrälllllen nach Abschnitt 4.3.1, 4.3.2.1 und 4.3. 3.1
und e) staf.len. .
fur ei ne Raumlempe ratur van 24 ae zu bemesse n.
Ein mindestens 85 cm breiter ZlItritt zum D,,,rh platz Hciz körper und lleizrohrleitungen sind sa anzuardnen,
(Abschnilt 4.3.1.1. a)) mllf.l gesicherl sein. u"fl sie auf.lerhalb der erforderlichen SlellOächen, Abstände
G.2. Die Tiefe der Bewegungsflächen darf 140 cm nichl und BcwegungsOächen liegen.
unterschreiten; das gill all eh flir die Sanitärräume nach 7.4 . Es wird empfahlen, an allen Fenslern Varrichtungen
Abschnitt 4.3.1, 4.3.2.111nd 4.3.3.1. zur Dallcrlüftung. z. B. Kippnügel, anzubringen . .Auf
Für die Tiere van BewegungsOächen in SaniUirräumen zwedonär..ige Anordllung der Bedienungsyorrîrhtungen
nach Abschnitt 4.3 .3. 2 genügen die Aniarderungen nach (siche Abschnitt 7.1) wird hingewiesen.
DIN 18022, Abschnitt 6 .
7.5. Anschlul3möglichkeit an das öffentJiche Fernsprech·
Werden in Zweibeltschlafzimmelll die StellOächen fur
nctz isl erfardcrlich. Ballseits ist die Anlage mindeslens
die Betten unmittelbar nebeneinander angeardnet, genügt
bis zur Abzwcigdas. nach DIN 18015 Blal! 1, Allsgabe
auf einer Seite eine BewegungsOäche van mindestens
August 1965, Abschnilt 3.2.3.2,auszurtihren.
85 cm Tiefe.
l\atrufanlagen - in sbesandere Feuermeldeanlagcn - sind
Vor dem Dlischplalz (Abschnitt 4.3.1.1 a) bralIcht eine
je nach Erfordernis einzubauen. Sie sind in Wohnungen
BeweglingsOäche nicht besanders nachgewiesen zu werden.
reir 1 Person stets erfarderlich.
Sie ergibt sich in ausreichender Gröf.le durch die erfarder·
Iiehen BewegulIgsOächen var den anderen Ausstattungsteilen. Eine Sprcchanlage zwischen Haustür und Wohnung
saw ie elektrische Türöffner fur Haus· und Wahnungslür
6.3. lm Hinblick auf die in Abschnitt 6.2 gefarderte all· werden empfahlen.
gemeine 11indcstliefe der Bewegungsfliichen erübrigl si eh
ein besonderer N~chweis für Spielmichen nach 7.6. Als Hilfe für das Ulllsleigen sind tragfähige Schienen
DIN 18 C11, Abschnitl 4.3 . in der Dccke
a) \'an Sanitiirrriumen nach Abschnitt 4.3.1, 4.3.2.1
6.4. Alle Tiiren müssen ei ne Iichle Durchgang,breile van lInd 4 .3.3. 1 n"ch Bild 2,
mindestens 85 cm und hüchslens 110 cm huhen . Auf der
b) des Rallstuhl·,\bslellplalzes (Abschnill 8.3) nach
Bandseite dt'T Türblälter isl ein Griff anzubringen, mil
nild 3,
dem der Rallsluhlbenutzer die Tür zuziehen kann (siehe
Bild 1). c) dor Garage (Abschnitt 8.5) nach Bild 4,
rÎlll.ubauen.

rr
·· · /./,'-',
Die Decken der Schiafzilllmcr müssen den nachlriiglichen

~
// . ;, ,
a I b Einh:lll tragr~i!liger Schi0nrll zulasse n.

,
\V)I 25
" 1/0
8. Zllgang zu HallS und \\'ohnung
~
35 JGO
:! i 45 150 8.1. Der Zugang ZUIll HallS mllf.lstufenlas gestallet sein.

~ __ _j .____J i
55 140
Der Zugallgsweg mu1'3 mÎndestros 120 cm breit sein.
Rampen sind zulässig, ihr Gefälle darf jedach nicht mehr

.10 '1 L-
:
~ >-. Tür -< a
Z\''''ischcnwC'fte
illlerpolicrcn
a:$ GC;n bctri1gC'll. Dei Rampenlängen \'on mehr als 6 mist
ein Zwischenpadesl von mindestens 120 cm Länge erfar·
derlich. Pod('sl p \'00 mindcstcns 120 cm Längc sind aul3er·
Dild 1. Bewegun~~nächc vor 'fün'll dcm Olm J\nfang und an1 Ende der Rampe anzuordnen.
Seit.c 4 DIN 18025 Blall 1

~ // ... ·//./777/~7~
~.
I Dusd;'::l
! p{o{z I
::.t
0
/ <L.:.2.LL-i
~I
L." -+r-'~'
__ __
I

l-""-'l
---1
, ., _ _


i I
L- - 125 - -1

Bild 2. Schiene im Sanilärraum Bild 3. Schiene im RolI sluhl·Absleliplalz

/.>/,

·---- 1 ~
I ' ~ I
I i I
. ;:;
_ <_"::::_ /__ :7/?'~~-:;::'~'~.~:'" 7?~J
/' <t ' / ' / // , / /L'L.' • ~ ,/~_8 C"\j t

!_ -- - 200 - ----J.--- 200---,


Bild 4. Schi,'non in der Garage

Rampen von mehr als 3 m Uinge sind mil einem lIand· Umsteigen vom Straf)enrollsluhl in den Zimmerrollstuhl
lauf in 80 cm Höhe auszuslalten. dient, anzuordnen, Der Rollstuhl·Absteliplatz mulJ mit
Heizung ausgeslattet sein,
8.2. Der Wohnllngseingang mul3 vom Hauseingang stufen· Der RolIstuhl·Absteliplatz mul3 - unbeschadet der Gang·
los erreichbar sei n. Die Gangbreite mul3 mindeslens breite (siehe Abschnitl 8.2) oder anderer Bewegungs·
J 20 cm bl·tragen, flächen - je RolIstuhlbenul7.er eine Fläche von mindestens
F.ür in Obergeschossen liegende \\'ohnungen isl ein Aufzug 175 cm Breite und mindeslens 150 cm Tiefe haben.
erforderlich. Die Aufzugskabine is! wie folgl zu beml'"en:
8.4, Hauseingangstüren müssen eine lichte Durchgangs·
aj lichle Breite ;;;; 110 brei te von mindeslens 95 cm und höchstens 110 cm
bj Iichle Tiefe ;;;; 140 haben.
cj lichle Türbreile ;;: 80 Abschnille 6.5 und 6.6 geiten sinngemiifl .
Die Aufzugskabine is! mit lIaltegriffen auszust"llen. Die
Dnlckknopftafel isl an der Stimsrite der AufZll~skabine, 8.5. Garagen müsscn ei ne lichte Breit.e ron mindestens
in 105 cm lIöhe über Fuflboden, anwordnen. 350 cm haben. Si€' müssen mit Ileizung ausge stattet sein.
Vor dC'n J\urZu{!szugäng:f'n ist eine Brwt'gungsO:iche ,"'on Orr ZUg:.1l 6 \·om H~us Zllr G:ifage mur., stufen!os gestallet
mindestens 140 cm x HO cm rrforderlich. sein. Du}jeÎ sind Lösunben a!1 zustreben, die es dem RolI·
sluhlbenutzer ersparen, den Weg zur Garage durehs Freie
8.3. Sofern nicht Caragen nach Abschnitt 8.5 vorgcsehen zu nE'hIJlen.
sind, ist innerhalb des Hauses. jedoch aur?erhalb der Eine automatische Ste\lenlng des Garagentores wird
lI'ohnung ein HolIsluhl·Abstellplatz, der zugteich lum emprohlen.
Dwellings far seriQusl)' disabled persans; design principles; dwellings far blind persans and thase having essential
diffieull)' in seeing
Fotokopie
nur für den
internen
Marle in cm Di ell:'> t .'."br<1 uch
Haushalle, denen ein Blinder ader wesentlieh Sehbehindl'rter angehört, haben einen grörleren Wahnnächenbedarf als
Narrnalhaushalte. Im wesentlichen sind grör.lere Bewegungsnächen erfarderlich. Daneben ist eine Reihe besonderer
Grundrir.l· und Ausstattungsmerkmale zu beachten, die <jem Blinden und wesentlich Sehbehinderten das Wohnen IInd
Wirlsehaften erleichlern.
Diese Narm gilt auch rur Wahnungen in Bllndenzentren l ), jedoch nicht rur Wohnplätze in Blindenheimen.
Die in dieser Norm enthaltenen Hinweise auf DIN 18 011 beziehen slch auC die Ausgabe Män 1967, die Hinweise
auC DIN 18022 auC die Allsgabe Noyember 1967. Sowei! diese Norm nichts anderes bestimmt, sind die Festlegungen
der Normen DIN 18011 und DlN 18022 sinngemäl:l anzuwenden.

1. Begriffe 2,1,2. Einpersonenwohnungen


Es geiten die BegrifCsbestimmungen nach DIN 18 025 Das Wohnzimmer in Wohnungen rur alleinstehende
Blatl 1, Ausgabe Januar 1972. Blinde oder wesentlich Sehbehinderte mul:l mindestens
,
~
22 m 2 grol:l sein, Es ist mit mindestens 6 Steckdosen
auszustatten,
2. Bemessung von, Wohnzirnmer, Freisitz, Für den I::Gplatz gilt Ab,chnitt 2,1.1.3.
c Flur und Abstellraum
§ 2,1. Wohnzimmer
o 2.2. Freisitz
Z
2.1. 1. ~Iehrperson.nwohnungen Für iede Wohnung ist ein Balkon, eine Loggia oder eine
In \\'o hnungen rur Mehrpersonenhaushalte, denen ein Terrasse von mindestens 180 cm Tiefe und 5 m 2 nutz·
Blinder oder wesenllich Sehbehinderter angehört, sind barer Grundnäche vonusehen.
zwei Wohnlimmer vorzusehen, ei nes, das allen Haushalts- Empfohlen werden Uberdachung und seitlicher Schutz
mitgliedern dient, das andere, das dem Blinden oder gegen IVetler und Sicht.
wesentlich Sehbehinderten vorbehalten ist,
2,1. 1. 1. Das allen Haushaltsmitgliedern dienende Wohn· 2.3, Flur
zimmer muG in Wohnungen rur Haushalte bis zu insge· Eingangsnure müssen mindestens 140 cm, Stichnure
samt mindestens 120 cm breit sein.
4 Personen mindestens 20 m 2 Es wird empCohlen, rur die Kleiderablage eine Nische 'lor·
5 Personen minde,tens 22 m 2 zusehen.
6 Personen mindestens 24 m 2
grorl sein. Wird der EGplatz als selbständiger Raum (siehe 2.4. Abstellraum
Abschnitt 2.1.1.3 b) oder in der Küche (siehe In Geschor.lwohnungen ist Abstellraum von 2 % der Wohn·
Abschnitt 2.1.1.3 cl eingeplant, so genügt- ungeachtet näche, mindestens ie doch 1 m 2 Grundl1äche, erCorderlich,
der Haushaltsgrörle - flir das Wohnzimmer eine Raum· Begehbarer Abst.llraum muG mindestens 85 cm breit
grö(le von mindestens 20 m 2 , sein.
2. 1.1.2. Das dem Blinden oder wesentlich Sehbehinderten Abstellraum in Form von Nische n muG mindestens ÓO cm,
vorbehallene Wohnzimmer mul:l mindestens 15 m 2 grol:l höchstens iedoch 75 cm, tief sein.
sein, Es ist mit mindestens 6 Steckdosen auszustatten. Der Abstellraum muG einem Flur zugeordnet sein.
2.1.1.3, Ein EJ:lplatz nach DIN 18011 mul:lstet.
vorhanden sein, Er kann entweder 3. Stellflächen in Schlafzimmern
a) im Wohnzimmer oder 3.1. Einbettzimmer
b) als splbständiger Raum oder Für Colgende Einrichtung sind StelInächen erCorclerlich :
cl in der Küche 8) 1 Bett .', , , . , , ... , .. , .' b ~ 205, / - 100
eingeplant werden, In den Fällen a und b muG er b) 1 Schrank" .. " " " . " . b;:;:llO, /- 65
unmiltelbar der Küche zugeordnet sein. c) 1 ti5Chhohe.s Möbelstück . ,. b;:;: 110, / - 65

I) Als Blindenzentr.n werden Anlagen bezeichnet, die ,owohl Wohnungen 31s auch Srezia!.inric~tu~~en (Werk·
stätten, BJchereien, Restaurants u.•. ) mr Blinde umCassen,

Fortsetzung Seite 2 und 3

Fachnormenausschul:l Bauwesen (FNBau) im Deutschen NormenausschuG (DNA)


Seile 2 DIN 18025 Blalt 2

3.2. Zweibetlzimmer [Jas Bad ist in jedem Falie mit einem Spülklasett auszu·
f"ür falgende Einrichlung sind Slel1nächen errarderlich: slatten. auch wenn eln vam Bad getrenntes IVC varhanden
al 2 Bellen .............. je b • 205, I' 100 ist. Daruber hinaus wird die Ausstattung mit .inem Bidet
bi 2 Schränke ............ je b i:: IlO, I ' 65 empCahlen. Eine FuJ3badenentwässerung ist stets errarder·
lich.
cl Ilischhohes Möbelslück. . bi:: IlO, I ' 65
Ist ein Hausarbeitsraum mit lI'asseranschluJ3 isiehe
Ein Zweibellzimmer der Wahnung mul:\ sa bemessen sein, Ab,chnitt ·1.2) nicht vorhanden, " , ,,;e rcen im Bad Ste il·
dall die Betten nebeneinander auCgeslellt werden können. näthe und Anschlüsse fur eine Waschmaschine,
Es wird emprahlen, die gefarderlen Slellnächen mr b ~ 60 cm J), 1 • 60 cm, erCarderlich. Darüber hinaus
S<ohränke (Absalz b) nebeneinander anzuardnen. wirp empCahlen, die SlellOäche fur einen Wäschetrackner
Aur DIN 18011, Abschnitt 2.4.2, wird hingewiesen. (T4mbler) mit der e"lsprechenden Varrichtung fur
Abiuft vanusehen.
4. Ausstattung und Stellf1ächen in Küche, 4.3,2. WC
Hausarbeitsraum und Sanitärräumen Fal~ende Ausstattung ist mindrstens erCarderlich:
4.1. Küche ~) ~pülkJasett. . . . . . . . . . . .. b' 40, I ' nach
4. 1.1. falgende Ausstattung Isl erCarderlich: Fabrikat
al Abstellplatte .. . .. b;;: 60 b) Handwaschbe<:ken ....... bi:: 40, I;;;: 30
b) Herd mil BackaCen b' nach ,abrikal, min· Die Ausstatlung mit Urinalbecken wird empCahlen.
deslen, jedoch 50
4.3.3. In lI'ahnungen , ~ie fur m.hr als 4 Personen
cl kleine Arbeilsplalte b' 90 bestimml sind, ist rin ZUSälzlicher Waschtisch, b i:: 60 cm,
dl DappelbeckenspWe b;;: 80 I i:: 50 cm, errardrrlich. Er kann a05telie des im WC ahn ..
e) Abstellplatte .......... b;;: 60 hin erCarderlichen Handwaschbeckens installiert werderl.
f) Speisenschrank 2). bi:: 60
4.3.4. Aur die EmpCehlungen von DIN 18022,
Die Ausstatlungsteile a bis e mü",en einheitlich 85 cm Abschnilt 3.2.3 und 3.2.4, wird hingewiesen.
noch und einheitlich 60 cm ner sein. Sie sind in vantehen·
der ReihenCalge, gegebenenralls in Verbindung mlt einer
durchlauCenden Platte, anzuardnen. 5. Abstände
Turen van Ausstattungsleilen wIlten in geöCrnetem 5.1. Bei der Bemessung van Räumen bzw. Raumteilen,
Zust..nd nicht In den Raum ragen. in denen ein Ellplatz nachgewie>en wird, und bei der
Bemessung van Schlarzimmern sind die Abstandsregeln
4.1.2. ,üt ralgende Einrichtung ,ind Stel1nächen van 01:-< 18 oq, TabelIe 5, anzuwenden.
erfarderlich:
a) 4 schrankhohe Teile ......... je b i:: 50 ,I ' 60 5.2. Bei der Bemessung van Küchen, Hausarbeitsräumen
bI 1 gra(\e Arbeitsplatte . . . . . . . . bi:: 120 ,1·60 und Sanitärräumen sind die Abstandsregeln van
cl Kühlschrank ...... ........ bi:: 60 J), t· 60 DIN 18.022, TabelIe 8, anzu'Nenden.
Wird der EJ3platz in der Küche eingeplant (siehe
Abschnitt 2.1.1.3 c), ist DIN 18011, Abschnitt 2.2.2, 6. Bewegungsflächen
zu beachten. 6.1. Die Breite der zur Benulzung der Einrichtung bzw.
Ausstattung erCorderlichen Bewegungsnächen ugibt sich
,t2. Hausarbeilsraum aus der Breite der Stellnächen bzw. Ausstattungsteile.
Aur Hausarbeitsräume isl DIN 18022, Abschnitt 3.1.3, In SchlaCzimmern genügt, bei L·Cörmiger Anardnung der
anzuwenden. Slellnächen van Bett und tischhahem ~!öbel (siehe
Ist im Hausarbeitsraum eine Waschmaschine vargesehen, Abschnitt 3 . 1 und 3.2), var dem Bett eine Bewegungsnäche
sa muil diese, Gerät Cest installiert werden . Der Raum van i:: 140 cm Breite.
ist dann auch mit einer Fullbadenentwässerung auszu· Bei L·Cörmiger und U·rörmiger Küche~anordnung können
sl.atten. Stellnächen mr tischhahe Einrichtungsteile unmiltelhar
an die Varderkante der Abstellplatte (sie he
4.3. Sanitärräume Abschnitt 4.1.1 a und e) stallen.
Es wird empCohlen, zwei getrennte Räume mr Bad und Var der Badewanne (siehe Abschnitl 4.3.1 a) genügt eine
WC vanusehen. Diese Trennung ist erCorderlich in Bewegungstläche van;;;: 90 cm Breite.
Wahnungen ful mehr als 4 Persanen.
6.2. Die TieCe der Bewegungsnächen darr in all'en Räumen
4.3.1. Bad
- auch in Sanitärräumen - grundsätzlich 90 cm, jedach
,algende Ausstattung ist mindestens erCarderlich: var Schränken in Schlarzimmern (siehe Abschnitt 3.1 b
a) Einbauwanne .............. bi:: 170 ,I i:: 75 und 3.2 bI, in Küc/len (siehe Absch nitt 4.1) und in Haus-
b) Waschtisch .......... . .... bi:: 60 4 ). 1;;:50 4 ) arbeitsr.iumen (siehe Abschnitt 4.2) 120 cm nicht unter·
c) Spülklosett ... ...... , ..... b' 40 , I ' nach schreiten.
,abrikat.
6.3. Im Hinblick auC die in Abschnitt 6.2 geCarderte
~lindesttieCe der BewegungsnJchen vor Schränken in
2) Der Speisenschrank kann als Unterschrank unter einer
SchlaCzimmern erübrigt sich ein besanderer Nachweis fur
Arbeits- ader Abstellplatte vargesehen werden.
Spielnächen nach DIN 18 011, Abschnilt 4.3.
J) Diese Mindestabmessung wurde mit Rücksicht auf die
te<:hnische Weiterentwicklung kleiner als in DIN 18022 6.4. Treppen innerh,lb der Wahnung sallen möglichsl
gewählt. geradläufig sein. Bei gewendelten Treppen sind Hand·
4) Gröllen> IVaschtisch. werden empfahlen; sie können läufe auC beiden Seiten vatlusehen. DirCerenzstuCen sind
seitllch über das ,ullende der Einbauwanne ragen. möglichst zu venneiden.
DIN 18025 Rlalt 2 Seite 3

6.5. G"radlinige Raumgrundrisse sind anzustreben. 7.5. Die 8eläge van Ful.lböden und Treppen sind rIltseh·
Grun onäche n, die sich dem Quadrat annäh~rn, ~ind fest auszubilden . .'luC gute Begehbarkeit der Trepp.n .
langgestrecklen Rechteckflöchen vorzuziehen. Slumpf. ist Wert zu legen. Slark profilierle Stufellk,nten ,illd
oder sp ilzwinklige Raumecken sowie Wa~dyo"prünge zu vermeiden.
sind lU vermeiden. '
7.6. Ansehluf.lmöglichkeit an das örfenlliche Fernsrreeh·
6.6. Fenster sollen direkt und hindernisfrei zugängig nelz isl erCorderlieh. Die Anla~e ist bauseil. mindestpns
sein. iJnter renstern von Wohn· ulld Schlafzimmern bis zur Abzweigdose - nach DIN 18015 Blall I,
durfen keine Stellflächen vorgesehen werden. Unter ;\usgabe August 1965, Abschnilt 3.2.3.2 - auswftihren.
Küchenfenstern ist die Anordnung von tischhohen
Ausstaltungsteilen und Stellllächen rur tischhohe 7.7. Eine gule 8eliehtung aller Räume ist erforderlieh.
Einrichtungsteile zulässig, wenn gewährleistet ist, daG
die Unterkante von nach innen aufschlagenden Fenst ..... 8. Zugang zu Haus und Wohnung
nugeln mindest.ns 125 cm ijber dem Fuf.lboden liegt.
8.1. Der Zugang zum Haus 5011 mögliehst stufenlos
gestaltet sein. Sind StuCen nicht zu vermeiden, soli ten
7. Allgemeine Anfordcmngcn an die Ausstatt,1tng sic beidseits mit einem Handla"C verse hen sein.
7.1. Alle Bedienungsvorrichtungen (Schalter, Steekdosen, 8.2. Treppen in Mehrfarnilienhäusern durCen nicht
Taster, Sieherungen, Armaturen, FenslergrHre, Rolladen· gewendelt sein. Es wird ompCohlen, beidseitig des
getriebe, Turdriieker usw.) mussen ein sicheres und TreppenlauCs Handläufe vorzusehen.
leichtes Zugreifen gewährleisten. Versenkte Bedienungs-
Der Handlauf am Treppenauge darf nicht unlerbrochen
vorrichtungen sind ungunstig. Scharfkantige Bedienungs.
sein. Der äul.lere Handlauf soli Anfang und Ende des
vorrichtungen sind zu vermeiden.
Treppenlaufs rechtzeitig erkenllbar machen.
Bei der Anbringung der Bedienungsvorriehtungen ist auf
[n MehrCarnilienhäusern sollte durch laktile Gescho~
einheitliche Einstellung - z. B. aller Kippschalter - zu
und Lagebezeichnung die Orientierung erleichtert
achten. Abtastbare !Y!arkierungen sind zweekmäf.lig. Fur
werden.
die Höhe von Sehaltern und Steckdosen uber Fuf.lboden
gilt DIN 18015 Blatt 2.
8.3. Aufzüge sind mit akustischen und laklilen Anzeigen
7.2. Aufentbaltsräume und Sanitärräume mussen zentral auszustatten.
beheizbar sein. Einzelöfen mit festen, nüssigen ader
gasförmigen 8rennstoff... sind unzulässig. 8.4. Freistehende und vorstehende Dauteile sind unzu·
lässig.
Heizkörper und Heizrohrleitungen sind so anzuordnen.
dal.\ sie auf.lerhalb der erforderliehen Stellnächen,
8.5. Eine gute Belichtung der Zugänge und Treppen is!
Abstände und 8ewegungsnäehen liegen.
erforderlich, um Sehbehinderten, die noch uber eillen
Sehrest verfugen, ein sicher.s Begohen zu errnögliehen.
7.3 . Durch entsprechende Fensterkonslruklionen, z. B.
dureh Dreh·Kippnugel, muf.l verhinderl werden, dal.\
zum Luflen geöffnele Fensterflugel weit in den Raum 8.6. Die Wohnungseingänge sind mil einer Gegensprech.
hineinragen. ~!ögliehkeilen rur die Anbringung eines anlage auszustatten.
Sonnensehutzes sollen vorhanden sein. Die Wohnungsoingangsturen sind mit einer Sieherhei!s·
kette ader einer ähnlichen Vorriehtung zu versehen.
7.4. Türen sollen mögliehst gegen eine Wand, einen
Ausslattungsteil oder ei ne Stellf1äehe aufsehlagen. Sie 8.7. Abschnitte 6 .5 und 7.1 bis 7.5 geiten sinngemäl.\.
rnüssen sich urn mindestens 90 0 öf[nen lassen. Gro~
näehige Glasfüllungen sind zu vermeiden. 8.8. Alle Aul.lenanlagen müsscn gefahrlos begehbar se'n.
INTRODUCTION
1. WH AT DOES THE ACT SAY ? •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

INGEKOfJlEN iJ 6 dE 11987 WHO CAN COME UNDER THE SCHEME ••••••••••••••••••••••• 2


f. WHO CALCULATES THE AMOUNT?
:>
MEET ING •••••• • •••••••••••••••••••••• • ••••• • •••• • •••• 3 zz
FOLLOW-UP •••••••••• • •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 3 ;::
M
E~\ERGENCIES, ILLNESS ............................... . 4
RIGHTS FOR APPEAL ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• '"
I
N

). How IS THE AID CALCULATED?


MEîlNG OUT ......................................... . 5
BENEFIT!PAYMENT FOR SPECIAL CARE ••••• • •••••• • •• •• •••• 5
MANHOURS • . •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6
ON ENPLOYMENT OF ASSISTANTS PAYMENT FOR HOLIDAYS 6
IN OWN ~or1E
y. How IS THE MONEY PAID?
EMPLOYER ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ••••• 7
WAGE - ACCOUNT ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

5. WAGE- AND EMPLOYMENTCONDITIONS .


INSTRUCTIONS RE THE SCHEME AND RE THE GENERAL llNES AGREEMENT ABOUT EMPLOYMENT ••••••••••••.••••.•••••••• 8
TO BE FOLLOWED
TERMS OF EMPLOYMENT •••••••••••••.•• •• ••• •••.• •••••••• 8
ARRANGEMENT OF THE SCHEDULE •••••••••••••.••••••••••• 9
AGREEMENT AB OUT WAGE •••••• • • ••• •••••••••••.••••••••• 9
SAVING •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••.•••••••••• 9
TEMPORARY ADJUSTMENT OF TH'E AID ...... ............. .. 9
WAGERATES • •••••••••••••.••• •••.••••••• •••••.••• •• ••• 10
HAGESHEETS ••• •••••••• •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••. la
TAX ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• •••••••••• • •• ••• •••••• la
VOW OF SI LENCE ••••••••••• • •• •••• •••••••••• •• •••••••• 11
ASSlSTANT'S HOLlDAYS AND HOLlDAY-ALLOWANCE ...... ... . 12
PAYMENT OF HOLl DAYALLOWANCE ....................... .. 12
YOUR HOLl DAY •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 13
GRANT-IN-AID FOR HOLlDAYCOMPANION ................. .. 13
ATP AND AUD (= COMPULSORY CONTRIBUTIONS TO:
ATP ADDITIONAL LABOURMARKET PENSION-
FUND 14
WITH KIND REGARDS
AUD =
LABOURMARKET EDUCATIONAL FUND)
ARHUS KOrll'lUNES SOC lAL - AND SUNDHEDSFORVALTN I NG INSURANCE 16
SOCIAL AFDELINGEN ILLNESS .• •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••.••••••••• 17
KARENSDAG (= WAITING DAY) .......................... . 18
ANNUAL STATEMENT OF ACCOUNT •.•••••••••.••••••.•••••• 19
INTEREST ••••••••••••••••••••••.••••••.•.••.••••••••• 20
PRES-ENT RATES ••••••••••••••••• ••••• •••..•••••••••••• 21
6, CONSULTATION ANP GUlpANCE .••..•.•.•.•..•..•.•.••.... 21 J N T R 0 0 U C T ION
ÄPPP. 1: PRESENTATION OF PRAFT FOR MEETING THIS LOOSE-LEAF PAMPHLET GIVES THE ANSWERS TO SOME OF
2: AGREEMENT ABOUT EMPLOYMENT THE MOST IMPORTANT ANP MOST COMMON OUESTIONS.
WE UPDATE THE INFORMATION REGULARLY BV APDING TOTHE EXIST-
ING LOOSE-LEAVES ANP BY ISSUING NEW LOOSE-LEAVES,

You ARE INVITEP TO CONTRIBUTE WITH PROPOSALS ANP GOOD


IDEAS TO THE CONTENTS.

IN ARHUS MUNICIPALITY THE SOCIAL DEPARTMENT IS RESPONSIBLE


FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE PRACTICAL BENEFIT AlP
ACCORDING TO THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT §48, SUBSECTION 3.

AT PRESENT YOUR CONTACT IS ...•• • •

PERSONAL APPLI CAT ION ONLY AFTER PREVIOUS AGREEMENT.

OTHER IMPORTANT NAME S:


ADVISER IN THE AREAOFFICE:
TELEPHONE NO.: EXTENS ION
AREA/DI STR ICTNURSE: ______________________________
TELEPHONt No. : EXTENSION _________
INSURANCECOMPANV POLICV No.
BANK: REG. No . : ACCOUNT No.
EMPLOYE R' S REGISTER NO.: SERlAL N6.:
_____________________________________
A S SI S TA ~~T~S~
:
I. WHAT SAYS THE ACT? IF IT IS ONLY A QUESTION OF NORMAL DOMESTIC HELP - I.E.
HELP FOR PERSONAL CARE, CLEANING UP, COOKING, WASHING,
THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT, § 48, SAYS REGARDING ADULTS
AND SHOPPING, THE DEPARTMENT FOR DOMESTIC WELFARE MUST
(ABOVE 18 YEARS OF AGE) AS FOLLOWS:
PROVIDE THE HELP, AND IN THAT CASE § 48 SHOULD NOT BE
~UB SECT. 3 PERSONS SUFFERING FROM SEVERE PHYSICAL OR APPLlED.
MENTAL HANDICAPS (DEFICIENCIES), AND WHO ARE STAYING
IF ABOVE-MENTIONED CARE, WATCHING-OVER, AND ATTENDANCE
IN THEIR OWN HOMES, ARE ENTITLED TO GET THE NECESSARY
ARE PART OF THE NEED, § 48 MAY BE APPLIED, AND THE AID
EXTRA EXPENDITURES IN CONNECTION WITH THEIR CARE - AS
MAY BE ALLOTTED AS A FIXED MONTHLY AMOUNT OF MONEY ENABL
A RESULT OF THEIR HANDICAP - COVERED.
ING YOU YOURSELF TO EMPLOY HELPERS FOR THE MONEY. THE
THE MINISTER FOR SOCIAL AFFAIRS DECIDES THE RULES ABOUT ALLOTMENT OF THE AI 0 MUST THEN BE llADE IN SO FAR AS lT
THE DEFINITION OF THE GROUP OF CITIZENS WHO ARE ENTITLED IS NOT COVERED BY EXTRA BENEFIT- ANO CARE-AIO TO THE
TO BENEFIT AID." DISABLEMENT PENSION (SECT. 54). PLEASE SEE PAGE 5.
SUB SECT 4 "THE HELP AFTER SUB SECT. 1 AND 3 IS CONDI-
APART FROM BEING ONE OF THE PERSONS MENTIONED IN PAGE WHO CAN
TIONAL ON ADHERENCE TO THE DIRECTIONS GIVEN BY THE COME UNDER
1, AND THAT YOU ALSO NEED WATCHING-OVER/ATTENDANCE, THE SCHEMl
SOCIAL COMMITTE AS REGARDS CARE ETC."
YOU MUST ALSO FULFIL ONE MORE CONDITION TO COME UNDER
ACCORDING TO REGULATION No. 277 OF JUNE 19, 1979 FROM THIS SCHEME.
THE MINISTER FOR SOCIAL AFFAIRS, § 48, SUB SECT. 3 STI- You MUST BE ABLE TO BE RESPONSIBLE FOR YOUR OWN AFFAIRS.
PULATES THAT THE FOLLOWING GROUP OF PERSONS ARE ENTITL- HEREUNDER TO BE ABLE TO RECOGNIZE/ESTIHATE YOUR NEED
EO TO THE AID ; MENT AL OEFICIENT PERSONS, EPILEPTIC PER- FOR ASSISTANCE, PERSONALLY TO TAKE AN ACTIVE PART WHEN
SONS, HANDICAPPEO PERSONS, ALSO PERSONS SUFFERING FROM IT IS DECIDED HOW EXTENSIVE THE AID SHOULD BE, AND
INSUFFICIENT RESPIRATION, SPEECH DEFECTIONS, BLINDNESS ABOVE ALL YOU MUST BE ABLE TO TAKE THE RESPONSIBILITY
ANO WEAKNESS OF SIGHT, AS WELL AS PERSONS WHO ARE DEAF IN CONNECTION WITH THE DAILY ADMINISTRATION OF THE SCHE-
OR HARD-OF-HEARING. ME .

CIRCULAR OF DECEMBER 20, 1982, SECTION 52, FROM THE WITH YOUR SIGNATURE YOU MUST CONFIRM THAT YOU ARE RECEI
MINISTRY FOR SOCIAL AFFAIRS STIPULATES; "THE AlM OF THE ING THE AID ON THE CONDITIONS STIPULATED IN THIS MANUAL.
PROVIS!ONS IN 948 IS TO BE AN INCENTIVE TO HANDICAPPED ALSO IF FOR PRACTICAL REASONS YOU HAVE TO AUTHORIZE ONE
PERSONS TO STAY IN THEIR OWN HOMES - THROUGH COMPENSA- OF YOUR ASSISTANTS TO BE IN CHARGE OF THE ADMINISTRATION
TION FOR SPECIAL EXTRA EXPENDITURES IN CONNECTION WITH FOR YOU.
THEIR SUPPORT AND CARE."
SECTION 53, SUB SECT. 3: STIPULATES THAT PERSONS SUFFER-
ING FROM SEVERE PHYSICAL OR MENTAL DEFICIENCIES SHOULD
STAY IN THEIR OWN HOMES, I.E. NOT IN INSTITUTIONS."
COMMENT: LIGHT, JOINT FLAT AND ·PROTECTEO" FLAT IS NOT
AN I NST !TUT! ON.
EXTRA EXPENDITURES FOR THE SUPPORT ARE A.O. AID FOR PAY-
ING FOR PRACTICAL ASSISTANCE IN THE HOME. PRACTICAL ASSI-
STANCE MAY BE COMMON DorIESTIC HELP, BUT MAY ALSO BE CARE!
MINDING (ALSO WATCHING-OVER) AND ATTENDANCE.
IN EMERGENCIES, IN CASE OF ILLNESS ETC. THE AID CAN BE EMERGENCC I
BEFORE YOU ARE GRANTEO AIO-ACCORDING ·TO THE COMMITTEE ILLNESS
MEETING TEMPORARILY UPGRADED WITHOUT HOLDING A MEETING.
SOCIAL SECURITY ACT § 48, SECTION 2, fOR PAYING HELP-
ER~ A COMPETENT COMMITTE MEETING IS HtrD. You MAY IN CASE OF ILLNESS YOU MUST REPORT TO THE DISTRICT-
APPLY TO YOUR AOVISER TO HAVE YOUR CASE TREATED. NURSE WHO WILL THEN DECIDE ON THE NECESSARY STEPS TO
BE TAKEN - IN CO-OPERATION WITH THE SOCIAL DEPARTMENT.
STANDING PARTICIPANTS IN THE MEETING ARE.
_ You YOURSELF - AND, IF YOU LIKE, TOGETHER WITH ONE IN CASE OF HOSPITALIZATION OR THE LIKE YOU MUST ALSO
OR MORE COMPANIONS AFTER YOUR CHOICE. REPORT TO THE DISTRICT-NURSE, WHO - TOGETHER WITH THE
SOCIAL DEPARTMENT - DECIDE ON A POSSIBLE, TEMPORARY
_ THE SOCIAL INSPECTOR FOR YOUR AREA OFFICE.
STOP OF THE AID. IN SUCH CASES IT MAY BE NECESSARY TO
- THE OISTRICTNURSE GIVE NOTICE TO THE ASSISTANTS DURING THE PERIOD OF ILL-
- YOUR ADVISER NESS.
_ THE ADVISER ANO SECRETARY FROM THE SOCIAL DEPART-
IF YOU ARE UNSATISFIED WITH A DECISION MADE BY THE SO- RIGHT OF
MENT
CIAL COMMITTEE, YOU MAY APPEAL TO: APPEAL/
FURTHERMORE THE FOLLOWING PERSONS MAY BE ASKED TO JOIN, THE SOCIAL BOARD OF ApPEAL FOR ARHUS COUNTY COMPLAINT
IF NECESSARY.
_ STAFF FROM THE DAY-ANO-NIGHT INSTITUTIONS
_ A REPRESENTATIVE FROM THE RESPONSIBLE MUNICIPALITY
THE APPEAL MUST BE ADDRESSED TO:
_ A CONSULTANT FOR YOUR HANDICAPORGANIZATION AND/OR
THE SOCIAL DEPARTMENT
OTHERS .
ON BASIS OF YOUR OWN PROPOSALS, THE DISTRICT-NUP.SE' S
THE DECISION MUST BE APPEALED NOT LATER THAN 4 WEEKS
EVALUATION, ANO THE USUAL PRACTICE OF THE SOCIAL COMMIT-
AFTER YOU WERE INFORMED AB OUT THE DECISION, I.E. 4
TEE (BOARD)"THE MEETING"SHALL CONSIDER AND DECIDE HOW
WEEKS AFTER THE DATE OF THE MEETING OR FROM THE DATE,
MANY HOURS OF HELP YOU WILL BE NEEDING EACH WEEK. ON WHICH YOU RECEIVED A REPLY IN WRITING TO YOUR
ONeE A YEAR THE SOCIAL COMMITTEE MUST CONSIDER WHETHER I FOLLOw-UP APPLICATION.
YOUR NEEDS HAVE CHANGED: CONSECUENTLY"THE MEETING" DE-
CIDES ALWAYS WHEN YOUR GRANT MUST BE RE-EVALUATED -
POSSIBLY WITHOUT HOLDING A NEW MEETING, I F BOTH YOU YOUR-
SELF AND THE DISTRICT-NURSE MAY FIND THAT THE SC HE ME IS
OPERATING WELL . BUT YOU MAY (AND IN CASE OF MAJOR CHANGES
IN THE NEEDS, BOTH UP AND DOWN, YOU MUST) ASK FOR A NEW
MEETING TO BE HELD OR AN ADJUSTMENT, ALSO PRIOR TO SUC H
EVENT.
If IT IS ONLY A CUESTION OF A MINOR ADJUSTMENT THE SOCIAL
DEPARTMENT AND THE DISTRICT-NURSE CAN SETTLE THE MATTER .
You MAY EITHER APPROACH YOUR ADVISER, YOUR DISTRICT-NURSE
OR THE SOCIAL DEPARTMENT ABOUT THE CUESTION .
3. How IS THE AMOUNT CALCULATED ? THERE ARE 6 DIFFERENT TYPES OF HOURS: PAY HOU
THE MEETING MUST CONSIDER HOW MANY HOURS YOU WILL NEED, ALLOlMENT ORDINARY HOURS: (WEEKDAVS 6 A.M. - 5 P.M . )
AND AT WHAT TIME OF THE DAY AND NIGHT THROUGHOUT THE (SATURDAYS 6 A.M. - 2 P.M.)
WEEK. EVENING/NIGHT HRS.: (WEEKDAYS 5 P.M. - 6 A. M.)
AT THE MEETING YOUR ENTIRE SITUATION MUST BE DEALT (MONDAYS ONLY 4 A.M. - 6 A.M.)
WITH, FOR INST . HOUSING CONDITIONS,"LIVING-TOGETHER" ~ATURDAY HOUR S: (SATURDAYS 2 P.M. - 5 P.M.)
CONDITIONS, AND VOUR NEED FOR TRANSPORTATION . AND NA-
WEEKEND. DAY-HOURS: (SUNDAY 6 A.M. - 5 P. M.)
TURALLY THE STATE OF YOUR HEALTH, AND YOUR WORKING OR
EDUCATIONAL CONDITIONS . WEEKEND. NIGHT-HOURS\SATURDAY FROM 5 P.M . UNTIL
(SUNDAY 6 A.M . , AND
IT IS BETTER IF YOU YOURSELF COME WITH A PROPOS AL FOR
DISCUSSION AT THE MEETING. THIS PROPOSAL COULD VERY (SUNDAY FROM 5 P.M. UNTIL
(MONDAY 4 A.M.
WELL BE DRAFTED IN CO-OPERATION WITH THE DISTRICT-NUR-
SE OR YOUR ASSISTANTS AND YOUR ADVISER. MARGINAL HOUR S: WHENEVER NEEDEO • I
PLEASE SEE APPENDIX 1 WITH A SUMMARY OF THE INFORMATION
NEEDEO.
Sv MARGINAL HOU RS ARE UNDERSTOOD iHE HOURS WHE~
VOUR I
AS SISTANT MUST STAY WITH YOU BECAUSE OF YOUR STATE OF
As STIPULATED IN THE PENSIONS ACT THE EXTRA AID/PAY- lExTRA AID HEALTH, BUT WHERE HE/SHE MUST NOT DIRECTLY WORK FOR YOU.
MENT FOR SPECIAL CARE SHOULD BE USED TO COVER EXCEPT- FOR SPECIAL
10NALLY BIG EXTRA EXPENSES FOR CARE PURPOSE S AS FOR CARE. THE HOURS ARE CALCULATED ON BASIS OF VARIOUS RATES USED
INSTANCE PAYMENT OF ASSISTANTS FOR WATCH AND NECESSA- FOR EVALUAT ING THE AMOUNT IN KRONER AND 0RE OF THE
RY ATTENDANCE FOR ACTlVITIES OUTSIDE THf HOME . MONTHLY PAYMENT TO YOU .

THE EXTRA"BENEFIT PAYMENT" SHOULD BE USEO TO COVER THE WAG E-RAT ES ARE INDEX-REGULATED, AND MAY BE CHANG ED
EXPENSES FOR PERSONAL AID AS WELL AS FOR NECE SSARY EACH l ST AP RIL AND l ST OCTOBER . WAGE AGREEMENT RENEWALS
~TTENDANCE FOR ACTlVITIES OUTSIDE THE HOME. MAY AL SO ADJUS T THE WAGERATES. CORRECT RATES CAN BE I
IF THE HELP ALLOTTED TO YOU MAY COVER YOUR ENllRE SE EN IN THE PAY MEN1 SHEET.
NE EO FOR ASSIST~NCE, THEN THE EXTRA "AID AND BENEFll
WH<N SETTLIN G WITH THE ASSI S1AN1 S 11 IS IMPOsS IBLE 10
I
PAY FOR "
PAYMENT" WILL NOT BE PAID DIRECT TO YOU, AS WE WI LL
PAY FOR ·PUBL IC HOLIDAY S". THU S IT IS IMPO sS IBLE TO IDAVS AS l'
ASK THE PENSIONS DEPARTMENT TO TRANSFER THE AMOUNT . STINCT F,
APPLY THE SUN DAY-RATES TO HOLIDAYS AS DISTINCT FROM
TO US ; SUNDAY S
SUNDAYS.
IT SHOULD BE NOTEO, HOWEVER, THAT YOU HAVE STILL BEEN
GRANTED THE EXTRA "AID ANF BENEFIT PAYMENT", AND THAT HOWEVER, IN THE PAYMENTSHEET THERE IS CALCULATED A
ACCORDING TO THE DECISION TAKEN AT THE MEETING IN THE MINOR, ADDITIONAL PAY FOR HOLIDAYS AS DISTINCT FR OM
SOCIAL DEPARTMENT YOU WILL STILL BE PAID THAT PART or SUNDAYS, FOR A CALENDAR YEAR, AND 1/12 IS PAID EACH
THE AMOUNT, WHICH SHOULD NOT BE USED FOR WAGE S TO YOU R MON1H WITH THE MONTHLY TRANSFER .
ASSISTANTS .
THI S ADDITI ONAL PAYMENT IS USED AS A PA RT lA L PAYMEN T
FO R HOLIDAYs AS DIS l lNCT FR OM SUN DAYS 10 TH E Ass i-
STANTS.

ISSUED: 1/1 1985 SUBSTITUTES : PAGE 5 AMEN DED : 1/12 1985


I SS UED : 1/1 1985 SUB ST!TUTES : PAGE 6 AMEN DED: 1/12
5, TERMS OF WA GES AND tMPLUYMtNI,

~. How IS THE MONEY PAID ? THIS SECTION CONTAINS VERY IMPORTANT PIECES OF INFOR-
You ARE EMPlOYER FOR YOUR ASSISTANTS. THAT MEANS THAT YOU I EMPLOYER MATION - ALSD FOR YOUR ASSISTANTS. You MAY ASK FOR OFF-
YOURSELF MUST ENGAGE YOUR ASSISTANTS AND PAY THEM THEIR PRINTS (COPIES) OF THIS SECTION TO GIVE TO YOUR ASSI-
WAGES. STANTS.
THE SOCIAL DEPARTMENT ADVISE AND GUlDE ONLY REGARDING THE A WRITTEN AGREEMENT ABOUT [~PLOYMENT SHOULD ALWAYS BE MADE I AGREEME I
ADMINISTRATIVE PART OF THE ARRANGEMENT. OUT BETWEEN THE EMPlOYER AND THE EMPLOYEE. ABOUT
1/12 OF THE YEARLY AMOUNT IS TRANSFERRED TO YOUR ACCOUNT WAGEACCOU~ A STANDARD LETTER OF EMPlOYMENT HAS BEEN MADE BY THE EMPLOYI",'
IN THE BANK OR S~VINGS BANK AT THE END OF EACH MONTH. SOCIAL COMMITTEE (APPENDIX 2) FROH WHERE YOU CAN ASK
FOR AS HANY COPIES AS YOU WIll NEED.
PLEASE NOTICE THAT YOU MU ST OPEN A SPECIAL ACCOUNT IN
YOUR BANK/SAVINGS BANK WHICH SHOULD ONlY BE USED FOR IF THE STANDARD LETTER OF EHPlOYHENT IS USED THE COMMIT-
YOUR ASSISTANT'S WAGES. WE WOULD RECOMMENO THAT YOU TEE GUARANTEES TO FULFIl THE COMMITHENTS IN THE lETTER OF
ARRANGE WITH THE BANK ABOUT TRANSFERRING THE WAGES EMPLOYHENT PROVIDED THESE 3 STIPULATIONS ARE OBSERVED.
DIRECTLY TO YOUR ASSISTANT ' S ACCOUNT .
1: THAT THE AGREEMENT WAS MADE IN FUlL, AND WITH ALL
SPACES FIlLED IN.
2: THAT THERE IS NO BREACH OF AGREEMENT,
3: THAT A CO PY OF THE SIGNED EHPLOYMENT AGREEMENT BE
IMMED IATELY SUBMITTED TO THE SOCIA L DEPARTMENT ON
DATE OF SIGNATURE.
IF THE STANDARD lETTER OF EMPLOYHENT IS NOT USED IT IS IM-
POSSIBLE TO HAKE ANY SORT OF AGREEMENT, WHICH WILL
COHMIT THE SOCIAl COMMITTEE BEYOUND THE AMOUNT GRANTED
IN THE SPECIFIC CASE.
THE HORE REA SON IS THERE TO RECO~ENDTO USE THE STANDARD
LETTER OF EMPLOYMENT.

THERE ARE SOME EXCEPTJONS TO YOUR RIGHT TO MA KE AGREEMENT ITER/% OF


WI TH YOUR ASS I STANTS ABOUT THE TERMS OF EHPLOYMENT : EMPLOY M
1: THE MUNICIPALITY WIll NOT COVER WAGES BEYOND 8
HOURS PER DAY TO A SPOUSE OR A "TOGETHER-LIVING"
PERSON .

2: THE MUNI CIPALITY WIll NOT COVER THE WAGES TO ASSI-


STANTS BELOW 18 YEARS OF AGE.
3: THE MUNICIPALITY WILl NOT PAY FOR OVERTIME.

ISSUED: 111 1985 SUBSTITUTES : PAGE 8 . AMENDEO : 1512 191


l
You ARE RECUESTED TO PROVIDE YOUR ASSISTANIS WITH A DUTY- I' SCHEDULE- SHEN CALCULATING THE AID THE SOCIAL DEPARTMENT USE THE RATES
SCHEDULE AT LEAST 1 WEEK AHEAD. ARRANGEMENT AGREEo UPON BETWEEN THE "ASSOCIATION OF '1UNICIPALlTlES" AN;)
THE "DOMESTIC :~ORKERS' UNION, HOWEVER NOT ABOVE SC.,.LE 8,
WHEN ARRANGflNG THE SCHEDULE YOU ARE FURTHERMORE RECUEST-
ED TO FULLY REGARD YOUR ASSISTANTS' RECUIREMENTS FOR As REGAR~S THE SPECIAL "oUTY-TIME" THE RATES FROM THE
FULL WATCHES (HOURS OF DUTY). AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE ~SSOCIATION OF COUNTIES" ANo THE
UNION OF "DAY- ANo-NIGHT ASSISTANTS" ARE APPLlED,
You VOURSELF ARE ALLOWED TO HAKE A WAGE-SVSTEM AND TO WAGE
HAKE AGREEMENTS WITH VOUT ASSISTANTS WITHIN THE ECONO- AGREEMENT [ACH MONTH YOU MUST FILL I~ A PAY-SLIP FOR EACH OF YOUR
MICAL FRAME OF VOUR ALLOTMENT. EITHER AS TIME WAGE BASED ASSISTANTS - WITH A COPY FOR THEM.
ON THE DUTV-SCHEDULE, OR AS A MONTHLV SALARV CORRESPONDING
Ir IS VERY IMPORTANT THAT THE PAV-SLIPS ARE CORRECT, I.E,
TO iHE MONTHLV HOURS PREVIOUSLY AGREED UPON.
WITH COMPLETE NAME OF THE ASSI STANTS, AooRESS, ANo CPR 'lo.
THE HOURS PAID FOR MUST TOT AL TO THE ALLOTTED NUMBER OF (= CENTRAL PERSON REGISTER), ANo WITH THE TOTAL NUMBER OF
HOURS, AND THE AVERAGE TIME WAGE MULTIPLIED BY THE NUM- HOURS, ANo TIME-RATE, CHECK ALSO THAT ATP (= COMPULSORY
BER OF HOURS MUST CORRESPOND TO THE ALLOTTED HELP, CONT~IBUTlorl TO EXTRA LABOUR:'IARKET PEl/SlONS FUND), ANo
AUD (= COMPULSORY CONTRIBUTION LABOURHARKET EoUCATIONAL
You HAY SAVE SOME OF THE MONEV FROM ONE MONTH TO ANOTHER I SAVINGS FUND) (SEE p, 14 IN THE HANUAL).
IF FOR INSTANCE YOU CAN FORESEE THAT VOUR NEED WILL BE
CONSIDERABLV HIGHER LATER ON. PLEASE SUBMIT TO THE SOCIAL DEPA~TMENT lST COPY OF THE
DUTY-SCHEDULE, SIGNED BY BOTH YOUR ASSISTANT AND YOU YOUR-
As A PRINCIPAL RULE VOU HAY NOT SAVE MORE THAN WHAT CORRE-
SELF.
SPONDS TO AN AVERAGE WEEKLY CONSUMPTION, IF YOU ARE ABLE
TO SAVE MORE THAN THAT OVER ONE MONTH IT MAV WELL BE THAT VOU CAN RE~UIRE READY-PRINTEo oUTY-SCHEDULES FORMS
THE HELP WAS ALLOTTED ON A RATHER BIG SCALE. THE HELP WILL AT THE SOCIAL JEPARTMENT .
THEN BE AoJUSTEo. IHE PAY-SLIPS ARE YOUR PR~OF TH,.T YOU HAVE USEO THE MONEY
AN AMOUNT SAVEo ONE YEAR CANNOT BE CARRIEo ON TO THE NEXI. FROM US FOR WAGES. PLEASE SUBMIT THE ORIGINAL TO THE
As PER 31/12 THE ACCOUNT MUST BALANCE AT ZERO (NUL), SOCIAL DEPARTMENT EACH MO~TH,

VOU MUST INFORM THE SOCIAL COMMITTE I~ YOUR NEED FOR HELP ITEMPORARY VOU YOURSELF ARE NOT TAXABLE OF THE MONEY - BUT SO IS TAX
HAY CHANGE FOR A SHORTER OR LONGER PERIOD OF TIME, lF CHANGE OF YOUR ASSISTANT, THE WAGE IS 9-TAXABLE, W~ICH MEANS THAT
F .INST. YOU ARE HOSPITALIZED, AS YOU WILL THEN NEED NO THE HELP VOU YOURSELF SHALL NOT DEDUCT THE TAX FROM THE WAGE,
HELP IN YOUR HOME, OR IF YOU ARE IN NEEo OF EXTRA HELP BUT THE ASSISTANT MUST REPORT TO THE TAX AUTHORITIES
F.INST. AFTER A RECENT OPERATION. THAT HE IS A S-TAXABLE PERSON. TH EN SHE/HE WILL ~ECEIVE
10 POSTAL CHE~UE FORMS FOR PArING OF THE TAX IQ TIMEs
You MUST ALSO REPORT IF ANY CHANGES TAKE PLACE IN CON-
DURING THE rEA~,
HECTION WITH YOUR EDUCATIONAL CONDITIONS, LIVING- OR
~T IHE END OF THE FISCAL YEAR WHEN IHE AI10UNI OF IAX
FAMILV CONOITION5 RlLEVANT TO THE ALLOTMCNT OF HOURS,
HAS nEEN ASSESSEo THE TAX WI LL BE REGULATEo, I F SHE/HE

-:~-::::--_ _--~-I
HAS PAI~ TOO LITTLE OR TOO MUCH - LIKE ALL OTHER INCOME,

A SMALL CARD HAS BEEN PRINTED WHICH YOU CAN GIVE TO TH[
ISSUEo : 111 Ba5. SUBST I TUlES: PAGE 9 AMENDEO : 15/2 19!i! ASSISTANT WHEN SHE/HE IS EMPLOYED BY YOU. IN THIS CARo
HE CAN REAo WHAT TO DO, THE CARo IS SUPPLIEo BY THE
SOCIAL DEPARTMENT,
I SSUED: III 1985, SUBST I TUlES: PAGE lIJ AMENJD: 1/5 1
EACH JANUARY ALL EMPLOYERS HAVE TO REPORT TO THE TAX AUTHO- THE ASSISTANT IS ENTITLED TO HOLIDAYS WHETHER A HOLI- ASSISTANT
RITIES ABOUT WAGES PAID. DAY BONUS HAS BEEN "EARNED Up" THE PRECEDING YEAR HOLI DAYS
OR NOT. ANC
THE SOCIAL DEPART~ENT REPORT ON YOUR BEHALF - BASED UPON
WITH PAY HOLI DAY
ALL THE WAGE PAYMENTS MADE BY YOU THROUGHOUT THE YEAR - ACCORDING TO THE HOLIDA~AcT EVERYBODY HAS THE RIGHT
BONUS
REGARDING PRESENT ASO PREVIOUS ASSISTANTS. TO A 5 WEEKS' HOLIDAY EACH YEAR. IF THE ASSISTANCE
HAS NOT EARNED ANY HOLIDAY BONUS SHE/HE MUST PAY FOR
~lliSTANT' S COPY OF THE "TAX 1NFOR~AT I ON SHliL..J.~
THE HOLIDAY PERSONALLY.
~ENT DIRECTLY TO YOUR ASSISTANT.
4s FAR AS POSSIBLE YOU MUST MEET YOUR ASSISTANTS'
~NOTHER COPY IS FILED IN YOUR FILE AT THE SOCIAL DEPART-
WISHES ABOUT A SPECIAL PERIOD FOR THEIR HOLIDAYS.
~ENT - FOR CONTROL PURPOSES.
Do ARRANGE IT WELL AHEA~ OF THE PERIOD.
IF YOU WISH TO BIND YOUR ASSISTANTS TO SECRECY LIKE A VOW OF
DOMESTIC HELP YOU CAN GET NECESSARY FORMULA SECRECY HOLIDAY BONUS IS A COMPULSORY PART OF THE WAGES.
FROM THE SOCIAL DEPARTMEST. IT IS CALCULATED AS 121 t OF THE WAGES PAID IN A
CALENDARYEAR, BUT THE BONUS SHOULD NOT BE PAID EAR-
LIER THAN APRIL 1 THE FOLLOWING YEAR. HOLI~AY BONUS
IS TAXABLE IN THE YEAR OF EARNING EVEN IF NOT PAID
UNTIL THE FOLLOWI~G YEAR.

HOLIDAY BONUS IS ALSO PAI~ OURING THE ASSISTANT'S


POSSIBLE "BEING AWAY" BEYOND 3 DAYS DUE TO ILLNESS
OR TO SOME ACCIDENT IN CONSECTION WITH THE WORK.

THIS RIGHT TO HOLIDAY BONUS DURING ILLNESS IS SUB-


JECT TO THE ASSISTANT'S EMPLOY~ENT FOq 12 CONSECU-
TIVE MONTHS WITH THE SAME EMPLOYER PRIOR TO THE
ILLNESS.

THE"HoLIDAYS WITH ~AYS ACT" SAYS THAT IT IS COMPUL- PAYME~T OF


~ FOR THE PERSON ENTITLEO TO HOLIDAYS TO TAKE HOLl DAY
THE HOLIDAY IF SHE/HE WANTS THE HOLIDAY BONUS PAID. BONUS

THEREFORE YOU MUST ONLY SIGN THE "HOLIOAYCARD" PRO-


VIDED THAT YOU DO NOT CONSlOER AND INCLUOE THE RELE-
VANT ASSISTANT IN THE DUTY-SCHEDULE "HEN ARRANGING
IT.

- - - - - - - - --- - - --. - - --
ISSUED: III 1935 SUBSTITUTES: PAGE 11 AMENDEO: 1/12
J3b~

ISSUED: 1/ 1 1985 SUBSTITUTES: PAGE 12 4MENDED : 1/ 4


ÄFTER AGREEMENT WITH THE ASSISTANTS YOU CAN SRING YOUR HOLl:>A'
YOUR ASSISTANTS SAVE UP THROUGH WAGE-EARNERS' SUPPlE- f..~?
THEM WITH YOU ON YOUR HOLIDAY OR FOR A HIGH SCHOOL.
MENTARY PENSION FUND (= GRADUATED PENSION SCHEME)
OR YOU ~Y EMPLOY LOCAL ASSISTANTS FOR THE MONEY.
(ATP). THE ASSISTANTS CONTRIBUTES WITH 1/3. WHICH
BUT YOU MUST NOT EXPECT EXTRA GRANT FOR SUCH REASONS.
You MUST SAVE (Up). YOU SHOULD DEDUCT AS FOlLOWS:
HOURS PER MO~TH ~MOUNT
You MUST CONSIDER. HOWEVER. THAT YOU MUST GIVE THE !) ~3.33 KR. 0.00
ASSISTANTS 3 MONTHS' NOTICE. IF YOU ARE GOI~G ON ~3. 33 - 85.67 10.80
HOLIDAY. AND THEIR EARNINGS ARE THEN DISCONTINUED. 86.67 - 130.00 21.60
THESE 3 MONTHS CORRESPOND TO THE NOTICE WHICH EM- 13Q.OO - 32.~O
PLOYEES IN AN ORDINARY PLACE OF WORK SHOULD HAVE
THE COMMITTE PAYS THESE AMOUNTS AS ~UARTERLY INSTALMENTS
WHEN CLOSING DOWN FOR THE HOLIDAYS.
TO ATP TOGETHER WITH YOUR OW~ EMPlOYERS' CONTRIBUTION
BUT IF BOTH YOU AND THE ASSISTANTS HAVE AGREED UPON BEING THE DOUBLE OF ABOVEMENTIONED RATES. THE EMPLOYERS'
A SHORTER NOTICE THE CO~\MI TTEE WI LL NOT INTERFERE. CONTRIBUTION IS PAID BY THE CO/1'lITTEE.

IF YOU WERE GRANTED EXTRA HELP DURING THE HOLIDAY EACH YEAR THE CONTRIBUTIONS ARE SUMMED UP. AND TME PAY-
WHEN YOUR AID WAS ALLOTTED PHASE INFORI1 THE SOCIAL MENTS FROM THE COMMITTEE ARE ON ACCOUNT. AND THE AMOUNTS
DEPARTMENT WHEN THE HOLIDAY WILL BE TAKEN. ARE CALCULATED ON BASIS OF THE PAY-SlIPS WHICH YOU ARE
SUBMITTING TO US.
IF YOU WISH TO APPLY FOR AN ADDITIONAL GRANT TO ADDITIONAL
COVER A NECESSARY COMPANION'S TRAVELCOSTS IN CON- GRANT FOR EACH JANUARY THE COMMITTEE MAKES A STATEMENT OF THE PAY-
NECTION WITH A HOLIDAY ABROAD. YOU MUST AlWAYS TRAVELCOMPANION MENTS MADE TO TME ASSISTANT'S ACCOUNT IN THE ATP-FUND.
APPROACH YDUR ADVISER IN THE AREAOFFICE. THIS STATEMENT IS ALSO REPORTED TO THE TAX-AUTHORITIES
IN THE TAX-STATEMENT SHEET SUBMITTED.

AN AMOUNT TO THE LABOURMARKET EDUCATIONAL FUND = AUD ~~~.


SHOULD ALSO BE DEDUCTED FROM THE ASSISTANT'S WAGE. THE
ASSISTANT SHOULD CONTRIBUTE 1/2 OF THE CONTRIBUTION.
WHICH YOU SHOULD KEEP BACK EACH MONTH:

HOURS PER MONTH AMOUNT


o - 43.33 KR. 0.00
~3.33 - 86.67 10.6~

86.67 -130.00 21.28


130.00 - 31.92

li KE THE ATP THE COMMI HEE PAYS THESE A/10UNTS TOGETHER


WITH THE EMPLOYERS' CONTRIBUTION BEING EXACTlY THE
SAME AS A30VE RATES. THE EMPLOYERS' CONTRIBUTION IS PAl:>
SY THE COMMITTEE.
ISSUED: 1/1 1385 SUBSTITUTES: PAGE 13 ÄMENDED: 1112 1985
I SSUED: 111 1985 SUSSTITUTES: PAGE l~ AMENDD: :;;
THE AMOUNTS WHICH YOU ARE DEDUCTISG fOR UP AND .\UD IN ALL EMPLOYMENT-RELATIONS BETWEEN EMPLOYER AND EMPLOY- IN SiJRI. '
SHOULD ~ BE PAID TO THE COMMITTEE EACH MONTH . THEY EE aUESTIONS ABOUT LIABILITY TO PAY DAMAGE S MAY ARISE .
WILL INSTEAD BE INCLUDED WHEN YOUR STATEMENT Of ACCOU~T THIS INCLUDES ALSO INSURANCERESPONSIBILITY .
IS CALCULATED AT THE END Of THE YEAR (SEE PAGE 19).
BEIN G AN EMPLOYER YOU WILL AL SO HAVE TO CONSI DER WHAT
.4T THE END Of THE YEAR THE AMOUNTS YOU HAVE DEDUCTE9 IN SURANCES YOU SHOULD TAKE OUT. NEITHER IN THIS QUESTION
THROUGHOUT THE HAR MUST BE ·1 N YOtJR SAN KACCOUST, AN D TH E COMMITTEE WILL COMMIT THEMSELVES IN CONNECTION
fROM THE COMMITTEE YOU WILL RECEIVE A STATEMENT OVER WITH THE EMPLOYMENTCONDITIONS.
THE AMOUNTS YOU ARE LIABLE TO RE fUND THE COffi1ITTEE .
THE RE ARE 3 TYPICAL SITUATIONS :
ALSO fOR THE SAKE Of THE STATET1ENT Of THE :lUARTERLY
1: THE RISK THAT THE EMPLOYEE MAY HURT HIMSELf AS
INSTALMENTS Of ATP, AU~ AND HOLIDAY BONU S IT IS IM-
A RE SULT Of AN ACCIDENT.
PORTANT THAT THE PAY-SLIPS ARE SUBMITTED TO THE COM-
MITTEE, AS MENTIONED IN PAGE 10, NOT LATER THAN THE 2: THE RISK THAT THE EMPLOYEE DAMAGES A THIRD PERSON
~TH WEEKDAY Of THE MONTH. OR THIRD PERSON'S BELONGINGS.

3. THE RISK THAT THE EMPLOYEE DAMAGES THE DISABLED


PE RSON OR Hl S BELONGINGS .
IHE COMITTEE HAS CHECKED THE LIABILITY FOR DAMAGES WITH THE
ST ATE IN SURANCE BOARD AND CAN INFORM AND GUlDE YOU AS
FOLL OWS:
RE 1: THE HEA LTH IS SURANCE DEPA RTMENT INFORMS THAT AC-
CORD ING TO THE "LABOUR DAMAGE INSURANCE ACT" THE
DIS ABLED PERSONS HAVE A COMPU LSORY OBLIGAT ION TO
INSURE , WHEN THEY ENTER IN TO THE SCHEME ABOUT
PE RSONAL EMPLOYMENT AND PAYMENT OF PRIVATE PER-
SO NS FOR PRACTICAL AID IN THE HOME.

IN THIS CONNECTION PLEASE DO NOTICE THAT ACCORDING


TO THE "LABOUR DAMAGE I NSURANCE ACT", ~ L SECTI ON
1, SUBSECTION 2 IT IS NOT A QUESTION OF ATENURE
If BETWEEN A MARRIED COUPLE .
THE BILL RE THE "LABOUR DAMAGE INSURANCE .~CT" WILL
BE REIMBURSED BY THE SOCIAL COMMITTEE .
RE : 2 IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT YOU ASK YOUR PRIVATE THIRD
PA RTY LIABILITY INSURANCE COMPANY WHETHER YOUR
INS URANCE THERE ASSUMABLY COVER LIABILITY FOR
SUCH HELP, AS MOST PRIVATE THIRD PARTY LIABILITY
INS URANCES ALSO ACCEPT LIABILITY FOR DOMESTIC HELP .
IF NOT 50 YOU MAY TA KE OUT A EMPLOYMENT LIABILITY
ISSUED : 111 1935 SUSST I TUTES : PAGE 15 ~MENDED : 1/12 1~ INSURAN CE.
I IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO CALCULATE THE ALLOWANCE CORRECTLY
RE: 3 THE -INSU'l"KE INFORHATION 3!l.,Që)· HAS INFORMED:
IF THIS INFORHATION IS NOT AVAILABLE.
"IF THE EMPLOYEE - DUE T~ NEGLIGENCE - nAHAGES
THE HANDICAPPED PERSON OR HlS BELONGINGS. THE THE FORM DP 200A VIL BE SUBMITTED TO YOU FROM THE
HANDICAPPED PERSON MAY HAK~ A CLAIM FOR DAHAGES SOCIAL DEPARTMENT.
AGAINST THE ASSISTANT. IT IS NOT NORHAL THAT EM-
TSE EMPLOYE~ (OR THE SOCIAL DEPARTMENT ON BEHALF OF
PL!lYERS DO SO. AND THE LAW COURTS ARE LIKELY TO
THE EMPLOYER) CAN REOUEST THAT THE WAGE EARNER SUB-
JUDGE THE CASE GENTLY. SO THE CLAIM WILL PROBAB-
STANTIATES THAT THE ABSENCE IS DUE TO ILLNESS.
LY ONLY BE PUT THROUGH IF THE ~AMAGE IS CAUSED
BY GROSS NEGLIGENCE. A MEDICAL CERTIFICATE. WHICH WILL BE PAID BY THE WAGE
THE ASSISTANT'S PRIVATE "THIRD PARTY LIABILITY EARNER. CAN BE THE SUBSTANTION.
INSURANCE WILL NOT COMPREHEND (ANJ COVER) LIA-
H

A HOSPITAL TICKET IS ACCEPTABLE IN LIEU OFA MEDICAL


BILITY FOR DAMAGES CAU SED WHEN CARRYING OUT
CERTJFICATE.
OCCUPATIONAL DUTlE S. AND THE ASSISTANT IS NOT .
OBLIGED TO TAKE OUT AN "OCCUPATIO~AL LIABILITY ONLY ON THE FOURTH DAY OF ILLNESS A MEDICAL CERTIFICATE
INSURANCE". CAN BE ISSUED.

THE RULES ABOUT DAILY SICKNESS ALLOWANCE ARE LAID DOWN ILLNESS IF THE ILLNESS LASTS LONGER THAN 2 WEEKS THE ~r,E~ARNER
IN"THE ACT ABOUT SICKNESS AbLowANCE H • WILL WITHIN A CERTAIN TIME LIMIT BE ASKED TO OBTAIN
INFORMATION FROM HlS DOCTOR HOW LONG THE ILLNESS WILL
As EMPLOYER YOU ARE EXEMPTED FROM PAYING SICKNESS ALLOW- PROBABLY LAST.
ANCE TO YOUR EMPLOYEES. INSTEAD YOU MU ST USE THE MONEY
SUCH CERTIFICATE IS PAID BY THE EMPLOYER (THE SOC IAL
FOR PAYING ARELIEF. DEPARTMENT).
THE SOCIAL DEPARTMENT PAY SICKNESS ALLOWANCE TO THE
Ir SUCH CERTIFICATE IS NOT SUBM ITTED IN TIME - IN SP ITE
ASSISTANTS .
OF REMINDERS - THE SI CKNESS ALLOWANCE MAY BE DI SCONTI- I
ON THE lST DAY OF ABSENCE THE ASSISTANT MUST REPORT Hl S NUED .
ILLNESS TO THE SOCIAL DEPARTMENT. AND A SPECIAL FORM I
(DP 200 A) MUST BE SUBM I TTE~. IN WHICH ALSO THE EMPLOYER IF THE ASSISTANT IS UNSATISFIED WITH THE SIZE OF A CAL- I
MUST GIVE '1ARIOUS PIECES OF INFORMATION. THESE MU ST BE CULATED SICKNESS ALLOWANCE HE MAY APPEAL TO THE SICKNESS I
CONFIRMED BY THE WAGE EARNER. ALLOWANCE COMM ITTEE. SECURITY BOARD I?} 4 WEEKS AFTER
RECEIVING THE SICKNESS ALLOWANCE. AT THE LATEST.
ON THE IST DAY - toS SOON AS HE IS FIT FOR DUTY AGAIN - I
THE ASSISTANT MUST REPORT THIS TO THE SOCIAL DEPARTMENT. A DAY OF WAITING IN CONNECTION WITH ILLNESS COVER S IDAY 0 ,
MAX. 8 HOURS. jWA I T lt. u
To ENABLE THE SOCIAL DEPARTMENT TO CALCULATE THE SICK-
NESS ALLOWANCE IT IS NECESSARY TO ENCLOSE A DUTY-SCHEDU-
LE COVERING THE PERIOD OF SICKNESS (SUCH SCHEDULE CAN
. BE REQUIRED FROM THE SOCIAL DEPARTMENT).
I
IF wORKING IN ROTATION THIS MUST ALSO BE INFORMED. I SSUED : 1111:185 SUBSTITUTES : PAGE 18 AMENDE D:
1/4 198b .
DUTY-SCHEDULE COVERING THE ENTIRE. PREVIOUS ROTATIO~
PERIOD SHOULD BE ENCLOSED WITH A NOTE INDICATING WHERE
IN THE ROTATION - PERIOD THE SIC KNE SS PERIOD WAS.
lACH YEAR BETWEEN 2ND AND lOTH JANUARY THE SOCIAl THE YEARLY
DEPARTMENT ACCOUNTS FOR THE PREVIOUS YEAR. FIRST OF STATEMENT
All YOUR PAYMENTS TO YOUR ASSISTANTS MUST BE ACCOUNT- OF ACCOUNT
20
EO FOR AND REPORTED TO THE TAX AUTHORITIES. SECONDlY
IT ~UST BE CHECKED WHETHER YOU HAVE EXCESS MONEY. IN PRACTICE STIPUlATION 2 WllL BE MET IF THE INTEREST IS
INCLUDED IN THE BALANCE MENTIONED ON PAGE 19. IF SO THE
THE ASSISTANT'S INCOME IS MADE UP AFTER THE MONTHLY
I
PAY-SlIPS. HOLIDAY ALlOWANCE IS AlSO INCLUDED. BUT
INTEREST IS US EO FOR COVERING THE MONTHLY CONSUMPTION.
IF UNUSED AT THE END OF THE YEAR, THE COMHITTEE WILL DE-
NOT AlP AND AUD. DUCT IT FROM THE PAYMENT IN FEBRUARY.
YOUR ACCOUNT IS MADE ~P IN THIS WAY: PAYING-BACK TAKES IN GENERAL ~ACE THIS WAY IF THE YEARLY
STATEMENT OF ACCOUNT SHOWS A BAlANCE.
PAYMENTS FROM THE MUNICIPAllTY +
POSSIBlE INTEREST + THE RATES ARE INDEX-REGULATED EACH YEAR ON lST APR IL AND CURRE~i
lST OCTOBER . RATES
WAGES PAID
FURTHERMORE IN CASE OF WAGE AGREEMENT RENEWALS . CURRENT
10 PAY BACK
RATES CAN BE SEEN IN THE PAYMENT SCHEDULE SUBMITTED IN
(INCL. Alf> KR.
( • AUU KR. CONNECTION WITH ANY CHANGES/REGULATIONS.

CURRENT RATES CAN BE REOUIRED


DEFICITS ARE NOT ACCEPTABLE AND SHOULD EVENTUALLY BE FROM SOCIAL DEPARTMENT.
COVERED BY YOU YOURSELF. I
IF THE CAUSE OF A DEFICIT IS THAT YOUR NEED FOR AID IS ,
BIGGER THAN ALLOTTED YOU SHOULD REMEMBER THE POSSIBILITY
FOR A NEW EVALUATION AT ALOMHITTEE ilEETING, SEE PAGE
'L AND 3.
BUT THE GRANT MUST BE GIVEN BEFOR~~THE MONEY.

WHEN THE COMMITTEE TRANSFERS THE MONEY TO YOUR ACCOUNT


EACH MONTH INTEREST MAY ACCRUE.

WE INFORM THE TAX-AUTHORITIES SO YOU WILL NOT HAVE TO


PAY TAX OF YOUR INTEREST, PROVIDEO:

1. You MUST PROVE THAT THE ACCOUNT IS ~ USED


FOR THE MONEY GIVEN YOU BY THE SOCIAl COMHITTEE.

2. lHROUGH THE PAY-SLIPS YOU MUST PROVE THAT THE


MONEY HAS BEEN USED FOR WAGES.

ISSUED: 1/1 1985 SUBSTITUTES: PAGE 19 ÄMENDED : 1/12 13g~

ISS UEO : 111 1985 SUBSTITUTES : PAGE 20 AMENDEO : 1/5 198G


· 2, CONSULTANCY ANp GUIpANCE,
THE SOCIAL COMMITTEE WILL - AS PREVIOUSLY MENTIONED - AT
LEAST ONCE A YEAR APPROACH YOU FOR A REVALUATION OF THE
ALLOTTED AID,

THE COMMITTE CAN ALSO ADVISE GENERALLY,


I, IF YOU WANT ADVICE ABOUT THE CARE lTSELF YOU CAN
ASK YOUR DISTRICT NURSE,
2, AoVICE AND GUIDANCE ABOUT WAGES, EMPLOYMENTS AND
ACCOUNTING WILL BE GIVEN YOU IF PHONING TO THE CONTACT
IN THE SOCIAL DEPARTMENT, MENTIONED IN THE PREFACE,

" ANY OTHER PROBLEMS REQUIRING THE ASSISTANCE OF THE


COMMITTEE SHOULD BE DISCUSSED WITH YOUR ADVISER AT
THE AREAOFFICE,
IT IS OBVIOUS THAT YOU CAN ASK YOUR ASSISTANT TO CONTACT
US ON YOUR BEHALF, BUT IT IS JUST AS OBVIOUS THAT WE CANNOT
DISCUSS YOUR PERSONAL PROBLEMS WITH THE ASSISiAI,r WITHOUT
YOUR KNOWLEDGE AND CONSENT, AS THE ASSISTANT IS NOT EMPLOYED
SY ÄARHUS MUNICIPALITY, BUT BY YOU.

ASSISTANTS WANTING AOVICE AND GUIDANCE ABOUT WAGE- AND EM-


PLOYMENTTERMS, SHOULD BE REFFEREO TO CONTACT A TRADE UNION .

A ·USER CLUB· HAS BEEN ESTABLISHED, "§ 48 SECT , 3-USER'S CLUB


IN ARHUS·, WHICH ADVIS6AND GUID6THE MEMBERS, AND WORKS
AS A CO-OPERATION- AND NEGOTIATION PARTNER TO THE PARTIES
CONCERNED.

THE CLUB SECRETARY,LARS RAVN, OR THE CHAIRMAN, FLEMMING LAR-


SEN WILL INFORM ASOUT MEMBERSHIP ETC,

ISSUED : 1/1 1985 SUBSTITUTES : PAGE 21 ÄMENDED : 1511 8i


I -
r

ANNEXE 5-3

Michele Tansella, "Community psychiatry without mental hospitals - the Italian


experience: a review", Journalof the Royal Society of Medicine, Volume 79,
November 1986, pp. 664-669.
Summary

In the last decades a shift from hospital-centred to community based psychiatry has
been observed in many western countries. There are different definitions of
"community psychiatry". One au thor expressed the view that it is possible to
reformulate community psychiatry as a use of the techniques, methods and theories
of social psychiatry, as well as those of the other behavioural sciences, to
investigate and treat the mental health needs of a functionally or geographically
defined population over a significant period of time. In his view community
psyhiatry is concerned with the mental health needs not only of the individual
patient but of the district population; not only of those who are defined as sick, but
those who may be contributing to that sickness and whose health or well-being may,
in turn, be put at risk.
Another author described community psychiatry as having three aspects: first, a
social movement; secondly, a service delivery strategy, emphasizing the
accessiblity of services and acceptance of responsibility of the mental health needs
of a total population; and thirdly, provision of the best possible clinical care, with
emphasis on the major psychiatric disorders and on treatment outside total
institutions.
The author of the article, Tansella, proposes the following definition of community
psychiatry: "A system of care devoted to a defined population and based on a
comprehensive and integrated mental health service, which includes outpatient
facilities, day and residential training centres, residential accomodation in hostels,
sheltered workshops and inpatient units in general hospitals and which ensures with
multidisciplinary team work, early diagnosis, prompt treatment, continuity of care,
social support and a close liaison with other medical and social community services
and, in particular , with general practitioners".
The aim of community care is to reverse the long-accepted practice of isolating
mental patients in large institutions, to promote their integration in the community
offering them an environment th at is socially stimulating, while avoiding exposing
them to too great social pressures. Hsopital is not a natural social environment, and
hospital-based treatment therefore cannot provide the full range of opportunities
which enable the patient to acquire confidence and self-esteem through success in
social roles (although it has also been suggested that it is the features of the care,
and not where that care is provided, th at determine the patient's quality of life). In
any case it is not sufficient to just transfer the patient from a hospital to the
community, the move in itself is insufficient.
In the Italian experience the aspect of being a soçial movement has been
particularly important Starting in the early sixties, it involved a large part of the
population as well as professionals in the field, it was part of a general 'socia!
movement', th at was very much connected with students' and womens'
organizations, and with trade unions. It aimed to combat the 'total institution',
promoting health as a 'right for all', including the poor and the neglected.
In I.taly the law 180 was passed in 1978. The reform aimed gradually to dismantie
mental hospitals and called for a comprehensive, integrated and responsible
community mental health service. One important aspect of the Italian model of
'community psychiatry' is that the phasing out of the mental hospital is being
achieved gradually through a block on first admissions (1978) and subsequently on
all admissions (1982). It is therefore a very different model from the American
community mental health experience, wh ere an abrupt deinstitutionalization
occurred. In the Italian model the hospital is complementary to community care,
instead of vice versa. In the years between 1961-1978 various pilot experiments
were introduced, which demonstrated the possiblity of giving an alternative for
mental hospital admissions. The new services include group homes, supervised
hostels and unstaffed apartments, as weil as day centres and cooperatives run by
patients.
However, standardized data collection and epidemiological evaluative studies have
been few, and there is a need to evaluate anew what has been and is being done.
Tansella evaluates the Italian experience, using three sorts of data:
1. national statistics on mental hospital activity; th ere is a gradual decrease of
hospital beds and the period during which a patient is admitted becomes shorter;
2. the effect of the reform on suicide;
3. patterns of psychiatric care in three case register areas; in these three areas
that provide both inpatient care (in 15-bed units in general hospitais) as weil as
outpatient services most patients are treated outside hospital only, the admission
rates are low. Day and outpatient contacts have increased, compulsory admissions
have decreased substantially since the psychiatric reform, certainly by comparison
to the 1977 rate.
Conclusion of Tansellar in Italy community care is the principal component of the
system, with a very careful integration between the various facilities within the
geographically based system of care, and the same team providing outpatient as
weil as inpatient and community care. Hospital admission is still considered
necessary for some, but it should not be the first resort, according to law 180. More
research will be necessary, a.o. on the qualitative aspects of the care offered and
its outcome. However the results seem to be positive, there is a low inpatient rate
in the areas that were evaluated.
Appropriate action must be taken to ensure a national homogeneity in the
implementation of psychiatric reform and development of community services that
aren't implemented everywhere. In recent years the new mental health policy has
been neglected by politicians and administrators. Tansella concludes by saying that
there is a long way to go, but that Italy is moving in the right direction.

J
ANNEXE 5-4

AANPASBAAR BOUWEN
(Adaptable building)

Since 1985 experiments are in progress in the Netherlands th at aim to increase the
genera1 accesibility and usability of housing also for disabled persons. The initiator
of this experiment is the NWR - Nationale Woningraad, an umbrella organisation of
non-profit housing associations. For the description of this experiment we quote
from publications produced by the NWR.

"Aanpasbaar bouwen" (adaptable building) attacks the concept of housing th at is


specifically intended for handicapped inhabitants. It refers to a design that contains
the possibility, the flexibility, to adapt the building in a later stage, when
necessary, to the needs and wishes of an handicapped tenant. A basic condition is
th at the adaptation can be done in a relatively simple and cheap way. The approach
reduces the necessity to build expensive "specially tailored" dwellings. An extra
advantage is that this kind of dwellings, also in non-adapted form, is accessible for
handicapped visitors. Thus "aanpasbaar bouwen" offers advantages for all parties
involved: the tenant, the landlord and also the (subsidizing) government.

To be labelled "aanpasbaar" the design must conform a set of requirements and


recommendations. This design aid guarantees a certain minimum quality level: it
does not replace the existing set of rules. Basic in these design guidelines is that in
all pi aces where special equipment or space may be necessary to make the house,
whenever necessary, really inhabitable for a disabled tenant, such adaptations are
possible without impressive building operations. Another basic element in the
filosofy is the so-called zere option: the application of the requirements and
recommendations may not result in extra building costs. The adaptability is the
result of positioning materiais, space and equipment that it allows the necessary
flexibility. There is no reason why this should lead to higher costs. The core of the
approach is to think about the possibility of later adaptations right fr om the disign
process.

"Aanpasbaar bouwen" is still in an experimental stage.


The initiators prefer to delay the publication of definitive recommendations til I
practical experience (plus an evalution of the pilot projects) is available.
The European Community aims to integrate people with a handi-
cap into society and to minimize the barriers resulting from men-
tal or physical disabilities in the area of housing. The basic objec-
tive is to make more housing available, suitable to meet the needs
of the handicapped, including ease of access and use and good
links with necessary care facilities and services. Another objecti-
ves are cooperation between the different organizations and
involvement of the handicapped themselves in the planning and
tenure of the facilities.

This report provides information on trends and new develop-


ments in policy making in the European countries that stimulate
or frustrate the opportunities for living independently.
Furthermore innovative trends in experimental solutions are
described and distinguished for the three categories: the physi-
cally disabled, the mentally handicapped and persons who suffer
from psychiatric disorders. During the research project in many
interviews and discussions in all member states of the European
Community keythemes for a new policy have been formulated
and at the end in a meeting in Brussels amended by experts from
different disciplines. Therefore the report gives a practical basis
for developing innovative policies in the field of housing and rela-
ted care facilities for the handicapped.

omslag: bertvandermeij