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# CHAPTER 17

## E17.1 From Equation 17.5, we have

Bgap = Kia (t ) cos(θ ) + Kib (t ) cos(θ − 120 ° ) + Kic (t ) cos(θ − 240 ° )

Using the expressions given in the Exercise statement for the currents,
we have
Bgap = KI m cos(ωt ) cos(θ ) + KI m cos(ωt − 240 ° ) cos(θ − 120 ° )
+ KI m cos(ωt − 120 ° ) cos(θ − 240 ° )

## Then using the identity for the products of cosines, we obtain

Bgap = 21 KI m [cos(ωt − θ ) + cos(ωt + θ ) + cos(ωt − θ − 120 ° )
+ cos(ωt + θ − 360 ° ) + cos(ωt − θ + 120 ° )
+ cos(ωt + θ − 360 ° )]

## However we can write

cos(ωt − θ ) + cos(ωt − θ − 120 ° ) + cos(ωt − θ + 120 ° ) = 0
cos(ωt + θ − 360 ° ) = cos(ωt + θ )
cos(ωt + θ − 360 ° ) = cos(ωt + θ )

Thus we have
Bgap = 32 KI m cos(ωt + θ )

## E17.2 At 60 Hz, synchronous speed for a four-pole machine is:

120f 120(60 )
ns = = = 1800 rpm
P 4
The slip is given by:
ns − nm 1800 − 1750
s = = = 2.778%
ns 1800

The frequency of the rotor currents is the slip frequency. From Equation

1
17.17, we have ωslip = sω . For frequencies in the Hz, this becomes:

## In the normal range of operation, slip is approximately proportional to

output power and torque. Thus at half power, we estimate that
s = 2.778 2 = 1.389% . This corresponds to a speed of 1775 rpm.

## E17.3 Following the solution to Example 17.1, we have:

ns = 1800 rpm
n − nm 1800 − 1764
s = s = = 0.02
ns 1800
The per phase equivalent circuit is:

## j 50(0.6 + 29.4 + j 0.8)

Z s = 1. 2 + j 2 +
j 50 + 0.6 + 29.4 + j 0.8
= 22.75 + j 15.51
= 27.53∠34.29 o
power factor = cos(34.29 o ) = 82.62% lagging
Vs 440∠0 o
Is = = = 15.98∠ − 34.29 o A rms
Zs 27.53∠34.29 o

## For a delta-connected machine, the magnitude of the line current is

I line = I s 3 = 15.98 3 = 27.68 A rms

## and the input power is

Pin = 3I sVs cos θ = 17.43 kW

2
Next, we compute Vx and Ir′ .

## j 50(0.6 + 29.4 + j 0.8)

Vx = Is
j 50 + 0.6 + 29.4 + j 0.8
= 406.2 − j 15.6
= 406.4∠ − 2.2 o V rms

Vx
Ir′ =
j 0.8 + 0.6 + 29.4
= 13.54∠ − 3.727 o A rms

## The copper losses in the stator and rotor are:

Ps = 3Rs I s2
= 3(1.2)(15.98)
2

= 919.3 W
and
Pr = 3Rr′(I r′ )2
= 3(0.6)(13.54 )
2

= 330.0 W

## Finally, the developed power is:

1−s
Pdev = 3 × Rr′(I r′ )2
s
= 3(29.4 )(13.54 )
2

= 16.17 kW
Pout = Pdev − Prot = 15.27 kW

## The output torque is:

Pout
Tout = = 82.66 newton meters
ωm

## The efficiency is:

Pout
η= × 100% = 87.61%
Pin

3
E17.4 The equivalent circuit is:

j 50(1.2 + j 0.8)
Z eq = Req + jX eq = = 1.162 + j 0.8148
j 50 + 1.2 + j 0.8

## The impedance seen by the source is:

Z s = 1.2 + j 2 + Z eq
= 1.2 + j 2 + 1.162 + j 0.8148
= 3.675∠50.00 o

## Thus, the starting phase current is

V 440∠0 o
Is , starting = s =
Z s 3.675∠50.00 o
Is , starting = 119.7 ∠ − 50.00 o A rms
and for a delta connection, the line current is
I line ,starting = I s ,starting 3 = 119.7 3 = 207.3 A rms

The power crossing the air gap is (three times) the power delivered to
the right of the dashed line in the equivalent circuit shown earlier.
( )
Pag = 3Req I s , starting 2 = 49.95 kW

4
Finally, the starting torque is found using Equation 17.34.
Pag
Tdev, starting =
ωs
49950
=
2π 60 2
= 265.0 newton meters

E17.5 This exercise is similar to part (c) of Example 17.4. Thus, we have
sin δ3 P3
=
sin δ1 P1
sin δ3 200
=
sin 4.168 °
50
which yields the new torque angle δ3 = 16.90o . Er remains constant in
magnitude, thus we have
Er 3 = 498.9∠ − 16.90 o V rms
V − Er 3 480 − 498.9∠ − 16.90 o
Ia 3 = a = = 103.6∠ − 1.045 o A rms
jX s j 1. 4
The power factor is cos(− 1.045o ) = 99.98% lagging .

E17.6 We follow the approach of Example 17.5. Thus as in the example, we have
Pdev 74600
Ia1 = = = 121.9 A
3Va cos θ 1 3(240 )0.85
θ1 = cos − 1 (0.85 ) = 31.79o
Ia 1 = 121.9∠ − 31.79o A rms
Er 1 = Va − jX s Ia 1 = 416.2∠ − 20.39o V rms
The phasor diagram is shown in Figure 17.24a

For 90% leading power factor, the power angle is θ3 = cos −1 (0.9) = 25.84 °.
The new value of the current magnitude is
Pdev
Ia 3 = = 115.1 A rms
3Va 3 cos(θ3 )
and the phasor current is
Ia 3 = 115.1∠25.84 ° A rms
Thus we have
Er 3 = Va − jX s Ia 3 = 569.0∠ − 14.77 o V rms

5
The magnitude of Er is proportional to the field current, so we have:
E 569.0
If 3 = If 1 r 3 = 10 × = 13.67 A dc
Er1 416.2

E17.7 The phasor diagram for δ = 90 ° is shown in Figure 17.27. The developed
power is given by
Pmax = 3Va I a cos(θ )
However from the phasor diagram, we see that
Er
cos(θ ) =
Xs Ia
Substituting, we have
3V E
Pmax = a r
Xs
The torque is
Pmax 3Va E r
Tmax = =
ωm ωm X s

## P17.1* P = 8 pole motor

s = 5.55%

P17.7* f = 86.8 Hz
I = 5.298 A

## P17.10* As frequency is reduced, the reactances X s , X m , and X r′ of the machine

become smaller. (Recall that X = ωL .) Thus the applied voltage must be
reduced to keep the currents from becoming too large, resulting in
magnetic saturation and overheating.

## P17.13* Bfour-pole = Bm cos(ωt − 2θ )

Bsix-pole = Bm cos(ωt − 3θ )

6
P17.16*

## I line = 16.3 A rms

Typically the starting current is 5 to 7 times the full-load current.

## P17.20* I line ,starting = 115.0 A rms

Tdev, starting = 40.8 newton meters
Comparing these results to those of the example, we see that the
starting current is reduced by a factor of 2 and the starting torque is
reduced by a factor of 4.

P17.23* Neglecting rotational losses, the slip is zero with no load, and the motor
runs at synchronous speed which is 1800 rpm.
The power factor is 2.409% .
I line = 10 A rms

## P17.26* The motor runs at synchronous speed which is 1200 rpm.

The power factor is 1.04% .
I line = 98.97 A rms

Pdev = 9.773 kW
Pout = 9.373 kW
η = 91.51%

## P17.32* Prot = 76.12 W

7
P17.35* 1. Use an electronic system to convert 60-Hz power into three-phase ac
of variable frequency. Start with a frequency of one hertz or less and
then gradually increase the frequency.

## 2. Use a prime mover to bring the motor up to synchronous speed before

connecting the source.

## 3. Start the motor as an induction motor relying on the amortisseur

conductors to produce torque.

P17.38* (a) Field current remains constant. The field circuit is independent of
the ac source and the load.
(b) Mechanical speed remains constant assuming that the pull-out
torque has not been exceeded.
(c) Output torque increases by a factor of 1/0.75 = 1.333.
(d) Armature current increases in magnitude.
(e) Power factor decreases and becomes lagging.
(f) Torque angle increases.

P17.41*

P17.44* I f 2 = 5.93 A

8
P17.47* (a) fgen = 50 Hz
(b)

## One solution is:

Pg = 10 Pm 1 = 12 and Pm 2 = 6
for which f2 = 50 Hz .

## Another solution is:

Pg = 10 Pm 1 = 6 and Pm 2 = 12
for which f2 = 100 Hz .

## P17.50* (a) power factor = 76.2% lagging

(b) Z = 11.76∠40.36o Ω
(c) Since the motor runs just under 1800 rpm, evidently we have a
four-pole motor.