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CHAPTER 17

Solutions for Exercises

E17.1 From Equation 17.5, we have


Bgap = Kia (t ) cos(θ ) + Kib (t ) cos(θ − 120 ° ) + Kic (t ) cos(θ − 240 ° )

Using the expressions given in the Exercise statement for the currents,
we have
Bgap = KI m cos(ωt ) cos(θ ) + KI m cos(ωt − 240 ° ) cos(θ − 120 ° )
+ KI m cos(ωt − 120 ° ) cos(θ − 240 ° )

Then using the identity for the products of cosines, we obtain


Bgap = 21 KI m [cos(ωt − θ ) + cos(ωt + θ ) + cos(ωt − θ − 120 ° )
+ cos(ωt + θ − 360 ° ) + cos(ωt − θ + 120 ° )
+ cos(ωt + θ − 360 ° )]

However we can write


cos(ωt − θ ) + cos(ωt − θ − 120 ° ) + cos(ωt − θ + 120 ° ) = 0
cos(ωt + θ − 360 ° ) = cos(ωt + θ )
cos(ωt + θ − 360 ° ) = cos(ωt + θ )

Thus we have
Bgap = 32 KI m cos(ωt + θ )

which can be recognized as flux pattern that rotates clockwise.

E17.2 At 60 Hz, synchronous speed for a four-pole machine is:


120f 120(60 )
ns = = = 1800 rpm
P 4
The slip is given by:
ns − nm 1800 − 1750
s = = = 2.778%
ns 1800

The frequency of the rotor currents is the slip frequency. From Equation

1
17.17, we have ωslip = sω . For frequencies in the Hz, this becomes:

fslip = sf = 0.02778 × 60 = 1.667 Hz

In the normal range of operation, slip is approximately proportional to


output power and torque. Thus at half power, we estimate that
s = 2.778 2 = 1.389% . This corresponds to a speed of 1775 rpm.

E17.3 Following the solution to Example 17.1, we have:

ns = 1800 rpm
n − nm 1800 − 1764
s = s = = 0.02
ns 1800
The per phase equivalent circuit is:

j 50(0.6 + 29.4 + j 0.8)


Z s = 1. 2 + j 2 +
j 50 + 0.6 + 29.4 + j 0.8
= 22.75 + j 15.51
= 27.53∠34.29 o
power factor = cos(34.29 o ) = 82.62% lagging
Vs 440∠0 o
Is = = = 15.98∠ − 34.29 o A rms
Zs 27.53∠34.29 o

For a delta-connected machine, the magnitude of the line current is


I line = I s 3 = 15.98 3 = 27.68 A rms

and the input power is


Pin = 3I sVs cos θ = 17.43 kW

2
Next, we compute Vx and Ir′ .

j 50(0.6 + 29.4 + j 0.8)


Vx = Is
j 50 + 0.6 + 29.4 + j 0.8
= 406.2 − j 15.6
= 406.4∠ − 2.2 o V rms

Vx
Ir′ =
j 0.8 + 0.6 + 29.4
= 13.54∠ − 3.727 o A rms

The copper losses in the stator and rotor are:

Ps = 3Rs I s2
= 3(1.2)(15.98)
2

= 919.3 W
and
Pr = 3Rr′(I r′ )2
= 3(0.6)(13.54 )
2

= 330.0 W

Finally, the developed power is:


1−s
Pdev = 3 × Rr′(I r′ )2
s
= 3(29.4 )(13.54 )
2

= 16.17 kW
Pout = Pdev − Prot = 15.27 kW

The output torque is:


Pout
Tout = = 82.66 newton meters
ωm

The efficiency is:


Pout
η= × 100% = 87.61%
Pin

3
E17.4 The equivalent circuit is:

j 50(1.2 + j 0.8)
Z eq = Req + jX eq = = 1.162 + j 0.8148
j 50 + 1.2 + j 0.8

The impedance seen by the source is:


Z s = 1.2 + j 2 + Z eq
= 1.2 + j 2 + 1.162 + j 0.8148
= 3.675∠50.00 o

Thus, the starting phase current is


V 440∠0 o
Is , starting = s =
Z s 3.675∠50.00 o
Is , starting = 119.7 ∠ − 50.00 o A rms
and for a delta connection, the line current is
I line ,starting = I s ,starting 3 = 119.7 3 = 207.3 A rms

The power crossing the air gap is (three times) the power delivered to
the right of the dashed line in the equivalent circuit shown earlier.
( )
Pag = 3Req I s , starting 2 = 49.95 kW

4
Finally, the starting torque is found using Equation 17.34.
Pag
Tdev, starting =
ωs
49950
=
2π 60 2
= 265.0 newton meters

E17.5 This exercise is similar to part (c) of Example 17.4. Thus, we have
sin δ3 P3
=
sin δ1 P1
sin δ3 200
=
sin 4.168 °
50
which yields the new torque angle δ3 = 16.90o . Er remains constant in
magnitude, thus we have
Er 3 = 498.9∠ − 16.90 o V rms
V − Er 3 480 − 498.9∠ − 16.90 o
Ia 3 = a = = 103.6∠ − 1.045 o A rms
jX s j 1. 4
The power factor is cos(− 1.045o ) = 99.98% lagging .

E17.6 We follow the approach of Example 17.5. Thus as in the example, we have
Pdev 74600
Ia1 = = = 121.9 A
3Va cos θ 1 3(240 )0.85
θ1 = cos − 1 (0.85 ) = 31.79o
Ia 1 = 121.9∠ − 31.79o A rms
Er 1 = Va − jX s Ia 1 = 416.2∠ − 20.39o V rms
The phasor diagram is shown in Figure 17.24a

For 90% leading power factor, the power angle is θ3 = cos −1 (0.9) = 25.84 °.
The new value of the current magnitude is
Pdev
Ia 3 = = 115.1 A rms
3Va 3 cos(θ3 )
and the phasor current is
Ia 3 = 115.1∠25.84 ° A rms
Thus we have
Er 3 = Va − jX s Ia 3 = 569.0∠ − 14.77 o V rms

5
The magnitude of Er is proportional to the field current, so we have:
E 569.0
If 3 = If 1 r 3 = 10 × = 13.67 A dc
Er1 416.2

E17.7 The phasor diagram for δ = 90 ° is shown in Figure 17.27. The developed
power is given by
Pmax = 3Va I a cos(θ )
However from the phasor diagram, we see that
Er
cos(θ ) =
Xs Ia
Substituting, we have
3V E
Pmax = a r
Xs
The torque is
Pmax 3Va E r
Tmax = =
ωm ωm X s

Answers for Selected Problems

P17.1* P = 8 pole motor


s = 5.55%

P17.7* f = 86.8 Hz
I = 5.298 A

P17.10* As frequency is reduced, the reactances X s , X m , and X r′ of the machine


become smaller. (Recall that X = ωL .) Thus the applied voltage must be
reduced to keep the currents from becoming too large, resulting in
magnetic saturation and overheating.

P17.13* Bfour-pole = Bm cos(ωt − 2θ )


Bsix-pole = Bm cos(ωt − 3θ )

6
P17.16*

I line = 16.3 A rms


Typically the starting current is 5 to 7 times the full-load current.

P17.20* I line ,starting = 115.0 A rms


Tdev, starting = 40.8 newton meters
Comparing these results to those of the example, we see that the
starting current is reduced by a factor of 2 and the starting torque is
reduced by a factor of 4.

P17.23* Neglecting rotational losses, the slip is zero with no load, and the motor
runs at synchronous speed which is 1800 rpm.
The power factor is 2.409% .
I line = 10 A rms

P17.26* The motor runs at synchronous speed which is 1200 rpm.


The power factor is 1.04% .
I line = 98.97 A rms

P17.29* Pag = 9.893 kW


Pdev = 9.773 kW
Pout = 9.373 kW
η = 91.51%

P17.32* Prot = 76.12 W

7
P17.35* 1. Use an electronic system to convert 60-Hz power into three-phase ac
of variable frequency. Start with a frequency of one hertz or less and
then gradually increase the frequency.

2. Use a prime mover to bring the motor up to synchronous speed before


connecting the source.

3. Start the motor as an induction motor relying on the amortisseur


conductors to produce torque.

P17.38* (a) Field current remains constant. The field circuit is independent of
the ac source and the load.
(b) Mechanical speed remains constant assuming that the pull-out
torque has not been exceeded.
(c) Output torque increases by a factor of 1/0.75 = 1.333.
(d) Armature current increases in magnitude.
(e) Power factor decreases and becomes lagging.
(f) Torque angle increases.

P17.41*

P17.44* I f 2 = 5.93 A

8
P17.47* (a) fgen = 50 Hz
(b)

One solution is:


Pg = 10 Pm 1 = 12 and Pm 2 = 6
for which f2 = 50 Hz .

Another solution is:


Pg = 10 Pm 1 = 6 and Pm 2 = 12
for which f2 = 100 Hz .

P17.50* (a) power factor = 76.2% lagging


(b) Z = 11.76∠40.36o Ω
(c) Since the motor runs just under 1800 rpm, evidently we have a
four-pole motor.

P17.53* The percentage drop in voltage is 7.33%.