Anda di halaman 1dari 14


No. Chapter / Title Page

1.0 Abstract

2.0 History of SMS

3.0 Definition and type of SMS

4.0 Impact on

a. Education
b. Literature
c. Work

5.0 Conclusion

6.0 References

Short Messaging Service (SMS) become a major role in our life, it became a necessity and
culture. A questionnaires is handed out to selected peoples who are using mobile phone to
get the cumulative opinion on SMS effect on our language. There are two different opinions
on this matter whom are agree and not. Mostly teenagers or younger generation answered
SMS is not corrupting the language while the older generation especially parents, educators
and employee disagreed.

The problems arise can be seen in education, work and literature. The objective of SMS is to
send speedy information while sacrificing the grammar, punctuation, which becomes a habit
and acceptance in our culture. These are further explain inside the assignment and findings
ouf the effect SMS on language.
1.0 History of Technology

SMS history can be traced back during 1990 when it was introduced in the mobile industry.
Few predict the service hard to take off because lack of promotion and new technology
would either fail or a success depending on the consumer acceptance. The acceptance of
SMS was slow gaining popularity because the voice call is easier compare than texting with
the character limit in SMS function. The adaptation for SMS is targeted to young generation
because older generation unwilling to use the service giving advantage to the younger

Despite the limit of sms space, the youngster came out with ingenious method to solve the
problem by using a whole new alphabet to replace the whole word into shorter and lesser
space. The mixture of abbreviation letters and numbers into SMS such as ‘C U L8er' for 'See
you later' became timesaving and coolness among the young texters. In addition of text,
smileys are being used to indicate the texter mood by simple pictogram reducing the
abruptness of the SMS medium.

The volume of SMS growth continue to go upward fuel with the cheaper mobile phone which
became a necessity in daily life and the current lifestyle of person to person messaging as
people told each other how they were feeling and what they were doing. SMS had become an
important part of the way that young people communicated with each other in their daily life.
2.0 Definition and categories of SMS

SMS is a method to send information from sender (texter) to the intended recipient.
Nowadays function of SMS has improved according to the latest technology available
whereby 160 letters constraint now can reach 360 letters in one SMS but will be charge as
three sms sent. Also the text can be send to many recipients depending on which phone and
the technology is a standard function embedded inside the mobile phone.

SMS language or lingo can be broken into few categories such as abbreviation, pictogram,
emoticon and rebus. It does not always follow standard grammar, and additionally the words
used are not usually found in standard dictionaries or recognized by language academies. The
most common usage is the abbreviation type because of the constrain of SMS limit space,
therefore the texter has to be creative in order to successfully send the information without
losing the original meaning.


Definition of abbreviation is a shortened form of a written word or phrase used in place of

the whole. (Merriam -Webster)

Abbreviation is written depending of which categories it belongs, there are several kind of
abbreviation listed such as acronyms, shortening, initialisms and contraction. For words
which have no common abbreviation, users most commonly remove the vowels from a word.
Refer to the table below

No. Types of Abbreviation Examples

a. Words which being replaced with single letter You becomes u
(initialism) See becomes c
Okay becomes k
b. Words which being replaced with single digit For becomes 4
(initialism) Too becomes 2
Ate becomes 8
c. Syllable being replaced with a single letter or digit Wait becomes w8
(pseudo-acronym) Tomorrow becomes 2mro
Before becomes b4
d. Shorten single and multiple words combined Your becomes ur
(shortenings) You’re becomes u’re
e. Shorten a word, syllable, or word group (contraction) I have becomes I’ve
She has not becomes she hasn’t
f. Shorten a word by removing vowel Keyboard becomes kybrd
Dictionary becomes dctnry

Table: Abbreviation type which can be found in SMS

I listed down some of popular English abbreviation for further understanding of the
abbreviation meaning that been used. It becomes a standard abbreviation where it can be
found anywhere over the world.

No. Phrase or word Abbreviation

a. I do not know Idk
b. Be right Back Brb
c. Age / Sex / Location asl
d. Take care Tc
e. For your information Fyi
F Laughing out loud Lol

Table: Common abbreviation or standard usage

Abbreviation can have different meaning in different context and the key to interpret the
meaning is by knowing the context of the SMS. The recipient has to interpret the abbreviated
words according to the context which is used with the common usage of phrases or words
that being shorten using abbreviation method. Refer to the table below for words or phrase
which use the same abbreviation;

No. Phrase or word Abbreviation

a. Back, be, boyfriend b
b. Chinese, see , sea c
c. Male, Malay, medium m
d. Lots of love, laughing out loud lol
e. Crayon, crying (g) cryn

Table: Words or phrases which has same abbreviation


Definition of pictograms is one of the symbols belonging to a pictorial graphic system


Pictogram is different from emoticon though they are related to each other. It is being used to
convey its meaning for a physical object by using pictorial resemblance to the objet while
emoticon is used to convey the expression of the sender or texter. Ancient prehistoric
drawings or paintings found on rock walls are the earliest pictograph. Pictograms evolve
according to the technology which it is used in writing and graphic systems in which the
characters are to considerable resemble pictorial in appearance.

Pictogram in old phone technology depends on the creativity on imaginative texter and
manipulation of symbols in the phone. Now with SMS technology improved where by font
symbol which are known as windings from Smartphone. Below are two examples of
pictograms in SMS; ()
(>. @>}---
<) --

Pictures of early usage of SMS older generation of phone

Pictures of windings (type of pictogram)

2.3 Emoticon

Definition of emoticon a short set of keyboard symbols that represents the expression on
somebody's face, used in email, etc. to show the feelings of the person sending the message

Emoticon is only available with the current mobile phone which supports emoticon function.
Smartphone has this kind of function because it has operating system same like a computer
therefore enable computer function like to mobile phone. is a textual expression representing
the face of a writer's mood or facial expression. Emoticons are often used to alert a responder
to the tenor or temper of a statement, and can change and improve interpretation of plain text.
The word is a portmanteau of the English words emotion (or emote) and icon. In web forums,
instant messengers and online games, text emoticons are often automatically replaced with
small corresponding images, which came to be called emoticons as well..

:-) :-( =D :-*

Happy face Sad face Laughing face Kiss face

Example of text emoticon on non Smartphone

Example of emoticon on Smartphone

2.4 Rebus

Definition of rebus is puzzle in which words are represented by combinations of pictures and
individual letters (Oxford)

The word rebus is taken from Latin word and the term rebus in SMS refers to the use of
pictogram to compensate the word with picture in text phrase. There are few example of the
rebus in daily texting which are shown below;

a) I love you = I <3 U

The phrase consists of combination of single letter and pictograms. For example I love you is
changed to I <3 U. Pictogram is the sign of heart which symbolize love and you is shortened
using abbreviation of the letter “u”.

b) he is sleeping= he

The above is different combination of word and emoticon. He is sleeping is changed to he

, ignoring the correct grammar but the massage could be understandable since emoticon
represent sleeping shows the situation of the person is in now.
3.0 SMS Impact on

3.1. Education

Education purposes are to develop mind, character and physical ability of an individual
using the transmitted of its accumulated values, skills and knowledge from one
generation to another through school and university. The success of student proficiency
are based upon writing, listening, reading, communicate, converse fluently in both formal
and informal and ability to ask and answer in discrete sentences. (Wikipedia, SMS

SMS language affect the students / learners language proficiency noticeably in ability to
use words appropriately according to the context given and ability to express oneself
through writing and skills. It does not have rules and it is informal knowledge tool
whereby the learner learned improper way to use the language which by following the
trend because the influence of friends and other sources around like television,
advertisement magazines and so on. SMS cultivate leaner to mixed the words and
numbers in writing such as 8 instead of eat.

In the age of cryptic SMS’s and e-mail’s, with scant regard for grammar and zero
tolerance approach to punctuation, the university professors, scholars and teachers are
horrified everyday at the sight of misplaced commas, apostrophes and colons around
them. But the young generation is saying goodbye to those words, which according to
them even English scholars at times fail to spell out properly.

Research reveals that nearly two thirds of teens adopt some of the informal style of texts
in their written school work, with short cuts like LOL – which means ‘laugh out loud’ –
and emoticons being particularly popular. Half of the students questioned also admitted to
occasionally forgoing basic rules like capitalisation. (France-Presse, Declining Grammar
Standards Amongst Teens)

According to Malaysia’s New Straight Times, Education Director-general Datuk Abdul

Rafie Mahat blamed text messaging and internet for the decline of English language
passes in the Penilaian Menengah Rendah in year 2003 where 1.8 percent decline student
passes for the subject. (New Straight Times, SMS and Internet blamed for decline in
English Examinations)
3.2 Literature

Literature is usually documented of one’s language to preserved uniqueness of the culture. It

becomes a source reference for younger generation to learn the history and the integrity of
our national language.

Since the era of globalization, our country is more expose on treat of other cultures in the
name of modernization, one of the impeding treat is SMS language which invaded our
country and all over the world

Literature emphasize on the full sentences consist of words which symbolize the language
beautiness. It does not have many contractions but evolution of language contraction became
a common and abbreviation has also been accepted to be used in formal writing. It is
possible for the future SMS language would be embedded into regular grammar such as
terms of “idk”, where some of these terms lack of ingenuine which lack of authenticity,
therefore will weaken the language itself.

One of article news dated on 20th December 2006 stated that the widespread use of modified,
often short-form Malay words in texts and chats meant the spoken language was
degenerating from statement of Deputy Culture, Arts and Heritage Minister Wong Kam
Hoong. Wong told the senate that his ministry would attempt to revive the proper use of
Malay in daily conversation by organizing poetry, story-telling and debating contests. Moves
are also planned to halt the use of "corrupted" Malay among government agencies,
government is waging a campaign to preserve the integrity of the Malay language, known
locally as Bahasa Melayu, which it says is also being diluted by English words. (2006,
The issue of SMS affect other sector which is in job section. This particularly trend can be seen
when fresh graduate seeking for employment. According to the article in The Sydney
Morning Harold mentioned that graduate using text message abbreviation in their job
application thus to resolve this matter special written communication at education
institution and employers.

Unfortunately students and young professionals often employ this 'half baked' language to
almost all aspects of their lives. Five out of 10 resumes I see are peppered with SMS language,"
"Besides coming across as highly unprofessional, these CVs are instantly rejected, even though
the qualifications may be up to the mark." Said HR executive Nisha Mishra, 18/7/2010

The common mistake which the graduate when submitting their resume, issue of substandard
spelling, poor grammar and sometimes the casual written resume. Even the graduate has good
qualification for the job but the their resume instantly rejected because unprofessional attitude
especially in private sector which high standard requirement. Resume is the first impression to
the employer to evaluate the job applicant.
4.0 Conclusion
Every technology which comes has a good and bad effect on our life, thus SMS technology is not
an exception. SMS is tools where people can get reach each other when voice call cannot get
through and they can express their feeling through text; this becomes a culture inside our life.
Ever since the acceptance of SMS language, there is a gap of older generation between younger
generations which provides freedom access and manipulation of information by text.

I strongly agree SMS corrupt our language because myself also a texter but abbreviation only
seldom used so the recipient would understand the context without have to decipher the actual
meaning. Current phone technology now enable texter to send full sentences but because
abbreviation, initialism, acronyms and contraction already embedded in one’s life and SMS
language can interface with the spoken language since it is frequently used by the public in their
daily conversations.

Think what will happen to our kids if we let SMS language took over our beloved language? We
might be losing the integrity of our language and the uniqueness if we do not impose guides and
steps to handle the impeding treat of SMS language and culture.
5.0 References

Emily (2008), Graduate SMS in job l33ter February 19th Retrieved on July 19th from

Agency France-Presse (2006), Texts, Chats, leads to Malaysian Language Decay December, 20th,
Retrievd on July 19th, 2010 from breakingnews/

Cystal, D (2008) txting: The Gr8 Db8 Oxford: Oxford University Press

Fries, S. (2003). ‘Yo, can u plz help me write English?’. Parents fear online chatting ruins kids
language skills. USA Today, April 1, D.08 Retrieved Julai 19th, 2010 from

Humphry, J (2007). I h8 txt msgs: How texting is wrecking our labguage. Daily Mail. September
24th. Retrieved Julai 20th,2010 from

Partha Sarathi Misra, (2007), SMS is corrupting the language December 28th, Retrieved Julai,
20th, 2010 http://

Mampa Lorna Mphahlele Kwena Mashamaite (2005) the impact of short message service (sms)
language on language proficiency of learners and the SMS dictionaries: challenge for educators
and lexicographers