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Please go through the following Questions & give your comments.

1) In Neutral Displacement Relay (NDR), Neutral displaced means what?

In resistance earthed system, if there is a fault on 1 phase then that voltage appears
across the neutral resistance & because of that voltage of other 2 phases raises by
1.7 times the normal. In this case can one say that the Neutral is displaced?

Ans – In Balance 3 ph system the sum of Vab+Vbc+Vca =0. In unearth system or

high impedance earth system during earth fault there is voltage appears across
neutral & earth. This is nothing but the neutral displacement. Your explanation is
correct the voltage rise in other two phases.

2) In some Cable Catalogues (CCI) voltage rating given with following fashion
3.8/6.6 KV (E) what it means?
Ans - Basically in Earth system – 6.6kV cable used.
And unearth system – 3.8kV cable used.

3) In Surge Arrestor/Lightning Arrestor, What means Class1/Class2 or


Ans- It is done based upon nominal discharge current capacity. For the
classification of Surge Arrester refer IEC 60099-1 (Table -3 page 35).

4) Why don’t we size the LT cables according to Fault Level as we do in case of

HT cable?

Ans- Frankly speaking both HT as well as LT cables should be design as per the
fault levels (short circuit) basis.

5) What is Type 1, Type 2 co-ordination or performance?

Ans- Type 1 coordination – After short circuit happen the entire components
(FSW, Contactor and BMR) should be replaced and type-1 is for short term use
Type-2 coordination – After short circuit the MCCB reset or Fuse replacement is
enough and no need of replacement of entire components.

6) In case of Delta side of X’mer artificial earthing means what?

Ans- The Artificial Earthing means by connecting Earthing Transformer (Zigzag)

to the unearth system where Delta side of transformer is connected.

7) What is meant by Day-night Bus-bars?

Ans- I am not listen this term. As name suggest (DAY NIGHT) means continuous
in use.

8) For fault level calculations ‘source impedance’ is already given from client or
one has to calculate it or one has to assume any value? If one has to assume
any value then on what basis?

Ans – The incoming fault MVA of upstream circuit should be known for system
study calculation [source side (MSEB or other supplier)]. It has to be given by
client or otherwise the incoming transformer details should be known. If any
details not known then one should assume (no choice).