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Sintesis protein

Semua aktivitas sel dikendalikan oleh aktivitas nukleus. Cara pengendalian ini berkaitan
dengan aktivitas nukleus memproduksi protein, dimana protein ini merupakan penyusun
utama dari semua organel sel maupun penggandaan kromosom. Contoh protein yang
dapat dihasilkan seperti protein struktural yang digunakan sebagai penyusun membran sel
dan protein fungsional (misalnya enzim) yang digunakan sebagai biokatalisator untuk
berbagai proses sintesis dalam sel.

Protein adalah polipeptida (gabungan dari beberapa asam amino). Maka untuk
membentuk suatu protein diperlukan bahan dasar berupa asam amino. Polipeptida
dikatakan protein jika paling tidak memiliki berat molekul kira-kira 10.000. Di dalam
ribosom, asam amino-asam amino dirangkai menjadi polipeptida dengan bantuan enzim
tertentu. Polipeptida dapat terdiri atas 51 asam amino (seperti pada insulin) sampai lebih
dari 1000 asam amino (seperti pada fibroin, protein sutera). Macam molekul polipeptida
tergantung pada asam amino penyusunnya dan panjang pendeknya rantai polipeptida.
Seperti yang telah kita pelajari sebelumnya bahwa ada 20 macam asam amino penting
yang dapat dirangkai membentuk jutaan macam kemungkinan polipeptida.

• Lalu bagaimana sesungguhnya mekanisme pembentukan protein itu?


• Apakah DNA terlibat dalam pembentukan protein?

Sintesis protein melibatkan DNA sebagai pembuat rantai polipeptida. Meskipun begitu,
DNA tidak dapat secara langsung menyusun rantai polipeptida karena harus melalui
RNA. Seperti yang telah kita ketahui bahwa DNA merupakan bahan informasi genetik
yang dapat diwariskan dari generasi ke generasi. Informasi yang dikode di dalam gen
diterjemahkan menjadi urutan asam amino selama sintesis protein. Informasi ditransfer
secara akurat dari DNA melalui RNA untuk menghasilkan polipeptida dari urutan asam
amino yang spesifik.

Suatu konsep dasar hereditas yang mampu menentukan ciri spesifik suatu jenis makhluk
menunjukkan adanya aliran informasi bahan genetik dari DNA ke asam amino (protein).
Konsep tersebut dikenal dengan dogma genetik. Tahap pertama dogma genetik dikenal
sebagai proses transkripsi DNA menjadi mRNA. Tahap kedua dogma genetik adalah
proses translasi atau penerjemahan kode genetik pada RNA menjadi urutan asam amino.
Dogma genetik dapat digambarkan secara skematis sebagai berikut.

From Gene to Protein: Transcription


Introduction
This BioCoach activity will help you review transcription, the synthesis of RNA from
DNA. You will find information about the organization of genes, the structure of RNA,
the transcription process, and the differences between mRNA in prokaryotes and
eukaryotes. Animations show the transcription process in a dynamic way. You can test
your understanding of transcription by using the Self-Quiz at the end of the module. By
continuing on to the activity on translation, you can then learn about how mRNA is
translated into protein.
For the Transcription and Translation activities, it may be helpful to review DNA
structure and DNA replication.

From Gene to Protein: Translation (Protein Synthesis)


Introduction
This BioCoach activity will help you review translation, the synthesis of protein from
mRNA. You will find information about the structure of proteins, the genetic code, the
molecular components of translation, and the process of assembling a protein chain as a
ribosome moves along an mRNA molecule. Animations show the translation process in a
dynamic way. You can test your understanding of translation by using the Self-Quiz at
the end of the module.

It may be helpful to review other topics, such as DNA structure, DNA replication,
transcription, and biomolecules.

How do genes direct the production of


proteins?
Most genes contain the information needed to make functional molecules called proteins.
(A few genes produce other molecules that help the cell assemble proteins.) The journey
from gene to protein is complex and tightly controlled within each cell. It consists of two
major steps: transcription and translation. Together, transcription and translation are
known as gene expression.

During the process of transcription, the information stored in a gene’s DNA is transferred
to a similar molecule called RNA (ribonucleic acid) in the cell nucleus. Both RNA and
DNA are made up of a chain of nucleotide bases, but they have slightly different
chemical properties. The type of RNA that contains the information for making a protein
is called messenger RNA (mRNA) because it carries the information, or message, from
the DNA out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm.

Translation, the second step in getting from a gene to a protein, takes place in the
cytoplasm. The mRNA interacts with a specialized complex called a ribosome, which
“reads” the sequence of mRNA bases. Each sequence of three bases, called a codon,
usually codes for one particular amino acid. (Amino acids are the building blocks of
proteins.) A type of RNA called transfer RNA (tRNA) assembles the protein, one amino
acid at a time. Protein assembly continues until the ribosome encounters a “stop” codon
(a sequence of three bases that does not code for an amino acid).
The flow of information from DNA to RNA to proteins is one of the fundamental
principles of molecular biology. It is so important that it is sometimes called the “central
dogma.”

Through the processes of transcription and translation, information from genes is used to
make proteins.