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Curriculum Development Centre

Ministry of Education Malaysia


2005
First Edition 2005
© Ministry of Education Malaysia

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrievel
system, without permission in writing from the Director, Curriculum Development Centre, Ministry of
Education Malaysia, Level 4 – 8 , Block E9, Government Complex, Parcel E, 62604 Putrajaya,
Malaysia.

Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia Data Pengkatalogan – dalam – Penerbitan

Malaysia. Pusat Perkembangan Kurikulum


Science Form 4: integrated curriculum for secondary school:
curriculum specification / Pusat Perkembangan Kurikulum
ISBN 983-2717-49-3
1. Science - Study and teaching (secondary) – Malaysia
2. Science – Outlines, syllabi, etc. I. Title
507.12
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

The National Philosophy v


National Philosophy of Education vii
National Science Education Philosophy ix
Preface xi
Introduction 1
Aims 1
Objectives 2
Scientific Skills 2
Thinking Skills 4
Scientific Attitudes and Noble Values 9
Teaching and Learning Strategies 10
Content Organisation 14

Themes
Introducing Science
Learning Area: 1. Scientific Investigation 15
Maintenance and Continuity of Life
Learning Area: 1. Body Coordination 17
2. Heredity and Variation 25
Matter in Nature
Learning Area: 1. Matter and Substance 32

Energy in Life
Learning Area: 1. Energy and Chemical Changes 40
2. Nuclear Energy 47
3. Light, Colour and Sight 50

Technological and Industrial Development in Society


Learning Area: 1. Chemicals in Industry 56

Acknowledgements 60
Panel of Writers 61
THE NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY

Our nation, Malaysia, is dedicated to achieving a greater unity of all her people; to maintaining a
democratic way of life; to creating a just society in which the wealth of the nation shall be equitably
shared; to ensuring a liberal approach to her rich and diverse cultural traditions; to building a
progressive society which shall be oriented towards modern science and technology;

We, her people, pledge our united efforts to attain these ends guided by the following principles:

BELIEF IN GOD
LOYALTY TO KING AND COUNTRY
SUPREMACY OF THE CONSTITUTION
RULE OF LAW
GOOD BEHAVIOUR AND MORALITY

v
NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION

Education in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards further developing the potential of individuals
in a holistic and integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually,
emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious based on a firm belief in and devotion to
God. Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and
competent, who possess high moral standards and who are responsible and capable of
achieving a high level of personal well-being as well as being able to contribute to the betterment
of the family, society and the nation at large.

vii
NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION PHILOSOPHY

In consonance with the National Education Philosophy,


science education in Malaysia nurtures a
Science and Technology Culture by focusing
on the development of individuals who are competitive,
dynamic, robust and resilient and able to
master scientific knowledge and technological competency

ix
PREFACE

The aspiration of the nation to become an In a recent development, the Government has made a
industrialised society depends on science and decision to introduce English as the medium of
technology. It is envisaged that success in providing instruction in the teaching and learning of science and
quality science education to Malaysians from an early mathematics. This measure will enable students to
age will serve to spearhead the nation into becoming a keep abreast of developments in science and
knowledge society and a competitive player in the technology in contemporary society by enhancing their
global arena. Towards this end, the Malaysian capability and know-how to tap the diverse sources of
education system is giving greater emphasis to science information on science written in the English language.
and mathematics education. At the same time, this move would also provide
opportunities for students to use the English language
The Science curriculum has been designed not only to and hence, increase their proficiency in the language.
provide opportunities for students to acquire science Thus, in implementing the science curriculum, attention
knowledge and skills, develop thinking skills and is given to developing students’ ability to use English
thinking strategies, and to apply this knowledge and for study and communication, especially in the early
skills in everyday life, but also to inculcate in them years of learning.
noble values and the spirit of patriotism. It is hoped that
the educational process en route to achieving these The development of this curriculum and the preparation
aims would produce well-balanced citizens capable of of the corresponding Curriculum Specifications have
contributing to the harmony and prosperity of the nation been the work of many individuals over a period of
and its people. time. To all those who have contributed in one way or
another to this effort, may I, on behalf of the Ministry of
The Science curriculum aims at producing active Education, express my sincere gratitude and thanks for
learners. To this end, students are given ample the time and labour expended.
opportunities to engage in scientific investigations
through hands-on activities and experimentations. The
inquiry approach, incorporating thinking skills, thinking
strategies and thoughtful learning, should be
emphasised throughout the teaching-learning process. (MAHZAN B. BAKAR SMP, AMP)
The content and contexts suggested are chosen based Director
on their relevance and appeal to students so that their Curriculum Development Centre
interest in the subject is enhanced. Ministry of Education Malaysia

xi
INTRODUCTION upper secondary level. Core Science at the upper
secondary level is designed to produce students who are
literate in science, innovative, and able to apply scientific
knowledge in decision-making and problem solving in
As articulated in the National Education everyday life.
Policy, education in Malaysia is an on-going effort
towards developing the potential of individuals in a The elective science subjects prepare students who
holistic and integrated manner to produce individuals are more scientifically inclined to pursue the study of
who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and science at post-secondary level. This group of students
physically balanced and harmonious. The primary would take up careers in the field of science and
and secondary school science curriculum is technology and play a leading role in this field for national
developed with the aim of producing such individuals. development.

As a nation that is progressing towards a For every science subject, the curriculum for the
developed nation status, Malaysia needs to create a year is articulated in two documents: the syllabus and the
society that is scientifically oriented, progressive, curriculum specifications. The syllabus presents the aims,
knowledgeable, having a high capacity for change, objectives and the outline of the curriculum content for a
forward-looking, innovative and a contributor to period of 2 years for elective science subjects and 5 years
scientific and technological developments in the for core science subjects. The curriculum specifications
future. In line with this, there is a need to produce provide the details of the curriculum which includes the
citizens who are creative, critical, inquisitive, open- aims and objectives of the curriculum, brief descriptions on
minded and competent in science and technology. thinking skills and thinking strategies, scientific skills,
scientific attitudes and noble values, teaching and learning
The Malaysian science curriculum comprises strategies, and curriculum content. The curriculum content
three core science subjects and four elective science provides the learning objectives, suggested learning
subjects. The core subjects are Science at primary activities, the intended learning outcomes, notes and
school level, Science at lower secondary level and vocabulary.
Science at upper secondary level. Elective science
subjects are offered at the upper secondary level and AIMS
consist of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and
Additional Science.
The aims of the science curriculum for secondary school
The core science subjects for the primary and
are to provide students with the knowledge and skills in
lower secondary levels are designed to provide
science and technology and enable them to solve
students with basic science knowledge, prepare
problems and make decisions in everyday life based on
students to be literate in science, and enable
scientific attitudes and noble values.
students to continue their science education at the

1
Students who have followed the secondary science 6. Evaluate science- and technology-related information
curriculum will have the foundation in science to wisely and effectively.
enable them to pursue formal and informal further
education in science and technology. 7. Practise and internalise scientific attitudes and good
moral values.
The curriculum also aims to develop a concerned,
dynamic and progressive society with a science and 8. Realise the importance of inter-dependence among
technology culture that values nature and works living things and the management of nature for survival
towards the preservation and conservation of the of mankind.
environment.
9. Appreciate the contributions of science and technology
towards national development and the well-being of
OBJECTIVES mankind.

10. Realise that scientific discoveries are the result of


The science curriculum for secondary school enables human endeavour to the best of his or her intellectual
students to: and mental capabilities to understand natural
phenomena for the betterment of mankind.
1. Acquire knowledge in science and technology in
the context of natural phenomena and everyday 11. Be aware of the need to love and care for the
life experiences. environment and play an active role in its preservation
and conservation.
2. Understand developments in the field of science
and technology.
SCIENTIFIC SKILLS
3. Acquire scientific and thinking skills.

4. Apply knowledge and skills in a creative and Science emphasises inquiry and problem solving. In
critical manner for problem solving and decision inquiry and problem solving processes, scientific and
making. thinking skills are utilised. Scientific skills are important in
any scientific investigation such as conducting experiments
5. Face challenges in the scientific and and carrying out projects.
technological world and be willing to contribute
towards the development of science and Scientific skills encompass science process skills and
technology. manipulative skills.

2
Science Process Skills
Using Space- Describing changes in parameter with
Science process skills enable students to formulate Time time. Examples of parameters are
their questions and find out the answers Relationship location, direction, shape, size,
systematically. volume, weight and mass.

Descriptions of the science process skills are as


follows: Interpreting Giving rational explanations about an
Data object, event or pattern derived from
Observing Using the sense of hearing, touch, collected data.
smell, taste and sight to collect
information about an object or a Defining Defining concepts by describing what
phenomenon. Operationally must be done and what should be
observed.
Classifying Using observations to group objects
or events according to similarities or Controlling Identifying the fixed variables,
differences. Variables manipulated variable, and responding
variable in an investigation. The
Measuring Making quantitative observations manipulated variable is changed to
and Using using numbers and tools with observe its relationship with the
Numbers standardised units. Measuring responding variable. At the same
makes observation more accurate. time, the fixed variable is kept
constant.
Inferring Using past experiences or previously
collected data to draw conclusions Hypothesising Making a general statement about the
and explain events. relationship between a manipulated
variable and a responding variable in
Predicting Stating the outcome of a future event order to explain an event or
based on prior knowledge gained observation. This statement can be
through experiences or collected data. tested to determine its validity.

Communicating Using words or graphic symbols such Experimenting Planning and conducting activities to
as tables, graphs, figures or models to test a certain hypothesis. These
describe an action, object or event. activities include collecting, analysing
and interpreting data and making
conclusions.

3
Manipulative Skills Thinking skills can be categorised into critical thinking skills
and creative thinking skills. A person who thinks critically
Manipulative skills in scientific investigation are always evaluates an idea in a systematic manner before
psychomotor skills that enable students to: accepting it. A person who thinks creatively has a high
level of imagination, is able to generate original and
• use and handle science apparatus and laboratory innovative ideas, and modify ideas and products.
substances correctly.
• handle specimens correctly and carefully. Thinking strategies are higher order thinking processes
• draw specimens, apparatus and laboratory that involve various steps. Each step involves various
substances accurately. critical and creative thinking skills. The ability to formulate
• clean science apparatus correctly, and thinking strategies is the ultimate aim of introducing
• store science apparatus and laboratory thinking activities in the teaching and learning process.
substances correctly and safely.

Critical Thinking Skills


THINKING SKILLS
A brief description of each critical thinking skill is as
follows:
Thinking is a mental process that requires an
individual to integrate knowledge, skills and attitude Attributing Identifying characteristics, features,
in an effort to understand the environment. qualities and elements of a concept
or an object.
One of the objectives of the national education
system is to enhance the thinking ability of students. Comparing and Finding similarities and differences
This objective can be achieved through a curriculum Contrasting based on criteria such as
that emphasises thoughtful learning. Teaching and characteristics, features, qualities
learning that emphasises thinking skills is a and elements of a concept or
foundation for thoughtful learning. event.

Thoughtful learning is achieved if students are Grouping and Separating objects or phenomena
actively involved in the teaching and learning Classifying into categories based on certain
process. Activities should be organised to provide criteria such as common
opportunities for students to apply thinking skills in characteristics or features.
conceptualisation, problem solving and decision-
making.

4
Sequencing Arranging objects and information Creative Thinking Skills
in order based on the quality or
quantity of common characteristics A brief description of each creative thinking skill is as
or features such as size, time, follows:
shape or number.
Generating Producing or giving ideas in a
Prioritising Arranging objects and information Ideas discussion.
in order based on their importance
or priority. Relating Making connections in a certain
situation to determine a structure or
Analysing Examining information in detail by pattern of relationship.
breaking it down into smaller parts
to find implicit meaning and Making Using past experiences or previously
relationships. Inferences collected data to draw conclusions
and explain events.
Detecting Bias Identifying views or opinions that
have the tendency to support or Predicting Stating the outcome of a future event
oppose something in an unfair or based on prior knowledge gained
misleading way. through experiences or collected
data.
Evaluating Making judgements on the quality
or value of something based on Making Making a general conclusion about a
valid reasons or evidence. Generalisations group based on observations on, or
information from, samples of the
Making Making a statement about the group.
Conclusions outcome of an investigation that is
based on a hypothesis. Visualising Recalling or forming mental images
about a particular idea, concept,
situation or vision.
Synthesising Combining separate elements or
parts to form a general picture in
various forms such as writing,
drawing or artefact.

5
Making Making general statements about Problem Solving Finding solutions to challenging
Hypotheses the relationship between or unfamiliar situations or
manipulated variables and unanticipated difficulties in a
responding variables to explain systematic manner.
observations or events. The
statements can be tested to
determine validity.
Besides the above thinking skills and thinking
Making Understanding abstract or complex strategies, another skill emphasised is reasoning.
Analogies concepts by relating them to simpler Reasoning is a skill used in making logical, just and
or concrete concepts with similar rational judgements. Mastering of critical and creative
characteristics. thinking skills and thinking strategies is made simpler
if an individual is able to reason in an inductive and
Inventing Producing something new or deductive manner. Figure 1 gives a general picture of
adapting something already in thinking skills and thinking strategies.
existence to overcome problems in a
systematic manner. Mastering of thinking skills and thinking strategies (TSTS)
through the teaching and learning of science can be
developed through the following phases:

Thinking Strategy 1. Introducing TSTS.


2. Practising TSTS with teacher’s guidance.
3. Practising TSTS without teacher’s guidance.
Description of each thinking strategy is as follows: 4. Applying TSTS in new situations with teacher’s
guidance.
Conceptualising Making generalisations based 5. Applying TSTS together with other skills to accomplish
on inter-related and common thinking tasks.
characteristics in order to
construct meaning, concept or Further information about phases of implementing TSTS
model. can be found in the guidebook “Buku Panduan Penerapan
Kemahiran Berfikir dan Strategi Berfikir dalam Pengajaran
Making Decisions Selecting the best solution from dan Pembelajaran Sains” (Curriculum Development
various alternatives based on Centre, 1999).
specific criteria to achieve a
specific aim.

6
Figure 1 : TSTS Model in Science manner. It is a mental process that promotes critical,
creative, analytical and systematic thinking. Mastering of
science process skills and the possession of suitable
Thinking Skills attitudes and knowledge enable students to think
effectively.

The mastering of science process skills involves


Critical Creative the mastering of the relevant thinking skills. The thinking
skills that are related to a particular science process skill
• Attributing • Generating ideas are as follows:
• Comparing and • Relating
contrasting • Making inferences Science Process
• Grouping and • Predicting Thinking Skills
Skills
classifying • Making
Reasoning
• Sequencing hypotheses Observing Attributing
• Prioritising • Synthesising Comparing and contrasting
• Analysing • Making
• Detecting bias
Relating
generalisations
• Evaluating • Visualising
• Making • Making analogies
Classifying Attributing
conclusions • Inventing Comparing and contrasting
Grouping and classifying

Thinking Measuring and Relating


Using Numbers Comparing and contrasting
Strategies
• Conceptualising Making Inferences Relating
• Making decisions Comparing and contrasting
• Problem solving Analysing
Making inferences

Relationship between Thinking Skills and Predicting Relating


Science Process Skills Visualising

Science process skills are skills that are required in Using Space-Time Sequencing
the process of finding solutions to a problem or Relationship Prioritising
making decisions in a systematic

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Science Process Teaching and Learning based on Thinking Skills
Thinking Skills and Scientific Skills
Skills

Interpreting data Comparing and contrasting This science curriculum emphasises thoughtful learning
Analysing based on thinking skills and scientific skills. Mastery of
Detecting bias thinking skills and scientific skills are integrated with the
Making conclusions acquisition of knowledge in the intended learning outcomes.
Generalising Thus, in teaching and learning, teachers need to emphasise
Evaluating the mastery of skills together with the acquisition of
knowledge and the inculcation of noble values and scientific
Defining Relating attitudes.
operationally Making analogy
Visualising The following is an example and explanation of a learning
Analysing outcome based on thinking skills and scientific skills.

Controlling Attributing
variables Comparing and contrasting Example:
Relating
Analysing
Learning Outcome: Compare and contrast metals
Making Attributing and non-metals.
hypotheses Relating
Comparing and contrasting Thinking Skills: Comparing and contrasting
Generating ideas
Making hypotheses Explanation:
Predicting
Synthesising To achieve the above learning outcome, knowledge on
the physical properties and uses of metals and non-
Experimenting All thinking skills metals in everyday life are learned through comparing
and contrasting. The mastery of the skill of comparing
Communicating All thinking skills and contrasting is as important as the knowledge about
the properties and uses of metals and non-metals.

8
SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES AND NOBLE
VALUES The inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values
generally occurs through the following stages:

Science learning experiences can be used as a • Being aware of the importance and the need for
means to inculcate scientific attitudes and noble scientific attitudes and noble values.
values in students. These attitudes and values • Giving emphasis to these attitudes and values.
encompass the following: • Practising and internalising these scientific attitudes
and noble values.
• Having an interest and curiosity towards the
environment. When planning teaching and learning activities,
• Being honest and accurate in recording and teachers need to give due consideration to the above
validating data. stages to ensure the continuous and effective inculcation
• Being diligent and persevering. of scientific attitudes and values. For example, during
science practical work, the teacher should remind pupils
• Being responsible about the safety of oneself,
and ensure that they carry out experiments in a careful,
others, and the environment.
cooperative and honest manner.
• Realising that science is a means to understand
nature.
Proper planning is required for effective inculcation
• Appreciating and practising clean and healthy of scientific attitudes and noble values during science
living. lessons. Before the first lesson related to a learning
• Appreciating the balance of nature. objective, teachers should examine all related learning
• Being respectful and well-mannered. outcomes and suggested teaching-learning activities that
• Appreciating the contribution of science and provide opportunities for the inculcation of scientific
technology. attitudes and noble values.
• Being thankful to God.
• Having critical and analytical thinking. The following is an example of a learning outcome
• Being flexible and open-minded. pertaining to the inculcation of scientific attitudes and
• Being kind-hearted and caring. values.
• Being objective.
• Being systematic.
• Being cooperative.
• Being fair and just.
• Dare to try.
• Thinking rationally.
• Being confident and independent.

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Example: Inculcating Patriotism

The science curriculum provides an opportunity for the


Year: Form Four
development and strengthening of patriotism among
students. For example, in learning about the earth’s
Learning Area: 1. Chemicals in Industry resources, the richness and variety of living things and the
development of science and technology in the country,
1.4 Realising the need for preservation students will appreciate the diversity of natural and human
Learning resources of the country and deepen their love for the
Objective: and conservation of the environment
from industrial waste pollution for the country.
well-being of mankind.

Explain the importance of practising TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES


Learning
Outcome: responsibility in disposing industrial wate.

View videos or computer simulations on Teaching and learning strategies in the science curriculum
Suggested
industrial waste pollution and its effects emphasise thoughtful learning. Thoughtful learning is a
Learning
on environment. Discuss the importance process that helps students acquire knowledge and master
Activities
of practising responsibility in disposing skills that will help them develop their minds to the
industrial waste. optimum level. Thoughtful learning can occur through
various learning approaches such as inquiry,
Love and respect for the environment. constructivism, contextual learning, and mastery learning.
Learning activities should therefore be geared towards
Being responsible for the safety of activating students’ critical and creative thinking skills and
Scientific
oneself, others and the environment. not be confined to routine or rote learning. Students should
attitudes and
be made aware of the thinking skills and thinking strategies
noble values
Appreciating the balance in nature. that they use in their learning. They should be challenged
with higher order questions and problems and be required
Being systematic. to solve problems utilising their creativity and critical
thinking. The teaching and learning process should enable
Being cooperative. students to acquire knowledge, master skills and develop
scientific attitudes and noble values in an integrated
manner.

10
Teaching and Learning Approaches in Science Providing opportunities to cooperate, sharing ideas and
experiences, and reflecting on their learning.
Inquiry-Discovery
Science, Technology and Society
Inquiry-discovery emphasises learning through
experiences. Inquiry generally means to find Meaningful learning occurs if students can relate their
information, to question and to investigate a learning with their daily experiences. Meaningful learning
phenomenon that occurs in the environment. occurs in learning approaches such as contextual learning
Discovery is the main characteristic of inquiry. and Science, Technology and Society (STS).
Learning through discovery occurs when the main
concepts and principles of science are investigated Learning themes and learning objectives that carry
and discovered by students themselves. Through elements of STS are incorporated into the curriculum. STS
activities such as experiments, students investigate a approach suggests that science learning takes place
phenomenon and draw conclusions by themselves. through investigation and discussion based on science and
Teachers then lead students to understand the technology issues in society. In the STS approach,
science concepts through the results of the inquiry. knowledge in science and technology is to be learned with
Thinking skills and scientific skills are thus developed the application of the principles of science and technology
further during the inquiry process. However, the and their impact on society.
inquiry approach may not be suitable for all teaching
and learning situations. Sometimes, it may be more Contextual Learning
appropriate for teachers to present concepts and
principles directly to students. Contextual learning is an approach that associates
learning with daily experiences of students. In this way,
Constructivism students are able to appreciate the relevance of science
learning to their lives. In contextual learning, students learn
through investigations as in the inquiry-discovery
Constructivism suggests that students learn about approach.
something when they construct their own
understanding. The important attributes of Mastery Learning
constructivism are as follows:
Mastery learning is an approach that ensures all students
Taking into account students’ prior knowledge. are able to acquire and master the intended learning
Learning occurring as a result of students’ own objectives. This approach is based on the principle that
effort. students are able to learn if they are given adequate
Learning occurring when students restructure opportunities. Students should be allowed to learn at their
their existing ideas by relating new ideas to old own pace, with the incorporation of remedial and
ones.

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enrichment activities as part of the teaching-learning Experiment
process.
An experiment is a method commonly used in science
Teaching and Learning Methods lessons. In experiments, students test hypotheses through
investigations to discover specific science concepts and
Teaching and learning approaches can be principles. Conducting an experiment involves thinking
implemented through various methods such as skills, scientific skills, and manipulative skills.
experiments, discussions, simulations, projects, and
visits. In this curriculum, the teaching-learning Usually, an experiment involves the following steps:
methods suggested are stated under the column
“Suggested Learning Activities.” However, teachers Identifying a problem.
can modify the suggested activities when the need Making a hypothesis.
arises. Planning the experiment
- controlling variables.
The use of a variety of teaching and learning - determining the equipment and materials needed.
methods can enhance students’ interest in science. - determining the procedure of the experiment and
Science lessons that are not interesting will not the method of data collection and analysis.
motivate students to learn and subsequently will Conducting the experiment.
affect their performance. The choice of teaching Collecting data.
methods should be based on the curriculum content, Analysing data.
students’ abilities, students’ repertoire of Interpreting data.
intelligences, and the availability of resources and Making conclusions.
infrastructure. Besides playing the role of knowledge Writing a report.
presenters and experts, teachers need to act as
facilitators in the process of teaching and learning. In the implementation of this curriculum, besides guiding
Teachers need to be aware of the multiple students to do an experiment, where appropriate, teachers
intelligences that exist among students. Different should provide students with the opportunities to design
teaching and learning activities should be planned to their own experiments. This involves students drawing up
cater for students with different learning styles and plans as to how to conduct experiments, how to measure
intelligences. and analyse data, and how to present the outcomes of
their experiment.
The following are brief descriptions of some teaching
and learning methods.

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Discussion promotes the development of problem-solving skills, time
management skills, and independent learning.
A discussion is an activity in which students
exchange questions and opinions based on valid Visits and Use of External Resources
reasons. Discussions can be conducted before,
during or after an activity. Teachers should play the The learning of science is not limited to activities carried
role of a facilitator and lead a discussion by asking out in the school compound. Learning of science can be
questions that stimulate thinking and getting students enhanced through the use of external resources such as
to express themselves. zoos, museums, science centres, research institutes,
mangrove swamps, and factories. Visits to these places
Simulation make the learning of science more interesting, meaningful
and effective. To optimise learning opportunities, visits
need to be carefully planned. Students may be involved in
In simulation, an activity that resembles the actual
the planning process and specific educational tasks should
situation is carried out. Examples of simulation are
be assigned during the visit. No educational visit is
role-play, games and the use of models. In role-play,
complete without a post-visit discussion.
students play out a particular role based on certain
pre-determined conditions. Games require
procedures that need to be followed. Students play Use of Technology
games in order to learn a particular principle or to
understand the process of decision-making. Models Technology is a powerful tool that has great potential in
are used to represent objects or actual situations so enhancing the learning of science. Through the use of
that students can visualise the said objects or technology such as television, radio, video, computer, and
situations and thus understand the concepts and Internet, the teaching and learning of science can be made
principles to be learned. more interesting and effective.
Computer simulation and animation are effective tools for
the teaching and learning of abstract or difficult science
Project concepts.
Computer simulation and animation can be presented
A project is a learning activity that is generally through courseware or Web page. Application tools such,
undertaken by an individual or a group of students to as word processors, graphic presentation software and
achieve a certain learning objective. A project electronic spreadsheets are valuable tools for the analysis
generally requires several lessons to complete. The and presentation of data.
outcome of the project either in the form of a report, The use of other tools such as data loggers and computer
an artefact or in other forms needs to be presented to interfacing in experiments and projects also enhance the
the teacher and other students. Project work effectiveness of teaching and learning of science.

13
CONTENT ORGANISATION outcome separately according to the order stated in the
curriculum specifications.

The science curriculum is organised around themes. The Suggested Learning Activities provide information on
Each theme consists of various learning areas, each the scope and dimension of learning outcomes. The
of which consists of a number of learning objectives. learning activities stated under the column Suggested
A learning objective has one or more learning Learning Activities are given with the intention of providing
outcomes. some guidance as to how learning outcomes can be
achieved. A suggested activity may cover one or more
Learning outcomes are written based on the learning outcomes. At the same time, more than one
hierarchy of the cognitive and affective domains. activity may be suggested for a particular learning
Levels in the cognitive domain are: knowledge, outcome. Teachers may modify the suggested activity to
understanding, application, analysis, synthesis and suit the ability and style of learning of their students.
evaluation. Levels in the affective domain are: to be Teachers are encouraged to design other innovative and
aware of, to be in awe, to be appreciative, to be effective learning activities to enhance the learning of
thankful, to love, to practise, and to internalise. science.
Where possible, learning outcomes relating to the
affective domain are explicitly stated. The inculcation
of scientific attitudes and noble values should be
integrated into every learning activity. This ensures a
more spontaneous and natural inculcation of
attitudes and values. Learning areas in the
psychomotor domain are implicit in the learning
activities.

Learning outcomes are written in the form of


measurable behavioural terms. In general, the
learning outcomes for a particular learning
objective are organised in order of complexity.
However, in the process of teaching and learning,
learning activities should be planned in a holistic and
integrated manner that enables the achievement of
multiple learning outcomes according to needs and
context. Teachers should avoid employing a
teaching strategy that tries to achieve each learning

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THEME: INTRODUCING SCIENCE

LEARNING AREA: 1. SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION

Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

1.1 Carry out a scientific A student is able to: analyse – menganalisis


Analysing investigation, e.g. investigate how
method in surface area affects the rate of • explain the steps in scientific apparatus – radas
scientific cooling. investigation,
investigation • carry out a scientific conduct – jalankan
Students will: investigation,
a) identify the problem, • write a report on a scientific conclusion – kesimpulan
investigation,
b) identify the variables, determine – tentukan
• explain the importance of
c) make a hypothesis, scientific investigation.
d) plan the investigation to: hypothesis – hipotesis
i. determine the apparatus and
materials needed, identify – kenal pasti
ii. determine the procedure of
the investigation, the interpret – tafsirkan
method in data collection
and data analysis. investigate – siasat
e) carry out the investigation,
f) collect data, material – bahan
g) analyse and interpret data,
h) draw conclusions, observe – memerhati
i) write a report.
planning – merancang
Discuss the importance of
scientific investigation method in procedure – prosedur,
acquiring scientific knowledge. tatacara

steps – langkah-langkah

variables – pemboleh
ubah

15
Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

1.2 View videos or computer A student is able to:


Realising the simulations then gather and
need to interpret data on the scientific • identify scientific attitudes and practise – mengamalkan
practise attitudes and noble values noble values practised by
scientific practised by scientists. scientists, scientific attitudes – sikap
attitudes and • explain the need to practise saintifik
noble values Discuss the need to practise scientific attitudes and noble
when carrying scientific attitudes and noble values when carrying out a
out scientific values when carrying out scientific scientific investigation,
investigations investigations. • practise scientific attitudes
and noble values when
carrying out a scientific
investigation.

16
THEME: MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE

LEARNING AREA: 1. BODY COORDINATION

Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

1.1 Carry out activities to observe and A student is able to: body coordination –
Understanding discuss body coordination. koordinasi badan
body • describe what body coordination
coordination Examine models, view charts or is, endocrine system – sistem
videos to identify the body • identify the body systems that endokrin
systems which control control and regulate
coordination, i.e. the nervous coordination, nervous system – sistem
system and the endocrine system. • state the importance of body saraf
coordination.
Discuss the importance of body
coordination in daily activities.

1.2 Observe models, view charts or A student is able to: axon – akson
Understanding videos and identify the human
the human nervous system which consists of: • identify the component parts of cell body – badan sel
nervous a) central nervous system, i.e. the human nervous system,
system brain and spinal cord, • state the function of each central nervous system –
b) peripheral nervous system, i.e. component part of the nervous sistem saraf pusat
cranial nerves and spinal system,
nerves and their branches • state what a neurone is, motor neurone – neuron
which link the receptors and • identify the parts of a neurone, motor
effectors with the central • state the function of each part of
nervous system. the neurone, myelin sheath – salut
• identify the different types of mielin
Discuss the function of each neurone,
component part of the nervous • state the function of each type of peripheral nervous system
system. the neurone, – sistem saraf periferi

17
Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

View videos, charts or examine • compare and contrast the relay neurone – neuron
models and discuss the following: different types of neurone. perantaraan
a) neurone as the basic unit of the
nervous system, sensory neurone – neuron
b) parts of a neurone namely deria
cell body, axon, dendrite, and
myelin sheath
c) functions of various parts of a
neurone,
d) types of neurone namely the
sensory neurone, motor
neurone, and the relay neurone,
e) functions of various types of
neurones,

Draw a labelled diagram of the


sensory neurone, the motor
neuron and the relay neurone.

Carry out an activity to compare


and contrast the different types of
neurone and present the
similarities and differences in a
graphic organiser.

1.3 Discuss the following: A student is able to: reflex action – tindakan
Analysing a) meaning of receptors and refleks
nervous effectors, • state what receptors and
coordination b) functions of receptors and effectors are, reflex arc – arka refleks
effectors. • state the functions of receptors
and effectors,

18
Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

Carry out activities to demonstrate • explain with examples what a


the reactions of sense organs to reflex action is,
various stimuli. • describe a reflex arc,
• illustrate the path taken by an
Carry out activities and discuss impulse in the reflex arc.
reflex actions such as knee-jerk
and reaction to touching a hot or
sharp object.

View computer simulations or


charts showing the path taken by
an impulse in a reflex arc.

Draw a diagram to show the path


taken by an impulse in a reflex arc.

1.4
Understanding Carry out the following activities to A student is able to: proprioceptors – reseptor
the role of show the importance of regang
proprioceptors proprioceptors: • explain what proprioceptors are,
in maintaining a) stacking objects with both eyes • explain the importance of
balance and closed, proprioceptors.
coordination b) maintaining balance of the
body.

View charts, videos or computer


simulations and discuss the
following:
a) proprioceptors and their
functions,

19
Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

b) the importance of
proprioceptors in maintaining
balance and coordination.

1.5 Examine models, view videos or A student is able to: constriction –


Understanding computer simulations to identify penguncupan
the human the structure of the human brain, • identify the main parts of the
brain and its i.e. the cerebrum, cerebellum and human brain, dilation – pembesaran,
complexity medulla oblongata. Discuss the • state the functions of each main
functions of the various parts of part of the human brain, heart beat- degupan
the brain. • explain what voluntary action is, jantung
• give examples of voluntary
Draw and label the main parts of action, involuntary actions –
the human brain. • explain what involuntary action tindakan luar kawal
is,
Carry out activities and discuss the • give examples of involuntary voluntary actions –
following: action , tindakan terkawal
a) voluntary actions such as • explain the effects of injuries to
writing and dancing, specific parts of the human
b) involuntary actions such as brain.
dilation and constriction of the
pupil and the beating of the
heart.

Discuss the effects of injuries to


specific parts of the human brain.

20
Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

1.6 A student is able to: Only adrenaline, adrenal gland – kelenjar


Understanding Carry out activities such as “match insulin, thyroxine adrenal
hormonal and win” or puzzles to identify the • describe what a hormone is, oestrogen,
coordination in following: • describe what endocrine glands progesterone and ovary – ovari
the body a) hormones and the main are, testosterone are
endocrine glands, i.e. the • identify the main endocrine required. pancreas – pankreas
pituitary gland, thyroid gland, glands and their respective
adrenal gland, pancreas, ovary, locations in the body, pituitary gland – kelenjar
b) and testes, • state the functions of hormones pituitari
c) the hormones secreted by each secreted by the endocrine
of the main endocrine glands, glands, testes – testis
d) functions of the hormones • describe the effects of hormonal
secreted by each of the main imbalance on health. thyroid gland – kelenjar
endocrine glands. tiroid

Draw a labelled diagram to show


the locations of the main
endocrine glands in the human
endocrine system.

Discuss the effects of hormonal


imbalance on health and present
the information in a graphic
organiser.

21
Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

1.7 Carry out an activity to compare A student is able to: response – gerak balas
Analysing and contrast nervous coordination
coordination with hormonal coordination and • compare and contrast nervous stimulus – rangsangan
between the present the similarities and coordination with hormonal
nervous differences in a graphic organiser. coordination,
system and • explain with examples the
the endocrine Simulate “fright and flight” coordination between the
system situations or relate an incident to nervous system and the
discuss the following: endocrine system in response
a) coordination between the to a specific stimulus,
nervous system and the • explain the importance of
endocrine system in producing coordination between the
a response to a stimulus, nervous system and the
b) the importance of coordination endocrine system in response
between the nervous system to a specific stimulus.
and the endocrine system in
ensuring a smooth and
appropriate response to a
specific stimulus.

1.8 Invite a representative from Agensi A student is able to: drug abuse –
Evaluating the Dadah Kebangsaan (ADK), Polis penyalahgunaan dadah
effects of drug Di Raja Malaysia (PDRM), • define what drugs are,
abuse on body Persatuan Mencegah Dadah • list examples of drugs,
coordination Malaysia (PEMADAM) or other • explain what drug abuse is,
and health appropriate institutions to give a • describe the effects of drug
talk or an exhibition on drugs, drug abuse on body coordination,
abuse and the effects of drug • describe the effects of drug
abuse on body coordination and abuse on health.
health.

22
Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

Students make presentations on


drug abuse through public
speaking, exhibiting folio or
multimedia PowerPoint
presentation.

1.9 Gather information from books, A student is able to: alcoholic drinks – minuman
Analysing the newspapers, magazines or beralkohol
effects of Internet and discuss the • list examples of alcoholic
excessive following: drinks, excessive consumption –
consumption a) examples of alcoholic drinks, • describe the effects of pengambilan berlebihan
of alcohol on b) effects of excessive excessive consumption of
body consumption of alcohol on body alcohol on body coordination, reaction time – masa
coordination coordination (effect on reaction • describe the effects of tindak balas
and health times) and health. excessive consumption of
c) the importance of avoiding alcohol on health,
excessive consumption of • justify the importance of
alcohol. avoiding excessive
consumption of alcohol.
Present and exhibit the collected
information.

1.10 Gather information from books, A student is able to: hormonal imbalance –
Realising the magazines, newspapers and ketidakseimbangan
importance of Internet and discuss the following: • state what mind is, hormon
a sound and a) the meaning of mind, • identify factors that affect the
healthy mind b) factors that affect the mind, mind, mind – minda
which include, hormone • explain how substance abuse
imbalance, excessive can affect the mind, mental stress – tekanan
consumption of alcohol, drug mental
abuse, mental stress and brain
injury,

23
Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

c) how hormone imbalance, • justify the importance of a healthy and sound mind –
excessive consumption of sound and healthy mind. minda yang sihat
alcohol and drug abuse dan baik
can affect the mind,
d) the importance of a healthy
and sound mind.

24
THEME: MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE

LEARNING AREA: 2. HEREDITY AND VARIATION

Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

2.1 View videos, computer A student is able to: Names of the cell division –
Understanding simulations or charts to study phases in mitosis pembahagian sel
cell division the following: • state what genes, and meiosis are not
a) gene, DNA and deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) required. centromeres – sentromer
chromosome, and chromosomes are,
b) mitosis and meiosis. • describe the relationship Only a brief chromosome – kromosom
between gene, DNA and discussion is
Simulate the process of mitosis chromosome, required for the deoxyribonucleic acid –
and meiosis. • state what mitosis is, following: asid deoksiribonukleik
• describe the process of mitosis, a) separation and
Carry out an activity to compare • state what meiosis is, polarisation of gene – gen
and contrast mitosis with • describe the process of meiosis, chromosomes,
meiosis and present the • compare and contrast mitosis b) functions of polarisation – pengutuban
similarities and differences in a with meiosis, spindle fibres
graphic organiser. and spindle fibres – gentian
• explain the importance of
centromeres, spindel/gelendung
mitosis and meiosis.
Discuss the importance of c) formation of new
mitosis and meiosis. cells.

2.2 Observe and identify dominant A student is able to: dominant – dominan
Understanding and recessive traits among
the principles students and their family • explain what dominant genes genotype – genotip
and mechanism members. and recessive genes are,
of inheritance inheritance – pewarisan

25
Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

Discuss the following: • identify dominant traits Mendel’s law – hukum


a) dominant genes and andrecessive traits in human, Mendel
dominant traits, • llustrate the mechanism of
b) recessive genes and inheritance of traits using a monohybrid cross –
recessive traits. schematic diagram, kacukan monohibrid
• predict the genotype and
View videos or computer phenotype ratios of a phenotype – fenotip
simulations on genetic monohybrid cross.
experiments carried out by recessive traits – sifat
Gregor Mendel to study the resesif
mechanism of trait inheritance.

Use schematic diagrams to


illustrate monohybrid crosses
and predict the following using
Mendel’s law:
a) genotype ratio of the ‘first filial’
or F1 generation and the
‘second filial’ or F2 generation,
b) b) phenotype ratio of the ‘first
filial’ or F1 generation and the
‘second filial’ or F2 generation.

26
Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

2.3 View computer simulations, A student is able to: identical twins – kembar
Understanding videos or charts and discuss seiras
sex the following: • explain what sex
determination a) sex chromosomes, chromosomes are, non-identical twins –
and the b) determination of sex, • explain how sex is determined, kembar tak seiras
occurrence of c) the occurrence of identical • explain the formation of
twins in human and identical and non-identical sex chromosomes –
beings non-identical twins, twins, kromosom seks
d) the occurrence of siamese • compare and contrast
twins. identical with non-identical sex determination –
twins, penentuan seks
Use schematic diagrams to • explain what siamese twins
illustrate the following : are. siamese twins – kembar
a) how sex is determined, siam
b) how identical and non-
identical
twins are formed.

Carry out an activity to compare


and contrast identical twins with
non-identical twins and illustrate
the similarities and differences in
a graphic organiser.

Read and interpret data from


books, articles, magazines or
Internet on siamese twins.

27
Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

View videos, computer A student is able to: Change in genes albinism – albinisme
2.4
simulations or charts and and chromosomes
Understanding
discuss the following: • state what mutation is, at the molecular colour blindness – buta
mutation
a) mutation and types of • state the types of mutation, level is not warna
mutation such as • list examples of mutation, required.
chromosome • identify causes of mutation, Down’s syndrome –
mutations and gene • state the advantages and sindrom Down
mutations, disadvantages of mutation.
b) consequences of Klinefelter’s syndrome –
chromosome mutations in sindrom Klinefelter
humans such as Down’s
syndrome, Klinefelter’s Mutation – mutasi
syndrome, and Turner’s
syndrome, Turner’s syndrome –
c) consequences of gene sindrom Turner
mutations in humans such as
colour blindnes, albinism and
thalassaemia.

Carry out an activity to test


colour blindness among pupils

Discuss the advantages and


disadvantages of mutation.

28
Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

2.5 Search the Internet, read books, A student is able to: livestock – ternakan
Evaluating the magazines and newspapers for
effects of informations on genetic research • list the contributions selective breeding –
genetic research and discuss the following: of genetic research in various pembiakbakaan pilihan
on a) genetic research in the field of fields,
human life medicine, such as the • explain selective breeding in
discovery of various types of plants and livestock,
hereditary diseases and the
latest techniques for treating
specific diseases, and
Human Genome Project.
b) genetic research in the field of • state the importance of
agriculture such as genetically selective breeding in plants
- modified food (GMF), and livestock,
cloning, selective breeding in
plants such as paddy, oil
palm, papaya, durian, chilli,
and livestock such as dairy
cow and chicken.

Discuss the following: • describe the technology used


a) selective breeding in plants for selective breeding,
and livestock,
• present arguments for and
b) the importance of selective
against genetic research.
breeding in plants and
livestock,

29
Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

View videos or computer


simulations on the technology
used for selective breeding.

Debate on genetic research


and its effects.

Compile materials on genetic


research in a scrap book.
2.6 continuous variation –
Analysing Carry out activities to identify A student is able to: variasi selanjar
variation among and classify variation among
living things students in a class. • state what variation is, discontinuous variation –
Discuss the following: • list variation in humans, variasi tak selanjar
a) continuous variation and
discontinuous variation,
b) examples of continuous
variation and discontinuous
variation,
c) factors which cause variation,
d) the importance of variation.

Carry out an activity to compare • classify variation into family tree – salasilah
and contrast continous variation continuous and discontinuous
with discontinous variation and variation, left-handed – kidal
illustrate the similarities and • compare and contrast
differences in a graphic continuous and discontinuous variation – variasi
organiser. variation,
• identify factors that cause
variation,
• explain the importance of
variation.

30
Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

Construct a family tree based


on variation among family
members such as having
straight or curly hair, being right-
handed or left- handed, the
presence or absence of ear
lobes, and the ability to roll the
tongue.

2.7 Read books, articles, magazines A student is able to:


Realising the or search the Internet and • explain how the misuse of
need to adhere discuss how misuse of knowledge in the field of
to a code of knowledge in the field of genetics can endanger life,
ethics in genetic genetics can endanger life.
research • describe the importance of
Discuss the importance of establishing and adhering to
establishing and adhering to ethics and morals in scientific
ethics and morals in scientific research for the benefit of
research for the benefit of mankind.
mankind.

31
THEME: MATTER IN NATURE

LEARNING AREA: 1. MATTER AND SUBSTANCE

Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

1.1 Carry out an activity to observe A student is able to: The kinetic theory absorbed – diserap
Analysing changes in the states of matter of matter should be
changes in the when heat is absorbed or released. • explain the kinetic theory of explained in terms boiling – pendidihan
states of matter matter, of particle
View videos or computer a) relate changes in heat to movement. condensation –
simulations and discuss the changes in kinetic energy of kondensasi
following: the particles in matter,
a) the kinetic theory of matter, b) explain the interconversion freezing – pembekuan
b) changes in kinetic energy of of the three states of matter
particles in matter during heat based on the kinetic theory interconversion –
change, of matter. perubahan dari satu
c) changes in the states of matter keadaan ke keadaan lain
involving the absorption or dan sebaliknya
release of heat,
d) changes in matter during melting, kinetic energy – tenaga
boiling, condensation, freezing kinetik
and sublimation based on the
kinetic theory of matter. kinetic theory of matter –
. teori kinetik jirim

melting – peleburan

particle movement –
pergerakan zarah

particles in matter – zarah-


zarah dalam jirim

32
Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

1.2 Examine models , view computer A student is able to: released – dibebaskan
Understanding simulations and discuss the
the structure of following: • describe the structure of an states of matter – keadaan
an atom a) the structure of an atom, atom, jirim
b) the subatomic particles namely • identify the subatomic
proton, electron, and neutron. particles, sublimation –
• compare and contrast the pemejalwapan
Draw a labelled diagram of a model subatomic particles.
of an atom. charge – cas

Carry out an activity to compare and relative mass – jisim relatif


contrast the subatomic particles in
terms of location, relative mass and subatomic particles – zarah-
charge. Illustrate the similarities and zarah subatom
differences of subatomic particles in
a graphic organiser.

1.3 Collect and interpret data on the A student is able to: Only elements with isotopes – isotop-isotop
Applying the following: proton numbers in
idea of proton proton number, • state what proton number the range of 1 – 10 make generalisation –
number and is, are required. membuat pengitlakan
nucleon number,
nucleon number • state what nucleon number
in atoms of isotopes. nucleon number – nombor
is,
elements • relate the number of nukleon
Construct a table to show the
relationship between the number of protons, neutrons and
electrons in an atom to its proton number – nombor
protons, neutrons and electrons in proton
an atom and its proton number and proton number and nucleon
nucleon number. number,
• deduce the number of
protons, electrons and
neutrons in atoms of
different elements,

33
Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

Discuss and make a • make a generalisation on the


generalisation that atoms of numbers of protons and
different elements consist of electrons in atoms of different
different numbers of protons and elements,
electrons. • state what isotopes are,
• give examples of isotopes.
Discuss the following:
a) isotopes,
b) examples of isotopes such as
isotopes of hydrogen and
carbon.

1.4 View computer simulations or A student is able to: card game – permainan
Understanding charts and discuss the following kad
the aspects of the Periodic Table: • describe the arrangement of
classification of a) arrangement of elements elements in the Periodic Table, chemical properties – sifat
elements in the based on increasing proton • describe what is meant by kimia
Periodic Table number, groups and periods in the
b) group as vertical column Periodic Table, group – kumpulan
containing elements with • identify the locations of metals,
similar chemical properties, non-metals and semimetals in horizontal rows – baris
c) period as horizontal row the Periodic Table, mendatar
containing elements that • state the importance of the
change their chemical and Periodic Table. metals – logam
physical properties gradually
from those reflecting metal to non-metals – bukan logam
those reflecting non-metal,
d) locations of metals, non-metals period – kala
and semimetals.
Periodic Table – Jadual
Berkala

34
Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

Carry out a card game to fill up the semimetals – separuh


missing elements in the Periodic logam
Table. The cards contain the
following details: vertical columns – turus
a) proton number, menegak
b) nucleon number,
c) metal, non-metal and
semimetal.

Discuss the importance of the


Periodic Table in terms of:
a) assisting in an orderly and
systematic approach to the
study of elements,
b) knowing the properties of the
elements,
c) predicting the properties and
uses of elements.

1.5 View computer simulations or A student is able to: boiling point -


Understanding charts to study the following: takat didih
the properties a) atoms, molecules and ions, • describe what atoms, molecules
of substances b) substances which are made of and ions are, electrical conductivity –
based on the atoms, molecules and ions, • identify the particles in kekonduksian elektrik
particles c) physical properties of substances as atoms, molecules
present in substances made of atoms, and ions, forces of attraction – daya
them molecules and ions such as: • state examples of substances tarikan
i) physical state at room made of atoms,
temperature, molecules and ions, melting point – takat lebur
ii) melting point,
iii) boiling point, room temperature – suhu
iv) electrical conductivity. bilik

35
Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

d) arrangement of particles and • compare and contrast


the forces of attraction substances that are made of
between particles in atoms, molecules and ions
substances made of atoms, based on their physical
molecules and ions. properties,
• relate the physical properties of
Carry out an activity to study the substances made up of atoms,
melting point and electrical molecules and ions to the
conductivity of substances made arrangement of particles and the
up of: forces of attraction between
a) atoms such as lead, them.
b) molecules such as sulphur,
c) ions such as lead bromide.

Carry out an activity to compare


and contrast substances that are
made of atoms, molecules and
ions based on their physical
properties. Illustrate the
similarities and differences in a
graphic organiser.

Discuss the arrangement of


particles and the forces of
attraction between particles in
relation to the physical properties
of substances made up of atoms,
molecules and ions.

36
Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

1.6 Carry out an activity to identify A student is able to: chlorine – klorin
Understanding objects in the classroom which are
the properties made of metals and non-metals. • list examples of metals and copper – kuprum
and uses of non-metals,

metals and Collect and interpret data on the • list the properties of metals and ductility – kemuluran
non-metals properties and uses of metals non-metals,
such as iron, aluminium, zinc, • list the uses of metals and electrical and heat
copper, lead, tin, gold and non-metals in daily life, conductivity –
non-metals such as carbon, • compare and contrast metals kekonduksian elektrik dan
sulphur and chlorine. and non-metals based on their haba
physical properties,
Carry out an activity to compare • relate the physical properties of gold – emas
and contrast the properties of metals and non-metals to their
things made of metal and non- uses in daily life. iron – besi
metal and illustrate the similarities
and differences in a graphic lead – plumbum
organiser.
luminosity – kekilauan
Carry out an activity to study the
physical properties of metals and malleability –
non-metals such as: ketertempaan
a) luminosity,
b) ductility, sulphur – sulfur
c) malleability,
d) tensile strength, tensile strength – kekuatan
e) electrical and heat conductivity. regangan

Discuss the physical properties of tin – timah


metals and non-metals relating to
their uses in daily life.

37
Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

1.7 Collect and interpret data on the A student is able to cystallisation –


Analysing following: penghabluran
methods of a) characteristics of pure • state the characteristics of pure
purifying substances, substances, distillation – penyulingan
substances b) different methods of
purification of substances. distilled water – air suling

Carry out activities to study the • describe the different methods of impurities – bendasing
following: purification of substances,
how the presence of impurities • relate the characteristics of petroleum fractions –
such as salts affects the substances to the methods of pecahan petroleum
boiling point of water, purification used,
purification of substances by • explain with examples the pure substances – bahan
the following methods: methods of purification used to tulen
i. distillation, e.g. purifying produce substances used in
alcohol from a mixture of daily life. purification of substances
alcohol and water, –penulenan bahan
ii. crystallisation,e.g. purifying
salt from a saturated solution saturated solutions –
of common salt. larutan tepu

Gather information and discuss solutes – zat-zat terlarut


the following:
a) factors to be considered when miscible – larut campur
selecting the methods of
purification. Examples are as
follow:
i. separating a liquid from a
solution of a solid in a liquid,
such as producing pure
water from sea water,

38
Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

ii. separating a liquid from a


mixture of miscible liquids
such as removing ethanol
from a mixture of ethanol
and water,
iii. separating insoluble
impurities from a soluble
substance such as
removing sand and other
impurities from salt.

b) methods of purification used in


producing substances needed
daily such as salt, sugar,
petroleum fractions and distilled
water.

1.8 Discuss the following: A student is able to:


Appreciating a) how various substances of
the existence different characteristics can • describe how man uses various
and uses of be substances of different
various utilised to benefit mankind, characteristics and states in
substances of everyday life,
b) the importance of the
different • justify the importance of the
characteristics existance of various
existence of various substances
substances of different of different characteristics and
characteristics. states that benefit mankind.
.

39
THEME: ENERGY IN LIFE

LEARNING AREA: 1. ENERGY AND CHEMICAL CHANGES

Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary


Objectives

1.1 Discuss the following in terms of A student is able to: chemical changes –
Understanding physical and chemical changes: perubahan kimia
physical and a) burning of paper, • explain what physical
chemical b) melting of ice, change is, copper carbonate salt –
changes c) change in colour of sliced apples, • explain what chemical garam kuprum karbonat
d) evaporation of water. change is,
• give examples of physical copper sulphate solution -
Carry out the following activities to changes in daily life, larutan kuprum sulfat
study physical and chemical changes: • give examples of chemical
a) heating iron with sulphur, changes in daily life, evaporation of water –
b) burning magnesium in air, • compare and contrast penyejatan air
c) mixing zinc with copper sulphate physical changes and
solution, chemical changes. lead nitrate – plumbum
d) soaking clean iron nails in water nitrat
until they rust,
e) heating copper carbonate, physical changes –
f) mixing potassium iodide with lead perubahan fizik
nitrate,
g) dissolving sugar in water, potassium iodide – kalium
h) crystallising sodium chloride from iodida
its saturated solution,
i) heating iodine crystals in a closed reaction – tindak balas
container,
j) slow heating of wax. rust – karat

40
Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

Carry out an activity to compare and saturated solution – larutan


contrast physical change and tepu
chemical change and illustrate the
similarities and differences in a sodium chloride – natrium
graphic organiser. klorida

wax – lilin

1.2 Carry out the following activities to A student is able to: ammonium chloride –
Analysing heat study heat changes in chemical ammonium klorida
change in reactions: • state that chemical reactions
chemical a) dissolving ammonium chloride in involve heat change, chemical reaction –
reactions water, • identify reactions involving tindak balas kimia
b) dissolving sodium hydroxide in heat loss,
water. • identify reactions involving endothermic – serap haba
heat gain,
Discuss the following: • relate changes in temperature exothermic – buang haba
a) the relationship between heat loss of reactants to exothermic
or heat gain and changes in reactions, heat change – perubahan
temperature, • relate changes in temperature haba
b) exothermic and endothermic of reactants to endothermic
reactions based on changes in reactions, reactant – bahan tindak
heat. • explain through examples heat balas
changes that occur during
View computer simulations then industrial chemical reactions. sodium hydroxide –
gather and interpret data on heat natrium hidroksida
changes that occur during industrial
chemical reactions, such as: sulphuric acid – asid
a) the production of ammonia from sulfurik
ammonium products
b) the production of sulphuric acid.

41
Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

1.3 Carry out activities to study the A student is able to: Sodium should dilute acids – asid cair
Synthesising following reactions: be used in very
the reactivity a) sodium, calcium, magnesium, • describe the reactivity of small quantity reactivity series – siri
series of aluminium, zinc and copper with metals with water, only. kereaktifan.
metals water. • describe the reactivity of
b) magnesium, aluminium, zinc and metals with acids,
copper with dilute acids. • describe the reactivity of
c) magnesium, aluminium, zinc, metals with oxygen,
copper with oxygen. • compare and contrast the
reactivity of metals with water,
Carry out activities to compare and acids and oxygen,
contrast the reactivity of metals with • arrange metals in order of
water, acids and oxygen. Illustrate the reactivity,
similarities and differences in a • construct the reactivity series
graphic organiser. of metals based on reactivity
of metals with oxygen,
Discuss and arrange metals in order • identify the position of carbon
of reactivity. in the reactivity series.
Collect and interpret data on the
reactivity of metals with oxygen to
construct the reactivity series of
metals.

Carry out an experiment to determine


the position of carbon in the reactivity
series.

42
Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

1.4 View computer simulations or videos A student is able to: electrolysis – elektrolisis
Applying the on methods of extracting metals from
concepts of their ores and then carry out the • relate the position of metals in extraction –
reactivity following activities: the reactivity series to the pengekstrakan
series of method of extraction of metals
metals a) relate the position of metals in from their ores, ore – bijih
the reactivity series to the • explain with examples the
method of extracting metals process of extraction of a tin – timah
from their ores, such as using metal from its ore using
carbon and by electrolysis, carbon,
b) discuss the process of extracting • state the importance of the
tin from its ore. reactivity series.

Discuss the importance of the


reactivity series.
.

1.5 Carry out activities on electrolysis and A student is able to: Chemical anode – anod
Understanding discuss the following: equations for
electrolysis a) definition of electrolysis, • state what electrolysis is, reactions cathode – katod
b) what anode, cathode, anion, cation • state what anode, cathode, occurring at
and electrolyte are, anion, cation and electrolyte electrodes are electrode – elektrod
c) the process and product of are, not required.
electrolysis of an electrolyte using • describe the electrolysis of an electrolyte – elektrolit
carbon electrodes, electrolyte using carbon
d) use of electrolysis in electroplating electrodes, electroplating –
metal objects. • explain the uses of electrolysis penyaduran elektrik
in industry.
lead bromide – plumbum
bromida

molten – lebur

43
Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

View computer simulations and study


the following processes:
a) electrolysis of molten lead bromide
using carbon electrodes,
b) electroplating objects made of iron
with copper.

View videos or computer simulations


and discuss the uses of electrolysis in
industry, including the extraction of
metals, purification of metals and
electroplating.

1.6 Carry out an activity to study the A student is able to: Equations to alkaline batteries – bateri
Understanding production of electrical energy by a show the alkali
the production simple cell. • describe how a simple cell reactions at the
of electrical works, positive and lead-acid accumulators –
energy from Examine various types of cells such • list the various types of cells negative akumulator asid-plumbum
chemical as dry cells, lead-acid accumulators, and their uses, terminals of a
reactions alkaline batteries, silver oxide-mercury • state the advantages and simple cell are nickel cadmium batteries –
batteries and nickel-cadmium disadvantages of various types not required bateri nikel-kadmium
batteries and discuss: of cells.
a) their uses, silver oxide-mercury
b) the advantages and disadvantages batteries – bateri argentum
in using each of these types of oksida-merkuri
cells.
simple cell – sel ringkas

44
Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

1.7 Discuss the following: A student is able to: Only a brief photographic paper –
Understanding a) chemical reactions which require description of kertas fotografi
chemical light for example photosynthesis in • give examples of chemical splitting of water
reactions that green plants, reactions which require light, molecules by photosensitive chemicals –
occur in the b) the effect of light on photosensitive • explain the effect of light on light energy in bahan kimia yang peka
presence of chemicals. photosensitive chemicals, photosynthesis cahaya
light • explain why certain chemicals is required.
Carry out an activity to study the effect are stored in dark bottles. Chemical photosynthesis –
of light on photographic paper and equations are fotosintesis
silver chloride. not required.
silver chloride – argentum
Discuss how photosensitive chemicals klorida
are stored by relating to the effect of
light on these chemicals.

1.8 Prepare folio and scrap book on the A student is able to:
Appreciating following topics:
the innovative a) how energy obtained from • describe how energy obtained
efforts in the chemical reactions should be from chemical reactions
design of used efficiently to prevent should be used efficiently to
equipment wastage, prevent wastage,
using chemical b) how equipment utilising chemical • describe how equipment
reactions as reactions as sources of energy utilising chemical reactions as
sources of should be disposed to reduce sources of energy should be
energy environmental pollution, disposed to reduce
environmental pollution,
Carry out a brainstorming session on • give suggestions on new ways
new ways of using chemical reactions of using chemical reactions as
as sources of energy for equipment. sources of energy for
equipment,

45
Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

Carry out activities to illustrate good • put into practise good habits
habits of using and disposing when using and disposing
equipment that uses chemical reaction equipment that uses chemical
as a source of energy. reaction as a source of energy.

46
THEME : ENERGY IN LIFE

LEARNING AREA: 2. NUCLEAR ENERGY

Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

2.1 View computer simulations, videos or A student is able to: Half-life is not penetration power – kuasa
Understanding charts and study: required. penembusan
radioactive a) radioactive substances, • state what radioactive
substances b) radioactive radiations, substances are, radiation – sinaran
c) radioisotopes. • give examples of radioactive
substances, radioactive decay –
Discuss the following: • describe the process of pereputan radioaktif
a) radioactive substances, radioactive decay,
b) radioisotopes of carbon, cobalt and • name the three types of radioisotope – radioisotop
iodine, radioactive radiations,
c) the process of radioactive decay • describe the characteristics of
and the emission of alpha particles, each type of radioactive
beta particles and gamma radiation,
radiation. • compare and contrast
radioactive radiations,
Carry out an activity to compare and • explain what radioisotopes are,
contrast the characteristics of the
• give examples of
three types of radioactive radiations
radioisotopes,
i.e. alpha, beta and gamma radiation
• explain the uses of radioactive
in terms of:
substances.
a. type of particles,
b. charge,
c. penetrating powers.
Illustrate the similarities and
differences in a graphic organiser.

47
Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

View computer simulations, videos or


charts and discuss the uses of
radioactive substances in the following
fields:
a) agriculture,
b) medicine,
c) archaeology,
d) industry,
e) food preservation.

Access websites or visit


Malaysian Institute of Nuclear
Technology (MINT) to collect
information on radioactive substances
and nuclear energy.

2.2 View computer simulations, videos A student is able to: The concept of fission – pembelahan
Understanding and charts and discuss the production chain reaction is
the production of nuclear energy through the • describe the production of not required. fusion – pelakuran
of nuclear following: nuclear energy through fission,
energy and its a) fission, • describe the production of nuclear energy – tenaga
uses b) fusion. nuclear energy through fusion, nuklear
• state the uses of nuclear
Discuss the process of generating
energy,
electricity from nuclear energy.
• describe the process of
generating electricity from
nuclear energy,

• explain the effects of nuclear


Read articles and do a group
energy production.
presentation on the following:
a) the uses of nuclear energy,
b) the effects of nuclear energy
production.

48
Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

2.3 Read articles, view videos or charts A student is able to: radioactive wastes – sisa
Awareness of and discuss the following: bahan radioaktif
the need for a. Chernobyl nuclear disaster and • state the effects of radioactive
proper other nuclear disasters, radiations on living things, nuclear power station –
handling of b. handling of radioactive • describe the correct way of stesen tenaga nuklear
radioactive substances and radioactive handling radioactive
substances waste. substances and radioactive
waste,
Discuss the following: • explain the need for proper
(i) the short term and long term handling of radioactive
effects of radioactive substances substances and radioactive
on living things, waste.
(ii) the need for proper handling of
radioactive substances and
radioactive waste.

Debate on the need to have nuclear


power stations.

49
THEME : ENERGY IN LIFE

LEARNING AREA: 3. LIGHT, COLOUR AND SIGHT

Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives
.
3.1 Carry out activities to observe the A student is able to: concave lens – kanta
Synthesising following: cekung
the formation a) Images formed by a plane • state the characteristics of
of image by mirror, images formed by a plane convex lens – kanta
plane mirrors b) Images formed by convex and mirror, cembung
and lenses concave lenses. • state the characteristics of
images formed by a convex lens, distant object – objek jauh
Carry out an activity to compare • state the characteristics of
and contrast images of distant images formed by a concave focal length – panjang
objects formed by convex lenses lens, fokus
and concave lenses. Illustrate the • compare and contrast images of
similarities and differences in a distant objects formed by convex focal point – titik fokus
graphic organiser. lenses and concave lenses, image – imej
• draw a labelled ray diagram to
Use computer simulations,videos show the formation of image by image distance – jarak
or charts to demonstrate the light rays passing through a imej
construction of ray diagrams. convex lens,
• draw a labelled ray diagram to object distance – jarak
Draw ray diagrams for light show the formation of image by objek
passing through: light rays passing through a
a) convex lens with objects concave lens, optical centre – pusat
located at various distances, • draw ray diagrams to explain optik
b) concave lens. how characteristics of images
formed by convex lenses vary plane mirror – cermin
Label the following on the ray with object distance, satah
diagrams:
a) principal axis, principle axis –
b) optical centre, paksi utama

ray diagram – rajah sinar

50
Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

c) focal point, • determine the focal length


d) focal length, of a convex lens.
e) object distance,
f) image distance.

Discuss how characteristics of


images formed by convex lenses
vary with object distance,

Plan and carry out an activity to


determine the focal length of a
convex lens.

3.2 Investigate the image formed in a A student is able to: image formation –
Synthesising camera using a pin-hole camera pembentukan imej
the formation with and without lens. • identify the parts of optical
of image by instruments involved in image magnifying glass – kanta
optical Construct a simple periscope and formation, pembesar
instruments telescope. Discuss the formation • draw ray diagrams for light rays
of image by these optical passing through an optical optical instruments –
instruments. instrument, alatan optik
• compare and contrast the
Use computer simulations to mechanisms in focusing and pin-hole camera – kamera
demonstrate construction of ray controlling the amount of light lubang jarum
diagrams for the light rays passing that enters human eyes and a
through the eye and optical camera,
instruments. • explain the structure and
function of various parts of the
Based on the simulations, draw eye using a camera as an
and label ray diagrams to show analogy.
the formation of images in the
following optical instruments:
a) camera,
b) periscope,

51
Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

c) telescope.
d) eye

Discuss the similarities and


differences between camera and
eye in terms of focusing and
controlling the amount of light.

Examine a model camera and


relate its structure and functions to
those of the eyes.

3.3 Carry out activities to investigate A student is able to: light dispersion –
Analysing light the following : penyebaran cahaya
dispersion a) light dispersion using a prism, • state what light dispersion
b) rainbow formation. is, phenomenon – fenomena
• explain through examples
Discuss what light dispersion is. how dispersion of light rainbow – pelangi
occurs.
Use computer simulations to
demonstrate light dispersion.

Draw a labelled diagram to show


dispersion of light.

Discuss light dispersion in a


phenomenon, such as the
formation of rainbow.

52
Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

3.4 Carry out an activity to study light A student is able to: light scattering –
Analysing light scattering and its effects. penyerakan cahaya
scattering • state what light scattering is,
Use computer simulations to • give examples of phenomena
demonstrate the process of light related to light scattering,
scattering. • explain through examples how
scattering of light occurs in
Discuss light scattering in natural phenomena.
phenomena such as blue skies
and red sunset.

3.5 Carry out an activity to introduce A student is able to: coloured filter – penapis
Analysing the primary and secondary colours. warna
addition and • identify primary and secondary
subtraction of Carry out activities to: colours, primary colour – warna
coloured lights a) investigate the addition of • explain how addition of primary primer
primary colours to form colours produces secondary
secondary colours, colours, secondary colour – warna
b) investigate the effects of • explain the subtraction of colours sekunder
primary and secondary by coloured filters.
coloured filters on white subtraction of coloured
and coloured light. light – penolakan cahaya
berwarna
Use computer simulations to
demonstrate the addition and
subtraction of coloured lights.

Discuss the following:


a) how secondary colours are
obtained from the addition of
primary colours,
b) subtraction of coloured lights by
coloured filters.

53
Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

3.6 Carry out activities to observe and A student is able to: cone cell – sel kon
Applying the study the colour of objects under • explain subtraction of coloured
principle of white and coloured lights. lights by coloured objects, rod cell – sel rod
subtraction of • explain the appearance of
coloured light View computer simulations and coloured objects under white
to explain the discuss the subtraction of coloured light.
appearance of lights by coloured objects. • explain the appearance of
coloured coloured objects under coloured
objects Discuss the following: lights,
a) functions of rod and cone cells, • state the function of rod and
b) the appearance of coloured cone cells in the eye.
objects under white and
coloured light.

3.7 Carry out activities to observe and A student is able to : mixing of pigments –
Analysing the study pigment and the effect of pencampuran pigmen
effect of mixing mixing pigments. • state what pigment is,
pigments • list the uses of pigments, pigment – pigmen
View computer simulations and • compare and contrast the mixing
discuss the mixing of pigments of pigments with the addition of
and the effects of pigments on coloured lights,
light. • explain through examples the
Carry out an activity to compare effects of pigments on light,
and contrast the mixing of • make conclusions about the
pigments with the addition of mixing of pigments.
coloured lights. Illustrate the
similarities and differences in a
graphic organiser.

Based on the above activities


make conclusions about the
mixing of pigments and discuss
the uses of pigments.

54
Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

3.8 View computer simulations or A student is able to:


Evaluating the videos to gather information and
importance of discuss the following: • list the uses of colour in daily
colour in daily a) the uses of colour in printing, life,
life electrical wiring, traffic lights, • state with examples the
symbols and signals, importance of colour to living
b) the importance of colour to things,
humans, animals and plants. • justify the importance of colour
to living things.
Discuss what life is like without
colour.

3.9 Discuss the advantages of having A student is able to: optical instruments –
Appreciating various kinds of optical peralatan optik
the benefits of instruments such as: • relate the inventions of various
various types a) to overcome the limitation of the types of optical instruments to
of optical sense of sight, their contributions to mankind.
instruments to b) extending the capability or
mankind power of vision,
c) increasing human knowledge
and understanding about
nature.

55
THEME : TECHNOLOGICAL AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IN SOCIETY

LEARNING AREA : 1. CHEMICALS IN INDUSTRY

Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

1.1 Examine things made of alloys A student is able to: alloy – aloi
Understanding and discuss their composition,
the properties properties and uses. • state what an alloy is, brass – loyang
of alloys and • give examples of alloys,
their uses in Collect and interpret data on the • explain how the formation of bronze – gangsa
industry following: alloy can change the
a) what an alloy is, properties of metals, corrosion – pengkakisan
b) examples of alloys, • relate the changes in the
c) composition, properties and the properties of metals when steel – keluli
uses of various alloys including they are converted to alloys
steel, pewter, bronze, brass and to the arrangment of superconductor alloy – aloi
duralumin. particles in the alloys, superkonduktor
• relate the properties of
View videos or computer alloys to their uses in daily
simulations and discuss: life,
a) how formation of alloys can • describe the importance of
change the properties of alloys in industry,
metals, such as to increase • state what superconductor
hardness, prevent corrosion alloys are.
and improve appearance,
b) what superconductor alloys are.

Discuss the importance of alloys in


industry.

56
Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

1.2 Collect and study product labels to A student is able to ammonium salt – garam
Analysing the identify the ammonium ammonium
production and compounds present. • list the uses of ammonia and its
uses of compounds in daily life, catalyst – mangkin
ammonia in Discuss the uses of ammonia and • describe how ammonia is
industry its compounds in the making of produced in industry, cleaning agents – agen
substances such as fertilisers, • state the factors which affect the pencuci
nitric acid, colouring, cleaning production of ammonia in
agents and explosives. industry, colouring – pewarna
• state the industrial uses of
View videos or computer ammonia, explosives – bahan
simulations to gather and interpret • describe how ammonia is used letupan
data on the following: to produce ammonium salt
a) the process of producing fertilisers and urea. fertilisers – baja
ammonia in industry,
b) factors which affect the flow chart – carta aliran
optimum production of
ammonia such as temperature, pressure – tekanan
pressure and catalysts.

Draw a flow chart to show the


production of ammonia.

Collect and interpret data on the


large scale uses of ammonia in
industry such as manufacturing
fertilisers and nitric acid.

Carry out an activity to prepare


ammonium fertiliser such as
ammonium sulphate, ammonium
nitrate and ammonium phosphate.

57
Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

1.3 View videos or computer A student is able to environmental pollution –


Analysing the simulations to gather and interpret pencemaran alam sekitar
effects of data on environmental pollution • identify manufacturing activities
industrial arising from: which are sources of pollution, fossil fuels – bahan api
waste disposal a) burning of fossil fuels, • explain the effects of improper fosil
on the b) disposal of industrial waste industrial waste disposal,
environment such as toxic substances from • relate the effects of industrial industrial waste – bahan
the chemical industry, waste disposal to the survival of sisa industry
radioactive waste, oil palm and living things,
rubber waste from the • state with examples the
agricultural industry, methods of controlling industrial
c) effects of improper industrial waste disposal to avoid pollution.
waste disposal on the
environment,
d) methods of controlling industrial
waste disposal to avoid
environmental pollution.

Discuss and relate the effects of


improper disposal of industrial
waste to the survival of living
things.

Select an industry and do a


presentation on how wastes are
managed in the industry.

58
Learning
Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives

1.4 View videos or computer A student is able to: environmental pollution –


Realising the simulations on industrial waste pencemaran alam sekitar
need for pollution and its effects on • describe the consequences of
preservation environment. uncontrolled and haphazard conservation –
and disposal of industrial waste, pemuliharaan
conservation of Discuss: • explain the importance of
the a) consequences of practising responsible way of preservation –
environment uncontrolled and haphazard disposing industrial waste. pemeliharaan
from industrial disposal of industrial waste,
waste pollution b) the need to treat industrial
for the well- pollution seriously in order to
being of preserve and conserve the
mankind environment,
c) the importance of practising
responsible way of disposing
industrial waste.

59
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Advisors Mahzan Bakar SMP,.AMP Director


Curriculum Development Centre

Zulkifly Mohd. Wazir Deputy Director


Curriculum Development Centre

Editorial Cheah Eng Joo Principal Assistant Director (Head of Science and
Advisors Mathematics Department)
Curriculum Development Centre
Ho Heng Ling Assistant Director (Head of Core Science Unit)
Curriculum Development Centre

Zaidi Yazid Assistant Director (Head of Elective Science Unit)


Curriculum Development Centre
Yeap Chin Heng (Ph.D) Assistant Director (Head of Core Science Unit)
Curriculum Development Centre (until July,2005)

Editor Zaidah Mohd Yusoff Assistant Director


Curriculum Development Centre

60
PANEL OF WRITERS
Cheah Eng Joo Curriculum Development Centre Salbiah Mohd Som Curriculum Development Centre

Yeap Chin Heng (Ph.D) Curriculum Development Centre Salina Hanum Osman Mohamed Curriculum Development Centre

Zaidi Yazid Curriculum Development Centre Yusof Ismail Curriculum Development Centre

Zaidah Mohd Yusoff Curriculum Development Centre Zainon Abdul Majid Curriculum Development Centre

Ahmad Salihin Mat Saat Curriculum Development Centre Zainusham Yusuf Curriculum Development Centre

Aizatul Adzwa Mohd. Basri Curriculum Development Centre Zulkifli Baharudin Curriculum Development Centre

Lanita Md. Yusoff Curriculum Development Centre

Ahmad Salmi Abdullah SMK Mahsuri, Kedah Lilian Tan Lee Lin SMK Damansara Jaya, Selangor

Chin Chok Chen SMK Mergong, Kedah Mukhtar Arshad SMK Syed Alwi Kayang, Perlis

Chong Wai Loong SMK Gajah Berang, Melaka Osman b. Shaari @ Said SMK Sungai Layar, Kedah

Fadhilah Muhamad SMK King Geroge V, N. Sembilan Roslah Awang SMK Landas, Terengganu

Faridah Abu Bakar SMK Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah, Roziah Zakaria SMK Taman Inderawasih,
Selangor Pulau Pinang
R. Thanabal
Jalilah Jaafar SMK Victoria, Kuala Lumpur SMJK Shing Chung, Perak
Sofiazan Mohd Yusof
Jayasothy a/p Ratnasingam SMK Maxwell, Kuala Lumpur SMK Abdullah Munshi, Pulau
Tan Siew Lan
Komala Devi a/p Thanimalai SMK Convent Butterworth, Pulau
Pinang
Pinang Zainiah Zainal Abidin
SMK Padang Polo, Pulau Pinang

Maktab Sultan Abu Bakar, Johor

61
Curriculum Development Centre
Ministry of Education
2005

62