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PT.

Trakindo Utama
Training Center
Tembagapura Division

Next Step Ahead for Human Resources Development

Training Center Tembagapura

Jl. Kuala Tembaga Lot E-3


PO BOX. 7014 Light Industrial Park
Kuala Kencana – Timika 99920
Papua Indonesia
Phone: +62901438250/438248
Fax: +62901302166 / 438101
Trakindo Utama Training Center - Service
rvice Tech
echnician Mod
Module

Intermediate Engine

Dipublikasikan oleh:
Training Center - Trakindo Tembagapura Division
Papua Indonesia
Phone: 0901 – 438250, 416971, 416856
Januari 2009

Memperbanyak atau menggandakan sebagian atau seluruh isi dari publikasi ini merupakan
tindakan melanggar hukum tanpa izin dari yang berhak. Permintaan izin ata informasi lebih
lanjut mengenai isi publikasi ini silahkan dialamatkan pada, TC Superintendent – Trakindo
Tembagapura Division.

Isi material ini dikeluarkan oleh Training Center - Trakindo Tembagapura Division, dimana:

Trakindo Tembagapura Division, para karyawannya, para Intructor atau orang – orang yang
terlibat dalam pembuatan ataupun persiapan akan isi module ini tidak berwenang untuk
mendistribusikan sebagian atau seluruh isi publikasi ini kepada fihak – fihak yang tidak
disetujui oleh perusahaan.

Trakindo Tembagapura Division, tidak bertanggung jawab atas penyalahgunaan sebagian


atau seluruh isi publikasi ini. Untuk informasi yang paling tepat selalu gunakan sumber
refensi terakhir yang dikeluarkan oleh masing-masing manufaktur.

Ucapan Terima Kasih

Ucapan terimakasih yang sebesar – besarnya atas segala kontribusi semua fihak yang
mendukung keberhasilan program ini, terutama kepada:

 Para Instructor dan staff - Training Center


Trakindo Tembagapura Division, Papua - Indonesia.

 Caterpillar of Australia Pty Ltd, sebagai sumber referensi utama sebagian atau seluruh
isi material program ini.

 Caterpillar Inc USA, sebagai sumber informasi terakhir untuk sebagian isi program ini.

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Intermediate Engine System

PENJELASAN MODUL

Judul Modul
Intermediate Engine System

Uraian Modul
Setelah menyelesaikan module ini diharapkan para peserta mampu melaksanakan service dan
repair pada Caterpillar Engine System.

Pra-Syarat
Module berikut ini merupakan prasyarat yang harus diikuti sebelum pelaksanaan dari modul
ini:
 Technical core Skill Training
 Fundamental Engine System Training
 Fundamental Electric System Training

Pembelajaran & Pengembangan


Untuk memudahkan penyampaian modul ini, siswa perlu dilengkapi dengan dolumen
pendukung berupa publikasi resmi dari PT Trakindo Utama, tempat kerja yang relevan atau
simulasi lingkungan kerja dan peralatan untuk pengembangan/ mempraktekkan ketrampilan
tersebut.

Referensi yang di perlukan

• APLTCL 001 Air Intake & Exhaust System


• APLTCL 008 Diesel Fuel system – NSFS & MUI
• APLTCL 030 Cooling System
• APLTCL 035 Diesel engine Fundamental
• LECH9163 Industrial Engine Selection Guide
• LECM8477 Caterpillar Marine Selection Guide
• LEXT8138 Harness the Power (Cat Truck Engine for 1998)

Sumber Referensi
• Training Center - PT Trakindo Utama

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Intermediate Engine System

Metode Penilaian
Kelas dan Praktical
Untuk memberikan hasil kerja yang memuaskan dari modul ini, anda harus menunjukkan
bahwa anda sudah mampu dalam semua materi pelajaran. Sebagai konsekwensinya, setiap
hasil pekerjaan dan penilaian akan menjadi ukuran dari penilaian modul tersebut.

Dalam modul ini, anda diharuskan untuk berpartisipasi di dalam kelas dan tempat kerja.

Hasil Pembelajaran : • Mampu menjelaskan Engine prinsip dan proses


pembakaran pada Diesel engine.
• Mampu menjelaskan engine rating dan aplikasinya pada
Caterpillar engines
• Mampu mengidentifikasi component dan menjelaskan
system operasi dari Caterpillar New Scroll Fuel System
• Mampu menjelaskan prosedur melepas dan memasang
Caterpillar New Scroll Fuel System ke engine
• Mampu mengidentifikasi component dan menjelaskan
system operasi dari timing advance
• Mampu mengidentifikasi component dan menjelaskan
system operasi dari fuel injection nozzle
• Mampu menjelaskan system operasi dari mekanikal
governor yang dipakai pada NSFS Caterpillar Diesel
engine
• Mampu melaksanakan fuel setting adjustment pada NSFS
Caterpillar Diesel engine
• Mampu menjelaskan dan melaksanakan systematika
diagnostik prosedur untuk melakukan perbaikan/repair
• Mampu mengidentifikasi component dan menjelaskan
system operasi dari Caterpillar Mechanical Unit Injector
(MUI) fuel system
• Menjelaskan prosedur penyetelan dan prosedur diagnostic
pada Caterpillar Mekanikal Unit Injection
• Mampu mengidentifikasi component dan menjelaskan
system operasi dari Engine Air Intake & Exhaust System
• Menjelaskan prosedur diagnostic pada Caterpillar Air
Intake And Ehaust system dan perbaikannnya
• Mampu mengidentifikasi component dan menjelaskan
system operasi dari Engine Cooling System
• Menjelaskan prosedur diagnostic pada Caterpillar Cooling
system dan perbaikannnya
• Mampu mengidentifikasi component dan menjelaskan
system operasi dari Engine lubrication System
• Menjelaskan prosedur diagnostic pada Caterpillar
lubrication system dan perbaikannnya
• Mampu melaksanakan pelepasan dan pemasangan Injection
Pump ke/dari engine
• Mampu melaksanakan tugas testing dan adjusting pada cat
New Scroll Fuel System

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Intermediate Engine System

• Mampu melaksanakan pengukuran timing pada engine


• Mampu melaksanakan diagnostic proses dan melakukan
perbaikan pada Cat NSFS
• Mampu melaksanakan diagnostic proses dan melakukan
perbaikan pada Cat MUI fuel system
• Mampu melaksanakan diagnostic proses dan melakukan
perbaikan pada Turbocharged Air Induction System
• Mampu melaksanakan diagnostic proses dan melakukan
perbaiakan pada Cooling System
• Mampu melaksanakan diagnostic proses dan melakukan
perbaikan pada lubrication system

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Intermediate Engine System

DAFTAR I SI

Halaman
1) TOPIK 1: Diesel Engine Fundamental
 Pendahuluan ................................................................................................. 3
 Ruang Pembakaran .................................................................................... 3
 Four stroke Cycle ...................................................................................... 5
 Feature of Diesel Engine Design ............................................................ 7
 Physical Power and Effeciency Terms ...................................................... 8
 Engine Measurement Term ....................................................................... 13

2) TOPIK 2: Aplikasi & Rating Caterpillar Engine


 Pendahuluan ............................................................................................... 19
 Pengelompokan Engine Berdasar Aplikasi ................................................. 20
 Pengelompokan Engine Berdasar Rating ................................................... 20

3) TOPIK 3: Cat Mechanical New Scroll Fuel System


 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 25
 Components ...................................................................................................... 26
 Governor ............................................................................................................ 44
 Timing Advance Unitg ..................................................................................... 61
 Perhitungan Dynamic Advance ....................................................................... 72
 Pengukuran Dynamic Timing ......................................................................... 74

4) TOPIK 4: Mechanical Unit Injection


 Fuel System and Components ........................................................................... 79

5) TOPIK 5: Governor Adjustment


 Pendahuluan - NSFS .......................................................................................... 95
 Hubungan Fuel Setting dengan Tenaga Engine .............................................. 102
 Mengubah Setting Engine .................................................................................. 106
 Fuel Setting Prosedures ...................................................................................... 112
 On Engine Adjustment - MUI Fuel System
a) Injector Synchronization ............................................................................ 120
b) Fuel Setting .................................................................................................. 124
c) Fuel Injector Timing .................................................................................... 127
 Troubleshooting Instruction .............................................................................. 131

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6) TOPIK 6: Air Induction and Exhaust System


 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 133
 Naturally Aspirated Intake and Exhaust System Components.......................... 134
• Component Air Intake system ................................................................... 134
• Exhaust System ............................................................................................ 146
 Forced Air Intake System ................................................................................. 157
 Identify of Failure, Inspection and Repair Procedures for Turbocharger and
Exhaust System ................................................................................................. 185

7) TOPIK 7: Cooling System


 Purpose of Cooling System ............................................................................. 214
 Four Types of Cooling System ...................................................................... 220
 Cooling System Services ................................................................................. 232
 Test Equipment ................................................................................................ 246
 Cooling system Diagnostics ........................................................................... 252

8) TOPIK 8: Engine Lubrication


 Introduction .................................................................................................... 285
 Lubrication system Components ................................................................... 286
 Basic of Lubrication ..................................................................................... 287
 Total Base Number ....................................................................................... 302

Attachment
................................................................................................................................... X

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Intermediate Engine System

TOPIC 1
Diesel Engine Fundamentals
Pendahuluan

Pada Diesel engine terdapat banyak komponen yang saling bekerjasama untuk merubah
energi kalor menjadi energi gerak/mekanik.

Pemanasan udara, dikombinasikan dengan fuel bertekanan yang disemprotkan akan


menghasilkan suatu pembakaran, menghasilkan gaya yang mampu menggerakkan
engine. Udara, yang mana berisi oksigen, dibutuhkan untuk mebakar fuel. Bila
dikabutkan dengan sempurna, fuel akan mudah menyala dan terbakar secara efisien.

Ia harus mudah terbakar, dengan urutan yang terkontrol untuk menghasilkan energi
kalor.

Udara + Fuel + Kalor = Pembakaran.

Pembakaran dikontrol oleh tiga faktor:


 volume udara
 jenis fuel yang digunakan
 banyaknya udara yang tercampur dengan udara.

Ruang Pembakaran

Figure 1

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The combustion chamber (Figure 1) is formed by:

 the cylinder liner

 the piston

 the intake valve

 the exhaust valve

 the cylinder head.

When air is compressed it heats up. The more it is compressed, the hotter it gets. If it is
compressed enough, temperatures above the fuel’s ignition point are produced. This is
the reason why diesel engines have high compression rates. The type of fuel used in an
engine affects combustion because different fuels burn at differing temperatures
and rates. The amount of fuel is also important because more fuel produces more
force. When injected into an enclosed area, containing sufficient air, a small amount of
fuel produces large amounts of heat and force.

Therefore - MORE FUEL = MORE FORCE

In a petrol or natural gas engine, compressed air does not provide enough heat for
combustion to begin. A spark plug ignites the mixture, creating combustion.

Gas and petrol engines were designed to ‘draw’ an air and fuel mixture into cylinders on
the intake stroke. In order to avoid self-ignition and uncontrolled combustion, the
compression ratio of these engines is deliberately made lower than diesel engines.

In a Diesel engine, air is compressed inside the combustion chamber until it is hot
enough to ignite the fuel. Fuel is then injected into the hot chamber and combustion
occurs, allowing for control of the combustion process.

In both engine types, combustion produces heat energy which causes the gases,
trapped in the combustion chambers, to expand, pushing the piston down. As the
piston moves down it moves other mechanical components that do the work.

The piston and connecting rod move in an up and down motion, called reciprocating
motion. The connecting rod turns the crankshaft which converts the reciprocating
motion into circular motion, called rotary motion. This is how the engine transforms
the heat energy of combustion into usable work.

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Intermediate Engine System

The Four Stroke Cycle

Figure 2

Most diesel engines operate using the four-stroke cycle (Figure 2). There are a few
exceptions. The two stroke cycle is still used by a few manufacturers, but the two stroke
engine is gradually being phased out in high speed applications.

Intake Stroke

Figure 3

The cycle starts with the intake stroke (Figure 3).

The intake valve is open and the exhaust valve is closed. The piston commences it
downward motion, or intake stroke, thus creating a low pressure area within the
cylinder. Atmospheric pressure forces air into the cylinder. Consequently, it could be
said that air is ‘drawn’ into the cylinder. The crankshaft turns 180° and the exhaust
valve remains closed.

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Compression Stroke

Figure 4

During the compression stroke (Figure 4), the intake valve closes, sealing the
combustion chamber. The piston moves up to its highest point in the cylinder, called top
dead centre (TDC). The trapped air is compressed and becomes very hot.

By now the crankshaft has turned 360 degrees, or one full revolution.

Power Stroke

Figure 5

The intake and exhaust valves remain closed to seal the combustion chamber. Diesel
fuel is injected near the end of the compression stroke. The heat of the compressed air
ignites the fuel (Figure 5), thus commencing the combustion process. The heat energy,
created by combustion, acts on top of the piston, forcing it down and commencing
the power stroke. This causes the connecting rod to turn the crankshaft another 180
degrees, meaning the crankshaft has now made one and a half revolutions since the
cycle started.

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Exhaust Stroke

Figure 6

The exhaust stroke (Figure 6) is the final stroke in the cycle. The exhaust valve opens
as the piston moves up and forces the combustion gases out of the cylinder. Near TDC
the exhaust valve closes, the intake valve opens, and the cycle starts again. The
crankshaft has turned another 180 degrees to complete two revolutions.

Because a full cycle consists of four strokes it is called the four- stroke cycle.
Caterpillar engines use the four-stroke cycle and the order in which the cylinders of an
engine undergo their power strokes, or ‘fire’, is called the ‘firing order’. For
example, the firing order of the 3406E truck engine is 1-5-4-6-2-3, with cylinders
numbered 1 to 6 from the front to the rear of the engine.

Features of Diesel Engine Design

Petrol or Natural Gas Engines

Petrol or natural gas engines also use the four-stroke cycle, but there are some
differences.

No Spark Required

Figure 7

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The most obvious difference is that diesel engines (Figure 7) do not require a spark for
ignition. Instead air is compressed to such a high ratio that it heats the air in the
combustion chamber enough to ignite the fuel when it is injected.

In a petrol or natural gas engine (Figure 7) compressed air does not provide enough
heat for combustion to begin. A spark plug ignites the mixture creating combustion.

The Combustion Chamber Design is Different

Figure 8

More Work at Lower RPM

Another major difference is the amount of work a diesel engine can perform at lower
revolutions. Diesel engines normally operate at between 800 and 2200 RPM
(revolutions per minute) and provide more torque and power to do work.

This is because the diesel engine cylinder is filled with air, whereas the gas or petrol
engine cylinder is filled with an air/fuel mixture. This contains less oxygen and can
only burn a lower quantity of fuel compared to an equal size diesel engine.

Diesel engines are generally more fuel efficient for the amount of work output than
petrol engines and they are generally heavier because they must withstand higher
combustion pressures and temperatures.

Physical Power and Effeciency Terms

There are three main categories of terminology to describe engines:

• Motion of objects and the effects of motion (physical)

• Power output

• Engine efficiency (measurement).

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Physical Terms

Friction

Figure 9

A certain amount of force is required in order to slide the surfaces of two objects against
one another (Figure 9). The resistance to this motion is called friction. As the load is
increased, friction is increased. For example, it requires more effort to slide a heavy
object than it does to slide a light object.

The condition of the two surfaces in contact also makes a difference. This is why the
lubrication system in an engine is so important. The oil film between the moving parts of
an engine keeps the friction between the two surfaces very low. This not only gives the
engine a long service life, but also creates less drag on the engine. This allows the
engine to produce more usable power. Friction exists between the piston and cylinder
wall as the piston moves up and down. Friction produces heat which is one of the
greatest contributors to wear and component damage.

Inertia

Sir Isaac Newton’s first law of motion states that an object in motion tends to stay in
motion and an object at rest will tend to stay at rest, until acted upon by an outside
force. This phenomenon is due to objects possessing inertia. The amount of inertia an
object has is directly proportional to the amount of mass that the object has. For
example, a car has more inertia than a bicycle. This is why it is harder to move or stop a
car than a bicycle.

Force

Force is a push or pull, that starts, stops or changes the direction of motion of an
object. As an example, force is created by combustion during the power stroke. The
higher the generated force, the higher the power produced.

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Pressure

Pressure is a measure of force per unit of area. During the four-stroke cycle, a lot of
pressure is produced at the top of the piston during the compression and power strokes.
Many systems and components of internal combustion engines operate under, or
generate, specific pressures. Knowledge and measurement of these can provide a
great deal of information about the overall engine health.

Pressure can be created in three ways:

 Increase temperature

 Decrease volume, but the mass remains the same (compression stroke)

 Restriction of flow.

Power Output Terms

Engine power is described according to the quality and quantity of certain


characteristics.

RPM - Revolutions for Minute

Torque

When the engine is running, the combustion that takes place causes the pistons to
move downward in the cylinder. This downward piston motion pushes on the
connecting rods and causes the crankshaft to be turned. The resulting twisting or
turning force produced by the crankshaft is called torque.

Torque is also a measure of the load carrying capacity of an engine.


The torque and the horsepower that an engine produces are related to one another with
the following equation:

5252 x HP
T=
RPM
Where...T = Torque is measured in Newton meters (Nm)

As Horsepower (HP) is an imperial unit of measurement, the constant in this


instance is 5252.

Torque is measured in foot-pounds (ft-lb) in the imperial system and in Newton-meters


(Nm) in the metric system.

1 ft lb =1.3558 Nm
1 Nm =0.7376 ft lb

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Power

Power is defined as the rate at which work is performed over time.

Power =

Where... t = the time that the work is performed in.

Horsepower

The standard measure of power in the metric system is the kilowatt (kW), and in the
imperial system the standard measure of power is the horsepower (HP).

1 HP =0.746 kW and 1 kW =1.340 HP

James Watt, a Scottish nventor, originally derived the term horsepower. Watt
observed the ability of a horse in a coal mine hoisting coal. He defined 1 HP to be equal
to the ability of a horse to raise 33,000 lb of coal a distance of 1 ft in 1 minute.

Horsepower = Time x RPM


--------------------
5252
The definition of horsepower described the amount of work output over a period of
time.

HP = T x RPM
----------------
5252

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NOTE:

This formula can not be used with metric units. Convert the metric units to imperial units
before performing the calculation.

There are several different types of power that are often discussed.

Indicated HorsePower (IHP) is the power that an engine is theoretically able to


produce. This is found by multiplying the displacement of the engine by the mean
effective pressure in the cylinder in pounds per square inch and dividing it by 33,000.

Brake Engine HorsePower (BHP) is the usable power available for work at the
flywheel. It is less than indicated Horsepower as some energy is used to move the
engine components and drive auxiliaries, such as water and oil pumps. It is normally
found by physically testing an engine on a dynamometer. A dynamometer is a device
that is coupled to an engine for the purpose of measuring the torque and the
horsepower output of the engine.

Friction HorsePower (FHP) is the power that an engine requires in order to


overcome the frictional losses of bearings, gears, and other moving parts of the engine.
Friction power increases as the size and/or the speed of an engine increases.

To calculate Brake engine horsepower, the following formula is used:

IHP - BHP = FHP

Work

Work is defined as a force that is applied over a distance.

Work = Force x Distance

W=FxD

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Heat

Figure 10

Temperature is a measurement of relative warmth or coolness of an object. It is usually


measured with either a Fahrenheit or Celsius scale (Figure 10, left).

The British Thermal Unit (BTU) is used to measure the heat value of a specific amount of
fuel, or the amount of heat transferred from one object to another.

Heat is a form of energy produced by the combustion of fuel. Heat energy is converted
into mechanical energy by the piston and other engine components in order to
produce power suitable for work.

A BTU is the amount of heat required to raise one pound of water by one degree
Fahrenheit.

It is also used to describe a fuel’s heating value. Fuels with higher BTU ratings
generate more heat and therefore more power. Diesel fuel has a higher BTU rating than
petrol (Figure 10, right).

In a cooling system, heat is removed from the engine. The quantity of heat removed by
the cooling system is measured in BTUs.

Engine Measurement Terms

The efficiency that a particular engine has is expressed as a percentage of the actual
power (BHP) to the theoretical power (IHP) of an engine.

The performance of an engine is rated by comparing power output and/or efficiency of


the engine. These can be measured in several different ways. The manufacturer’s

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Intermediate Engine System

specifications must be known in order to understand the effects that all of these
factors and measurements have on engine performance.
Some of the basic specifications that a manufacturer makes on an engine that affect
performance of the engine are:

 bore

 stroke

 displacement

 compression ratio.

Figure 11

Bore (B)

Bore is a term used to describe the internal diameter of each of the cylinders in an
engine (Figure 11). The bore is typically measured in millimetres or inches.

The bore, together with the length of travel of the piston, determines the volume of air
available for combustion. Normally, the larger the bore, the more powerful the engine.

Figure 12

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Top Dead centre (TDC)

Top dead centre (TDC) is a term used to describe the position of the piston when it is at
its highest point in the cylinder (Figure 12). Many events in the operation of the engine
are identified by crankshaft position, measured in degrees either before or after TDC.

Bottom Dead Centre (BDC)

Bottom dead centre (BDC) is a term used to describe the position of the piston when the
piston is at its lowest point in the cylinder (Figure 12).

Stroke (L)

Stroke (Figure 12) is a term used to describe the distance that a piston travels in the
cylinder of the engine. The stroke is measured as the difference between the position of
the piston at TDC to BDC. The amount of stroke is determined by the design of the
crankshaft.

Stroke is measured in millimetres or inches. A longer stroke allows more air into the
cylinder, which allows more fuel to be burned, creating more power.

Engine Displacement

The bore, the stroke, and the number of cylinders all determine the displacement of an
engine. The displacement of each cylinder is simply the volume of space swept by the
piston during one stroke. The engine displacement is the displacement of each
cylinder multiplied by the number of cylinders.

The displacement of an engine can be calculated using the following formula:

Displacement = Bore Area x Stroke x number of cylinders

= ‫ת‬r²nL

Where...

π = 22/7 or 3.142

radius = 1/2 bore (diameter)2 =radius x radius

L = stroke

n = number of cylinders in the engine

It is commonly expressed in cubic inches, cubic centimetres (cc) or litres.

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Compression Ratio

Figure 13

The cylinder displacement and the combustion chamber volume determine the
compression ratio of an engine (Figure 13). In order to calculate the compression ratio,
use the following formula:

Typical compression ratios of diesel engines range from 11:1 to 22:1.

This is significantly higher than the compression ratio of a typical petrol or natural gas
engine, normally 8:1 to 11:1. Diesel engines utilise higher compression ratios to
increase the pressure within the combustion chamber.

This is because their basic ignition design is compression ignition, compared to spark-
ignition for petrol and natural gas engines.

Higher pressures will cause an increase in the temperature of the air and fuel in the
combustion chamber. This high temperature (approximately 1000 °F) will cause the
diesel fuel to ignite without the use of a spark plug.

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Atmospheric Conditions

Figure 14

In order to produce the desired levels of power, diesel engines require a large volume of
air. Atmospheric pressure, ambient air temperature and the relative humidity of the air
play a significant role in the performance characteristics of an engine.

It is the atmospheric pressure that forces the air into the engine. Atmospheric
pressure is the pressure that is exer ted on the ear th’s surface due to the weight of the
atmosphere (the air surrounding the ear th).

Atmospheric pressure is greatest at sea level because the column of air above sea
level is higher than above the top of a mountain (Figure 14).

As an example, due to increased pressure at sea level the air is denser than the air on
top of a mountain. The dense air allows for more air molecules to flow into the
cylinder. This allows for the fuel to be burned more completely in a diesel engine,
which, in turn, produces more power. This is why engines perform better in lower
altitudes; simply because the air is denser.

Ambient air temperature also plays a role in how much air can flow into an engine. The
lower the temperature of the air, the denser the charge of air is that enters the
cylinders. The greater the density of the air, the more power that can be produced
efficiently in the engine. Engines tend to run better at night time because air
temperature is lower and consequently a denser charge of air enters the cylinder.

Humidity is also an important factor in diesel engine combustion. Humidity is a relative


measure of the amount of water vapour that is present in the air. Greater humidity of
the air means more water vapour and less oxygen and consequently, less efficiency of
combustion and lower power capability.

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Efficiency

The actual power produced by an engine is always less than the theoretical power.
There are several ways to describe the efficiency of an engine.

Volumetric efficiency is defined as how capable an engine is in filling the cylinder with
air on the intake stroke compared to the cylinder being completely filled with air at
atmospheric pressure.
Because air must be forced into the cylinder by atmospheric pressure, the cylinder
will never be 100% full.

Mechanical efficiency is the ratio of brake power to indicated power.

Brake HorsePower
Indicated HorsePower=Mechanical efficiency

BHP
IHP = ME

Thermal efficiency is the degree to which an engine is able to successfully convert the
energy of the air fuel ratio into heat energy to cause the pistons to turn the crankshaft.

Fuel efficiency is defined in several different ways. The most common of which are
kilometers per litre (Km/L), litres per 100 Km or miles per gallon (mpg). These are used
to describe the fuel efficiency of an engine in an on-road application such as a truck.

Fuel efficiency for ear th moving applications may be expressed in litres per hour (Lph)
or gallons per hour (gph) at rated speed. Fuel efficiency may also be expressed as
‘brake specific fuel consumption’ (bsfc). Bsfc is defined as the amount of fuel used per
unit of power and time. The bsfc of an engine is expressed in either:

Litres OR Gallons
brake Kilo Watt x time brake horsepower x time

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TOPIC 2
Aplikasi dan Rating Engine
Caterpillar
Pendahuluan

Caterpillar engine terkenal diseluruh dunia akan ketahanan, kemampuan dan


efisiensinya. Caterpillar engine dipergunakan untuk bermacam - macam aplikasi,
teknologi yang dipergunakan selalu berkembang dari waktu ke waktu dan selalu
berusaha meningkatkan kemampuan engine ke level yang lebih tinggi.

Dewasa ini engine-engine Caterpillar telah menggunakan teknologi electronic untuk


mengontrol system kerjanya agar kemampuan engine meningkat dan menurunnya
emisi gas buang, karena di negara-negara maju terdapat suatu standard gas buang
yang harus diikuti oleh setiap produsen engine.

Caterpillar membagi engine sekelas berdasarkan rating untuk memenuhi kebutuhan


customer dalam memperoleh engine yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan horsepower dan
aplikasi sehingga efisiensi bahan bakar dan biaya operasi dapat ditekan seminimal
mungkin.

Gambar 15 - Aplikasi engine

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Intermediate Engine System

Pengelompokan Engine Berdasar Aplikasi

Caterpillar engine dipergunakan sebagai tenaga penggerak berbagai macam aplikasi


yang terdiri dari :

1. Construction & Earthmoving Engine


Constuction & Earthmoving Engine merupakan engine yang dipergunakan sebagai
tenaga penggerak pada alat-alat berat, contohnya grader, compactor, track type
tractor, scraper, off highway truck dan lain lain.

2. Genset engine
Genset engine merupakan engine yang dipergunakan sebagai penggerak generator
set untuk membangkitkan tenaga listrik.

3. Industrial engine
Industrial engine yaitu engine yang dipakai sebagai penggerak pada industri,
contohnya penggerak pompa, mesin pengeboran minyak dan lain-lain.

4. Marine engine
Marine engine merupakan engine yang dipergunakan sebagai tenaga penggerak
kapal.

5. Locomotive engine
Locomotive engine dipergunakan sebagai penggerak kereta api (Locomotive).

Pengelompokan Engine Berdasarkan Rating


Rating adalah pengelompokan engine Caterpillar sejenis berdasarkan kepada
kemampuan menghasilkan tenaga kotor (gross output) yang dilengkapi dengan
accsesories standard engine seperti oil pump, fuel pump, water pump dll.
Pengelompokan berdasarkan rating ini memudahkan dalam memilih engine yang cocok
dengan aplikasinya, aman dipergunakan dan menghasilkan kemampuan yang dapat
diandalkan.

Pemilihan rating harus cocok dengan aplikasi, konsekwensi dari pemilihan rating yang
tidak benar akan mengakibatkan kerusakan dan bertambah pendeknya umur engine.
Rating berdasarkan aplikasi engine, diantaranya:

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Intermediate Engine System

1. Rating Engine – Electric Power Generation

Istilah-istilah yang dipakai dalam rating engine power generation adalah:

a. Power Interruption
Kerusakan yang terjadi pada power supply utama yang mengakibatkan
terputusnya aliran listrik.

b. Operating Cycle
Batas lamanya engine beroperasi secara periodik tidak melebihi 24 jam .

c. Typical load factor


Merupakan jumlah beban dibagi dengan jumlah jam operasi, waktu idle dan
down time tidak termasuk dalam perhitungan.

d. Typical load
Sifat beban yang dipikul engine, apakah bervariasi atau tetap (varying & non
varying).

e. Typical hours per years


Lamanya engine dibebani dalam waktu satu tahun.

f. Typical peak demand


Beban maksimum yang diinginkan/ yang perbolehkan.

Pertimbangan dalam menentukan rating engine pada EPG berdasarkan kepada Typical
load factor, Typical load dan Typical hours seperti tertera pada petunjuk dari masing -
masing rating.

Rating pada engine Power Generation terbagi menjadi:

 Continuous
Engine rating ini dapat memikul beban yang konstan atau sedikit variasi dengan
normal load factor mencapai 100 % dalam jam yang tidak terbatas per tahun.
Aplikasi ini disarankan pada pembangkit listrik utama (Utility power supply)

 Prime
Engine rating ini dapat memikul beban yang konstan atau bervariasi dengan normal
load faktor mencapai 80 % dalam jam yang tidak terbatas per tahun. 100% Load
factor hanya diperbolehkan sebesar 5% dari operating cycle . Aplikasi ini disarankan
pada pembangkit listrik untuk industri, pompa dan konstruksi.

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Intermediate Engine System

 Prime + 10% (aplikasi standby untuk utility power supply)


Engine rating ini diaplikasikan untuk beban yang lebih bervariasi seperti pada
prime rating. Normal load factor mencapai 80% selama 500 jam per tahun dan
tambahan 10 % diperbolehkan apabila terjadi kerusakan tiba-tiba pada utility
power supply. Beban 100 persen hanya diperbolehkan sebesar 5% dari operating
cycle. Aplikasi ini cocok dipergunakan sebagai standby power pada utility power
supply

 Standby
Engine rating ini diaplikasikan untuk beban yang lebih bervariasi selama utility power
supply tidak bekerja, Load faktor normal mencapai 80 % per tahun. Jam operasi
yang diperbolehkan 100 jam pertahun. 100 % beban hanya diperbolehkan sebanyak
5% dari operating cycle.

2. Rating Engine - Industrial engine

Rating untuk engine yang dipergunakan pada industrial diantaranya terbagi menjadi :

 "IND A" (Continuous)


Engine rating ini boleh dioperasikan hingga mencapai 100 % beban dan kecepatan
penuh tanpa variasi. Engine ini dapat diaplikasikan pada pipeline pumping,
ventilation dan aplikasi yang dipilih customer.

 "IND B" –
Engine rating ini bisa dipergunakan pada beban yang berubah-ubah. Full load tidak
boleh melebihi 80 % selama masa operasi. Aplikasi ini biasa pada pompa irigrasi,
mechanical pumping dan bor pada ladang minyak dan air compressor.

 "IND C" (Intermittent)


Engine rating ini dipakai pada beban dan kecepatan yang berubah-ubah. Engine
dapat beroperasi pada horsepower dan kecepatan penuh secara berkesinambungan
selama 1 jam. Full load tidak boleh melebihi 50% selama jam operasi. Penggunaan
rating ini pada agricultural tractors, harvesters, combines, off-highway trucks,
tenaga penggerak untuk fire pumps, drilling untuk blast holes, rock crushers dengan
torque rise tinggi , wood chippers dengan torque rise tinggi dan oil field hoisting.

 "IND D"
Engine rating ini dipergunakan untuk melayani penggerak utama yang secara
berkala mengalami kelebihan beban (overload). Engine boleh beroperasi pada
horsepower dan speed maksimum selama 30 menit pertama . Waktu beroperasi
pada kondisi full load tidak boleh melebihi 10 % jam operasi. Aplikasi yang cocok
untuk engine ini adalah off Shore crane, runway blower, water well drill dan fire
pump.

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Intermediate Engine System

 “IND E”
Engine rating ini dipergunakan dimana sejumlah horse power tambahan dibutuhkan
dalam jangka waktu singkat atau kelebihan beban seketika (sudden overload) dan
keadaan darurat pada saat tenaga utama tidak tersedia. Horsepower dan speed
maksimal yang diperbolehkan selama 15 menit secara terus-menerus Lamanya full
load tidak boleh melebihi 5% dari jam operasi. Aplikasi engine rating ini pada
stanby centrifugal pump, oil field well servicing, crush truck dan gas turbin starter.

3. Rating Engine - Marine Engine


Marine engine mempunyai rating yang bervariasi untuk memenuhi kebutuhan
aplikasinya, yaitu :

 A (Continuous) –
Engine ini dipergunakan pada kapal dengan jenis displacement hull, dimana
kecepatan dan beban hampir selalu konstan dalam jangka waktu tertentu, tidak ada
batasan load factor dan engine dapat selalu beroperasi pada full throttle. Load factor
berkisar antara 80 persen atau lebih. Contoh perhitungan load factor pada rating ini
adalah :

100% Power x 7.5 Hours = 7.50


92% Power x 1.25 Hours = 1.15
6% Power x 1.25 Hours = 0.08 ____
8.73 ÷ 10 hrs = 87% LF

Penggunaan engine ini pada kapal pengangkut barang dan penumpang antar
negara, kapal tunda, kapal tarik (tow boat) dll.

 B ( Medium duty) -
Engine ini dipergunakan pada kapal jenis semi displacement hull, dimana kecepatan
dan beban hampir selalu konstan dengan sedikit variasi dalam jangka waktu
tertentu, Load factor berkisar antara 40 - 80 persen, tenaga penuh dibatasi hanya
10 jam selama jangka waktu 12 jam operasi . Contoh perhitungan load factor pada
rating ini adalah :

100% Power x 4 Hours = 4.00


70% Power x 2.5 Hours = 1.75
6% Power x 3.5 Hours = 0.21____
÷ 10 hrs = 60% LF

Penggunaan engine ini seperti pada kapal supply dan ferry.

 C (Intermittent) -
Engine ini dipergunakan pada kapal jenis planning hull, dimana kecepatan dan beban
selalu variasi dalam jangka waktu tertentu. Load factor berkisar antara 20 - 80

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Intermediate Engine System

persen, tenaga penuh dibatasi hanya 6 jam selama jangka waktu 12 jam operasi .
Contoh perhitungan load factor pada rating ini adalah:

100% Power x 1 Hours = 1.00


76% Power x 5 Hours = 3.80
37% Power x 3 Hours = 1.11
6% Power x 1 Hours = 0.06____
÷ 10 hrs = 60% LF

Penggunaan engine ini seperti pada kapal ferry cepat dan kapal service lepas
pantai.

 D (Patrol craft) –
Engine ini dipergunakan pada kapal jenis planning hull, dimana kecepatan dan
beban selalu bervariasi dalam jangka waktu tertentu, load factor berkisar 50
persen atau kurang, tenaga penuh atau full throttle dibatasi hanya 2 jam selama 12
jam dan full throttle dibatasi hanya 0,5 jam secara berkala . Contoh perhitungan
load factor pada rating ini adalah:

100% Power x 0.5 Hours = 0.50


80% Power x 1 Hours = 0.80
37% Power x 2.5 Hours = 0.93
6% Power x 6 Hours = 0.36____
2.59 ÷ 10 hrs = 26% LF

Penggunaan engine ini seperti pada kapal patroli lepas pantai, kapal pemadam
kebakaran dan kapal pemburu .

 E ( High performance ) –
Engine ini dipergunakan pada kapal jenis planning hull, Engine rating ini adalah
untuk berakselerasi pada waktu tertentu saja. Waktu maksimum yang diperbolehkan
untuk full throttle adalah 15 menit secara periodik , load factor hanya 30 persen atau
kurang, tenaga penuh hanya diperbolehkan 0,5 jam selama 6 jam operasi. Contoh
perhitungan load factor pada rating ini adalah:

100% Power x 0.25 Hours = 0.25


63% Power x 0.5 Hours = 0.32
37% Power x 3.5 Hours = 1.30
6% Power x 2.5 Hours = 0.15
3% Power x 3.25 Hours = 0.10 ____
2.12 ÷ 10 hrs = 21% LF

Penggunaan engine ini seperti pada kapal pesiar, patroli pelabuhan dll.

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Intermediate Engine System

TOPIC 3
Caterpillar Mechanical New Scroll
Fuel System

Introduction

Figure 16

The amount of fuel an engine burns is directly related to the amount of horsepower
and torque generated. In general, the more fuel the engine receives, the more torque
is available at the flywheel.

The fuel system delivers clean fuel at the right time and in the right quantity to meet
engine horsepower demand.

The fuel system components match fuel delivery to engine horsepower demand by
altering how much fuel is injected and when it is injected. These functions are handled
by the heart of the fuel system; the fuel injection pump.

The operation of the mechanical fuel system fitted to early Caterpillar 3406
engines is discussed.

The system is called the New Scroll Fuel Systems (NSFS).

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Intermediate Engine System

Components

Figure 17

The various components that are used in a pump and lines system are as listed below
and shown in Figure 17 above. Some of these components are used in the two other
types of fuel systems, to be discussed later and these are identified on the following
page:

Caterpillar 3406 Fuel Flow

Figure 18

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Intermediate Engine System

Figure 18 is a schematic of the Caterpillar 3406B/C engine fuel system, where the flow
of fuel can be followed from the supply tank to the injector in the cylinder. The transfer
pump (8) draws fuel from the fuel tank (5) through the primary fuel filter (6). The
transfer pump then pressurises the fuel and pushes it through the hand priming pump,
into the secondary fuel filter (4), then into the fuel manifold (10) of the fuel injection
pump, via the fuel lines (1), under moderate pressure. A bypass valve inside the fuel
transfer pump maintains moderate fuel pressure. With moderate fuel pressure inside
the fuel manifold the fuel is loaded into the cavity of the high-pressure pump.

The high pressure pumps now meter a small amount of fuel and sends it through the
high pressure fuel lines to the fuel injection nozzle (2) at a very high pressure. When
the fuel pressure in the high pressure fuel lines gets above the nozzle opening
pressure the fuel is injected into the combustion chamber.

With both very high pressure and very small holes in the tip of the fuel injector nozzle,
the fuel is atomised and allows for complete combustion in the cylinder. Any air and
excess fuel are sent out of the fuel manifold through the return line back to the supply
tank. The fuel tank cap on the fuel tank must be vented to atmosphere to keep
vacuum from forming inside the fuel tank.

Fuel Tank

Figure 19

The fuel tank (Figure 19) stores, de-aerates and cools fuel. They are in different
locations on vehicles and can be sized to give a certain amount of time of operation on
a particular machine. The example shown is a fuel tank on a Caterpillar off-highway.

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Intermediate Engine System

Primary Fuel Filter

Figure 20

The primary fuel filter (Figure 20) removes large debris that often accumulates in the
fuel tank. The primary fuel filter is normally situated upstream of the transfer pump. It
usually contains an element, which can be cleaned, and this should be conducted
regularly to improve the life of a secondary filter further up the line and to protect the
transfer pump.

Fuel Transfer Pump

Figure 21

As the starter motor turns, and when the engine is running, the fuel transfer pump is
delivering fuel.

The fuel transfer pump is located below the 3406B/C pump housing (Figure 21). It is
activated by the eccentric on the fuel pump camshaft inside the housing and can

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Intermediate Engine System

deliver approximately 200 litres (44 gals) of fuel per hour, at 172 kPa (25 psi) on this
particular engine model.

The fuel transfer pump draws fuel from the tank through the primary fuel filter. This
provides flow throughout the low-pressure portion of the fuel system. The primary
purpose of the fuel transfer pump is to keep an adequate supply of clean fuel in the
injection pump.

Operation

Figure 22

The fuel transfer pump (Figure 22) is a spring pumping piston type pump, driven by a
lobe on the engine camshaft. The pump supplies the engine fuel requirements, plus an
amount that is returned to the tank. It is a single piston, single action pump with three
one-way check valves for: inlet, pumping and outlet.

In Figure 22, the push rod is almost completely extended and the return spring has
forced the piston to the top of the pump. This upward motion of the piston opens the
inlet check valve and fuel enters the inlet cavity. The pumping check valve at the top
of the piston is closed and the piston pushes fuel into the outlet cavity. This
pressurised fuel opens the outlet check valve at the outlet port. There is no pressure
relief valve in this pump because fuel outlet pressure is controlled by the force of the
pumping spring.

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Intermediate Engine System

Figure 23

As the camshaft continues to turn, the cam lobe no longer puts force on the push rod.
The pumping spring now moves the piston up pressurising the fuel above the piston
(Figure 23). This causes the pumping check valve to close, the inlet and outlet check
valves to open.

As the piston moves up, the fuel in the area above the piston is pushed through the
outlet check valve to the pump outlet port. Fuel also moves through the pump inlet
port and inlet check valve filling the area below the piston. The pump is now ready to
start a new cycle.

Fuel transfer pumps that are gear driven are also used. E.g. Caterpillar 3500 series
engines and current 3406 EUI engines and others. The operating principle is the same
as the gear pump used in a hydraulic system.

Secondary Fuel Filter

Figure 24

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Intermediate Engine System

Fuel exits the transfer pump and flows into the secondary or final fuel filter. The
purpose of the secondary fuel filter is to remove minute particles and contaminants
from the fuel that could damage nozzles or fuel injectors.
Secondary fuel filters are located between the transfer pump and injection pump
housing.

Unlike oil filters, the fuel filters have no bypass valves. If fuel filters get clogged, fuel
flow stops and the engine will not run. This protects the engine from dirty fuel.
The secondary fuel filter is changed at regular service intervals and is normally a throw
away spin on type filter.

Fuel Priming Pump

Figure 25

Many final fuel filter housings incorporate a fuel-priming pump (Figure 25). This pump
removes air and primes the system when any of the fuel system components,
including filters, have been removed for service, or in cases when the machine has run
out of fuel. Air is compressible, any air would interfere with the fuel flow.

The Fuel Injection pump

Figure 26

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Intermediate Engine System

From the secondary fuel filter, fuel is delivered to the fuel injection pump (Figure 26).
In a mechanical fuel system, the fuel injection pump (1), combined with the timing
advance (2), governor (3) and fuel ratio control (4) all work together to control fuel
injection. These components have a direct effect on engine performance.

As engine load and engine speed change, varying amounts of fuel must be injected at
different times in order to maintain the proper burn windows. A timing advance unit
controls when fuel is injected and the governor controls how much fuel is delivered to
the engine, or duration.

The fuel injection pump is the heart of the fuel system. Understanding how the pump
operates is a critical first step in understanding fuel injection.

In the Caterpillar scroll type fuel systems, the unit injection pumps contain a plunger
inside a barrel. The movement of the plunger inside the barrel against a restriction to
flow creates the high pressures required for injection. This action is created by the fuel
pump camshaft.

Camshaft

Figure 27

The engine front timing gears drive the fuel pump camshaft at a speed that is the
same as the engine main camshaft. An example of a fuel injection pump camshaft is
shown in Figure 27. It has several improvements from earlier designs.

These improvements are a larger and heavier camshaft that enable the lobes to be
designed to give a faster lift and shorter fuel injection duration.

This will increase injection pressures to increase the efficiency of the engine; higher
output for less fuel with a corresponding reduction in emissions. The fuel transfer
pump, previously discussed, is driven by the eccentric lobe on the end of the camshaft.

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Intermediate Engine System

High Pressure Fuel Lines

Figure 28

On pump and line systems, steel high-pressure fuel lines connect fuel injection pumps
to fuel injection nozzles (Figure 28). Metered quantities of pressurised fuel created by
the pump elements travel through the high-pressure fuel lines to the fuel nozzles,
which are located in the cylinder head. The high pressure fuel lines are all the same
length to prevent injection timing variances.

Figure 29

The fuel lines connect each fuel injection pump to its corresponding nozzle by means
of a through-the-head (bulkhead) adapter.

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Intermediate Engine System

Nozzle

Figure 30

Figure 30 is a cutaway view of the cylinder head and shows the fuel injection nozzle.
Nozzles have valves that open when the pressure is high enough. When the valve
opens, fuel is atomised and sprayed into the combustion chamber. At the end of the
injection cycle there is a rapid pressure drop, which causes the valve to close.

Figure 31

From the inlet port of the fuel injection nozzle (Figure 31), fuel flows through the filter
screen into the area below the diameter of the valve.

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Intermediate Engine System

Figure 32

The upper part of the valve under the spring has a larger diameter. The fuel pressure
will act on this larger diameter to open the valve against the spring pressure (Figure
32).

When the fuel pressure pushing against the diameter becomes greater than the force
of the spring, the valve lifts off its seat. This is known as the Valve Opening Pressure
of the fuel injection nozzle. With the valve unseated, the high pressure fuel will be
forced through the nozzle orifices into the combustion chamber.

The ultra high pressure of the system produces excellent atomizing of the fuel for
efficient combustion.

Figure 33

Fuel continues to inject into the cylinder (Figure 33) until the pressure of the
fuel against the diameter becomes less than the force of the spring. At this
point the spring will force the valve on its seat, sealing the injection nozzle.

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Intermediate Engine System

NOTE:
The fuel injection nozzle can not be disassembled or adjusted.

Return Line

Figure 34

Most diesel engine fuel systems incorporate a fuel return line (No. 11, Figure 34).
There is always more fuel delivered by the transfer pump than the engine can use. The
return line directs excess fuel back to the tank. The excess fuel continually provides
cooling and lubrication for the fuel injection pump components.

Figure 35

An orifice bleed valve is also installed at the end of the manifold (Figure 35).

A passage inside the fuel manifold routes fuel to the orifice bleed valve. Approximately
ten gallons (40 litres) of fuel per hour and all the air in the system are returned to the
supply tank through this valve. This helps to lower the fuel temperature and to
eliminate air bubbles in the fuel, which would reduce horsepower.

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Intermediate Engine System

Fuel Metering and Delivery

Figure 36

As shown in Figure 36 the fuel injection pump consists of the following:

 Bushing

 Rack

 Return spring

 Lifter assembly

 Camshaft lobe

 Gear segment

 Plunger with scroll

 Check valve

 Fill port

 Barrel

 Spill port.

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Intermediate Engine System

Figure 37

The fuel pump housing contains a series of pump elements which are driven by the
fuel pump camshaft. There is one element for each cylinder of the engine.

The area shown in Figure 37 is a cutaway of the engine side of the NSFS fuel injection
pump housing. This cutaway shows a complete unit pump in the centre and a cutaway
pump on the right. The relationship of the pump groups and the rack as the gear
segment engages the rack can be seen. Also note the lifters and return springs.

The bushing secures the pump assembly in the housing and the o-ring seal prevents
leaks. The heavy duty return spring pushes down on the lifter assembly to assure
constant contact with the camshaft lobe.

Figure 38

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Intermediate Engine System

Figure 38 shows that each lifter has a guide pin to aid in aligning the gear segment to
the rack when installing pumps. A spacer ring provides a long wearing seating surface
for the pumps, and insures that all the pumps are seated at the same position. The
spacer rings are the same thickness so the setting for the point of injection is
determined during manufacture. Therefore fuel pump height setting is not necessary.

Fuel Injection Pump Operation

Figure 39

At the beginning of the cycle, the return spring is holding the lifter down on the base
circle of the cam lobe (Figure 39). Since the plunger is attached to the lifter, it will be
down in the barrel. The fill and spill ports are both open.

Fuel pressure in the manifold will cause fuel to flow in and fill the area of the barrel
above the plunger.

Figure 40

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Intermediate Engine System

As the camshaft rotates, the cam lobe will move the lifter and plunger upward (Figure
40). The upward movement of the plunger in the barrel will first close the spill port
then the fill port. As the fill port closes, the effective stroke and fuel pressurization
starts.

Figure 41

Pressure rises rapidly with the upward movement of the plunger (up to 15,000 psi or
103,420 kPa maximum). When the pressure in the barrel reaches 100 psi (690 kPa),
the check valve will lift off its seat allowing fuel to flow into the injection line (Figure
41).

Figure 42

As the plunger nears the top of its stroke in the barrel, the scroll recess on the plunger
will uncover the spill port. This ends the effective pump stroke. High pressure fuel in
the barrel will immediately escape from the chamber through the spill port into the
pump housing manifold (Figure 42).

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Intermediate Engine System

Figure 43

As pressure in the barrel drops, the check valve will seat (Figure 43). This traps high
pressure fuel in the injector line. To control this line pressure, the reverse flow check
valve opens and allows pressure in the line to escape into the barrel.

The reverse flow check valve remains open until the pressure in the line drops to 1000
psi (6900 kPa). At this pressure the valve will close trapping the remaining pressure in
the line.

Fuel Metering

In the previous pump cycle, the scroll did not uncover the spill port until the plunger
had made a complete stroke. Thus, the maximum quantity of fuel was injected into the
cylinder and the engine would be at full throttle.

The plunger makes the same length of stroke every cycle. The variations, or metering
the amount of fuel being injected, is accomplished by rotating the plunger.

Figure 44 – Left: Full Rack


Right: Idle Rack

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Intermediate Engine System

At full throttle, the bottom part of the scroll uncovers the spill port at the end of the
stroke and the maximum quantity of fuel is injected (Figure 44, left). To operate the
engine at idle speed, the plunger is rotated clockwise so the top of the scroll uncovers
the spill earlier in the stroke (Figure 44, right). The area of the scroll in between idle
and full throttle provides a variable effective stroke for smooth efficient throttling of
the engine.

If the plunger is rotated completely clockwise, the slot in the plunger aligns with the
spill port and no pumping action is possible. This position is used to stop the engine.

Figure 45

To control the rotation of the plunger, a gear segment attached to the bottom of the
plunger is meshed with the rack in the pump housing (Figure 45). Forward to back
movement of the rack rotates the plunger. The six plungers in the pump housing are
synchronized with the rack to provide precise uniform metering of the fuel.

Movement of the fuel rack is controlled by the governor assembly.

Figure 46

Figure 46 is another view of the gear and the rack. Rack movement rotates the
plunger in the pump barrel and changes the relationship of the scroll to the spill port.

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Intermediate Engine System

Figure 47

Fuel released through the spill port is highly pressurized. To prevent erosion of the
pump housing, a hollow steel dowel directs the fuel from the spill port to the fuel
manifold (Figure 47).

Figure 48

The fuel which comes out of the dowel hits a steel cover plate (Figure 48). These
highly pressurized fuel pressure pulses cause polish spots that are lined up with the
spill ports on the manifold cover plate of the 3406B/C fuel system.

Figure 49

During the pump stroke, a high pressure bleed back passage aligns with the groove
around the barrel and the plunger during injection to prevent diluting the engine oil
(Figure 49, left).

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Intermediate Engine System

When the engine is shut off, a small groove in the face of the check valve allows the
1000 psi pressure in the fuel line to bleed off (Figure 49, right).

Governor

Basic Governor Operation

Figure 50– Mechanical Governor

The mechanical governor (Figure 50) is the simplest of the various types of governors.
Besides the mechanical governor, Caterpillar engines use servo- mechanical
governors, hydraulic governors and electronic governors.

WARNING:
Never operate a diesel engine without a governor controlling it.

If the fuel rack of a diesel engine was in the full “ON” position without a load, and
without the governor connected, the engine speed might climb and exceed safe
operating limits before it could be shut down. The engine may be seriously damaged
by overspeeding. This warning – “never operate a diesel engine without a governor
controlling it” – is concerned with one of the purposes of governors: to prevent engine
overspeeding. Governors also keep the engine at the desired speed and increase or
decrease engine power output to meet load changes.

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Intermediate Engine System

FigurFigure 51 – Left: Speed measuring and the fuel changing mechanism

Right: Flyweights

Diesel engine mechanical governors consist of two basic mechanisms: the speed
measuring mechanism and the fuel changing mechanism (Figure 51, left).

The speed measuring mechanism (Figure 51, right) has few moving parts and
measures engine speed. The flyweights and the pivoting “L” shaped ballarms are
mounted on the governor drive. As the engine rotates, the flyweights rotate.

Figure 52 – Left: Centrifugal Force Right: Governor Spring

As the flyweights rotate, they exert a centrifugal force outward (Figure 52, left). The
flyweights move outward pivoting the ballarms upward. The amount of outward force
depends on the speed of rotation. Centrifugal force is the basic operating principle of
the speed measuring mechanism.

Centrifugal force needs to be controlled, so a governor spring is included. The spring


acts against the force of the rotating flyweights and tends to oppose them. The force
exerted by the spring depends on the governor control setting (Figure 52, right).

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Intermediate Engine System

Figure 53 – Left: Governor Control


Right: Spring force equals the flyweight centrifugal force

A lever connected to the governor control pushes on or compresses the spring (Figure
53, left). The spring force opposes the flyweights to regulate the desired engine speed
setting. The governor control, shown here as a simple push-pull knob, may be a hand
operated control or a foot operated accelerator pedal.

As long as the spring force equals the flyweight centrifugal force, the engine speed
remains constant (Figure 53, right).

Figure 54 – Fuel changing mechanism

The speed measuring mechanism senses and measures engine speed changes. The
fuel changing mechanism links the speed measuring mechanism with the fuel injection
pumps to control the engine speed (Figure 54, left).

When the engine load increases, as when a truck starts up a hill, the speed decreases.
The flyweight force decreases, and the spring moves the linkage and rack (Figure 54,
right) to increase the fuel to the engine. The increased fuel position is held until the
engine speed returns to the desired setting, and the flyweight force again balances the
spring force.

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Figure 55 – Left: Low idle and high idle


Right: The collar and stop bar

Two adjusting screws limit the travel of the governor control lever between the LOW
IDLE position and the HIGH IDLE position. The low idle stop and high idle stop are
simply minimum and maximum engine rpm setting with no load on the engine (Figure
55, left).

When the engine is operating with the governor at high idle (1) and picks up a load,
the speed decreases, flyweight centrifugal force lessens, and the spring moves the
rack to give the engine more fuel, increasing power. The collar (2) and stop bar (3)
limit the distance the spring can move the rack (Figure 55, right). As the collar
contacts the stop bar, full load position is reached. This limits the fuel delivered to the
engine so as not to exceed design limitations.

Hydromechanical Governor

The 3406B has a full range hydromechanical governor. This is a governing system that
uses engine oil, or its own lubricating oil pressure, to support the action of a
mechanical control – any mechanical governor assisted by a hydraulic servo. The
hydraulically assisted governor maintains a nearly constant engine speed even over
rolling terrain. Reacting to throttle position and engine power requirements, it
maintains desired engine RPM by rapid and precise positioning of the fuel rack.

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Figure 56

A few of the components in the governor are (Figure 56):

 Flyweights

 Hydraulic servo valve

 Fuel injection pump camshaft

 Riser

 Governor spring

 Pivoting lever

 Spool

 Rack.

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Figure 57

Other components of the governor, shown in Figure 57 are:

1. Sleeve

2. Piston

3. Dash pot

4. Governor control lever

5. Stop collar

6. Full torque setting screw

7. Full load setting screw

8. Stop bolt.

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Figure 58

The flyweight carrier assembly is bolted directly to the fuel injection pump camshaft
(Figure 58, left).

There are four flyweights turning at one-half engine speed. As engine speed increases,
centrifugal force moves the flyweights out, pushing the riser against the governor
spring pressure.

The governor control lever moves the governor spring seat (Figure 58, right) and
spring towards the flyweights to increase engine speed (the governor control lever is
connected to the vehicle throttle pedal). The force of the governor spring is always
trying to increase the speed of the engine, while the force from the flyweights try to
decrease engine speed. During normal operation there will be a balance between
governor spring force and flyweight force.

Figure 59

The riser is mounted on the flyweight shaft between the governor spring and the
flyweights. The riser transfers the movement of the governor to the fuel rack through
a pivoting lever (Figure 59, left).

The fuel rack is connected to the pivoting lever through a servo valve (Figure 59,
right). The servo provides a power assist to the movement of the rack, utilising engine
oil pressure.

The servo valve is necessary because a large force is required to move the rack and

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turn the gear segments and plungers in the fuel injection pump. Without a “boost”
from the servo, the governor spring and flyweight assembly would need to be very
heavy. This would result in a large force to move the accelerator and the governor
control lever.

Servo Operation

Figure 60

When the governor control lever (operated by the pedal throttle) is moved to increase
fuel, the force of the governor spring moves the riser forward. The pivoting lever pulls
the valve spool in the servo valve in the ‘Fuel On’ direction (Figure 60, left).

This valve spool movement blocks the oil passage in the piston and opens the drain
passage behind the chamber (Figure 60, right). Pressurized engine oil from the oil inlet
forces the piston and the rack to the left. Oil behind the piston goes through the oil
passage, beside the valve, and out the drain passage.

Figure 61

When the movement of the piston and rack catch up to the position the valve spool,
the passage in the piston will open. This provides a temporary “hydraulic lock” and the
rack will remain in this position (Figure 61, left).

When the governor position changes to slow the engine, the pivoting lever will push

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the valve spool to the right. The piston port will remain open and the drain passage
will close. This allows oil to pressurize both sides of the piston. Since there is more
effective area on the back side of the piston, the oil pressure will force the piston and
rack to the right (Figure 61, right).

Figure 62

As the piston and rack move to the right, they will catch-up to the position of the valve
spool. This will provide a “hydraulic lock” and rack movement will stop at this position
(Figure 62, left).

When the governor spring and flyweights are balanced, the servo will also be in a
balanced (on movement) condition.

As the governor spring seat moves to the full ‘Fuel On’ position, it will come into
contact with the stop bolt. The stop bolt assembly contains the full torque setting
screw, and the load setting screw (Figure 62, right).

Figure 63

The set point occurs when the governor control lever is in contact with the high idle
stop screw, the governor spring is compressed and the full load screw is just touching
the torque spring (Figure 63, left).

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As load is added to the engine, RPM decreases and the flyweights move in. The
governor spring will move the riser to the right and the rack will move in the ‘Fuel On’
direction. The full load setting screw will now be in firm contact with the torque spring.
The torque spring will now control further movement of the fuel rack. This is a full load
point.

If more load is added, the engine will run in a lug condition. This occurs when the load
placed on the engine is greater than the horsepower output at the full load point.
When RPM decreases due to the added load, the force of the governor spring will move
the riser further to the right. As the stop bolt is pulled forward, the full load setting
screw will bend the torque spring and the rack can move further to the ‘Fuel On’
direction (Figure 63, right).

This movement is stopped when the full torque setting screw contacts the stop bar.
This is the maximum fuel position for this torque rise setting.

Figure 64

At start up, when the flyweights are collapsed, the overfueling spring moves the riser
to the right. This causes the pivoting lever to move the sleeve and spool, and the rack
is pulled in the ‘Fuel On’ direction (Figure 64, left). This provides additional fuel for
engine start-up. After the engines starts this spring has no effect on operation.

NOTE:
This spring is not used on late model engines. For hard starting problems, remove the
spring.

A dash pot assembly (Figure 64, right) is added to the governor to provide smoother
response to sudden speed and load changes on the engine. The dash pot assembly is
made up of a needle valve, oil reservoir, cylinder, piston, dash pot spring and spring
seat. The dash pot spring is connected to the spring seat on one end and the piston on
the other end.

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Figure 65

The area behind the piston is filled with oil from a supply chamber in the governor
housing. When the spring seat is moved, by a change in load or speed, the dash pot
spring moves the piston in the cylinder. As the piston moves, it causes oil to be moved
in or out of the cylinder. A needle valve is used to meter the oil flow, causing a
resistance to movement, damping governor response, and helps the governor reach
the desired engine speed without “undershooting” or “overshooting”.

Fuel Ratio Control

Figure 66

Another governor component that effects operation is the fuel ratio control. The fuel
ratio control on engines built prior to August 1989 require both boost and oil pressure
to activate the unit. On engines built later than this date, the fuel ratio control requires
only oil pressure. The fuel ratio control is only fitted to turbo charged engines.

The fuel ratio control mounts on the rear of the governor housing (Figure 66, left). Its
purpose is to limit smoke and reduce fuel consumption during rapid acceleration. It
does this by limiting rack movement in the ‘Fuel On’ direction until there is enough air
(turbo boost pressure) to allow complete combustion in the cylinders.

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A stem extending out of the fuel ratio control (Figure 66, right), fits in a notch in a
lever which contacts the end of the spool in the servo valve. With the engine stopped,
there is no engine oil pressure and the stem is in the fully extended position. The
movement of the rack is not restricted by the stem.

Figure 67

With engines manufactured prior to August 1989, after the engine is started, engine oil
flows into the oil chamber, through the internal valve and out the drain holes in the
stem (Figure 67, left). The stem will stay in the position until the inlet manifold
pressure increases enough to move the internal valve.

As engine speed increases, so will turbocharger boost pressure. A line connecting the
intake manifold with the diaphragm (Figure 67, right) chamber allows the boost
pressure to act on the diaphragm. This pressure on the diaphragm pushes the internal
valve to the right closing the drain port in the stem. Oil pressure will now push the
piston to the left. The stem now contacts the lever and limits the rack movement in
the ‘Fuel On’ direction.

Figure 68

When the governor control is moved to increase fuel to the engine, the stem limits the
movement of the rack in the ‘Fuel On’ direction. The oil in the chamber acts as a
restriction to the movement of the stem (Figure 68, left).

The stem will resist rack movement until there is an increase in boost pressure. As the
boost pressure increases, the diaphragm will move the valve to the right and allow oil
pressure in the oil chamber to flow to the body drain port. Loss of oil pressure behind
the piston allows the spring to move the stem to the right. The governor can now

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continue moving the rack in the ‘Fuel On’ direction (Figure 68, right).

The fuel ratio control is designed to restrict the fuel until the air pressured in the inlet
manifold is high enough to support complete combustion. This prevents large amounts
of exhaust smoke caused by over-fueling.

With engines manufactured after August 1989, only oil pressure is required to activate
the fuel ratio control. The fuel ratio control is in this position to limit rack movement as
soon as oil pressure is achieved. This also means that a valve controlled only by oil
pressure may be fitted to naturally aspirated engines.

Fuel Shut off Solenoid

Figure 69

When the engine’s electrical system is energized (key ON), the fuel shut off solenoid is
activated. The solenoid retracts and allows unrestricted rack movement.

This is known as an ‘energize to run’ solenoid (Figure 69, left). Some engines use an
“energise to shut off” solenoid, which are activated when the electrical system is shut
down.

When the electrical system is shut down (key OFF), the solenoid is deactivated and
movement of rack is prevented in the ‘fuel on’ direction (Figure 69, right).

The shut off solenoid will stop the engine even if the governor is in the full ‘fuel on’
position. The broken link spring on the servo valve allows the valve to be moved to the
‘fuel off’ position regardless of the position of the servo sleeve.

High Pressure Fuel Lines

Fuel Lines

As simple as a fuel line may appear, the design is very important to a correctly
functioning fuel system. Some of the characteristics that affect the design of a fuel line
are fuel nozzle orifice size, the length of the fuel line and the inside diameter of the
fuel line.

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The inside diameter at the end of a fuel line is usually 0.25mm (0.010”) larger than
the inside diameter of the fuel line. This size difference is needed to allow for
alignment between components. Also, since the ferrule is made from a soft metal, a
larger opening is needed because this opening will decrease when the fuel line nuts are
tightened. This soft material is used to ensure a good seal between mating parts.

The angles and bends in the fuel lines on an engine may seem unusual but are
necessary. Most current engines have fuel lines that are the same length to maintain
identical injection timing between cylinders in the engine. If one fuel line is longer than
the rest, the extra amount of time it takes to deliver that amount of fuel could change
the time at which the fuel nozzle injects fuel. This timing is critical to engine
performance.

Not all lines have the same inside diameter. Because of these diameter differences, it
is important the correct fuel line is used. For identification purposes, all fuel lines have
an attached metal tag. The part number of the fuel line is stamped on this tag. Check
the parts book for correct fuel line usage. After a new fuel line is installed, remove this
metal tag to prevent damage to the fuel line.

Excessive Nut Torque

The ferrules on fuel lines are made from soft metal to form a seal between the fuel line
and its mating part. The opening in the ferrule is slightly larger than the inside
diameter of the fuel line. This larger opening compensates for the small amount of
distortion that occurs when the fuel line nut is tightened.

As the fuel line nut is tightened, the opening in the ferrule decreases in size. If
excessive torque is used on the nut, the opening in the ferrule may be reduced to a
point where there can be a reduction in fuel flow. If overtightened lines are reused,
there can be a poor seal between the fuel line and its mating part. This poor seal can
cause fuel leakage.

Figure 70 – Fuel line damage

Figure 70 shows a ferrule on a fuel line that has been damaged because of excessive
torque on the fuel line nut. Notice the impression in the end of the ferrule. A slight

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impression is normal on all fuel lines. But, when the nut is overtightened, the
impression becomes deeper and the area behind the impression begins to bulge.

See the appropriate service manual for the correct torque for the fuel line nuts.

Figure 71 – Ruptured fuel line ferrule

Figure 71 shows a ruptured fuel line ferrule.

Figure 72 – Scratched fuel line ferrule

Figure 72 shows a scratched ferrule on a fuel line. These scratches prevent good
sealing between the ferrule and its mating part. The result of this can be fuel dilution.

These scratches are normally the result of mishandling or from foreign material. Use
caution when handling fuel lines during removal or installation. Make sure the fuel line
and its mating component are free of foreign material before installation of the fuel
line.

Figure 73 – Cracked fuel line washer

A cracked or broken fuel line washer, as shown in Figure 73, is normally the result of a
material failure. A cracked or broken washer may cause loss of torque and leakage.

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Figure 74 – Excessive stress caused this fuel line to break

A bent or overstressed fuel line can break as shown in Figure 74. Care must be taken
to prevent bent and overstressed fuel lines when they are installed on the engine.

The fuel lines must be close to their correct position before the nuts and clamps are
tightened. A fuel line that is broken must be replaced. Do not braze a broken fuel line.

Figure 75 – Slight wear caused by loose clamps

The fuel lines in Figure 75 has been damaged by loose fuel line clamps. If the clamps
are loose, movement of the clamps during engine operation will gradually cause wear
on the lines. This fuel line has only slight wear and can be used again if the clamp can
be tightened.

Figure 76 – Damage caused by loose clamps

A replacement must be made of the fuel line shown in Figure 76.

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Figure 77 – Vibration damage on the clamp

Wear can also take place on the clamps. If the clamp has been damaged as shown in
Figure 77, it must be replaced.

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Timing Advance Unit

Timing advance unit berfungsi untuk memajukan proses penginjeksian bahan bakar
(Injection Timing) pada saat engine berakselerasi dan menurunkan injection timing
pada saat engine berdeselerasi.

Penggunaan timing advance tidak pada semua engine Caterpillar, umumnya pada
engine yang applikasinya sering berakselerasi dan berdecelarasi saja yang dilengkapi
dengan timing advance seperti truck, vehicular , beberapa marine engine. Generator
set engine dan beberapa marine engine yang beroperasi pada kecepatan konstan
umumnya tidak dilengkapi dengan timing advance unit.

Cylinder
P ressure
(D )
5000
(C )

4000
(B)

(E )
A W AL
PE NG INJE KSIAN (A)
3000

A -B D elay Period
2000 B -C U ncontrolled C om bustion
C -D C ontolled C om bustion
D -E Afterburning

1000

180 TDC 540

Figure 78 - Grafik tahapan pembakaran

Proses pembakaran bahan bakar

Grafik pada Figure 78 menunjukkan tahapan selama proses pembakaran, terdiri dari:

1. Awal penginjeksian bahan bakar (A), pada titik ini bahan bakar mulai
dinjeksikan. Saat penginjeksian bahan bakar disebut juga fuel timing.

2. Delay period (A-B) adalah waktu yang dibutuhkan oleh partikel bahan bakar
untuk menguap dan naik temperaturnya hingga dapat terbakar sendiri.

3. Uncontrolled combustion (B-C), Setelah bahan bakar menguap dan mencapai


temperatur pembakaran maka secara bertahap bahan bakar akan terbakar
sehingga tekanan meningkat dengan tajam pada ruang pembakaran. Apabila
titik mulainya uncontrolled combustion ini terlalu awal maka akan timbul
detonasi didalam ruang bakar.

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4. Controlled combustion ( C-D), pada kondisi ini temperature sudah sangat tinggi
sehingga bahan bakar terbakar dengan sempurna.

5. Akhir proses pembakaran bahan bakar (D), tekanan didalam ruang bakar yang
sudah sangat tinggi mendorong piston menuju BDC.

Tahapan A-D pada grafik diatas cenderung terjadi dalam waktu yang sama, sementara
kecepatan piston pada engine yang sering berakselerasi dan berdecelerasi selalu
berubah-ubah. Hal ini tentunya dapat menyebabkan perubahan pada titik akhir proses
pembakaran. Apabila titik akhir proses pembakaran berubah maka performance engine
tidak akan optimal. Supaya pembakaran tetap berakhir pada titik yang tepat yaitu
beberapa derajat setelah TDC walaupun terjadi akselerasi dan deselerasi maka Timing
advance unit diperlukan ,yang bertujuan memajukan titik awal penginjeksian pada
saat akselerasi dan memundurkan titik awal penginjeksian pada saat decelerasi.

Dampak timing yang tidak tepat terhadap engine

Timing penginjeksian bahan bakar kedalam silinder dapat terjadi terlalu awal
(advance) atau terlalu lambat (retard), dapat berdampak terhadap performance
engine.

Timing penginjeksian yang terlalu awal (advance) dapat menimbulkan hal-hal dibawah
ini:

1. Boost pressure akan rendah

2. Temperature exhaust terlalu rendah

3. Silinder pressure (BMEP) akan rendah

4. Kerusakan yang dapat terjadi yaitu :

a. Crack pada piston skirt

b. Kerusakan pada rod bearing

c. Kerusakan pada gasket cylinder head

d. Knocking dan suara engine kasar

5. Pelumasan pada silinder berkurang ketika posisi piston terlalu rendah pada saat

injeksi pada langkah kompresi dan kemungkinan bercampurnya solar dan oli

lebih besar.

6. Terbentuknya karbon yang berlebihan didalam silinder

7. Asap hitam (Black smoke) jika penginjeksian terlalu awal lebih dari 10°

8. Susah distart

9. Overheating

10. Meningkatnya kadar NOx pada gas buang (oxides nitrogen)

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Timing penginjeksian terlalu lambat (retard) dapat menimbulkan hal-hal dibawah ini :

1. Respon engine lambat yang terkadang salah persepsi dengan menyebut low

power.

2. Asap hitam (black smoke) saat engine dibebani .

3. Asap putih saat start up

4. Penggunaan fuel tidak ekonomis

5. Boost pressure terlalu tinggi

6. High exhaust temperature

7. Timbul api pada exhaust stack jika timing terlalu retard.

8. Crack yang diakibatkan panas pada piston crown.

9. Crack yang diakibatkan panas dibagian bawah cylinder head

10. Exhaust valve terbakar

11. Overheating

12. Meningkatnya partikel pada gas buang

Figure 79 - Proses Advance & retard

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Proses Advance & Retard

Timing advance terhubung ke camshaft fuel injection pump dan bekerja mengubah
posisi camshaft lobe terhadap lifter, apakah mendekat atau menjauh tergantung pada
kecepatan engine. Perubahan ini mengakibatkan berubahnya waktu plunger
bergerak naik untuk melakukan penginjeksian atau sering disebut fuel timing.

Jenis-Jenis Timing advance unit


Timing advance unit yang dipergunakan pada pump & line fuel system terdiri dari :

1. Mechanical Automatic Timing Advance Unit

2. Hydraulic Automatic Timing Advance Unit

Figure 80 - Automatic timing advance

Mechanical Automatic Timing Advance Unit

Automatic timing advance ini mempunyai rancangan yang sangat sederhana dan
dapat dijumpai pada engine 3406A.

Karena peningkatan putaran engine maka flyweight timing advance mengembang,


camshaft bergerak menjauhi lifter dan proses penambahan timing berlangsung.
Cara kerja timing advance jenis ini secara lengkap dibahas pada penjelasan berikut.

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Figure 81 - Automatic timing advance operation

Komponen Mechanical Automatic Timing Advance Unit

Komponen automatic timing advance terdiri dari :

1. Flange

2. Weight

3. Spring

4. Slide

5. Drive gear

6. Drive shaft

Figure 82 - Automatic timing advance operation

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Cara Kerja Mechanical Automatic Timing Advance Unit

Automatic timing advance terpasang pada bagian depan drive shaft fuel injection
pump, digerakkan oleh timing gear engine. Drive gear terhubung ke drive shaft fuel
injection pump melalui system weight, spring, slide dan flange . Dua buah slide terikat
pada flange dan Alur dengan sudut tertentu dari weight bersuaian dengan slide.
Saat gaya centrifugal terjadi pada weight akibat putaran engine, weight bergerak
kearah luar melawan spring, rancangan alur dari weight yang berbentuk sudut
tertentu akan menyebabkan slide dan flange bergerak relatif terhadap gear sebesar
sudut alur pada weight. Karena flange terhubung dengan drive shaft fuel injection
pump maka timing fuel injection pump pun berubah.

Figure 83 - Hydraulic automatic timing advance unit

Hydraulic Automatic Timing Advance Unit

Gambar diatas merupakan Hydraulic automatic timing advance unit yang dipasang
pada engine 3406B.

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Figure 84 - Hydraulic automatic timing advance unit

Unit ini terhubung ke drive shaft fuel injection pump, perubahan timing fuel pump
relatif terhadap putaran engine pada gear drive berbentuk helix spline yang berada
didepan camshaft fuel injection pump. Helix gear terhubung dengan carrier timing
advance. Pada gambar diatas terlihat juga Quad type seal yang berfungsi menyekat
oil pada saat timing advance bekerja. Sering terjadi permukaan seal tampak rata
namun kondisi ini dianggap normal dan seal harus diganti apabila seal tergores atau
cacat.

Figure 85 - Komponen Hydraulic automatic timing advance unit

Komponen Hydraulic automatic timing advance unit

Komponen dari Hydraulic automatic timing advance adalah sebagai berikut :

1. Timing gear yang digerakkan oleh gear train engine sebelah depan.

2. Outer ring, berfungsi mengunci static timing fuel injection pump.

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3. Carrier, meluncur pada spline lurus outer ring dan spline helix camshaft fuel

injection pump.

4. Body, dipress ke carrier dan berfungsi meneruskan setengah putaran engine

ke system flyweight dan lubang yang berada ditengah berfungsi mengaktifkan

system servo.

5. Spool, berfungsi sebagai pengarah aliran oli didalam system servo.

6. Spring besar, berfungsi memundurkan timing pada saat pressure dibuang dari

servo system.

7. Flyweight/spring kecil, berfungsi sebagai penggerak spool saat unit bekerja

dan mengembalikan spool ke posisi semula jika servo system tidak aktif.

8. Set screw besar, berfungsi untuk menyetel beban awal spring kecil ( start

advance ).

9. Set screw kecil, berfungsi menentukan jarak maksimal yang dapat ditempuh

spool (stop advance ).

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Figure 86 - Mulai timing advance

Timing advance di Mulai

Gambar 86 menunjukkan kondisi dimana gaya centrifugal dari flyweight sanggup


melawan gaya spring kecil dan spool akan bergerak kekiri. Gerakan ini membuka
lubang di body sehingga oil yang bertekanan mengalir ke rongga bagian belakang
diameter body yang besar. Tekanan hydraulic melawan gaya spring yang besar
sehingga menggerakkan body & carrier assembly ke kiri., Gerakan ini menyebabkan
camshaft berputar beberapa derajat karena carrier di spline dengan helix gear pada
camshaft. Body & carrier assembly terus bergerak kekiri hingga lubang bagian kanan
tertutup oleh ujung spool. Pada posisi ini advance unit bergerak maju mundur menutup
dan membuka saluran masuk oli di body.

Figure 87 - Maximum timing advance

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Maximum timing advance

Gambar diatas menunjukkan spool menyentuh screw yang kecil. Body & carrier
assembly juga dapat menyentuh retainer dan stop advance jika setelan screw yang
kecil terlalu masuk kedalam retainer. Pada posisi ini advance yang terjadi maksimal .

Figure 88 - Retard timing advance

Retard timing advance

Saat putaran engine turun, gaya centifugal flyweight berkurang dan spring yang kecil
sanggup melawan sehingga spool bergerak kekanan. Gerakan ini menutup ruangan
dibelakang diameter body yang besar dan saluran drain terbuka sehingga tekanan oil
yang berada pada ruangan antara carrier dan drive gear hilang dan selanjutnya body &
carrier bergerak kekanan menyebabkan helix drive gear fuel injection pump berputar
kearah sebaliknya beberapa derajat atau retard.

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Figure 89 - Screw start advance

Penyetelan Start Advance

Pada gambar diatas terlihat locknut yang harus dikendorkan saat dilakukan
penyetelan start advance.

Memutar screw clockwise (masuk ) mengakibatkan spring akan lebih tertekan.


Dengan semakin besarnya preload pada spring, maka gaya sentrifugal flyweight
belum mampu melawan spring sampai saat engine berputar pada RPM yang lebih
tinggi sehingga start advance diperlambat. Memutar screw counterclockwise
menyebabkan start advance terjadi pada RPM yang lebih rendah. Untuk melakukan
penyetelan lebih lanjut, mengacu pada sevice manual engine masing-masing.

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Figure 90 - Screw stop advance

Penyetelan Stop Advance

Penyetelan stop advance dilakukan dengan mengendorkan locknut bagian dalam


menggunakan. adjusting wrench yang tersedia pada 6V 6070 tool group . Memutar
screw yang kecil clockwise menyebabkan stop advance terjadi pada RPM yang lebih
rendah begitu juga sebaliknya. Untuk melakukan penyetelan lebih lanjut, mengacu
pada sevice manual engine masing-masing.

Perhitungan Dynamic Advance

Dynamic timing tidak semata–mata dipengaruhi oleh timing advance unit ,tetapi ada
beberapa faktor lain yang mempengaruhi yaitu:

a. Static timing

Static timing merupakan timing fuel injection pump pada saat pemasangan, tidak
ada penyetelan yang dilakukan dalam hal ini namun ada prosedur pemasangan
yang harus diikuti saat melakukan pemasangan fuel injection pump. Saat
pemasangan pastikan piston berada pada posisi top-1 kompresi dan pasang timing
pin pada fuel injection pump. Nilai dari static timing tidak sama untuk setiap unit
tergantung dari aplikasinya dan nilai static timing dapat dilihat pada engine
performance spec. Lifter setting pada scroll type dan timing dimension pada MUI
akan mempengaruhi nilai dari static timing.

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b. Port effect

Port effect merupakan aliran gelombang tekanan yang timbul akibat gerakan naik
turun yang cepat plunger terhadap barrel.Gelombang tekanan ini menyebabkan
bahan bakar diinjeksikan sebelum spill port tertutup sepenuhnya oleh plunger.
Besarnya advance yang terjadi akibat port effect adalah 0.1derajat setiap 100 rpm
untuk scroll type dan 0,2 derajat setiap 100 rpm untuk newscroll type.

CONTOH PERHITUNGAN

Carilah dynamic timing new scroll fuel injection pump pada 650 rpm, 3065 rpm, 1500
rpm & 2800 rpm

Diketahui :

o Static timing 16 derajat

o Total advance 5 derajat

o Start advance 1500 rpm

o Stop advance 2800 rpm

o Low idle 650 rpm

o High Idle 3065 rpm.

a. Dynamic timing pada 650 rpm adalah :


Port effect pada 650 rpm 0.2 X 6.5 = 1.35°

Static timing = 16°

Mechanical advance = 0°

____________

= 17.35°

b. Dynamic timing pada 1500 rpm


Port effect 0.2 X 15 = 3°

Static timing = 16°

Mechanical advance = 0°

____________

= 19°

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Intermediate Engine System

c. Dynamic timing pada 2800 rpm


Port effect 0.2 X 28 = 5.6°

Static timing = 16°

Mechanical advance = 5°

__________

= 26.6 °

d. Dynamic timing pada 3065 rpm


Port effect 0.2 X 30.65 = 6.13°

Static timing = 16°

Mechanical advance = 5°

__________

= 27.13 °

Figure 91 - Pengukuran dynamic timing

Pengukuran Dynamic Timing

8T5300 Timing Indicator Group digunakan untuk memeriksa dynamic timing pada
engine yang dilengkapi automatic timing advance unit .

Tool ini tidak memiliki internal battery namun membutuhkan supply tegangan
sebesar 11 hingga 40 Vdc yang dihubungkan ke port sebelah kiri atas dari tool.

Dalam melakukan pengukuran, tool ini membutuhkan input dari dua buah tranducer
yaitu:

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Intermediate Engine System

1. Menyediakan input berupa pulsa yang memberikan informasi tentang posisi TDC
silinder no.1 atau no.6

2. Menyediakan input berupa pulsa yang memberikan informasi saat fuel


diinjeksikan, apakah pada silinder no.1 atau no.6 tergantung dimana tranducer
dipasang.

Digital display sebelah kiri menunjukkan RPM engine dan yang sebelah kanan
menunjukkan injection timing sebelum TDC.

Pembacaan pengukuran dilakukan setiap kenaikan seratus rpm, kemudian


membandingkan hasilnya dengan hasil perhitungan.

Figure 92 - Pemasangan magnetic tranducer

Pemasangan Magnetic Transuder

Collet dari magnetic TDC transducer dipasang pada lubang timing bolt pada engine.
Probe yang terdapat didalam collet memiliki sebuah snug fitting o-ring disekitarnya .
Sebelum memasukkan probe kedalam collet, dorong o-ring menuju ujung probe,
masukkan probe kedalam collet hingga menyentuh permukaan flywheel, kemudian
tarik sedikit probe kearah luar hingga celah antara o-ring dan collet sama dengan
ketebalan o-ring, hal ini dilakukan untuk mendapatkan clearance sebesar 0.04" (1
mm) antara flywheel dan ujung probe. Kencangkan nut collet untuk menahan probe
diposisinya.

Yakinkan engine berada pada posisi piston no. 1 TDC untuk menghindari rusaknya
probe.

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Figure 93 - Pemasangan fuel tranducer

Pemasangan Fuel Transuder

Fuel transducer dipasang secara seri dengan fuel line no.1 atau no.6 pada bonnet
high pressure fuel pump. Hal yang perlu dilakukan sebelum memasang tranducer
adalah membuka atau mengendorkan clamp fuel line untuk menghindari bengkoknya
fuel line dan yakinkan clamp dikencangkan pada posisi semula setelah tranducer
dilepas.

Sebuah adaptor dan nut fuel line yang memiliki slott digunakan untuk mengikat
ferrule fuel line dan transducer tee ke bonnet .

Setelah tranducer dipasang, running engine dan periksa kebocoran yang terjadi
karena kebocoran dapat mengakibatkan pembacaan tidak akurat. Lakukan pengukuran
dengan terlebih dahulu memanaskan engine hingga mencapai temperature operasi.

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Figure 94 - Spesifikasi timing

Spesifikasi timing

Nilai spesifikasi dari static timing, total advance, putaran engine saat automatic
timing advance mulai bekerja dan putaran engine saat automatic timing advance
berhenti dapat ditemukan di section engine performance spesifikasi pada SIS.

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Figure 95 - Dynamic timing chart

Dynamic timing chart

Setelah proses penghitungan dynamic timing setiap 100 rpm diperoleh, gambarkan
nilai tersebut dalam bentuk grafik pada dynamic timing chart. Lakukan pengukuran
aktual dynamic timing lalu gambarkan nilai yang diperoleh kedalam chart yang sama
lalu buat perbandingan.

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Intermediate Engine System

TOPIC 4
Mechanical Unit Injection

Fuel System & Components

Figure 96

The 1.1 litre engine fuel system employs a mechanical unit injector, combining both
the nozzle assembly and the high pressure pump (Figure 96)

Fuel from the fuel tank is pulled through an in-line screen by the fuel transfer pump.
The fuel transfer pump is integral with the governor. Fuel is sent from the fuel
transfer pump through the pressure relief valve. The pressure relief valve is closed in
normal operation. Fuel will enter through the fuel filter to a drilled passage in the
cylinder head. Once the pressure of the fuel is greater than the desired range then the
relief valve will open. This will allow the fuel to return to the tank. The drilled passage
in the cylinder head intersects a gallery around each unit injector in order to provide a
continuous flow of fuel to all injectors.

When there is air on the inlet side of the fuel system, fuel priming pump (if equipped)
may be used in order to fill the fuel filter and the fuel gallery that is in the cylinder
head. This is performed before the engine is started. When the priming pump is used,

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check valves that are located in the fuel priming pump control the movement of the
fuel. The fuel is forced through the low pressure side of the fuel system. This removes
air from the fuel lines and components back into the fuel tank.

This system is very compact; eliminates external high pressure fuel lines; and most
importantly, provides excellent control of injection timing under all load conditions,
contributing fast response to load and outstanding fuel consumption. Additionally, this
system allows very high injection pressures and short injection times, with subsequent
improved emission control.

Check Valve

Figure 97 – Check Valve

The check valve shown in Figure 97 keeps fuel from bleeding out of the fuel gallery
after shutdown and ensures a fuel supply, under a predetermined pressure, for start-
up. This is the same design valve as is used in the transfer pump. The pressure
regulating orifice helps ensure adequate fuel pressure and controls the return-to-tank
flow rate. This area of the fuel system has been redesigned to provide a better seal
after shutdown.

Fuel Transfer Pump

Figure 98 – Fuel transfer pump

The fuel transfer pump is located in the front housing of the governor (Figure 98). It is
a piston-type pump, actuated by an eccentric on the governor drive shaft and driven
by the governor gear.

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Location

Figure 99

The cover is held in place by 3 small screws (Figure 99). The pumping spring is
beneath the cover. Care must be taken when removing this cover. The cover must be
held down while the screws are removed or slowly walk the screws out. Failure to use
one of these procedures will allow the springs to side load the cover and one or more
of the cover mounting bosses may break.

Components

Figure 100

Figure 100 shows the transfer pump cover, pumping spring, piston with internal check
valve, and tappet assembly.

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Operation

Figure 101

The fuel transfer pump (Figure 101) is located in the front housing of the governor.
The pump is activated by the camshaft attached to the shaft of the governor drive
gear. The piston assembly and tappet assembly are stroked up and down by the
camshaft spring.

Fuel enters the transfer pump through the screen and inlet check valve. On the
upstroke of piston assembly the inlet check valve closes, the outlet check valve closes
to prevent fuel from being drawn back in the pump from the outlet. As pressure
increase above the piston assembly the piston check valve opens to allow fuel to fill
the passage.

On the downstroke, increasing the fuel pressure in the passage causes the piston
check valve to close and the outlet check valve to open, pushing fuel to the main fuel
filter and engine. The inlet check valve opens to allow fuel to fill the cavity above the
piston assembly.

During engine shutdown, the check valves are held closed by springs.

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Solenoid

Figure 102 - Solenoid

A latching solenoid with two coils and a mechanical latch is installed on the governor.
The solenoid is energised to latch and then de-energised. It is energised again to
release the latch. It also has manual ‘latch’ and ‘release’ functions to provide limp
home and manual shut off capabilities. Solenoids are available for 12 and 24 volt
applications. Also, some applications (trucks and gen sets) will use a conventional
(non-latching) ‘energise-to-run’ solenoid to allow automatic shutdown systems to shut
off the engine by interrupting power to the solenoid. The spanner wrench (9U5120)
shown is necessary for solenoid removal.

Latching Solenoid

Figure 103

Engines that are equipped with a latching solenoid can be manually shut off by

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pushing the button inward. The solenoid CANNOT be manually latched in the run
position in order to start the engine.

Unit Injector

Figure 104 - Unit injector

The fuel injection system for this engine is a mechanical unit injector type (Figure
104). The injection pump and nozzle are combined in one injector assembly for each
cylinder. All high pressure lines are eliminated. Fuel lines consist of supply lines to and
from the cylinder head, fuel filter and fuel transfer pump.

Fuel is supplied to each injector by an internal passage running the full length of the
head. Each unit injector has its own fuel rack, controlled by the governor with a rack
control linkage that actuates all of the unit injectors simultaneously.

The unit injector system allows very high injection pressures and short injection
times. Both of these factors lead to an engine with excellent emission control, fast
response to changes in load and outstanding fuel consumption.

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Figure 105

Figure 105 shows a cross-section of an injector installed in the cylinder head. A brass
sleeve separates the injector and fuel from the coolant. Also shown is the rocker arm
assembly which actuates the injector. The control linkage moves the injector rack
according to the position of the output shaft of the governor.

Figure 106 – Hold-down clamp; rack; plunger; injector nozzle

The large extension on the side of the injector is the hold-down clamp (Figure 106).

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Shown at the bottom of the injector is the rack. Its movement controls the rotation of
the helix on the scroll of the plunger, thus determining the volume of fuel to be
injected into the cylinder.

Figure 107

The unit injector consists of a scroll-type high pressure plunger and injector nozzle
(Figure 107). Effective stroke of the plunger, during which high pressure fuel is
injected, is controlled by the gear position, which is actuated by the governor and
rack.

Figure 108

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This system is basically like other Cat scroll systems except the high pressure pumps
are separated and individually positioned above each combustion chamber, thereby
liminating the need of high pressure fuel lines. Total plunger stroke is always the
same and determined by the cam lobe lift and rocker arm motion. The effective
stroke, however, is determined by the scroll position (Figure 108). The plunger rotates
about its vertical axis to move the scroll, hence, lengthening or reducing the effective
stroke. During the time both ports are covered, fuel is injected. Fuel pressure forces
the check off its seat for injection, and once pressure drops, a spring closes the check.
Fuel surrounds the injector from the top o-ring to the raised sealing ring at the base
of the nozzle cone.

Figure 109 – Remove the unit injector

To remove the unit injector (Figure 109), first remove the hold-down bolt. Then, being
careful not to damage the injector rack, insert the pry bar in the notch at the base of
the injector and loosen the injector in the bore. Rotate the injector to ensure that the
rack head clears the rack shaft before removing the injector. If the fuel in the cylinder
head has not been removed, it will flow into the cylinder.

Figure 110 – ‘pop’ tester

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There is a ‘pop’ tester 1U6661 available for the unit injectors or a conversion to the
former 3500 ‘pop’ tester (6V4022) can be used. The tester can also be used to test
3500 and 3176 unit injectors, and replaces the former tester (Figure 110).

Governor

Figure 111 – Governor

The governor is gear driven high on the left front of the engine (Figure 111). Fuel rate
and speed are controlled by linkage to the injector rack.

Figure 112 – Governor

The governor (Figure 112) is a flyweight type, full range, with a floating fulcrum
linkage that allows for a small package. Additionally, a speed sensitive torque cam
provides torque curve shaping for specific high volume application.

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The governor requires a test bench to perform the load stop, throttle stop (high idle),
and air fuel ratio adjustments.

The governor is bench set dynamically. Power is set at the rack control linkage on the
cylinder head using a dial position indicator. All adjustments are made on this control
linkage, which is sealed at the factory. The governor is also sealed after bench setting
and is not to be adjusted except on the governor bench, with the exception of low
idle.

Governor Operation

Figure 113

The governor is gear driven from the engine camshaft. This drives the flyweights
inside the governor. The flyweights move a riser on the riser shaft. The movement of
the riser on the shaft is opposed by a spring pack. Engine speed and spring force
determine the location of the riser.

Figure 114

The governor (last figure) communicates desired fuel rate to the engine through the
governor output shaft. Shown above are some of the main components of this
governor. The two inputs that control the position of the output shaft are the Fulcrum

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Lever and the Limit Lever. Changes in engine speed are felt by the Riser Lever, which
rotates the Pivot Shaft. The Torque Cam and Pivot Lever are connected to the Pivot
Shaft. The position of the Fulcrum Lever is determined by balancing the throttle lever
input with the position of the Pivot Lever and Pivot Shaft.

The Limit Lever acts to set a maximum limit to rack travel. That limit depends on
several factors such as Torque Cam position, intake manifold pressure, and the Limit
Screw setting.

Figure 115 – Operators increase in throttle MP

When the throttle is moved to increase fuel, the change in position translates
into an immediate change in the governor output shaft and rack control linkage
(Figure 115). This happens because the fulcrum lever is allowed to pivot on the
pivot lever. The Fulcrum Lever is the link between the Throttle Lever and the
output shaft. Any change in the position of the throttle lever causes
aproportionate change in the position of the output shaft. The change in rack
position does not immediately effect the riser lever.

NOTE:
Figure 115 shows movement of the Throttle Lever toward both the fuel on and fuel
off position prior to any governor reaction to engine speed changes. The drawings
show the governor parts as if viewed from the top and front of the governor.

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Figure 116 – Governor response to increase to engine speed

The governor reacts to changes in engine speed (Figure 116). As engine RPM
decreases or increases, the fly weights move in or out. The flyweights cause the Riser
Lever and Pivot Shaft to rotate the Pivot Lever. As the Pivot Lever moves, the Fulcrum
Lever rotates to a new position. The output shaft is forced to shift along with the
Fulcrum Lever arm to a new stabilising position.

NOTE:
In Figure 116 the throttle is held constant as the pivot lever moves in both
directions.

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Figure 117 – Torque lever held by limit lever and torque cam

The governor also limits the fuel rate when rated load or a lug condition is reached
(Figure 117). When this condition occurs, the limit lever is against the setscrew,
and the output shaft is in the maximum FUEL ON position. The upper tip of the
Torque Lever rides in the rear groove of the output shaft. The torque lever rotates
about a pin on the limit lever. The Torque Lever is allowed to rotate until the
bottom contacts the torque cam. With the bottom of the Torque Lever contacting
the Torque Cam and the pivoting axis held in place by the limit lever, movement of
the output shaft is prevented.

If more load is applied to the engine in this condition, engine speed will decrease.
This decrease will be felt by the flyweights, causing the riser to rotate the torque
cam to a different position on the riser shaft.

Figure 118

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If there is not enough boost to overcome the springs in the Fuel Ratio Control
(FRC), the retainer is held in a retracted position (Figure 118). The retainer
prevents the FRC lever and set screw from rotating towards the fuel-on position.

When boost increases and the FRC retainer moves outward, the torque lever allows
the output shaft to move in the fuel on direction until the limit lever contacts the
FRC lever and Set Screw.

Figure 119

Movement of the governor output shaft is controlled by the servo on governor


types 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 (Figure 119). When the governor moves in the fuel on
direction, the valve moves to the left. The valve closes the path for pressure oil to
go to drain. At the same time, the valve opens a path to drain to allow the oil
behind the piston to escape. Pressure oil pushes the piston and clevis to the left.

Figure 120

When the governor spring and flyweight forces are balanced and the engine speed
is constant, the valve will stop moving (Figure 120, left). Pressure oil will continue

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to push the piston to the left until the path to drain is opened. Oil will now flow
along the valve to drain. With no oil pressure on the piston, the piston and clevis
stop moving.

When the governor moves in the ‘FUEL OFF’ direction, the valve moves to the right
(Figure 120, right). The valve closes the path to drain, and opens a path for oil to
flow behind the piston. Pressure oil is now on both sides of the piston. The surface
area is greater on the left side of the piston than on the right side. The force of the
oil pressure will also be greater on the left side of the piston and moves the piston
and clevis.

Figure 121

As mentioned earlier, Type II governors do not use a servo to control rack


movement. Instead, the Type II governors used four flyweights to control the rack
movement. The use of four flyweights eliminated the need for a servo assist when
used on a 3114 engine (Figure 121).

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Intermediate Engine System

TOPIC 5
Governor Adjustment

Fuel System Setting


OBJECTIVES
Setelah mengikuti pelajaran ini siswa dapat :

1. Menjelaskan terminologi yang berhubungan dengan fuel setting dan

horsepower engine.

2. Menjelaskan hubungan antara fuel setting dengan horsepower dan

kecepatan engine.

3. Menjelaskan pengaruh yang terjadi pada engine jika dilakukan perubahan

fuel setting.

Pendahuluan

Fuel setting merupakan prosedur yang dilakukan pada fuel injection pump dan
governor dengan mengubah parameter-parameter yang mempengaruhinya, bertujuan
untuk menaikkan atau menurunkan kemampuan dan kecepatan engine. Sebagai
contoh apabila kita memindahkan engine mekanikal yang biasa beroperasi didataran
rendah ke dataran tinggi maka untuk mencegah terjadinya pembakaran yang tidak
sempurna maka fuel setting dari fuel injection pumpnya harus dirubah.

Perubahan fuel setting pada diesel engine dapat mengakibatkan kemampuan engine
tidak sesuai dengan parameter yang telah disetel di pabrik karena jika menaikkan fuel
setting dari spesifikasi pabrik maka tenaga yang dihasilkan juga akan semakin besar
namun dapat berakibat tingginya tingkat keausan dan kerusakan engine.

Dengan mengetahui fuel setting, kita dapat melakukan penyetelan tenaga engine,
mengetahui dampak apabila fuel setting berubah dan memudahkan dalam
menganalisa problem yang berhubungan dengan fuel system.

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Low idle High idle

RPM

Gambar 122 - Low idle & High idle

Low Idle
Low idle adalah kecepatan engine saat berputar dengan lancar tanpa beban dan tanpa
tekanan yang diberikan ke linkage akselerator. Toleransi untuk low idle adalah ± 30
RPM. Low idle yang terlalu rendah dapat menyebabkan engine tidak stabil .

High Idle
High idle adalah kecepatan engine pada saat berputar dengan throttle penuh tanpa
beban. Toleransi high idle ± 70 Rpm. Nilai high idle dapat ditemukan pada engine
information plate di engine valve cover atau engine performance spec pada SIS. Nilai
high idle yang tertera ditentukan pada saat pengetesan tanpa ada accessories yang
terpasang, oleh karena itu toleransinya begitu besar. Pada saat engine terpasang pada
chasis sering kali nilai high idle diluar toleransi namun sebelum melakukan penyetelan
sebaiknya set point Rpm harus dicheck terlebih dahulu.

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Balance Point
Set point
Rated
Horsepower

Low idle High idle

Full load RPM Tolerance


Set point RPM B1 B2

Gambar 123 - Grafik Power vs Rpm

Set Point RPM

Pada dasarnya high idle bukanlah merupakan parameter yang harus disetel, karena
ada beberapa faktor yang mempengaruhi high idle, yaitu :

1. Engine set point Rpm


Sewaktu kita melakukan penyetelan high idle screw, sebenarnya yang kita
inginkan untuk mendapatkan set point atau full load Rpm yang sesuai dengan
spesifikasi.

2. Governor spring dan flyweight

3. Parasitic (accessory) load pada engine seperti fan, alternator, compressor,


pompa, brakesaver dan lain-lain.

Apabila dari posisi High idle beban secara perlahan ditambah maka kecepatan engine
akan berkurang dan fuel rack bergerak ke posisi fuel On sampai pada suatu titik yang
disebut dengan set point. Set point merupakan posisi dimana full load screw
menyentuh stop bar atau torque spring sebesar 10-70 %. Kecepatan engine pada
posisi ini disebut Set point Rpm, kecepatan ini merupakan nilai yang dapat disetel
dan harus selalu dijaga. Set point Rpm disetel menggunakan high idle adjustment
screw.

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Untuk menentukan set point, diantara full load screw dan stop bar dipasang kabel
listrik yang terhubung ke lampu dan diasumsikan full load screw & stop bar sebagai
saklar. Pada saat full load screw dan stop bar contact sebesar 10-70 % lampu akan
menyala dengan redup.

Governor spring dan flyweight mengontrol rpm engine. Karena faktor toleransi
pembuatan, walaupun part number-nya sama dapat mengakibatkan engine
mempunyai high idle rpm berbeda tetapi set pointnya tetap.

Parasitic load pada engine juga akan mengakibatkan berubahnya nilai high idle rpm.
Normalnya parasitic load akan mengakibatkan high idle berubah sebesar 12 sampai
25 Rpm lebih rendah dari kondisi pengetesan beban di dynometer. Perubahan high
idle akibat parasitic load tidak akan merubah set point Rpm.

Performance governor dapat diketahui dengan mengukur high idle Rpm. Hubungan
dari hasil pengukuran tersebut dengan performance governor adalah sebagai berikut;

1. Jika high idle engine yang diukur berada dalam spesifikasi dan set point-nya
benar berarti governor spring dan flyweight dalam kondisi bagus. Apabila kita
mengukur high idle engine dengan parasitic load, 15-20 Rpm harus
ditambahkan dengan hasil pengukuran untuk membuat perbandingan dengan
spesifikasi kecuali untuk vehicular engine nilai 15-20 RPM tidak perlu
ditambahkan lagi karena pada nilai spesifikasi telah ditambahkan.

2. Jika high idle engine diatas spesifikasi setelah ditambah 15-20 Rpm parasitic
load, nilai set point harus dicheck terlebih dahulu. Jika setpoint–nya benar
maka governor spring dan weight harus dicheck.

3. Jika high idle engine dibawah spesifikasi setelah ditambah 15-20 Rpm
parasitic load, nilai set point harus dicheck terlebih dahulu, Jika setpoint –nya
benar maka parasitic loadnya harus dicheck terlebih dahulu sebelum governor
spring dan weight dicheck.

B1 dan B2 pada grafik diatas merupakan nilai toleransi high idle yang diperbolehkan
yaitu + 30/-80 RPM.

Balance Point

Jika beban masih ditambah setelah set point didapat, maka RPM engine akan turun
lagi sampai kontak antara full load screw dan stop bar mencapai 100%, gerakan fuel
rack berhenti dan tidak ada lagi bahan bakar yang yang disemprotkan. Kecepatan
engine pada saat balance point atau disebut juga full load Rpm yaitu 20 rpm lebih
rendah dari kecepatan engine saat set point ( set point rpm). Kondisi pada saat
balance point dicapai merupakan kondisi dimana horse power yang dihasilkan engine
maksimal dan engine dibebani 100%.

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Balance Point

Peak Torque Torque Rise

Rated
Horsepower

Set point

Low idle High idle

RPM
Torque Check RPM Tolerance
Full load RPM B1 B2
Set point RPM

Gambar 124 - Grafik horse power

Peak Torque

Setelah engine mencapai balance point dan masih tetap dibebani (lug), horse power
akan turun namun torsi masih tetap naik hingga nilai tertentu yang disebut dengan
peak torque, setelah peak torque dicapai secara bersamaan torsi dan horse power
akan turun.

Torque Rise

Torque rise, yaitu persentase besarnya kenaikan torsi yang terjadi dari balance point
ke peak torque. Pada engine yang tidak memakai torque spring bahan bakar tidak
dapat bertambah lagi setelah posisi balance point, namun torsi masih akan naik
secara alamiah yang disebut natural torque rise dikarenakan oleh effisiensi
volumetrik dan penurunan gaya gesek antara liner & piston. Effisiensi volumetrik
adalah kondisi dimana udara yang dapat masuk kedalam silinder lebih banyak karena
kecepatan hisap piston lebih lambat akibat dari penurunan kecepatan engine, sehingga
pembakaran yang terjadi didalam silinder lebih sempurna.

Engine Lug

Kondisi lug, adalah kondisi dimana engine masih dibebani setelah balance point dicapai
atau beban lebih dari 100%, pada kondisi ini horsepower dan kecepatan engine akan
sama-sama turun.

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Load

Fuel Setting

Low idle High idle

RPM

Gambar 125 - Fuel setting

Fuel Setting

Fuel setting disetel dengan tujuan untuk membatasi gerakan rack yang sesuai
dengan spesifikasi sehingga diperoleh batas jumlah bahan bakar yang boleh
diinjeksikan kedalam masing-masing silinder. Jika fuel setting ditambah atau
dikurangi, garis pada grafik diatas akan bergerak naik dan turun, batas toleransi
yang diperbolehkan dalam melakukan pemeriksaan fuel setting adalah ± 0.25 mm.
Penyetelan dilakukan dengan mengendorkan locknut pada set screw dan kemudian
memutar full load adjustment screw.

Load

Fuel Setting Torque/HP

Low idle High idle

RPM

Gambar 126 - Fuel setting

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Hubungan Fuel Setting dengan Tenaga Engine

Memutar sets crew kearah dalam berarti mengurangi fuel setting sehingga batas
gerakan rack berkurang dan mengurangi bahan bakar yang diinjeksikan kedalam
silinder, akibatnya tenaga yang dihasilkan engine berkurang.

Memutar set screw kearah luar berarti menambah fuel setting sehingga batas gerakan
rack bertambah dan menambah bahan bakar yang diinjeksikan kedalam silinder ,
akibatnya tenaga yang dihasilkan engine bertambah bila udara yang dibutuhkan
mencukupi.

Penyetelan menambah atau mengurangi fuel setting dilakukan pada saat melakukan
kompensasi faktor ketinggian

More Fuel = More HP

?
Gambar 127 - Fuel dan Horse power

Fuel dan Horse Power

Bahan bakar merupakan salah satu faktor yang menentukan tenaga engine
disamping faktor lainnya seperti kondisi udara yang masuk kedalam silinder,
engine displacement, waktu penginjeksian (fuel timing) dan panas yang timbul
diruang bakar.

Oleh sebab itu setiap melakukan penyetelan fuel setting harus selalu merujuk
pada spesifikasi. Konsekwensi dari kesalahan penyetelan fuel setting akan
berpengaruh terhadap umur engine, waktu penginjeksian (fuel timing) dan panas
yang timbul diruang bakar.

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Load

Balance Point

Fuel Setting

Low idle High idle

Full load RPM RPM

Gambar 128 - Full load dan fuel setting

Full Load dan Fuel Setting

Pada grafik diatas terlihat, saat fuel setting ditambah, balance point-pun turun dan
tenaga yang dihasilkan engine naik dan saat fuel setting dikurangi maka balance point
pun naik dan tenaga yang dihasilkan engine turun. Hal ini sering dilakukan pada
waktu melakukan engine derate sesuai altitude (faktor ketinggian).

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Balance Point

Balance Point
Set Point
Set Point
Rated
Horsepower

% Speed Droop Besar

% Speed Droop Kecil

Low idle
High idle

Full load RPM


Full load RPM
Set point RPM
Set point RPM

Gambar 129 - Grafik speed droop

Speed Droop

Speed droop adalah persentase penurunan Rpm dari high idle ke full load Rpm.

High idle RPM – Full load RPM X 100%


Speed droop =
Full load RPM

Penggantian governor spring mengakibatkan speed droop dan horse power berubah.

Speed droop pada applikasi truck sebesar 7-10%, engine power generation 0-3% dan
aplikasi lainnya 5-7%.

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Balance Point

Balance Point
Set Point
Set Point
Rated
Horsepower

Stiffer Spring (A)

Normal Spring (B)

(C)

Low idle

Full load RPM


High idle High idle
Set point RPM Full load RPM

Set point RPM

Gambar 130 - Grafik penggantian governor spring

Governor Spring dengan Spring yang kaku

Apabila governor spring diganti dari spring yang normal ke spring yang keras , dengan
menyamakan high idle Rpm maka akan berakibat turunnya full load RPM dan
horsepower engine juga turun. Kondisi A pada grafik diatas memperlihatkan speed
droop meningkat setelah penggantian jika dibanding dengan kondisi B (normal
spring). Supaya didapatkan full load rpm yang sama maka high idle juga harus
dinaikkan ke kondisi C.

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Balance Point Balance Point


Set Point
Rated Set Point
Horsepower

Lighter Spring (A)

Normal Spring (B)

(C)
High idle
Low idle High idle

Full load RPM


Set point RPM
Full load RPM
Set point RPM

Gambar 131 - Grafik penggantian governor spring

Governor Spring dengan Spring yang lunak

Apabila governor spring diganti dari spring normal ke spring yang lebih lunak, dengan
menyamakan high idle Rpm maka akan berakibat full load RPM naik dan tentunya
horsepower engine juga naik . Kondisi A pada grafik diatas memperlihatkan speed
droop turun setelah penggantian jika dibanding dengan kondisi B (normal spring).
Supaya didapatkan full load rpm yang sama, maka high idle juga harus diturunkan ke
kondisi C.

Mengubah Setting Engine


Horse power dan kecepatan engine dapat dirubah dengan melakukan penyetelan pada
governor atau mengganti governor spring. Hal ini dapat dilakukan sepanjang
spesifikasi nya sesuai dengan factory authorize setting seperti tertera pada rack fuel
setting book.

Pada saat melakukan perubahan fuel setting, ingatlah bahwa perubahan dapat
menyebabkan masalah terhadap performance engine karena semua parameter harus
seimbang (balance). Balance point, full load, rated rpm dan high idle saling terkait
satu dengan yang lainnya. Setiap melakukan penyetelan fuel system, selalu mengacu
pada rack fuel setting book dan engine performance spec. untuk mendapatkan
spesifikasi yang cocok.

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Intermediate Engine System

Balance Point
Balance Point
Set Point
Rated Set Point
Horsepower

B A

High idle
Low idle High idle

Full load RPM


Set point RPM
Full load RPM
Set point RPM

Gambar 132 - Grafik penurunan full load speed

Menurunkan Full Load Speed

Untuk menurunkan full load dari kondisi A ke B, high idle speed setting harus
diturunkan. Full load RPM akan turun sebanding dengan penurunan high idle.

Fenomena terjadi jika penurunan full load speed dilakukan adalah:

1. Road speed akan turun

2. Fuel economy meningkat

3. Umur engine akan bertambah panjang

Untuk memperoleh horse power yang sama maka fuel setting harus dinaikkan.

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Balance Point
Balance Point
Set Point
Rated Set Point
Horsepower

A B

High idle
Low idle High idle

Full load RPM


Set point RPM
Full load RPM
Set point RPM

Gambar 133 - Grafik menaikkan full load speed

Menaikkan Full Load Speed

Untuk menaikkan full load dari kondisi A ke B, high idle speed setting harus dinaikkan.
Full load RPM akan naik sebanding dengan naiknya high idle. Fenomena terjadi full
load speed dinaikkan adalah :

1. Road speed akan mengingkat

2. Fuel economy akan turun (boros)

3. Umur engine akan bertambah pendek

Untuk memperoleh horse power yang sama maka fuel setting harus diturunkan.

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Fuel setting Torque / HP

RPM
F.L F.L H.I H.I

Gambar 134 - Grafik fuel setting

Menurunkan Horse Power dan Menjaga Full Load Speed


Penyetelan ini dilakukan apabila tidak seluruh tenaga engine yang tersedia
dipergunakan memikul beban.

Langkah pertama yang dilakukan adalah menurunkan fuel setting, akibatnya adalah
balance point dan full load speed meningkat. Pada kondisi ini dibutuhkan pengetesan
untuk mengetahui full load speed yang baru, kemudian high idle diturunkan untuk
mengembalikan full load speed ke posisi semula.

Ketika menurunkan fuel setting, speed droop dan operating range governor turun,
untuk menjaga speed droop supaya tetap maka governor spring diganti dengan yang
kaku.
Hal ini akan meningkatkan umur engine tanpa mengurangi road speed dan
menghemat bahan bakar.

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Fuel setting Torque / HP

RPM
F.L F.L H.I H.I

Gambar 135 - Grafik fuel setting

Menaikkan Horse Power dan Menjaga Full Load Speed

Penyetelan ini dilakukan apabila dibutuhkan tambahan tenaga engine untuk memikul
beban.

Langkah pertama yang dilakukan adalah menaikkan fuel setting, akibatnya adalah
balance point dan full load speed turun. Pada kondisi ini dibutuhkan pengetesan untuk
mengetahui full load speed yang baru, kemudian high idle dinaikkan untuk
mengembalikan full load speed ke posisi semula.

Ketika menurunkan fuel setting, speed droop dan operating range governor naik,
untuk menjaga speed droop supaya tetap maka governor spring diganti dengan yang
lunak
Hal ini akan mengurangi umur engine tanpa mengurangi road speed dan bahan bakar
lebih boros.

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F u el settin g T o rque / H P

RPM
F .L F.L F .L H .I H .I

Gambar 136 - Grafik fuel setting

Menurunkan Horse Power dan Menurunkan Full Load Speed

Penyetelan ini dilakukan apabila kita ingin menurunkan tenaga engine (derate) dan
mengurangi road speed.

Langkah pertama yang dilakukan adalah menurunkan fuel setting, akibatnya adalah
balance point dan full load speed naik . Pada kondisi ini dibutuhkan pengetesan untuk
mengetahui full load speed yang baru, kemudian high idle diturunkan sebesar full
load yang inginkan. Balance point harus masih berada pada range 30 RPM dari full
load speed.

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Fuel Setting Procedures


NOTE:
6V6070 Governor Adjusting Tool Group, 8T0500 Circuit Tester & 8T1000
Electronic Position Indicator Group (Optional) are required

Figure 137 – 6V6070 Governor Adjusting Tool Group

NOTE:
If the 8T1000 Electronic Position Indicator Group is used, make reference to Special
Instruction Form No. SEHS8623 for information on the use of the tool group.

The fuel setting procedure can be used with the fuel injection pump and governor on
or off the engine.

Figure 138 – Left: Fuel Injection Pump And Governor


Right: Indicator And Centring Pin Installed

1. Remove plug (2) and cover (1) from the fuel injection pump housing.

NOTE:
If the 8T1000 Position Indicator Group is used instead of the dial indicator, use
Step 3 for the installation of the probe.

2. Install the rack position indicator as follows:

a. Install the 5P4814 Collet (7) on the 6V6109 Bracket Assembly (4).

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Figure 139 – Slot In Fuel Injection Pump Rack

b. Position the indicator arm in approximately the middle of its travel to make sure

that it will engage in slot (9) in the rack. Put 6V6109 Bracket Assembly (4) in

position on the fuel injection pump housing.

c. Install 8H9178 Ground Body Bolt (6) first. Then install 2A0762 Bolt (5).

d. Be sure the indicator arm moves freely.

e. Put indicator (8) in position in collet (7).

f. Put the 9S8903 Contact Point on the 6V2030 Extension and install on

indicator (8).

NOTE:
The 9S8903 Contact Point will not go through the collet and must be assembled after the
indicator stem has passed through the collet.

g. Tighten collet (7) just enough to hold the dial indicator.

3. Install the rack position probe as follows:

a. Install the 5P4814 Collet (7) on the 6V6109 Bracket Assembly (4).

b. Position the indicator arm in approximately the middle of its travel to make sure

that it will engage in slot (9) in the rack. Put 6V6109 Bracket Assembly

c. (4) in position on the fuel injection pump housing.

d. Install 8H9178 Ground Body Bolt (6) first. Then install 2A0762 Bolt (5).

e. Be sure the indicator arm moves freely.

f. Put probe (A) in position in collet (7).

g. Put the 9S8903 Contact Point on the 6V2030 Extension and install on

probe (A).

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Figure 140 – Left: Probe And Centring Pin Installed


Right: Position Fuel Injection Pump Rack

Adjust probe (A) in collet (7) so that the shaft can be moved through the entire
measurement range without reaching the end of the shaft travel. Tighten the collet
(Figure 140, left).

NOTE:
The 9S8903 Contact Point will not go through the collet and must be assembled after the
indicator stem has passed through the collet.

4. Remove the shut off solenoid, if so equipped, or cover and install the 6V6151
adapter (10) (Figure 140, right).

5. Move the governor control lever to the “LOW IDLE” position (rotate governor shaft
anti-clockwise).

6. Install the 6V4186 Timing Pin (3) in the top of the fuel injection pump housing.
Push the timing pin in until contact with the fuel rack is made.

Figure 141 – Left: Push Rack To Shut off


Right: Pull Rack Against Timing Pin

7. Use 6V7942 Hook (11) through 6V6151 Adapter (10) to push the sleeve and rack
to the “SHUT OFF” position. Make sure timing pin (3) engages in slot (9) (Figure
141, left).

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8. Move the governor control lever to the “FULL LOAD” position (rotate governor shaft
clockwise) and fasten it in this position.

9. Use the 6V7942 Hook (11) to pull the sleeve and rack [through servo valve (12)]
against the timing pin (Figure 142, right).

Figure 1423 – Left: Fuel Rack Against Timing Pin


Right: 6V7941 Compressor Assembly

10. Adjust the 6V6106 Dial Indicator (8) in the collet to zero and tighten the collet.
Make sure all needles of the indicator are on zero (Figure 142, left).

NOTE:
If the Electronic Position Indicator Group is used, press the ZERO switch on the front panel.
This sets the display to zero.

11. Remove the 6V4186 Timing Pin (3), 6V7942 Hook and release the governor control
lever.

12. Turn rod (13) in the 6V7941 Compressor Assembly until the knob is
approximately 25.4mm (1.00in) away from the compressor body (Figure 142,
right).

NOTE:
The 6V7941 Compressor Assembly is used to compress the overfueling spring through the
linkage. The overfueling spring must be compressed to get an accurate fuel setting
measurement.

Figure 143 – Left: Install The 6V7941 Compressor Assembly


Right: Static Fuel Setting

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13. Install compressor assembly (14) in adapter (10) as shown (Figure 143, left).

14. Fasten the clip end of the 8T0500 Circuit Tester (15) to insulated terminal (16),
and put the other end to a good electrical ground (Figure 143, right).

NOTE:
If the Electronic Position Indicator Group is used, the built-in continuity tester can be used
instead of 8T0500 Circuit Tester (15). Use the built-in tester only for static readings.

15. Hold the governor control lever in the “FULL LOAD” position (rotate governor shaft
clockwise).

16. Turn rod (13) of compressor assembly in (clockwise) until the light in circuit tester
(15) goes off and the dial indicator hands move an additional 2mm in the negative
(-) direction after the light goes out (2 complete revolutions of the large needle on
the dial indicator).

NOTICE:
DO NOT turn the rod any further in if the rod begins to tighten. Damage to the governor can
occur if the rod is turned in further.

NOTE:
The static fuel setting (Step 18) and the static full torque setting (Step (19) must be within
± 0.25mm of the setting on the Engine Information Plate. If the setting is within ± 0.25mm
an adjustment is not necessary. If the Engine Information Plate is gone or the FULL TORQUE
SETTING is not on the Engine Information Plate, see Fuel Setting And Related Information
Fiche for the correct settings.

17. Remove adjustment screw cover (17) from the rear of the governor housing.

18. Slowly turn rod (13) out (anti-clockwise) until the circuit tester light just comes on.
This is the static fuel setting. See the Engine Information Plate or the Fuel Setting
and Related Information Fiche for the correct static fuel setting.

NOTE:
When the rod is turned out, there can be a small initial movement of the dial indicator
hands, then, they will stop moving while the rod is turned out for approximately another 1½
turns. Now the indicator hands will begin to move again and will follow the turning of the rod
until the setting is reached. It is important that the rod be turned slowly so that the rack can
follow the governor components.

NOTE:
If rod (13) is turned out too fast, a wrong measurement can be read on the dial indicator as
the light comes on. Repeat Steps 16 and 18 to make sure the correct measurement is taken.

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19. Continue to turn the rod out until the indicator hand stops moving. Then turn the
rod out two additional turns. Push in on the rack stop collar to make sure it is in
the correct position. The new reading on the indicator is the full torque static
setting.

Example:
Static Fuel Setting = 2.18mm
Full Torque = 3.18mm

This means the torque rise setting is 1.00mm. An addition of the fuel
setting and the torque rise setting is not necessary.

20. See the Fuel Setting And Related Information Fiche for the correct static full torque
setting. On later engines the full torque static setting is on the Engine Information
Plate.

Figure 144 – Adjustment Of Governor

21. Determine how much the settings will have to be changed (see examples). Use the
chart that follows to determine how far the adjusting screws must be turned
(Figure 144).

Adjustment Screw Chart


Amount of Change Turns of Adjustment Screw

3.0mm (0.118in) 3¾

2.8mm (0.110in) 3½

2.6mm (0.102in) 3¼

2.4mm (0.094in) 3

2.2mm (0.087in) 2¾

2.0mm (0.079in) 2½

1.8mm (0.071in) 2¼

1.6mm (0.063in) 2

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1.4mm (0.055in) 1¾

1.2mm (0.047in) 1½

1.0mm (0.039in) 1¼

0.8mm (0.031in) 1

0.6mm (0.024in) ¾

0.4mm (0.016in) ½

0.2mm (0.008in) ¼

Table 1
Example #1:
Actual Reading: 1.05mm
Desired Setting: 1.25mm
Difference: 0.20mm

Since desired setting is higher than actual reading, turn adjusting screw out (anti-
clockwise) approximately ¼ turn. Re-check the new setting and readjust if necessary.

Example #2:
Actual Reading: 2.77mm
Desired Setting: 1.85mm
Difference: 0.92mm

Since desired setting is lower than “actual reading,” turn the adjusting screw in
(clockwise) approximately 1⅛ turns. Re-check the new setting and read- just if
necessary.

Example #3:
Actual Reading: -1.05mm
Desired Setting: -1.25mm
Difference: 0.20mm

Negative numbers work differently than positive numbers. If one number (-1.25)
has a large digital value than another one (-1.05), the first number (-1.25) is
actually less than the other one. Therefore, in this example the de- sired setting is
lower than the “actual reading.” Turn the adjusting screw in (clockwise) approximately
¼ turn. Re-check the new setting and readjust if necessary.

Example #4:
Actual Reading: -2.77mm
Desired Setting: -1.85mm
Difference: 0.92mm

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The “desired setting” is higher than the “actual reading.” Turn the adjusting screw out
(anti-clockwise) approximately 1⅛ turns. Re-check the new setting and readjust if
necessary.

Example #5:
Actual Reading: +1.05mm
Desired Setting: -1.25mm
Difference: 2.30mm

The “desired setting” is lower than the “actual reading.” Turn the adjusting screw in
approximately 2 ⅞ turns.

Example #6:
Actual Reading: -1.05mm
Desired Setting: +1.25mm
Difference: 2.30mm

The “desired setting” is higher than the “actual reading.” Turn the adjusting screw out
approximately 2 ⅞ turns.

NOTE:
If you are working from the side of the engine and cannot see the adjusting screws, use the
outer edge of the opening in the governor housing to guide the 6V2106 Tool Group onto the
fuel setting screw. Use the inner edge of the opening to guide the 6V2106 Tool Group onto
the full torque setting adjustment screw.

Figure 145 Left: Adjustment Of Fuel Setting


Right: Adjustment Of Full Torque Setting

22. If both settings are to be increased, turn torque rise adjustment screw (20) out
(anti-clockwise) the same number of turns as fuel setting adjustment screw (18) is
going to be changed. If the static fuel setting is going to be decreased, it is not
necessary to change the full torque setting at this time (Figure 145)

23. Use 6V2106 Rack Adjustment Tool Group (19) to loosen the locknuts for
adjustment screws and to turn the adjustment screws.

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24. Adjust the fuel setting screw the number of turns determined in Step 21. Always
re-check the setting after each adjustment and adjust again if needed.

NOTE:
There is a zero tolerance for the fuel setting and full torque setting when an adjustment is
made.

25. After the static fuel setting is correct, adjust the torque rise adjustment screw the
number of turns determined in Step 21. Always re-check the setting after each
adjustment and adjust again if needed.

On Engine Adjustment – MUI Fuel System


There are three on engine adjustments which can be made to the MUI fuel system.

 Injector synchronisation

 Fuel setting
 Injector plunger timing.

Injector Tool Groups

 128-8822 - 223-2454 Tool Group

There are currently three different injector and fuel setting tool groups. The IU6680
Tool Group, 9U7305 Tool Group and the 128-8822 Tool Group. Injector
synchronisation, injector timing and fuel settings will be covered using each tool
group. We will discuss only the 128-8822 group (replaced by 223-2454 Tool Group)
since it is the most current and is now widely used in the dealer network..

Injector Sysnchronisation

Figure 146 – Injector synchronisation

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Injector synchronisation is the setting of all injector racks to a reference position (the
No.1 injector). This ensures each injector delivers the same amount of fuel to each
cylinder. This is achieved by setting each injector rack to the same position while the
control linkage is in a fixed position (called the synchronising position). The control
linkage is at the synchronising position when the injector of the No.1 cylinder is at
3.5mm (.137 in). Since the No.1 injector is the reference point for the other injectors,
no synchronising adjustment is made to the No.1 injector. Always synchronise an
injector when it has been removed and installed or replaced. If the No.1 injector is
installed or replaced, all injectors must be synchronised.

To synchronise the fuel injector rack, either pull out and latch the centre rod of the
solenoid or remove the solenoid (Figure 146). This allows the injector rack control
linkage to move freely during synchronisation.

Figure 147

To prepare to synchronize the injectors, remove the valve cover (Figure 147) and
rocker arm assemblies for No.1 unit injector. The injector synchronization can be done
with the rocker arm assemblies removed or left in place.

If the rocker arm assemblies are removed, be sure to hold the rocker arm assemblies
together. Only one end of the rocker arm assembly is pinned to the rocker stand.

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Figure 148

If the rocker arm assemblies are removed, a 1U6675 Spring Compressor must be
installed on the unit injector to allow free movement of the rack (Figure 148). Apply a
small amount of clean engine oil to the top of the injectors. Install an injector spring
compressor on each of the injectors. Compress the injector by tightening the bolt. Tap
lightly on the spring compressor with a soft hammer to ensure free movement of the
injector rack bar.

Figure 149

Push the rack head of the injector to be checked toward the injector until the rack
stops touches the injector base (Figure 149). The rack is now in the shut off position.
While holding the rack head in shut off position, zero the dial indicator and release the
rack head. Push down on the clamp to rotate the rack control linkage in the ‘FUEL ON’
direction. Now quickly release the clamp. This ensures that the springs and bearings of
the control linkage are in the ‘normal’ positions.

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Figure 150

Move the number one injector rack to the full fuel off position. Install the 128 - 9640
fixture group on cylinder head at the number one cylinder. Be sure that the detent
clears the rack bar when tightening the fixture group.

Move the number one rack in the fuel on direction and put the 9U7270 gauge block in
position on the number one injector with 3.5mm wide ‘finger’ positioned between the
injector rack head stop pin and the square shoulder no the injector body. Release the
rack. The gauge block is secured to the fixture group by the chain (Figure 150).

The detent should protrude 1.25 to 2.25mm (0.049 - 0.088in) when the gauge block
and fixture is installed correctly. This will ensure that the proper tension is held on the
gauge block while the injectors are synchronised.

Figure 151

Install the 1U8869 digital indicator with contact point into the 9U7282 indicator fixture
group (Figure 151). Remove bolt nearest to the injector to be checked and install
indicator group where bolt was removed. Tighten the bolt and make sure ball tip on
lever of indicator group makes contact with end face of the rack bar.

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Turn the indicator on. Make sure the indicator is set to millimetres (mm). Use the 128-
8823 locking pliers to rotate the control assembly to shut-off position. Use the pliers to
rotate the control assembly until the injector rack head stop pin contacts the shoulder
on the injector body. This is the fuel shut-off position. While maintaining this position
press the ‘zero-set’ button on the dial indicator. This defines the zero-rack (shut-off)
position. Repeat this sequence several times to obtain consistent results.

Push down and quickly and release head of injector being checked to make sure there
is smooth movement of the injector rack. The digital indicator should now read 3.50 ±
0.02mm (0.138 ± 0.0008in). If an adjustment is necessary, use the 1U6673 wrench
and turn set screw until indicator reads 3.50 ± 0.02mm (0.138 ± 0.0008in). Tighten
the locknut while holding set screw in position. The valve clearance and fuel timing
should be checked after installing the rocker arm assembly.

Fuel Settings

Figure 152 – Fuel setting screw

Fuel setting is the adjustment of the fuel setting screw to a specified position with
reference to the number one rack (Figure 152). The fuel setting screw limits the power
output of the engine by setting maximum travel of all the injector racks to control
maximum fuel flow. Before the fuel setting is checked, the injectors must be correctly
synchronised.

This is the old version of the fuel setting adjustment screw. The new fuel setting screw
looks much like the synchronisation screw. The number one and two rocker arm
assemblies should be removed for ease of access to the adjustment screw. The
protective cover with a governor type seal has been removed for the picture and would
be present in all applications. After adjustment, the seal and seal wire should be
replaced.

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Figure 153 – Install the pin insertion tool

To make the fuel setting adjustment using the 128-8822 Tool Group, remove the clip
that keeps the sleeve in position between governor and inlet manifold (Figure 153).
Using the 6V6006 Pliers, slide the sleeve from governor toward the inlet manifold. Do
not use hard jawed pliers to move the sleeve. Damage may result to the sleeve which
may damage the wiper seal in the inlet manifold when the sleeve is installed in the
inlet manifold. Later engines have a groove in the governor end of the sleeve that may
be used to pry the sleeve out of the governor housing.

Figure 154 – Holding tool

Next install the holding tool (1U6681) between the governor pin and steel sleeve as
shown in Figure 154, until the small diameter of the governor pin contacts the face of
the governor.

Warning, only light force should be used installing the holding tool, because extreme
force could cause damage to the governor housing. This holds the governor in the full
fuel position (the governor calibration point).

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Figure 155

Install the 1U8869 Digital Position indicator into 9U7282 Indicator Fixture Group
(Figure 155). Tighten the nylon screw. Remove the bolt from inlet manifold near the
number one injector and install the indicator fixture group. Be sure the ball on the end
of the lever makes contact with the end face of rack bar. Turn the indicator to ON. Be
sure the indicator units are set to millimetre (mm) and ± travel direction is correct
(plunger travelling out of indicator should read positive). Push the rack head of the
number 1 injector, by hand, toward the injector until rack head stop pin touches
square shoulder of injector body, and hold in this position. The number one injector is
now at fuel SHUT-OFF. Press the ‘zero-set’ button on the indicator to define zero rack
at this position.

Repeat this process several times to ensure a consistent zero point has been
established. Push down on the control lever and quickly release it. ‘Flip’ the lever in
this manner to make sure there is smooth movement of the injector rack. The reading
on the dial indicator is the engine's current fuel setting. If an adjustment is necessary,
use the 1U6673 Wrench to loosen the locknut of fuel setting screw and adjust the
indicator reading to the correct fuel setting. Turn the screw counter clockwise to
increase the fuel setting or clockwise to decrease the fuel setting.

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Fuel Injector Timing

Figure 156 – Injector plunger timing

Fuel injection timing is a standard that permits the setting of all unit injectors to the
same vertical position when the injector camshaft lobe is on the base circle so that the
beginning of injection takes place in each combustion chamber a specific number of
crankshaft degrees before top centre. Fuel timing is specified as a dimension in
millimetres.

Figure 157 – Fuel timing

The dial indicator measures the distance from the top of the injector follower to the
injector body surface (Figure 157). This measurement gives the relationship of the
scroll on the plunger with the ports in the barrel.

Fuel timing can be checked or adjusted during the two-crank position sequence for
valve clearance setting, or turning the crankshaft in the direction of normal rotation
until the injector is at maximum height and the push rod is at its lowest point (the
lifter assembly is at its lowest point on the base circle of the cam).

Check and adjust injectors 3 and 4 on a 4 cylinder engine, with number one piston on

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top centre compression stroke. Check and adjust injectors 1 and 2 on a 4 cylinder
engine, with number one piston on top centre exhaust stroke.

Check and adjust injectors 3, 5, and 6 on a 6 cylinder engine, with number one piston
on top centre compression stroke. Check and adjust injectors 1, 2, and 4 on a 6
cylinder engine, with number one piston on top centre exhaust stroke.

Figure 158

Always turn the engine crankshaft with the four large bolts on the front of the
crankshaft (Figure 158). Do not use the eight small bolts on the front of the crankshaft
pulley. If the rocker arm assemblies are removed and installed prior to setting the fuel
timing dimension, rotate the crankshaft two complete revolutions to allow the rocker
arms to properly seat on the injectors.

Figure 159

Rotate crankshaft in the direction of normal rotation, until bolt goes into front of
flywheel housing and screws into flywheel (Figure 159). This position is top dead
centre. Check the position on the intake and exhaust valves to confirm that the
number one cylinder is on the compression or exhaust stroke.

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Figure 160

1. Before a check or an adjustment of the fuel timing dimension can be made, the
digital indicator must be programmed to a preset value of 62.00mm (2.44in).
This is the dimension of the 9U7269 Timing Gauge Block (Figure 160). Turn the
indicator ON by pushing the ‘ON/OFF’ button.Push the ‘in/mm’ button so the
display shows mm.
2. A negative sign (-) should be in the display window under REV. If the space is
blank, push the ‘+/-’ button so the display shows (-). When this is done,
plunger movement into the indicator will show on the display as negative
movement, and plunger movement out of the indicator as positive movement
3. Push and hold the ‘preset’ button down until there is a flashing ‘P’ in the upper
right corner of the display, and then release.
4. Push and hold the ‘preset’ button down until the ‘P’ stops flashing and a
flashing indicator bar is seen in the lower left corner of the display, and then
release. Momentarily pushing the ‘preset’ button will cause a minus sign (-) to
appear or disappear above the flashing indicator. Use the ‘preset’ button to
make this position blank.
5. Push and hold the ‘preset’ button down until flashing indicator begins to flash
under the first number position (fourth position to the left of the decimal), then
release. Momentarily pushing the ‘preset’ button will cause the display number
in that position to change. Use the preset button to make the position show
zero.
6. Use the ‘preset’ button to move the flashing indicator and change the display
numbers until the display shows 62.00mm (2.44in).
7. Push and hold the ‘preset’ button until the flashing ‘P’ is show in the upper right
corner of the display, and then release. Momentarily push the ‘preset’ button so
the flashing ‘P’ and the zeros to the left of 62.00mm (2.44in) disappear.
8. Turn the indicator OFF. The indicator will retain the preset number in memory
(only one preset number can be retained). To recall the preset number, repeat
steps A-D. Then momentarily push the ‘preset’ button so the flashing ‘P’ and
the zeros to the left of 62.00mm (2.44in) disappear. Install the 85mm (3.35in)
long 9U7274 Contact Point on the digital indicator stem.

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9. Put digital indicator in the 9U7308 Indicator Fixture Group until it stops. Tighten
nylon holding screw. Make sure the magnetic bottom of indicator fixture group
and top and shoulder of 9U7269 Timing Gauge Block are clean. Place indicator
and base assembly on the timing gauge block. Once the base attaches, let the
plunger out. Repeat steps A-D and momentarily push the ‘preset’ button until
62.00mm (2.44in) appears.

Figure 161

Remove digital indicator and magnetic base from the gauge block and carefully
position it on top of injector tappet for the injector to be checked (Figure 161). Make
sure indicator contact point is on the shoulder of the injector and indicator plunger
moves freely.

Figure 162

When the digital indicator and magnetic base are positioned on the injector, the
indicator will display the current fuel timing dimension (Figure 162). Refer to the
engine information plate or TMI for the correct fuel timing dimension. If the indicator
displays the correct dimension or within the ± 0.20mm (.0079in) tolerance, no
adjustments are necessary. If the indicator does not show the correct timing

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dimension, turn the adjusting screw until the digital indicator displays the correct fuel
timing dimension. Tighten the locknut to 25 ±7 Nm (18.0 ± 5.0 lb ft) and check
adjustment again. Repeat procedure if necessary until the adjustment is correct.

Check and adjust all of the injectors that can be done for the current engine position.
Rotate the engine 360 degrees and repeat the process for the remaining injectors.

Troubleshooting Instructions
Misfire, Low Power, and Hard Starting Complaints

NOTE:
Before beginning any troubleshooting or repair procedures, read these instructions.

1. Use the Customer Interview on the next page as a guide to determine the
Customer’s complaint. Determine the symptoms present and the conditions at
which the symptoms occur. Encourage the customer to be specific.
2. Investigate and enquire about recent repairs to the engine. A previous repair
could be related to the current problem.
3. Verify the Customer’s Complaint. If possible, repeat the conditions that are
causing the problem.
4. Based on the symptoms and previous engine repairs, find the cause for the
complaint using the Misfire, Low Power, and Hard Starting ‘

Customer Interview

Misfire (rough running, missing, skipping, fuel knock, hunt, surge, flutter)
1. Is misfire present (check all that apply):

 Under load?

 With no load (Free running)?

 At low idle?

 At high idle?

 Only when warm?

Description of problem:

2. List any recent repairs or modifications that could affect the current problem:

3. Has the misfire problem:

 Developed gradually?

 Developed suddenly?

 Been present since purchase?

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Low Power – slow response, poor acceleration, won’t pull load, track stall, bucket
stall.

1. Is low power experienced:

 Under load?

 Only during acceleration or load change (poor response)?

Description of problem

2. Is too much exhaust smoke seen in addition to Low Power?

 Yes, If yes...

 Black smoke?

 White smoke?

 No

3. List any recent repairs or modifications that could affect the current problem:

4. Has the low power problem:

 Developed gradually?

 Developed suddenly?

 Been present since purchase?

Hard to start or will not start

1. Is engine Hard to Start (check all that apply):

 After a hot shutdown (30 minutes or less)?

 After an extended shutdown (30 minutes or more)?

 All the time?

 Only in cold ambient temperatures?

Description of problem:

2. List any recent repairs or modifications that could affect the current problem:

3. Has the hard starting problem:

 Developed gradually?
 Developed suddenly?

 Been present since purchase?

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TOPIC 6
Air Induction & Exhaust System

Introduction
Internal combustion engines require sufficient quantities of air to burn the fuel. Air
induction systems must provide enough clean air for combustion.

The design of the air intake system should ensure air leakage does not occur and
ensure minimum restriction to air flow.

The purpose of the exhaust system is to remove heat and the spent combustion gases
from the engine and discharge them into the atmosphere. The design of the system
must ensure that there is minimum restriction to gas flow and ensure that the noise
level is reduced to satisfy appropriate standards.

Excessive exhaust pressure has a detrimental effect on engine performance in that


more work has to be expended to push the exhaust gas out of the engine. This
becomes apparent with a loss of power and an increase in fuel consumption. Another
indication of increased exhaust back pressure is higherthan normal coolant
temperature; because of increased cooling required due to higher pressure and
temperature of the exhaust gases.

Types of System

Figure 163

There are three types of air induction systems (Figure 163)

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Natural Aspirated

Air intake systems that do not have a turbocharger or after-cooler are known as
naturally aspirated or NA systems. These systems are rarely used on modern day diesel
engines.

The system relies solely on the downward movement of the piston, creating a low
pressure area to draw in air through the air intake system.

Turbocharged

These systems are known as T systems. The exhaust gas drives a pump known as a
turbocharger, which forces air into the engine under pressure.

Turbocharged-Aftercooler

Presently in Caterpillar machines, these systems are the most common. These systems
are known as TA systems and have a turbocharger and after cooler. Different types of
after-cooler can be used.

Naturally Aspirated Intake and Exhaust System

Componets Air Intake

Figure 165
1.Pre cleaner

2. Air cleaner

3.Intake manifold

4. Exhaust manifold

5. Muffler

6. Exhaust stack

Figure 164

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Purpose Of Intake System

Diesel engines require sufficient quantities of air to burn the fuel.

Air induction systems must provide enough clean air for combustion, consequently the
design of the air induction system must be adequate to prevent leakages into the
system and minimise restrictions. Any reduction in the flow of air or combustion gases
through the Air Intake system will reduce engine performance.

Pre-cleaner

Figure 165

Many engines use a pre-cleaner this is located before the inlet to the main air cleaner
(Figure 165). The purpose of the pre-cleaner is to collect as much of the heavy
contaminants as possible in the intake air before it reaches the air cleaner. This
increases the service life of the air cleaner.

The simplest type of pre-cleaner is a mesh cap at the top of the air filter housing inlet.

Donaspin Pre-cleaner

Figure 166

The Donaspin pre-cleaner (Figure 166) is designed to remove heavy contaminants


from incoming air. The contaminants will then spiral out by centrifugal force, hitting
the clear cover and falling to the bottom. When the contaminants build up to the fill
marker the pre-cleaner will need to be emptied by service personnel or the operator.

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Cyclone Tube Exhaust Dust Ejected Pre-cleaner

Figure 167 – Cyclone Tube Exhaust Dust Ejected Pre-cleaner

On earthmoving machinery, pre-cleaners are often exhausted through the muffler


using the pulsing pressure differences created by the exhaust system (Figure 167).

Figure 168

The advantage of this system over a conventional pre-cleaner includes the use of a low
pressure scavenging line vented in the exhaust pipe (Figure 168). The particles are
carried out into the exhaust, therefore no mechanical maintenance is needed to clean
out the pre-cleaner system.

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Donaldson Fin Cyclopac

Figure 169

In the Donaldson Fin Cyclopac pre-cleaner (Figure 169), inducted air is forced to move
around the steel casing of the filter assembly by the plastic fins of the filter element.
This creates a swirling movement, forcing the heavy particles to the outside by
centrifugal force. The heavy particles are forced out to the steel casing where they fall
down to the base of the unit and are expelled via the lower flap.

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Donaldson Donacline SBG

Figure 170

In a Donaldson Donacline SBG pre-cleaner (Figure 170) vanes inside the tube impart a
cyclonic twist inside the unit, causing the heavy particles to be thrown to the outside.
The particles then fall to the dust cap at the bottom of the unit. This dust is expelled by
the vacuum valve, or manually by opening the cover.

Dust Tubes

Figure 171

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Figure 171 is a close-up view of how the dust tubes work. Air coming in at the side is
drawn down to the bottom and then sucked up the middle intake tube. The heavy
particles are being cyclonically removed from the air and dropped to the bottom to be
collected in the dust cup.

Drum

Another type of pre-cleaner that is used on Caterpillar equipment is a spirally fanned


drum. The vanes cause the incoming air to spin.

The dirt that is drawn in is heavier than the air, and is forced to the outside due to
the spinning action. The dirt then falls into a collection bowl and the partially cleaned
air flows down the centre tube to the air cleaner.

Pre-cleaners should be inspected and emptied on a daily basis.

Air Cleaner

Figure 172

1. Pre cleaner fins

2. Outer air cleaner


element

3. Inner or safety air


cleaner element

4. Connection for service


indicator

5. Air cleaner housing

6. Dust cap

7. Vacuator valve.

Figure 172

The installation of a vacuator valve on the dust cup will eliminate the need for
regular dust cup service, as this valve will automatically eject dust and water. The
vacuator valve is made of rubber and fits on to the bottom of the dust cup, as shown

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in Figure 172. Even though the dust cup is normally under a slight vacuum when the
engine is running, pulsing of the vacuum opens and closes the valve, expelling dust
and water. The vacuator valve will also unload and expel dust when the engine is
stopped.

Air Cleaner (or filter Air Cleaner)- Air is drawn into the engine through the Air Cleaner
(Figure 172). The air cleaner houses a filter element that removes smaller foreign
material from the air before it enters the engine. There are several different types of
air cleaners currently available on Caterpillar engines.

The assembly shown in Figure 172 contains a simple vane structure that spins the air
and ejects particles by cyclone effect to the bottom of the housing. A pulsating rubber
assembly ejects the particles.

NOTE:
Always refer to the operation and maintenance manual of the engine for the most accurate
maintenance procedures.

Dry Air Cleaner Element

Figure 173 – Dry Element Air Cleaner

Dry element air cleaners (Figure 173) are by far the most common type of air
cleaners used on Caterpillar engines. Dry element air cleaners are typically composed
of a pleated paper filter media that is used to remove the dirt from the incoming air.

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Figure 174 – Dry Element Cleaning

Dry element air cleaners (Figure 174) can usually be cleaned with filtered, dry air at a
maximum pressure of 207kPa (30psi). The element should be cleaned from the inside
out, holding the tip of the air nozzle parallel to the pleats of the air cleaner.

NOTE:
Most mine sites have banned the act of cleaning filters with an air blower. Some companies
offer cleaning and / or exchange elements that have been serviced.

NOTE:
When conducting this operation, be sure to wear safety glasses and a breathing mask.

Heavy-duty air cleaners, as used on construction machines, also contain a safety or


secondary element inside the primary element, in case the primary fails and to
increase air cleaning efficiency.

Without the use of a secondary element, major engine damage would result from dirt
ingestion, should the primary element fail.

For this reason it is essential to ensure that the intake manifold is always sealed.

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Caterpillar Air Filter with a New Radial Seal

Figure 175

A. Radial Seal Design

B. All steel adaptor ring

C. One-piece moulded urethane and caps with integral seal

D. Densely pleated filter paper

E. Built-in pleat support and positive pleat spacing

F. Heavy-duty metal inner and outer wrap

G. Baked-on enamel outer filter wrap

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Air Cleaner Service

Figure 176 – Typical Twin Air Cleaner, each with its own Service Indicator

Engine air cleaners should be serviced on a regular basis. Many air cleaners are
equipped with a service indicator (Figure 176). The indicator monitors the
amount of restriction through the air cleaners. The service indicator is the most
accurate method to use to determine when the air cleaners are in need of
service.

Dial Indicator

Figure 177

A dial indicator (Figure 177) can have colours of green and yellow for indication.
Red indicates high vacuum reading in inches of water.

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Filter Indicator

Figure 178

When the yellow indicator has reached the red zone of the filter indicator (Figure
178), it is time to replace the air cleaning element.

Operating Conditions

Figure 179

Operating conditions will dictate when the air filter service limit / period needs to
be done either more or less regularly, depending upon conditions (Figure 179).

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Figure 180

Before servicing the air system:

 Turn the engine off, and place a danger tag on the ignition on steering

wheel (Figure 180)

 Remove the air cleaner element, blocking off the intake tube

 Clean old element away from intake of engine

 Check for any faults in filter element, i.e. by the way of a light

 Reset the air filter indicator.

Engine air cleaner elements should be serviced, cleaned or replaced when either
the yellow diaphragm enters the red zone or the red piston locks into the visible
position, which means that the service indicator has tripped. Cleaning entails
washing with air, water or detergent.

Over-servicing can effect the efficiency of the filter also. Over exposure to
pressure air may cause small holes in the filter elements, allowing the ingress of
dirt. Air cleaning can be an environmental issue, as silicon dust can be spread.

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Exhaust System

Purpose of the Exhaust System

The purpose of the exhaust system is to remove the spent combustion gases
from the engine and discharge them into the atmosphere. The design of the
system must ensure that there is minimum restriction to gas flow and ensure
that the noise level is reduced to satisfy appropriate standards.

Components Exhaust System

Inlet Manifold

Figure 181

From the air cleaner and turbocharger/after-cooler, if equipped, the incoming air
enters the inlet manifold (Figure 181) and is directed to the inlet ports for each
cylinder.
Exhaust Manifold

Figure 182
Exhaust gases, leaving the cylinder through the exhaust ports, enter the exhaust
manifold (Figure 182) and are then routed to the exhaust system.

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Mufflers

Mufflers, or silencers are used in the exhaust system to reduce the level of
exhaust noise by the use of internal baffling. Whenever gas flows through a
muffler, its velocity decreases and pressure increases. The more effective the
silencing, the greater the back-pressure in the system, therefore, muffler
selection by the engine manufacturer is a compromise between noise reduction
and back-pressure increase.

The two most commonly used exhaust mufflers are the straight-through and
reverse-flow types.

Straight-through Muffler

Figure 183

The straight-through muffler design, as shown in Figure 183, carries the exhaust
gas straight through the muffler via a perforated tube, which is surrounded by a
sound absorbing material. The vibrating exhaust gas passes through the holes in
the perforated tube and penetrates into the sound-absorbent material – generally
metal shavings or glass wool. This process lowers the frequency of the gas
vibrations, which lowers the pitch of the exhaust sound. There is very little back-
pressure with this design of muffler, which makes it suitable for use on two-
stroke diesel engines.

Reverse-flow Muffler

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Figure 184

The reverse-flow muffler, as shown in Figure 184, reduces sound levels by


channelling the exhaust gas back and forth through expansion chambers within
the muffler. The effect of this reduces the pressure and temperature of the gas
as it passes through baffles and tubes, where its turbulence dies out and noise
levels are reduced.

The degree of noise reduction in reverse-flow mufflers can be varied by the size
of the expansion chambers within the muffler. When comparing the reverse-flow
muffler to the straight-through muffler design, the reverse-flow type can achieve
the lowest noise levels.

Spark Arrester Muffler

Figure 185

The reverse-flow muffler can be varied in its design so as to act as a spark


arrester for engines operating near combustible material. This type of muffler is
therefore dual purpose in that it acts as a sound-suppressing unit as well as
extinguishing any burning pieces of carbon that may be present in the exhaust
gas. With reference to Figure 185 the spark arrester inserts are called ‘lip
screens’. When the exhaust gases flow through these screens, they cause the
screens to rotate, thereby forcing any sparks towards the muffler outer jacket,
where they are extinguished.

On some underground mining equipment, special provision is made to eliminate

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sparks in high fire-hazard areas. The design of muffler used on such equipment is
a wet type which allows the exhaust gas to mix with water and, in so doing,
quench sparks, cool the exhaust and lower the sound levels.

Exhaust Back Pressure

Exhaust back pressure is the pressure created in the exhaust manifold due to the
restriction to the flow of the exhaust gases as they flow through the muffler and
exhaust piping. Increased back pressure in the exhaust system can be caused by
a partially blocked muffler, incorrect exhaust pipe sizing, too long an exhaust
pipe, too many bends in the pipe or a restriction in the pipe.

The least amount of exhaust back pressure is desirable to maximise engine


efficiency. Too much back pressure causes exhaust overheating and significant
power loss.

To measure exhaust back pressure a water filled manometer is recommended for


maximum accuracy or for a general guide, a low pressure gauge can be used.
Measurement should be taken with the engine running at full load (maximum
fuel) condition. The normal measurement point is in the elbow outlet from the
turbocharger.

The general specified maximum amount for Caterpillar turbocharged diesel


engines fitted to machines is 27 inches (686mm) of water or 6.75kpa and 34
inches water (864mm) or 8.5kpa.

Australian Design Rules (ADR)

There are laws covering the construction of heavy vehicles. These laws place
responsibility on the vehicle and component manufacturers, vehicle dealers,
mechanics and operators. The ADRs which relate to vehicle noise and emissions
are identified below.

ADR 28 for motor vehicle noise.

The intention of this ADR is to define limits on external noise emitted from motor
vehicles in order to limit the contribution by motor vehicles to community noise.

This ADR applies to diesel powered heavy vehicles.

ADR 28A for motor vehicle noise.

This ADR is a later revision of ADR 28A and reduces the noise emission
requirements.

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ADR 30 for diesel engine exhaust smoke emission.

The intention of this ADR is to limit the opacity (density and colour) of diesel
engine smoke emissions.

ADR 36 for diesel engine pollution.

The intention of this ADR is to limit emissions from motor vehicles in order to
reduce pollution.

Exhaust Stack

Figure 186

The exhaust stack (Figure 186) connects directly to the muffler and carries exhaust
gases into the atmosphere, away from the operators compartment.

Some models use exhaust stacks that are fitted with a rain trap. This rain trap
prevents rain entering the engine via the muffler and turbocharger when the machine
is parked. Exhaust pressure forces the trap open when the machine is operating.

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Catalytic Converter

Catalytic converters are fitted in the exhaust system the same way as mufflers. They
are used on petrol vehicles, which use unleaded fuels to reduce emissions. They are
not used on diesel engines.

Figure 187

The converter (Figure 187) is a honeycomb structure chemically coated with thin
deposits of Platinum and Rhodium. These elements act as a catalyst for a chemical
reaction to take place that will convert harmful gases into harmless ones. The reaction
has no effect on the materials in the converter during normal operation.

The converter must never be used with leaded fuels because the converter would
become contaminated and rendered useless. To operate correctly, the converter must
not be overheated with incorrect fuel ratios or misfires.

The converter converts three pollutant gases into harmless ones.

 Carbon Monoxide is converted to Carbon Dioxide.

 Hydrocarbons are converted to water.

 Oxides of Nitrogen are converted to Nitrogen.

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Catalytic Reduction

Compliance with the emission standards, which will come into force in 2008, will bring
about the introduction of exhaust gas after-treatment systems on Heavy Duty
vehicles.

Heavy Duty vehicle manufacturers have chosen the Selective Catalytic Reduction
(SCR) technology and have decided to introduce SCR systems in combination with the
use of an urea aqueous solution (32.5% urea in water) as a reagent.

This technology is the only one that offers a solution to the dilemma of the trade-off
between exhaust emission levels and fuel consumption. Field tests and extended
durability runs have confirmed its effectiveness and reliability.

The SCR technology is also the only exhaust gas after-treatment technology that is
applicable to all engines and all applications.

Its introduction will require the installation of urea solution dispensers at the vehicle
refuelling facilities to ensure the availability of this reagent needed to convert the
oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in N2. With the support of their trade associations, heavy-
duty vehicle manufacturers are seeking the co-operation of the industries active in the
production and distribution of urea and of the oil companies to make this a reality.

Heavy-duty commercial vehicles are today equipped exclusively with diesel engines as
a result of their high level of reliability and low fuel consumption.

The progressive tightening of the emission standards for heavy-duty engines has,
however, resulted in a dilemma: for a given technology level, NOx emissions and fuel
consumption are inversely proportional. As diesel technology progressed, engineers
had to sacrifice potential improvements in fuel consumption in order to comply with
the ever more stringent NOx emission limit values.

Furthermore the imminent extremely low emission levels are approaching values,
which cannot be met with basic engine technologies alone.

Thus, in recent years, much effort was concentrated in the development of exhaust
gas after-treatment systems for diesel engines in order to achieve substantial
reductions in exhaust emissions without having to compromise fuel consumption
performance levels.

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Technological Options

A range of systems are being investigated to reduce diesel engine emissions, such as:

 Selective Catalytic Reduction systems using the hydrocarbons present in the


exhaust stream or by injecting hydrocarbons or using various reduction agents.

 Diesel practice filters.

 NOx absorbers.

 An exhaust gas after-treatment system for diesel engines must meet the
following criteria:

 High effectiveness at reasonable costs.

 Optimum reliability.

 Stable performance in extended durability.

 Negligible impact on fuel consumption.

 Optimum compatibility with engine technologies and other after–treatment

systems.

Among these systems, the only one that has proven to meet all of the above criteria is
the Selective Reduction Catalyst using a urea solution as regent.

SCR Technology

Figure 188

Figure 188 shows the layout of a complex SCR system (some components, such as the
oxidation catalysts, are optional parts of a SCR system), using a 32.5 per cent urea
solution in water as reagent.

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Figure 189

Figure 189 lists the various chemical reactions, which occur along the system. The SCR
technology for reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx) finds applications worldwide as an after-
treatment system for power plants and waste furnaces. Ammonia (NH3) could also be
used directly as a regent, but the solution of urea in water is by far the best regent
since it is a non-toxic product and there are no restrictions for its transport on rail,
road or ships.

Furthermore, urea is a product largely used on agriculture and in industry and urea of
various quality grades is readily available.

An oxidation catalyst may be used to improve the efficiency of the SCR by converting
NO into NO2 and by oxidising CO and hydrocarbons.

Accurate dosing of the urea solution and appropriate strategies during transient modes
prevent an NH3 slip.

The SCR technology, by converting directly NOx to N2 outside the engine, allows the
retaining of the engine calibrations, which correspond to the best compromise between
fuel consumption and the formation of pollutants during the combustion process. Thus
it is possible to:

 Comply with the emission standards and, at the same time, achieve fuel
consumption levels which are 7 per cent lower than those of equivalent
engines, while the consumption of the urea solution will amount to 3 per cent to
4% of the fuel consumption;

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 Comply with the emission standards and, at the same time, achieve fuel
consumption levels which are 6 per cent lower than those of equivalent
engines, while the consumption of the urea solution will amount to 5 per cent to
7 per cent of the fuel consumption;

Numerous field tests have demonstrated that the effectiveness of an SCR system
remains stable even when installed on heavy-duty vehicles, which are accumulating
several hundred thousand kilometres.

Diesel Particle Filters

Figure 190 – Diesel Particle Filter

Figure 190 shows the working principle of an example of a Diesel Particle Filter (DPF).
The particles are trapped on the interior walls of the filter. DPF technology offers the
potential to meet future emissions standards.

In order to remove the particles from the filter walls, the filter must be periodically
regenerated by active or passive regeneration concepts. The passive regeneration
concept exploits driving patterns (occurring naturally or artificially created by retarded
injection timing, or post injection, or richer air to fuel mixture, or by adding additives
to the fuel) during which the exhaust gas temperatures reach values high enough for
the filter regeneration to occur.

Notwithstanding the programmed regeneration of the filter, excessive accumulation of


particles on the filter wall can still occur. This will then bring about uncontrolled
regeneration resulting in local peak temperatures and cracks of the filter internal walls.
Today’s failure frequency for selected vehicles with a mileage of 300,000km is 5 per
cent to 10 per cent.

DP filters are extremely sensitive to both the sulphur content of diesel fuels and the
ash content of the lube oil. Sulphur and ashes give origin to particles, which are
trapped by the filter walls but cannot be burned during regenerations and must be
mechanically removed by using penumatic filter cleaners. Even with the future 10ppm

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sulphur fuels, the DFP cleaning intervals are too short (50 000 – 80 000km) to be
acceptable for heavy-duty vehicles.

Another promising DFP technology uses NO2 to lower the temperature at which the
regeneration of the filter occurs. An oxidation catalyst positioned upstream of the DPF,
converts most of the NO in the exhaust gas stream to NO2 which then reacts with the
carbon of the particle to give CO2 and N2 . As not all NO2 reacts with the particles
trapped on the filter walls, NO2 tailpipe emissions are ten times higher than those of a
conventional diesel engine with an equivalent NOx emission level. Thus engines
equipped with this DPF technology cannot be run in close ambient due to the
legislation on health and safety of work places.

The above comments clearly show that the DPF technology is not easily applicable to
all or all missions and is not yet mature for heavy duty applications.

Lean NOx Traps

Figure 191a – Lean NOx Trap. Storage of NOx under lean conditions.

Figure 191b – Lean NOx Trap. Regeneration under rich conditions.

Figure 191a and 191b show the working principle of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) Many
issues still have to be answered before the LNT technology can be confirmed as an
option for Heavy-duty commercial vehicles.

LNT catalysts are very sensitive to the sulphur content of the fuel. Any small amount
of sulphur in the fuel has an impact on its effectiveness, its durability and on fuel
consumption.

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The deterioration rate of its conversion efficiency is still to be proven, on account of


the extended operating life of these vehicles/engines.

The size of a LNT for application on heavy-duty engines will be very large. As a
consequence, it will require frequent desortion/conversion cycles with a corresponding
substantial increase in fuel consumption (estimated values for a heavy-duty
commercial vehicle: +5% to +7%).

To meet even the Euro IV emission standards, an additional DPF may still be required.

Finally LNT is an expensive technology due to its high load of precious metals. For
replacement of any catalytic converters, diesel particle filters or lean NOx traps,
manufacturers specifications for testing on replacement schedules must be considered.

Forced Air Intake System


Volumetric Effeciency

There are various ways to increase engine output. Engine output, for a given engine
cylinder size, is determined by the amount of fuel mixture that is burnt during each
combustion stroke. Therefore, the most effective method of increasing an engine’s
output is to get more fuel/air mixture into the cylinders. An effective means of
achieving this aim is by applying a positive pressure, or forcing the air into the
combustion chamber. This is accomplished by turbocharging or supercharging, which
increases the volumetric efficiency of the engine.

Volumetric efficiency is defined with the following formula.

A well designed, naturally aspirated, four stroke, overhead valve diesel engine has a
volumetric efficiency of approximately 85 per cent.

A turbocharged or supercharged diesel engine has a volumetric efficiency of


approximately 130 per cent.

To put it another way, turbocharging or supercharging provides a greater power output


from a smaller engine. Other benefits are increased fuel efficiency, more complete
combustion and a reduction in the production of pollutants.

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Component

Figure 192

The air induction and exhaust system contains the following components
(Figure 192), in addition to pipework:

1. Pre-cleaner

2. Air cleaner

3. Turbocharger

4. Intake manifold

5. After-cooler

6. Exhaust manifold

7. Exhaust stack

8. Muffler.

Turbocharger

Turbochargers serve two functions:

1. Normalising air supply

2. Boosting air supply to engines.

Normalising means keeping air supply the same as is normal for a naturally aspirated
engine at sea level. When engines operate at altitudes above sea level, the air becomes
less dense and a turbocharger is needed to supply more of the thinner air. If
normalisation is not maintained, the fuel settings must be decreased when the air
becomes less dense to avoid over-fuelling. Normalising allows engines to develop its
designated horsepower over a broad range of altitudes.

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Some turbochargers have what is called a waste gate, which allows exhaust gases to
bypass around the turbocharger when boost reaches a specified pressure. This allows
the engine to be operated at various altitudes and maintain a stable, normalised air
supply.

The technician should be aware that while turbochargers can concentrate thinner air at
higher altitudes to give normal oxygen supply and normal power, higher turbocharger
speeds are required to do so. For operation above about 2,100 metres (7,000 feet) fuel
de-rating is often suggested to avoid turbocharger overspeed.

Extra, benefits of using a turbocharger include quieter exhaust, better combustion, and
cleaner emissions.

The second function of a turbocharger is boosting air supply to give the engine more
than normal oxygen. This enables increased fuel settings while still providing better
combustion and quieter exhaust. Improved combustion means not only better fuel
economy, but also cleaner exhaust emissions.

Lubrication System

Figure 193

The lubrication system (Figure 193) is also vital to trouble free turbocharger operation
because it performs three important functions: lubricating, cooling and cleaning.
Interruptions of oil supply for only a few seconds can cause disastrous results. It is
essential that sufficient quantities of oil continually flow through the turbocharger to
provide lubrication to the full floating bearing system and to remove heat.

There are many ways that lubricant can be restricted or lost before it reaches the
turbocharger. The lubricant can contain large abrasive particles that can bridge the
lubricant film and cause damage to rotating parts. Not only must there be an adequate
quantity of lubricant, but the quality must also be good. Before inspecting a failed

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turbocharger, gather basic quantity and quality facts about the lubrication system such
as:

 Type and viscosity of oil used.

 Oil level on the engine dipstick. (Oil in the feed to the turbocharger from the

engine lubrication system).

 Oil filter evaluation, includes opening and inspecting the paper element.

 SOS oil sample.

 Operator’s comments about engine lubrication pressures or other problems prior

to the failure.

Air Flow Restrictions

Figure 194

Air inlet and exhaust system (figure 194) problems account for many failures. For
example, when air inlet restriction is too high:

1. Excessive end loading can occur and cause accelerated thrust bearing wear.

2. Turbocharger RPM can increase significantly.

Unusually high exhaust temperatures will cause marginal lubrication problems and
metallurgical damage.

Foreign material can be introduced into the turbocharger from either the inlet or
exhaust systems. The technician should always gather basic information about air inlet
and exhaust systems when investigating turbocharger failures.

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Components

Turbochargers are free-spinning components and often spin faster than 80,000 rpm. At
peak rpm, journal bearing surface speeds can be greater than 30 metres (100 feet) per
second and the energy stored in rotating components can equal engine horsepower.
These conditions demand near perfect balance and alignment of all moving parts, as
well as proper operating and maintenance environments. Although problems with the
turbo can cause failures, usually simple problems in the working environment, such as
an air inlet restriction, cause most failures.

Rotor Assembly

Figure 195

Figure 196

The turbocharger (Figure 195 and Figure 196) was invented by a Swiss named Buchi in
1906 and has been seen from time to time in various versions ever since. It is only in
the past three decades that it has been developed to such a degree of reliability and
performance that it is now being fitted to continually increasing percentage of new
internal combustion engines.

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Sections

Figure 197 – Turbocharger sub-assemblies

The turbocharger is made up of three sections, the rotor assembly, the turbine housing
(exhaust driven) and the compressor housing (intake side), as shown in Figure 197.
The rotor assembly contains two plain bearings, piston-ring-type seals, retainers, a
thrust bearing and the turbine and compressor wheel. There are also passages for the
supply and dumping of oil to and from the housing.

Cross Section

Figure 198 – Sectional view of a typical turbocharger

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Turbocharger structure is as follows:

 Turbine (exhaust) and compressor (inlet) wheels are mounted on a shaft

 The shaft is supported by journal bearings and thrust bearings

 A heat shield keeps heat from the centre housing

 Engine oil provides cooling as well as lubrication.

When assembled, the compressor wheel, the centre shaft, and the turbine wheel
become one solid piece that turns in free-floating journal bearings. A stationary thrust
bearing located near the compressor wheel controls end play. Larger turbochargers
have two separate journal bearings, while some smaller units have a single cartridge
style bearing. Thrust washers are positioned on each side of the thrust bearing with a
spacer in the middle. When the compressor wheel is installed, the retaining nut forces
the wheel, the thrust washers and the spacer against the shoulder on the centre shaft,
making all of the components into a rotating assembly. All bearings ride on a cushion of
oil during operation.

The turbine back plate, or heat shield, and the air space behind it serve as insulators to
keep high exhaust temperatures from penetrating the centre housing. Lubricating oil
removes heat that is conducted into the centre shaft from the turbine wheel and the
bearing.

Even though temperatures can be as high as 760°C (1400°F) at the turbine wheel,
normal temperatures are under 150°C (300°F) at the journal bearing because of the
cooling effect of the lubricating oil.

Rotating parts must be very carefully balanced. This means that, if necessary
component balance must be correct. Component balance is the balance of each
individual part about the centreline. Component assemblies relates to the
perpendicularity and parallelism of assembled components. Perpendicularity defines the
squareness of surfaces relative to the bore, while parallelism defines the alignment of
component end surfaces. If these two aspects are incorrect, when the compressor
wheel nut is tightened the tensile load on the centre shaft will not be axial, bending of
the shaft can occur and serious unbalance can result. Individual component balance
and component assembly must be carefully controlled. During field reconditioning and
repair these facts should be kept in mind and extreme care used when handling and
assembling the rotating parts.

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Welding and Hardening

Figure 199

Centershaft and Turbine Wheel

Turbo parts are made to withstand the heat and loads applied during operation. The
shaft and turbine wheel may be welded together by inertial (spin) and electron beam
welds. The centre shaft and turbine (hot wheel) are made separately and then welded
together with one of two processes: friction or electron beam welding. The centre shaft
and turbine wheel shown in Figure 199, are inertial welded together then straightened
and balanced.

Centre shafts are made from high strength steel that are highly magnetic.

After inertial welding to the hot wheel, the shaft is induction hardened, this shaft is not
designed to withstand and should not be exposed to high temperatures where the
bearings fit, to obtain approximately Rockwell C-55 hardness.

Turbine wheels are made of a cast nickel alloy containing over 10 per cent chrome and
less than 1 per cent cast iron. This metal is essentially nonmagnetic and can withstand
high temperatures without deterioration.

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Compressor Wheels

Compressor wheels are made from high quality, high strength aluminium alloys. Special
care is taken in processing these alloys to prevent stringers and inclusions that would
weaken the metal and cause cracks. This metal is not designed to withstand and should
never be exposed to high temperatures.

Figure 200

Compressor wheel blade design can either be straight or back curved. Perhaps the
easiest way to notice the difference is to compare the two (Figure 200). Notice the
slope of the blades on the bottom wheel is more severe than te slope of the blades on
the top wheel. The bottom wheel is a back curve design.

When rpm increases, centrifugal force tries to straighten the back curved blades. Thus,
as rpm increases and then decreases a cyclic bending load is placed on back curve
blades and the cyclic loading from centrifugal force is much more severe than the cyclic
load from compressing air. It is cyclic loads that cause fatigue fractures. Blades are
designed to withstand these heavy cyclic bending loads as well as the lighter loading
from compressing air.

The centre shaft hole is drilled using a special machine that calculates the precise
location of the hole for the closest wheel balance. Material may be removed from the
nose of the wheel, near the drilled hole, for more precise balancing.

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Journal Bearings

Figure 201

The free-floating journal bearings (Figure 201) can be made either from copper/
tin/lead/alloy or aluminium, depending on the turbocharger design. On older
turbochargers, many bearings were completely saturated with lead, while later bearing
designs have a lower lead content. The lead acts as a lubricant during short periods of
marginal lubrication (such as during start-ups).

Some bearings have a thin tin layer over the copper/tin/lead alloy to improve lubricity
on start-ups.

Bearing inside and outside diameters are carefully controlled to ensure correct
clearances and oil film thickness. Some bearings have oil holes that are chamfered to
remove any drilling irregularities and allow free flow of oil as the bearing is spinning.
Other bearings may have oil grooves on the sides.

Retaining Rings

Figure 202

Journal bearing retaining snap rings (Figure 202) are stamped from high strength, high
tensile steel. The stamping operation gives one side rounded edges and the other side
sharp edge. The smooth, rounded edge should always be installed toward the bearing
to minimise abrasive contact.

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Thrust Bearings

Figure 203

Thrust bearings (Figure 203) even though they have a bronze appearance are made
from copper/tin/lead and high strength aluminium alloys. Some are tin layered to
increase lubricity on start-ups. Thrust bearings are stationary while adjacent thrust
washers turn at full shaft rpm. It is because of this, thrust bearings absorb more
energy than any other turbo bearing and are consequently more sensitive to marginal
lubrication, foreign material and abnormal end loading.

Some thrust bearings have drilled oil passageways as seen in Figure 45 to allow direct
lubrication to the thrust contact surface.

Seal Rings

Figure 204

Hot side seal rings (Figure 204) are made from a high chrome alloy ductile iron and are
designed to resist high temperatures. Cold side seal rings are made from cast iron and
should never be exposed to high temperatures. Both are carefully made to ensure
roundness, smooth surface finish and adequate spring force. These aspects keep the
seal ring from turning in the bore and from leaking. When seal rings are installed, the
end gap should be approximately 0.250mm (0.010”) Refer to manufacturer’s service
manuals for exact specifications).

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Housings

Figure 205

The turbocharger housing (Figure 205) is made up of a compressor housing, centre


housing and turbine housing.

Compressor housings are made of a cast aluminium alloy. Bore perpendicularity and
parallelism are carefully controlled to ensure uniform compressor wheel clearances
(usually less than 0.250mm (0.010”). These housings are designed to withstand the
forces of a high-speed compressor wheel separation.

Centre housings are made from cast iron and are normally not subjected to either high
temperatures or high loads. Bore parallelism and perpendicularity are carefully
controlled, as well as the inside diameter and surface finish where journal bushings fit.

Turbine housings are made of ductile irons or nickel alloyed ductile irons. These
housings must withstand loads of any attachments at temperatures as high as 760°C
(1400°F) without permanently changing size or shape. The housings are carefully
machined to ensure bore parallelism and perpendicularity and maintain uniform turbine
wheel clearances.

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Backing Plate

Figure 206

The turbine backing plate (Figure 206), or heat shield, acts as an insulator to protect
the centre housing from high exhaust temperatures. The shield is made of ductile iron
and provides insulation by creating an air space between the turbine wheel and the
centre housing.

Turbocharger Lubrication

Figure 207

In most applications, turbochargers are lubricated by the engine lubrication system


(Figure 207). Oil under pressure from the engine oil pump enters the top of the bearing
housing and flows around the shaft and then to the thrust bearings and oil seals. The
oil flows both inside and around the outside of the bearings, which fully float in oil
during operation. The oil also flows to the piston-ring-type oil seals at either end of the
rotating shaft to aid in sealing and lubrication.

The thrust bearing located at the compressor end of the rotating assembly is lubricated
by the same oil before it leaves the bearing housing and flows back to the engine
sump.

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On large diesel engines such as those used in marine and power-generation


applications, the turbocharger has its own oil reservoir and does not rely on engine oil
for lubrication.

Continuous, clean oil supply is vital to good turbocharger performance. The lubrication
system is also vital for trouble free turbocharger operation. It performs three important
functions: lubrication, cooling and cleaning. Interruptions to the oil supply, even for
only a few seconds, can cause disastrous results. It is vital that sufficient quantities of
oil continuously flow through the turbocharger to provide suspension and stabilisation
of the full floating bearing system and to remove heat. There are many ways that
lubricant can be restricted or lost before it reaches the turbocharger. The lubricant can
contain large abrasive particles that cause damage to rotating parts. Not only must
adequate lubricant quantities be present, but the quality must be good.

Exhaust Manifold

Exhaust
Manifold
l Filter

Figure 208

The exhaust manifold on turbocharged engines (Figure 208) is similar in construction to


those on naturally aspirated engines.

The significant difference on turbocharged engines is that the exhaust manifold is


connected to the turbine housing of the turbocharger; to direct the hot pressurised
gases to the turbine. The exhaust gases, are removed from the centre of the turbine
housing, via an elbow, to the exhaust stack.

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Wastegates

Figure 209

To control the boost pressure, the turbocharger is fitted with a bypass valve, or
wastegate, which controls the turbocharger speed. The wastegate controls the flow of
exhaust gas to the turbine wheel and consequently controls the turbine speed. It can
allow some gases to go directly to the turbine and some to the exhaust outlet. By
doing this, the turbine speed can be controlled.

Figure 210

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A wastegate consists primarily of a valve and a base assembly that is cooled by engine
coolant from a cooler to the turbocharger. This base assembly contains the valve guide.
When the valve is withdrawn into the base assembly, the wastegate is open,

allowing exhaust gas to bypass the turbocharger. When the valve is extended to the
normal position, the wastegate is closed, preventing exhaust gas from bypassing the
turbocharger.

Force from two springs extends the wastegate valve. Two forces try to open the valve.
One force is based on the amount of air pressure behind the diaphragm, and the second
is the pressure of the spring.

Aftercoolers

Figure 211

After-coolers (Figure 211) are fitted to high performance turbocharged or supercharged


diesel engines and are in effect a heat exchanger.

After-coolers are used to cool the engine incoming air so that the volume of air available
is increased. (The cooler the air – the denser it becomes).

Some engine manufacturers refer to the after-cooler as an intercooler.

After-coolers are required because intake air, which is compressed by either a


turbocharger or supercharger, heats up due to the laws of physics. Hot air occupies a
larger space than cold air, therefore more air can be forced into the combustion
chamber when colder.

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Figure 212

There are two basic after cooler designs: one uses engine coolant for cooling of the
intake air, (Figure 212) and the other uses the air flow by vehicle movement and cooling
fan to create an air draft.

Figure 213

In the latter case, the after-cooler is positioned in front of the engine coolant radiator
(Figure 213).

Figure 214

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The core of the after-cooler, which uses engine coolant (Figure 214), appears similar to
a compressed radiator core, with coolant flowing through the core and the intake air
being blown across the fins, releasing heat to the coolant. Coolant taken from the
bottom of the block enters the cooler core and then exits to the thermostat housing,
where it will pass through the engine radiator. The core is a neat fit into the specially
designed intake manifold.

Some machines use a separate after-cooler circuit, where a portion of the radiator is
used only for after-cooler water. In this system, cooler water is normally available to
cool the engine intake air.

Turbocharger Operation

Figure 215 Turbocharger

Turbochargers (Figure 215) are free-spinning components, which often spin faster
than 80,000 rpm. At peak rpm, journal bearing surface speeds can be greater than 30
metres (100 feet) per second, and the energy stored in rotating components can equal
engine horsepower. These conditions demand near perfect balance and alignment of
all moving parts, as well as proper operating and maintenance environments. Although
problems with the turbocharger can cause failures, usually simple problems in the
working environment, such as air inlet restriction, cause most failures.

In general terms, there are two types of turbocharger – the pulse type and the
constant pressure type – each with its own operating characteristics. However, both
operate in the same basic way.

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Figure 216

Exhaust gas from the engine passes through the exhaust manifold and into the
turbocharger turbine housing, (Figure 216) where it creates pressure on the turbine
blades, causing the turbine, shaft and compressor wheel assembly to rotate.

The turbine wheel is connected by a shaft to the compressor wheel and exhaust gases
push the turbine and the compressor wheel to approximately 80,000 –130,000 RPM,
depending on turbo design. This compresses the intake air. When the load on an
engine increases, more fuel is injected into the cylinders. The increased combustion
generates more exhaust gases, causing the turbine and compressor wheel to turn
faster, forcing more air into the engine. The maximum RPM of the turbocharger is
controlled by the fuel setting, high idle speed setting, height above sea level and by
the wastegate, where used.

As the compressor rotates, air is pressurised by centrifugal force and passes from the
compressor housing to the engine inlet manifold via the after-cooler. The quantity
and/or pressure of the air proportional to the speed of rotation of the turbocharger.

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Pulse Type

Figure 217 – Pulse-type exhaust manifold

The pulse-type turbocharger requires a specially designed exhaust manifold to deliver


high energy exhaust pulses to the turbocharger turbine. This design, with its individual
branches, as shown in Figure 217, prevents interference between the exhaust gas
discharge from the separate cylinders, thus promoting a high- speed pulsing flow not
achieved with other designs.

Split Pulse

Figure 218 – Split-pulse turbine housing

In some applications, a split-pulse turbine housing can be used to further aid in the
acceleration of the rotating assembly. This design has two volute chambers instead of
one. The term ‘volute chamber’ is used in reference to the spiral- shaped turbine
housing, which decreases in volume towards its centre in the manner of a snail shell.

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Each chamber receives half of the engine exhaust flow; for example, in a four- cylinder
engine the front two cylinders are fed into the first chamber, while the back two are
fed into the second chamber as shown in Figure 218.

Constant Pressure Type

With the constant pressure type of turbocharger, the exhaust gas from all cylinders
flows into a common manifold, where the pulses are smoothed out, resulting in
exhaust gas entering the turbine housing at an even pressure.

The exhaust gas then enters a volute-shaped annular ring in the turbine housing,
which accelerates it radially inwards at reduced pressure and increased velocity on to
the turbine blades. The blades are so designed that the force of the high- velocity gas
drives the turbine and its shaft assembly.

Figure 219 – Turbocharger compressor housing

The compressor assembly (Figure 219) is of similar design and construction in both
pulse and constant-pressure turbochargers. The compressor consists of a wheel and a
housing incorporating a single volute chamber (sometimes called a diffuser). Air in the
compressor chamber lies between the blades of the compressor wheel and is thrown
out radially by centrifugal force into the volute chamber during rotation of the wheel.
At this point the air velocity decreases and an increase in air pressure results. As the
air progresses around the volute, its velocity decreases further and the pressure
increases as the cross-sectional diameter of the chamber decreases.

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Summary

In summary, the pulse-type turbocharger offers a quick acceleration of the rotating


assembly due to the rapid succession of the exhaust gas pulses on the turbine
assembly. It is predominantly used in automotive applications, where acceleration
response is important.

Constant-pressure turbochargers are used mainly on diesel engines in earth moving


equipment and in marine applications. In these applications, acceleration response is
not as critical.

Air Intake Condition

Figure 220

Air inlet and exhaust system problems account for many failures. For example, when
air inlet restriction is too high it can cause excessive end loading, thereby accelerated
thrust bearing wear (Figure 220).

Abnormally high exhaust temperatures can cause marginal lubrication problems and
metallurgical damage. Foreign material can be introduced into the turbocharger from
either the inlet or exhaust systems. The technician should always gather basic
information about air inlet and exhaust systems when investigating turbocharger
failures.

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Lubrication

As described previously, turbochargers have extremely high rotational speeds and high
energy factors and are normally lubricated with engine oil. To achieve reliable
turbocharger operation and predictable life, the correct quality and viscosity oil is
essential and the oil must be in good condition:

 Oil and Filters must be changed at the correct precise intervals and correct

engine oil levels maintained.

 Oil filters should be cut open and examined at change interval to enable proper

examination.

 Engine oil pressure specification should always be tested at the defined precise

intervals.

Boost Pressure

Boost pressure is defined as the pressure existing in the Inlet manifold when the
engine is operating at nominal or rated power output. Boost pressure is specified for
each engine model.

Boost pressure is measured at a location in the inlet manifold specified by the


manufacturer and the units used for boost pressure measurement are either mm Hg,
when a mercury manometer is used, or kPa when a gauge is used.

Boost pressure should always be compared with standard inlet and fuel conditions of:

 99 kPa dry barometric pressure

 29 degrees Celsius

 35 API rated fuel.

If the standard conditions are not present at the time of test, correction factors should
be applied. (Refer to manufacturer’s specifications).

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Pressure Control

Figure 221

The chart shown in Figure 221 is a typical performance comparison between a


standard turbocharger and a turbocharger fitted with a wastegate.
Problems with wastegates are normally reported as low power complaints. This will
occur when the wastegate sticks open. If the wastegate diaphragm fails or the
wastegate sticks in the closed position, over boosting and high exhaust temperatures
will result.

Figure 222

The wastegate (Figure 222) turbocharger is of a higher output capacity and capable of
delivering sufficient charge air for complete combustion of the fuel during acceleration
as well as in high-torque situations. As the engine speed and exhaust-gas energy
increases, so the turbocharger speed will increase and the charge-air pressure rises.
Without the wastegate charge, pressure would continue to rise with considerable risk
of change to both the engine and the turbocharger.

However, the increasing air pressure acts on the diaphragm in the wastegate until, at
a predetermined pressure, the resulting force is sufficient to compress the spring and
open the exhaust bypass passage. This allows sufficient exhaust gas to bypass the

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turbine, preventing any further rise in turbocharger speed and subsequent charge-air
pressure.

Wastegate turbochargers are generally fitted to faster moving earthmoving equipment,


for example: dump trucks and road scrapers. They are also fitted to vehicles to
achieve both low and high altitude capability without de-rating.

Electronically Controlled Wastegate

Air is supplied to the wastegate solenoid. If boost pressure exceeds a predetermined


value a sensor will send a signal to the ECM and the ECM will open the wastegate
solenoid. The open wastegate solenoid will allow air pressure to open the exhaust
bypass valve. The exhaust by-pass valve is either 100 per cent open or 100 per cent
closed. When the exhaust bypass valve is open, exhaust at the turbine side of the
turbocharger is diverted through the muffler. When the exhaust at the turbine side of
the turbocharger is diverted through the muffler the speed of the turbocharger will
decrease. This will reduce the boost pressure to the cylinders.

Application

Use of wastegates almost disappeared from Caterpillar engines, however, their use is
now becoming more frequent. The use of wastegates is driven by emission
requirements as well as a need for superior performance from the turbocharger over a
wide speed range.

Wastegates are used on Caterpillar 3500 engines installed in the larger mining off-
highway trucks and in the C9 to C16 on-highway truck engine. In addition, some
smaller machines also use a wastegate. In the 793 off-highway truck, the wastegate is
used to allow the vehicle to operate at high altitudes without engine derating.

The 793-off highway truck is the only current example of a re-buildable type of
wastegate in the Caterpillar system. The 793 wastegate is similar in design to those
used on earlier engines apart from the fact that the 793 wastegate is controlled
electronically.

Effects Of Altitude On Turbocharged Diesel Engines

When an internal combustion engine is operated at a high altitude where the air is less
dense than at sea level, the quantity of air (and oxygen) entering the engine cylinder
on the induction stroke is insufficient for combustion of the normal fuel charge. As a
result, the performance of the engine falls in proportion to the altitude at which it is
being operated.

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Turbocharged engines are not affected to the same degree. As the air becomes less
dense with altitude, the turbocharger spins faster due to the reduced pumping load,
producing a compensating effect. However, there is still a decrease in engine
performance, although this is much less than for naturally aspirated engines.

On turbocharged engines, power output is reduced by approximately 1 per cent per


300m rise in altitude above sea level. When the operating altitude is in the vicinity of
2000m, the fuel delivery to the engine de-rating must be decreased according to
engine specifications to prevent damage to the turbocharger due to over speeding.

Series Turbocharging

Figure 223

Series turbocharging (Figure 223) is used occasionally in high performance heavy duty
diesel engines to improve the efficiency of the air intake system. It uses a large (low
pressure) turbocharger to provide a supply to a small (high pressure) turbocharger.
This arrangement provides an air supply to the small turbocharger which is pressurised
to a level above atmospheric pressure.

The 3516 engine fitted to the 793 off-highway truck was the first engine in the
Caterpillar system to use series boosting.

The advantages of the series boost system are:

 improved fuel consumption

 reduced smoke, especially on acceleration

 increased peak torque

 higher overall efficiency.

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Compound Turbocharging

In an effort to increase engine efficiency and performance, some engine manufacturers


are turbo-compounding their engines. In a conventional turbocharged engine, the
exhaust gas is directed to the turbine wheel and then exits into the atmosphere via the
exhaust pipe.

Figure 224 – Schematic diagram of a turbo-compounded diesel engine

With turbo-compounding, the exhaust gas leaves the turbocharger and is redirected
through a second turbine assembly, which harnesses some of the remaining exhaust
energy to help drive the engine’s flywheel, as seen in Figure 224.

This second turbine assembly directs its rotational force via a stepped-down gear
reduction into a fluid coupling. A fluid coupling consists of a driving and driven
member, which are connected to each other by a fluid. Since the coupling is through a
fluid, it absorbs shock loadings and speed variations brought about by varying engine
operating conditions. In this way, it protects the system from undue stress. The drive
from the fluid coupling is further reduced in speed as it is geared down and coupled
directly to the flywheel.

Overall, the drive through the fluid coupling and gear reductions combine to link a
turbine spinning at a maximum of 55 000 RPM to a crankshaft, which runs at a speed
of up to 2200 RPM.

Some of the advantages of using turbo-compounding are lower specific fuel


consumption, reduced exhaust emission, better power-to-weight ratio and increased
thermal efficiency. Claims have been made by some manufacturers that, by using
turbo-compounding, the thermal efficiency of their engines has risen from 44 per cent
to 46 per cent.

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Engine Starting Procedure

A turbocharged engine should always be allowed to idle when it is started until the
engine oil pressure has built up to normal operating pressure.

Starting an engine with the throttle wide open will result in the turbocharger operating
at high speed with very little oil being circulated through its bearings, with resultant
accelerated wear on the rotating assembly and bearings of the turbocharger.

Engine Shutdown

Before a turbocharged diesel engine is shut down, the engine should be run at idle
speed for three to four minutes. This will allow the high-speed rotating assembly to
slow down, allow the engine operating temperature to normalise and allow excessive
heat to be dissipated from the turbocharger.

If a turbocharged engine is shut down while operating at high speeds or under load,
the turbocharger rotating assembly will continue to rotate for some time without oil for
essential lubrication and cooling. Because the exhaust turbine shaft operates at high
temperature during engine operation, once the oil flow to the bearing housing stops,
the heat in the shaft and housing is sufficient to decompose the oil to form gums and
varnish, leaving no lubricating residue and causing premature wear to the rotating
shaft, its support bearings and the bearing housing.

There are now ways of protecting the turbocharger against sudden engine shutdown.
An automatic timer unit can be fitted to the engine shutdown system, which overrides
the stop control and allows the engine to idle for a number of minutes before stopping.

Another method utilises an oil accumulator mounted on the engine, which is charged
by the engine lubrication system during operation. When the engine is shut down, oil
is forced from the accumulator, via a check valve, to the turbocharger bearing
housing, and lubricates the bearings for approximately 30 seconds.

Cause of Failure, Inpection and Repair Procedures for Turbocharger and Exhaust
Systems

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Identify Causes of Turbocharger Failure

Turbochargers fail in many different ways and for many different reasons. Some
causes of failure are provided below:

Hot and Cold side Oil Leakage.

Figure 225 – Restricted oil return line

Hot and cold side oil leakage (Figure 225) can be caused by a restricted or blocked
crankcase breather or turbocharger return oil line. Sometimes the leak can be bad
enough to show on the outside of the turbocharger. Minor leaking will show in the
exhaust by excessive black smoke.

Hot Shutdown

Repeated hot shutdowns will result in bearing failure and complete turbocharger failure
due to lack of lubrication.

Restricted Air Cleaner

High exhaust temperature can result from this as well as turbocharger overspeeding
due to creation of a partial vacuum on the inlet side.

Air Leaks in the Intake

This can result in dust ingestion.

Exhaust Leaks

Exhaust leaks upstream of the turbocharger will result in reduced power output.
Damaged or worn seal rings or failed gaskets, missing or loose bolts will cause this and
be clearly visible on inspection.

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Overfuelling

When overfuelling occurs, the turbocharger will overspeed.

High Altitude Operation

The air is less dense at high altitudes, therefore less air will be provided by the
turbocharger. In high altitude operations, derating (reduction of fuel setting) is
required to prevent turbocharger overspeeding.

If the turbocharger is fitted with a wastegate, this system is sometimes designed to


allow high altitude operation without the need for derating.

Failure to Prelube

Prelubing of the turbocharger should be conducted after service, after oil filter change
and after long shutdown periods. Failure to do this will cause lack of lubrication type
failures.

Leaking Oil Lines

Turbocharger supply and return lines should be aligned and correctly torqued so that
they fit without stress.

Turbocharger Mounting Bolts

Mounting bolts and clamps need to be correctly torqued.

Turbocharger Inspection

WARNING:
Disconnect batteries before performance of any service work. Hot engine components can
cause injury from burns. Before performing maintenance on the engine, allow the engine
and the components to cool. Personal injury can result from rotating and moving parts.
Never attempt adjustments while the machine is moving or the engine is running unless
otherwise specified.
The machine must be parked on a level surface and the engine stopped.

NOTE:
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened component life.

NOTE:
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection,
maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to collect the fluid
with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component
containing fluids. Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and mandates.

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Before beginning an inspection of the turbocharger, be sure that the inlet air restriction
is within the specifications for your engine. Be sure that the exhaust system restriction
is within the specifications for your engine. Refer to Systems Operation/Testing and
Adjusting, ‘Air Inlet and Exhaust System – Inspection on the vehicle/engine you are
conducting tests on’.

The condition of the turbocharger will have definite effects on engine performance. Use
the following inspections and procedures to determine the condition of the
turbocharger.

 Inspection of the Compressor and the Compressor Housing

 Inspection of the Turbine Wheel and the Turbine Housing

 Inspection of the Wastegate.

Inspection of the Compressor and Compressor Housing.

 Step 1. Remove air piping from the compressor inlet.

o Inspect the air cleaner element for restriction. If a restriction is found,

correct the problem.

o Clean the compressor wheel and housing of foreign build up.

o Inspect the compressor wheel and housing for damage from a foreign

object. If there is damage, determine the source of the foreign object.

o As required, repair and clean the inlet system. Replace the turbocharger if

necessary. If there is no damage, go to Step 2.

 Step 2. Turn the rotating assembly by hand. While you turn the assembly, push the
assembly sideways. The assembly should turn freely. The compressor wheel should
not rub the compressor housing. Replace the turbocharger if the compressor wheel
rubs the compressor wheel housing. If there is no rubbing or scraping, go to Step
3.

 Step 3. Inspect the compressor and the compressor wheel housing for oil leakage.
An oil leak from the compressor may deposit oil in the after-cooler. Drain and clean
the after-cooler if you find oil in the after-cooler. If an oil leak is found, conduct the
following steps:

 Check the oil level in the crankcase. If the oil level is too high, adjust the oil
level.

 Inspect the engine crankcase breather. Clean the engine crankcase breather
or replace it if it is plugged. Remove the turbocharger oil drain line and the
drain opening. Inspect the oil drain line.

 Inspect the area between the bearings of the rotating assembly shaft. Look

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for oil sludge in the oil drain hole and oil drain line. If necessary, clean the
rotating assembly shaft, the oil drain hole, and the oil drain line

 If Steps 3a through 3c did not reveal the source of the oil leakage, the
turbocharger has internal damage. Replace the turbocharger.

Inspection of the Turbine Wheel and the Turbine Housing

Remove the air piping from the turbine outlet casing.

 Step 1. Inspect the turbine for damage by a foreign object. If there is damage,
determine the source of the foreign object. Replace the turbocharger. If there is no
damage, go to Step 2.

Clean the turbine wheel and the turbine housing of any build-up of carbon or
foreign material.

 Step 2. Turn the rotating assembly by hand. While turning the assembly push the
assembly sideways. The assembly should turn freely. The turbine wheel should not
rub the turbine wheel housing. Replace the turbocharger if the turbine wheel rubs
the turbine wheel housing. If there is no rubbing or scraping, go to Step 3.

 Step 3. Inspect the turbine and the turbine wheel housing for oil leakage. Inspect
the turbine and the turbine wheel housing for oil coking. Some oil coking may be
cleaned. Heavy oil coking may require replacement of the turbocharger. If the oil is
coming from the turbocharger centre housing go to Step 3a. Otherwise go to
‘Inspection of the Wastegate.’

a. Remove the turbocharger oil drain line. Inspect the drain opening and the
area between the bearings of the rotating assembly shaft. Look for oil
sludge in the oil drain hole and the oil drain line. If necessary, clean the
rotating assembly shaft, the drain opening and the drain line.

b. If crankcase pressure is high, or if the oil drain is restricted, pressure in the


centre housing may be greater than the pressure of the turbine housing. Oil
flow may be forced in the wrong direction and the oil may not drain. Check
the crankcase pressure and correct any problems.

c. If the oil drain line is damaged, replace the oil drain line.

d. Check the routing of the oil drain line and eliminate any sharp restrictive
bends. Make sure that the oil drain line is not too close to the engine
exhaust manifold.

e. If Steps 3a through 3d did not reveal the source of the oil leakage, the
turbocharger has internal damage. Replace the turbocharger

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Inspection of the Wastegate

The turbocharger senses boost pressure, which, in turn actuates the wastegate valve.
The wastegate valve controls the amount of exhaust gas that is allowed to bypass the
turbine side of the turbocharger. Regulating the amount of exhaust gas that enters the
turbocharger influences the RPM of the turbocharger.

Figure 226

Typical Example

When the engine operates in conditions of low boost (lug), a spring presses against a
diaphragm in the canister (Figure 226). This moves the actuating rod in order to close
the wastegate valve. Then, the turbocharger can operate at maximum performance.

As the boost pressure increases against the diaphragm in the canister, the wastegate
valve opens. The RPM of the turbocharger becomes limited. This limitation occurs
because a portion of the exhaust gases bypass the turbine wheel of the turbocharger.

The following levels of boost pressure indicate a problem with the wastegate valve:

 Too high at full load conditions

 Too low at all lug conditions.

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Amount of Pressure that is Required to Check Wastegate


Valve
Letter
kPa psi
Designation
B 156 23

C 153 22

D 124 18

E 130 19

F 135 20

G 180 26

H 144 21

J 188 27

M 200 29

V 161 23

W 164 24

To check the operation of the wastegate valve, verify the correct pressure for the
wastegate valve. On Caterpillar engines this can be accomplished by referring to the
letter designation that is stamped on the actuating lever of the wastegate valve. This
letter designation indicates a corresponding amount of pressure. Table 1 indicates the
letter designation and the corresponding amounts of pressure.

Remove the air line, and slowly apply the corresponding amount of pressure to the
canister. Do not exceed 200 kPa (29 psi).

When the external supply of air that is connected to line (the turbocharger to canister
in Figure 204) reaches the corresponding pressure for the wastegate valve, the
actuating lever should move by 0.50 ± 0.25 mm (0.020 ± 0.010 inch). If the actuating
lever does not move by this amount, replace the turbine’s housing assembly of the
turbocharger. This housing assembly includes the wastegate valve. If necessary,
replace the complete turbocharger.

NOTE:
The housing assembly for the wastegate turbine is preset at the factory and no adjustments
can be made.

The boost pressure controls the maximum rpm of the turbocharger, because the boost
pressure controls the position of the wastegate. The following factors also effect the
maximum rpm of the turbocharger:

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 Engine rating

 Horsepower demand on the engine

 High idle rpm

 Height above sea level for engine operation

 Inlet air restriction

 Exhaust system restriction.

Turbocharger Failure Indicators

Figure 227

First indication of turbocharger problems is usually low power or black exhaust smoke
(Figure 227).

Figure 228

Too often the root cause is simply a dirty air filter which restricts inlet air supply. Be
sure to check inlet air systems before stating that there is a turbocharger problem
(Figure 228).

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Lack of Lubrication

For example, lack of lubrication can be caused by low oil level, low oil pressure, wrong
oil quality, high oil temperatures, etc.

Lack of lubrication produces indicators such as:

 Temper colours and cooked oil in bearing areas

 Adhesive wear

 Weakened metal

 Hot side seal ring overheating, weakening, collapse, wear and destruction

 Wheel contact with housings

 Occasional wheel separation from the centre shaft.

Figure 229

Temper colours and black carburised oil are evidence of inadequate oil supply
(Figure 229).

Figure 230

Continued operation without adequate lube supply allows adhesive wear of bushings
and can weaken the centre shaft (Figure 230).

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Figure 231

Eventually the shaft can break (Figure 231). The fracture face is usually rough and
discoloured from heat. A magnet can be used to verify that centre shaft material is
present on the turbine wheel and that the friction weld has not failed.

Figure 232

Adhesive wear and presence of temper colours on the centre shaft indicate inadequate
oil supply and heat removal (Figure 232).

Figure 233

One journal bearing is seized in the centre housing due to excessively high
temperatures (Figure 233).

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Figure 234

Fractures should be inspected and classified. The fracture shown in Figure 234 appears
to be a fast, secondary fracture originating at the fillet where the diameter changes.

Figure 235

The other side of the fracture (Figure 235) shows plastic deformation and temper
colours – definite signs of high temperatures and a resultant ductile fracture.

When resultant damage indicates a lack of lubrication, the cause must be determined.
There are many root causes, such as low oil level, cold start-ups, wrong oil, restricted
passages, contaminated oil and high temperatures.

Abrassive in Lube

Abrassive Damage

Abrasive material in the oil can damage bearings, cause excessive shaft motion and
lead to total failure. Signs that abrasives have been present in the oil include:

 Scratches, cuts or grooves in rotating parts

 Little heat build-up

 Rapid wear

 Embedded debris in bearings

 Excessive bearing wear and centre shaft motion

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 Hot and cold wheel contact with their housings

 Seal rings leaking, collapsed, worn, missing

 Occasional wheel separation from the centre shaft

 Careful inspection of the internal parts yields important facts.

Figure 236

The heat shield and centre bearings of the turbo shown in Figure 236 are covered with
sludge and varnish. Discolouration of the journal bearings is present. The oil present
appears to be contaminated with carbon and other small unfiltered debris. These signs
indicate a need to get facts about oil quality, such as maintenance intervals, filters and
blowby amounts.

Figure 237

The hot side bearing shown in Figure 237 has extreme wear, while the cold side
bearing looks normal.

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Figure 238

Closer inspection of Figure 238 shows that the seal ring came out of its groove during
installation. This may be the root cause, which allowed hot exhaust and carbon to
enter and cause abrasive wear.

Large foreign material can be introduced during engine or turbocharger assembly,


during repairs when engine lubrication systems are open, or during maintenance
operations. Because turbocharger rpm is extremely high, it only takes a short time for
serious damage to occur, produce shaft motion and allow wheels to contact housings.
Abrasive damage will be worse on the outer surface of journal bearings than on the
inner surface due to tight clearances and centrifugal force.

Since identification of debris is often the key to finding the root cause of abrasive
wear, whenever possible, the recessed areas should be carefully inspected for trapped
debris particles. Gently remove and clean them and examine them with good lighting
and magnification.

Figure 239

Large, hard debris has cut and grooved shaft bearings (Figure 239).

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Figure 240

Abrasive damage is more severe on outside surfaces than inside (Figure 240).

Figure 241

General inspection shows that abrasive cutting is present (Figure 241), and a first
preconceived idea might be that the customer has allowed debris to enter and cause
the damage.

Figure 242

Only by inspecting the wear surface with magnification (Figure 242) can the abrasive
particles be identified as spherical, uniform size, hard particles with temper colours.

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High Exhaust Temperatures

Look for high exhaust temperature facts:

 Heat damage

 Worn bearings

 Wheel to housing contact

 Wheel to centre shaft separation.

High exhaust temperature can force heat to penetrate the centre housing of the
turbocharger and damage rotating parts. Heat also causes parts, such as the turbine
housing and centre housing, to oxidise and distort.

Indicators of high exhaust temperature include:

 Extreme heat damage

 Cooked or carburised oil

 Oxidation/scaling of metal parts

 Temper colours

 Turbine seal ring collapsed

 Worn bearings

 Wheel contact with housings

 Occasional wheel separation from the centre shaft.

Figure 243

Visual examination of the exterior of a turbocharger subjected to extremely high


temperatures usually shows extreme oxidation of all metals as well as wheel contact
with housings (Figure 243).

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Figure 244

Upon disassembly, internal parts should also show signs of high temperatures, such as
cooked oil throughout, heavily oxidised heat shield, temper colours and bearing wear.

Foreign Object Damage

When foreign objects enter a turbocharger it is immediately and seriously damaged.


Unbalance can be more destructive than the physical distortion created by foreign
material.

Indicators of foreign object damage include:

 Bent and torn wheel blades, where usually all blades are damaged

 at the inside diameter of compressor wheel blades

 at the outside diameter of turbine wheel blades

 Bent centre shaft

 Normal wear and colour of bearings (except that wear may be misaligned if the

centre shaft is bent)

 Occasional wheel separation from the shaft if foreign material was large.

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Figure 245

Figure 246

When foreign objects enter the turbine wheel, the outer edges of the blades are
twisted and torn (Figure 245 and Figure 246) when the high speed blade hits a
stationary object (even small, light foreign material will seem heavy to a high speed
blade).

Figure 247

When large foreign material enters the compressor wheel, the inner edges of the
blades are twisted and torn (Figure 247).

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Figure 248

Smaller foreign material will do less severe damage at the same location. Dirt tracks
trailing from the damage indicate that use after damage has occurred (Figure 218.

Hot Shutdown Damage

Figure 249

After full load operation, turbochargers have maximum temperature and require
several minutes of no load operation, at idle, to allow lube oil to remove excess heat.
When hot shut down occurs, heat is allowed to penetrate the centre housing, carburise
residual oil, and at times lower strength of parts (Figure 249.

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Figure 250

The hot side bearing has fine abrasive wear from the carburised oil and the surface has
been scratched to show the new carburised oil layer (Figure 250).

Figure 251

Figure 252

If the cooked oil causes a bearing to stick to the centre shaft, full rpm and excessive
wear will occur on the outside surface (Figure 251 and Figure 252).

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Figure 253

When bearings are removed from the centre shaft after hot shutdowns, it is common
to find quench dots and rings (Figure 253) where residual oil has dripped onto a hot
shaft through oil passages and around bearings. Repeated hot shutdowns usually
produce several quench dots. More recent dots will be bright and older ones will fade
with wear.

Inertial Weld Failure

Figure 254

Turbine wheels are either friction or electron beam welded to centre shafts. If a
mistake is made during this process, proper melting and adhesion may not occur, as
seen in Figure 254. Since the turbine wheel is non-magnetic and the shaft is magnetic,
a magnet can be used to check for weld failure.

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Figure 255

Weld failures are smooth and flat with little shaft metal remaining on the turbine wheel
fracture face (Figure 255).

Figure 256

Exhaust energy is sufficient to keep the broken wheel spinning until it gets small
enough to escape from the turbocharger (Figure 256).

Figure 257

A magnet sticks to this fracture, telling us that the shaft has broken and that the weld
was okay (Figure 257).

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Figure 258

Visual inspection in good lighting shows both temper colours and sheared shaft metal,
also indicating that this is not a weld failure (Figure 258).

Design and Material Problem

Errors in design or materials can cause compressor wheels to fracture at high speeds.
These failures are nicknamed wheel burst, because of the massive damage done when
the wheel separates at high speed. Wheel castings can have inclusions that create
local weaknesses and lead to fractures.

Wheel Burst

Figure 259

When asked, “What made this compressor wheel break?” (Figure 259), the most
common answer is “Foreign material!” All surfaces should be examined and all
fractures classified before giving an opinion.

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Figure 260

The largest fracture should be carefully studied. When held at arms length, it is hard to
see details on the fracture face (Figure 260). The face should be looked at with good
lighting and magnification.

Figure 261

Now the fracture face clearly shows a semicircular area that is smoother and brighter
at the lower right side of the shaft bore (Figure 261). This is a fatigue crack that
resulted in a wheel burst, caused by cyclic centrifugal force.

Casting Inclussion

Although uncommon, it is possible to have inclusions, trapped gas or other casting


problems which cause discontinuity and weakness in a metal part. Since severe
stresses in rotating parts are often caused by centrifugal force and high RPM, it should
be expected that severe damage can be created if a casting flaw is present.

Figure 262

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Casual inspection may lead one to think that this turbine wheel shown in Figure 241
has suffered resultant impact damage.

Figure 263

But when a magnet is used to check for weld failure (Figure 263), the magnet is
attracted, indicating that the shaft has broken, a result of an overload.

Figure 264

As each fractured blade is inspected, one blade has a different, more interesting
fracture and should be studied in good lighting with magnification (Figure 264).

Figure 265

A casting flaw is now easily seen, which has caused fatigue fracture of the blade
(Figure 265), creating the other impact damage, overloading and breaking the centre
shaft.

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Other Turbocharger Problems

Figure 266

When aluminium has been removed up to or under the nut seat area during nose
balancing, the remaining aluminium may yield, cause off-centre shaft stress, bend the
shaft, and cause wheel contact with the housing (Figure 266).

Figure 267

The lubrication passageway was not drilled in the thrust plate shown in Figure 267 and
caused immediate adhesive wear. (There should have been four passageways and only
two have been drilled).

Figure 268

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Drilled passageways can be mislocated. The off-centre oil inlet passage shown in
Figure 268 caused marginal lubrication of bearings.

Figure 269

At times a hot or cold wheel may have one blade missing and only minor damage
present on other blades (Figure 269). A first preconceived idea is usually that foreign
material has entered.

Figure 270

Closer inspection, however, shows that fatigue fracture of the blade has occurred,
initiating at the centre (smoother and flatter) and ending toward the outside (rougher
and woody) (Figure 270).

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Workmanship

Figure 271

If compressor wheel retaining nut faces are not flat and square with the threads, they
may cut into the aluminium wheel and cause the clamping force to relax
(Figure 271).

Figure 272

When housing bores are rough and bearings do not rotate freely, full rpm and
excessive wear occur on the other side of the bearing (Figure 272).

Figure 273

Rough shaft installation into the centre housing can cause impact damage to seal rings
and grooves (Figure 273), creating oil leakage problems.

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Figure 274

Rough handling or side loading while tightening retaining nuts can bend centre shafts
(Figure 274), creating imbalance, excessive bearing wear and wheel-to- housing
contact.

Exhaust System Services

An exhaust system should be free of vibrations, rattles and leaks and it should provide
a free passage for exhaust gases, ensuring the correct amount of back pressure as per
specifications.

It is not unusual for leaks to occur around joins, but leaks will normally occur in
mufflers or pipes as a result corrosion caused by acids in the exhaust gases. These
acids will gradually erode the metal and will happen more quickly in vehicles that are
used for short trips where the exhaust system will not get very hot. To reduce
corrosion, today, many exhaust systems have a large element of stainless steel in
their make up.

Exhaust System Problems

Before inspecting an exhaust system, make sure the vehicle is blocked and the parking
brake is applied. Most exhaust parts are easy to see, whether you are standing at the
side or underneath the vehicle. Inspect the exhaust system to ensure that all support
brackets and hangers are properly secured. Broken or insecure support brackets or
hangers cause the exhaust pipes to flex and eventually break.

Exhaust Leaks

Odourless and poisonous carbon monoxide gas can leak from holes in the exhaust
system into the passenger cabin of any vehicle.

Leaks in an exhaust system can be detected by an exhaust noise or by a grey/ white


powder or black carbon deposits on the surface of the pipes or mufflers. Inspect the
muffler, resonator and pipes with a screwdriver, prodding any suspect areas to see if

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they are solid. Small rust holes in the muffler, where the exhaust pipe enters, are not
unusual and should be checked. Be aware that many mufflers have a small drain hole
at the lowest end to allow for drainage of any water. Water is a by-product of
combustion and this condition is normal, but it is also the reason that exhaust systems
rust from the inside out.

When checking exhaust pipes be aware that even though the pipe may look solid, it
may have some extreme rust build ups internally. Any pipes that bend easily when
squeezed with a large pair of pliers needs replacing.

Any exhaust system component that has rust holes should be replaced. Leaking joints
that are in good condition may be refitted after being coated with a muffler putty or
exhaust sealant.

Vibration

Vibration in the exhaust system can be caused by either the initial alignment of the
system (parts touching the vehicle body), loose mountings and connections or internal
vibrations in the muffler, resonator or catalytic converter.

Check the exhaust system mounting brackets and joints. If the system is touching the
body of the vehicle, realign the system. Tap the muffler, resonator and catalytic
converter with a soft hammer or block of wood. Any rattles inside these components
will mean that either one of three things is occurring:

1. The component is not performing its designated task because its original
condition has deteriorated.

2. If the muffler or resonator is unserviceable and internal components have


degraded or pushed out the exhaust, it may be allowing too much flow of
exhaust gases that may result in excessive exhaust noise or a decrease in
exhaust back pressure.

3. If the internal components of the muffler, resonator or catalytic converter are


blocking the entry or exit of exhaust gases, there may be a whistling sound
coming from the exhaust (especially under acceleration) and there may be an
increase of exhaust back pressure. If there is a significant increase in exhaust
back pressure, this may affect engine performance.

Back Pressure

Excessive back pressure in any exhaust system will prevent the free flow of exhaust
gases. Indications of this may be a muffled exhaust note or dampened exhaust
pulsations. A blocked muffler, resonator, catalytic converter or a restriction in the
piping, may cause excessive back pressure. A way of detecting a plugged exhaust is to

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connect a vacuum gauge to the inlet manifold. With the transmission in park (or
neutral – with park brake on and wheels chocked) run the engine at 1000 rpm and
record the vacuum reading. Increase engine rpm to 2000 – 2500 and record the
vacuum reading. If the reading drops at a higher rpm, then it is likely that the exhaust
system is plugged. Finding out where it is plugged may be detected by conducting
those tests indicated previously.

Exhaust Noise

Excessive exhaust noise can be caused by:

1. Corrosion of the baffles in the muffler or resonator, or

2. Leaks in joints

Manifold Checks

The exhaust manifold is normally made of cast iron. This material, although very good
for this purpose is susceptible to cracking and warping. Check the manifold for:

1. Excessive carbon deposits (coking). Coking should be removed, especially


around the exhaust manifold inlets and internally of the piping. Excessive
coking can cause an increase in back pressure. In most cases, the manifold can
be steam cleaned, however, when coking or scale are present, the manifold
must be cleaned with a sand or glass bead cleaner. It is especially important for
turbocharged engines to prevent lose materials entering and possibly damaging
the turbine.

2. Cracks – especially in any mounting area and joins

3. Warpage of the mounting surface – place a straight edge on the surface and
check specifications against manufacturer’s recommendations. If warpage is
sufficient to prevent proper sealing, the mounting surface must be machined or
the manifold replaced.

4. If there are threaded bores in the manifold, check for serviceability.

5. Check studs for serviceability. If studs are fitted to the cylinder head, check
serviceability also. If there is a need to replace studs, use an antiseize lubricant
to help prevent thread corrosion and seizure.

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TOPIK 7
Cooling System

Figure 275

Now we will discuss cooling system principles and how the system segements work.

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Figure 276

Engines depend upon the burning of fuel to develop power. However, only about 33
percent of this total heat energy is converted into flywheel horsepower. Approximately
30 percent is expelled through the exhaust system, while another 7 percent is radiated
from engine surfaces directly to the atmosphere. The remaining 30 percent must be
dissipated through a carefully designed cooling system.

Truck engines, with air to air aftercoolers, tend to send more of the heat energy to the
flywheel (42%). About 33% is expelled through the exhaust system and only about
3% radiated directly to the atmosphere. This leaves only about 22% to be dissipated
through the cooling system.

Figure 277

To emphasize in everyday terms how much heat we're talking about, it has been
calculated that a 200 HP diesel engine operating at 70% of full load produces enough
heat to supply warmth to five 5-room houses with the outside temperature below
freezing.

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Figure 278

The primary function of the cooling system is to absorb this unused and latent
combustion heat and transfer it to the atmosphere or sea water.

When we understand the relationship between horsepower output and fuel burned, it
becomes obvious that the amount of heat to be carried away by the cooling system is
directly related to the horsepower produced by that engine.

Figure 279

One of the systems used to remove the excessive heat produced in the engine is a
radiator system. The radiator core dissipates heat picked up by the coolant from the
engine and its accessories. As coolant passes through core passages, or tubes, the
heat energy moves to the fins, then air passes between the heat dissipating fins
surrounding the tubes, carrying away the heat transferred from the coolant to the air
moving through the radiator.

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Figure 280

Radiators or heat exchangers are sized so that the heat rejection rate at the core
balances the heat pickup within the engine at the desired operating temperatures.
Since the radiator or heat exchanger can not eliminate any more heat than the water
in the system can pick up and deliver, there is little benefit from increased coolant
capacity, except as a possible precaution against overheating.

Figure 281

Tubes in the radiator core may be of the in-line type, shown on the left, or the canted
type on the right. Most tubes are made of aluminum or copper.

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Figure 282

To a large extent the heat dissipating fins determine the capacity of the radiator to
cool the water in the tubes. The more fins per inch, the higher the cooling rate will be.
Thus, the core on the right would have a higher cooling rate. However, the same core
would also have a higher plugging rate, simply because the fins are closer together
and the spaces between fins are smaller and easier to clog.

Figure 283

One way of improving cooling system performance is system pressurization. Water


under pressure boils at a higher temperature than does water at atmospheric
pressure. Since evaporation occurs at boiling point, raising the boiling point serves as
a precaution against coolant loss by evaporation. Pressurizing also helps eliminate
water pump cavitation, which can cause severe pump and engine damage when it
occurs.

Pressurizing also minimizes air bubble formation that causes liner pitting and poor heat
transfer. A bubble next to a hot part in the engine, such as a cylinder liner, can
hamper effective cooling and cause serious damage to an engine. Even more

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important, bubbles in the coolant could result in pump cavitation, affect flow rate, and
cause an overheating problem.

The temperature at which a liquid boils depends upon the pressure acting on it. Under
atmospheric pressure at sea level, pure water boils at 212 degrees F. At altitude,
however, water boils at a lower temperature. If system pressure is added, the boiling
point rises.

Figure 284

To obtain a boiling point safety margin in the cooling system, we allow it to pressurize
as the coolant heats up and expands. The maximum pressure level is determined, in
part, by the large spring which loads the valve in the radiator cap.

Figure 285

Venting will occur when the pressure in the radiator is equal to the local atmospheric
pressure plus the pressure on the valve caused by the spring force. A pressurized
radiator cap, however, is designed so that even at altitude, sufficient pressure is
maintained to give an adequate boiling point safety margin.

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Figure 286

When the engine is shut down, the coolant contracts. If air in the top tank was vented
during operation, this must now be made up to prevent a pressure less than
atmospheric in the cooling system. This is achieved by the small valve in the center of
the large disc valve. The small valve opens when the atmospheric pressure is greater
than the light spring pressure plus radiator pressure.

Figure 287

The four types of cooling systems are:


o Radiator
o Radiator with shunt line
o Keel cooling
o Raw water

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Figure 288

This is a typical radiator cooling system. It has an outlet controlled temperature


regulator. The flow pattern starts at the water pump and is divided between the oil
cooler and jacket water aftercooler (if so equipped), then to the block, head,
temperature regulator housing and the temperature regulator. At this point the
regulator either sends the coolant back to the pump through the bypass tube, to the
radiator, or to both the pump and the radiator.

Figure 289

This is a truck "shunt type" cooling system. It operates the same as a typical radiator
system; except the radiator has an additional top compartment and a shunt tube is
installed between this top compartment and the inlet of the pump. This is done to
provide a constant head for the pump during radical rpm changes of the engine at
truck gear changes (downshifts). Without this additional line, the pump could pull
negative pressure during downshifts and cavitate.

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Figure 290

This is a keel cooling system for a marine application. The coolant flow in this system
is basically the same as described earlier for the radiator system, except for the
operation of the water temperature regulator.

This is an inlet controlled system. The regulator senses the temperature of the water in
the expansion tank, not the temperature of the water at the engine's outlet. When the
water in the expansion tank is below the opening temperature of the regulator, the
regulator blocks the flow of coolant from the keel cooler to the expansion tank. At the
same time, the regulator allows coolant to flow from the engine's outlet directly into
the expansion tank. Coolant from the expansion tank re-enters the engine through the
water pump and cycles through the engine, picking up additional heat energy. No
coolant flows from the engine into the keel cooler, because the outlet of the keel cooler
is blocked by the regulator.

When the coolant in the expansion tank is hot enough to open the regulator, the
regulator begins to open the flow path from the keel cooler into the expansion tank. At
the same time, the regulator begins to block the flow from the engine's outlet into the
expansion tank. Some of the coolant from the engine's outlet flows into the keel
cooler, where it gives up some of its heat energy. If the regulator is fully open, all the
flow from the engine's outlet will go into the keel cooler. The flow from the engine's
outlet will be blocked from entering the expansion tank until it has passed through the
keel cooler.

The keel cooler itself is a series of pipes or tubes that are welded or suspended from
the keel of the boat or ship in a serpentine pattern. As coolant flows through the keel
cooler, it loses heat energy to the water in which the craft is floating.

Alternative types of keel coolers are the skin cooler or the grid cooler. A skin cooler
consists of piping or tubes inside the hull, with the hull itself as the outer portion of the
skin cooler. Grid coolers are more like small radiators that are mounted on the outside

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of the hull. They are typically on the side of the hull to protect them from damage in
shallow waters.

The system may also include water cooled turbocharger(s), exhaust manifolds, and
marine gear.

In the keel cooled system, engine coolant flows throughout the entire circuit -- even in
the piping outside the boat.

Figure 291

This schematic shows one type of separate circuit cooling system, the heat exchanger
type cooling system. The coolant flow is similar to that of a keel cooling system. The
major difference is that instead of using keel lines, the coolant is passed through a
heat exchanger, or water box, where it transfers its heat energy to another liquid. In a
marine application, the other liquid is typically sea water that is pumped on board.

This type of system may also be used in situations where a radiator is remotely
mounted on a roof, and the engine is in the basement. To avoid excessive head
pressure on the engine cooling system, a heat exchanger is used.

This particular slide shows a water cooled turbocharger. There also may be water
cooled exhaust manifolds and an oil cooler. All these components would have engine
coolant cycling through them to pick up excess heat energy. The other liquid, such as
sea water, would only circulate through the water box and its related piping.

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Figure 292

Another type of separate circuit cooling system is the raw water system. Raw water is
brought in and used in heat exchangers as a cooling media for the engine heat
exchanger, the aftercooler and the oil cooler. Any one or more of these units might not
be in the circuit. The components may be arranged in series (as shown in the slide), in
parallel, or in series / parallel, depending on the requirements of the particular
installation.

In this system, engine coolant is only in the engine and the heat exchanger. Raw
water circulates through the other components. More exotic metals, such as brass or
copper-nickel, must be used in the raw water components to prevent corrosion.

Figure 293

This is the raw (sea) water system on the front of the engine. The red plug is a zinc
rod plug installed in the raw water system line. Engines used in salt water operation
have zinc rods installed in their raw water system to act as sacrificial anodes. These
zinc rods decrease corrosion in the system (caused by the action that salt water has

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with the metal parts). The chemical action (galvanic action) will cause corrosion of the
zinc rods, but will keep damage to the raw water system parts to a minimum. The rods
are fastened to plugs and are located in the aftercooler lines and in the outlet of the
raw water pump lines. The plug is painted red for easy identification.

Figure 294

The zinc rods must be inspected regularly. Normal service intervals can vary
depending on the installation. A good starting point is every 50 hours as per the
service meter. Then adjust the inspection interval accordingly. To inspect the rods,
remove the plugs and tap lightly with a small hammer. If the rod has deteriorated or
flakes apart when tapped, install a new zinc rod on the plug, since it is no longer
effective. Do not put anything on the plug threads (such as anti-seize or sealant) since
good electrical contact must be made between the plug and the housing.

Figure 295

The water temperature regulator housing has a number of taps for control sensors or
water temperature probes used for testing purposes.

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Figure 296

Here we see a large bore regulator housing (off the engine) which contains four
sleeve-type regulators. Each of the regulators is positioned in a counterbore and has a
lip-type seal. Multiple regulators are used to allow a greater flow rate.

Figure 297

Several types of thermostats are used on Caterpillar Engines. They may look different
or be mounted in different ways, but they all do the same job -- control minimum
coolant temperature. Maximum coolant temperature is determined by cooling
capacity and engine heat load, not by the thermostat.

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Figure 298

Viewing the fan from the engine side, we call it either a blower fan or a suction fan.
The blower, which forces air away from the engine, is better for the operator in hot or
dusty applications. It also avoids sucking dirt and debris into the radiator core. The
suction fan, which pulls air toward the engine, is more effective from the cooling
standpoint on vehicles with high ground speed (ram air) or can help to warm the
operator in cold weather.

Figure 299

Water ferules direct and seal coolant as it flows from the block through the spacer
plate to the cylinder head.

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Figure 300

During the combustion cycle, the cylinder liner is constantly expanding and
contracting. Upon contraction, the void that the liner tries to leave causes the pressure
of the coolant next to the liner to decrease. This lower pressure causes the coolant to
boil, forming bubbles.

Figure 301

As the coolant repressurizes, the bubbles implode next to the liner wall.

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Figure 302

The implosions of the air bubbles cause the liners to pit. This pitting is localized and
can erode through the wall of the liner.

Figure 303

This is an example of liner pitting. Notice that the pitting is in one area. This occurs 90
degrees from the piston pin location, because that is the location of the most flexing of
the liner.

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Figure 304

The three ingredients of a properly maintained cooling system are:


o Water
o Antifreeze
o Coolant conditioner

Figure 305

The cooling system should be maintained at the same interval as the lube system.

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Figure 306

This conditioner chemically protects metals in the cooling system and limits scale
formation, allowing the cooling system to achieve maximum heat transfer. Caterpillar
recommends maintaining a 3 to 6 percent concentration of its cooling system
conditioner, or equivalent, regardless of the antifreeze concentration. This percentage
could vary on different models.

If the system is run on water only, the conditioner should be at a 4 to 8 percent


concentration. Although it will not protect the engine as well as a mixture of water,
antifreeze and conditioner, this amount will be better than nothing.
Check your Operation and Maintenance Manual for proper levels.

Figure 307

A coolant conditioner group is also available as an alternative to adding conditioner


to the coolant. This system automatically dispenses the conditioner into the cooling
system. The element assembly consists of a solid corrosion inhibitor that dissolves
as coolant flows through. This helps maintain the minimum amount of conditioner
needed for cooling system protection. The percentage of coolant conditioner in the
system should be checked prior to installation to assure a new element is or is not
required

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Cooling System Sevice

Visual Inspection of the Cooling System


1. Check coolant level in the cooling system

2. Look for leaks in the system

NOTE:
Water pump seals: a small amount of coolant leakage across the surface of the face-
type seals is normal, and required, to provide lubrication for this type of seal. A hole is
provided in the water pump housing to allow this coolant/seal lubricant to drain from the
pump housing. Intermittent leakage of small amounts of coolant from this hole is not an
indication of water pump seal failure. Replace the water pump seals only if a large
amount of leakage or a constant flow of coolant is observed draining from the water
pump housing.

3. Look for bent radiator fins. Be sure that air flow through the radiator does not

have a restriction

4. Inspect the fan drive belts

5. Check for damage to the fan blades

6. Look for air or combustion gas in the cooling system

7. Inspect the filler cap and the surface that seals the cap

Visual Inspection for Air Flow

An adequate air flow must occur to enable the release of heat from the coolant as it
passes through the radiator core.

This may require the engagement of the cooling fan. Air flow may also be severely
restricted by foreign matter, such as insects, grass, leaves and dirt. These things can
get lodged in the fins of the radiator, preventing the release of the heat from the
coolant into the air flow.

A visual inspection is necessary to determine fin air restriction. This may require the
use of a light positioned over the radiator core and viewed from the opposite side to
observe any restriction to air flow. Foreign matter may often be removed by steam
cleaning of the radiator core from the reverse direction to the air flow. Cooling fans
should be inspected for evidence of fatigue cracking around the blade and hub area.

Correct fan operation must also be determined. The test procedure will vary to the type
of drive filled to the fan. Viscous fan couplings require inspection for any bearing
movement as excessive play may lead to incorrect operation and fan failure. Inspect for
any oil leaks.

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The hub will also need to be inspected to ensure correct engagement at the desired
temperature. This may require the use of a hot air gun or similar heat source to trigger
the bimetallic strip and control pin and thus cause the fan to engage. The engine must
be operating for this test so extreme care must be exercised around rotating parts.

Some manufacturers advise removing the bimetallic strip and the control pin. This
simulates a hot condition and when the engine is running, the fan should engage with
maximum drive.

A fan clutch may also be checked for correct operation by testing the sensing valve for
correct operation at the determined temperature. This is accomplished by heating the
control valve to the predetermined temperature, when air flow through the valve
should cease. An electric jug and a thermometer will be required to accomplish this.

Manufacturer’s specifications and test procedures will give detailed instructions on the
proper testing requirements.

Coolant Circulation

Correct and efficient coolant circulation must occur to prevent localised overheating of
areas of the coolant jackets, especially around the cylinder head.

The water pump circulates coolant but the volume may be reduced through sludge,
sediment or scale (rust) build-up on the cooling surfaces.

Expansion plugs that were tapped into the coolant passages rather than being correctly
removed will severely restrict coolant flow.

As the water pump is responsible for circulating the coolant, reduced circulation may
result from a severely corroded impeller. A broken drive shaft or slipping impeller will
usually result in a rapid rise in coolant temperature.

A thermostat may be checked for correct operation. It should be fully open by


approximately 8°C (45°F) above the opening temperature indicated.

Radiator Core flow

If the coolant has been correctly maintained throughout the life of the engine, the
chances of the radiator suffering blockage to the core tubes is greatly reduced.
However, cooling systems are neglected and radiator core tubes do become blocked or
restricted with dirt, rust, scale and foreign material.
On some radiator designs, it is possible to inspect the centre core tubes through the
filler neck. On large radiators incorporating a header tank, a visual inspection will not
be possible.

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An indication of core restriction may be obtained by adopting the following procedure:

Step 1 – Remove the top and bottom radiator hoses and the draw down hose

Step 2 – Plug the hose connections on the radiator

Step 3 – Fill the radiator with water and leave the cap off

Step 4 – Remove the bottom plug from the bottom hose neck

Step 5 – The water should gush out in a solid fast stream

Step 6 – The length of the stream will shorten as the water level drops

If the water flow does not appear quick enough, the top and bottom tanks will need to
be removed to enable the core tubes to be cleaned.

Air in Coolant

Aeration of the coolant warrants immediate repair action. Air in contact with the
cylinder head’s water jackets will not sufficiently remove the heat. Consequently,
localised cylinder head overheating will occur and cause stress cracks when the air
moves and coolant once again comes in contact with the head surface.

Air will also collect at the highest point around the closed thermostat during warm up,
and prevent correct temperature sensing of the thermostat element.

This may lead to coolant overheating during engine warm up. Additional stresses are
created when the thermostat eventually opens and the cold coolant from the radiator
enters the water jackets.

To inspect for aeration of the coolant, install clear sight glasses in the vent line to the
radiator, and the top and bottom radiator hoses. The sight glasses may be special
service tools or clear plastic tube. The bottom sight glass will need to be reinforced to
prevent a collapse during testing.

Restore the correct coolant level and run the engine under test conditions. Aeration of
the coolant will show as visual air bubbles flowing along the top of the sight glass.
Aeration of the bottom sight glass indicates air leakage in the radiator or core flow
restriction. Aeration in the top hose or the bleed line indicates the problem is engine
based.

Sources of aeration are worn water pump seals, loose hose connections, head gasket
failure or combustion chamber cracks. The air compressor must not be over looked as it
may suffer problems with gaskets and cracks allowing compressed air into the coolant
galleries, which will show as aeration.

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Inspecting Water Pump

Water pumps may need to be removed to enable the impeller to be inspected for
corrosion/cavitation damage, however on some engines the water inlet or outlet
connections can be removed to enable inspection to be carried out.

Any evidence of pitting or core damage will require the water pump to be overhauled
(or replaced).

Bearing condition on belt drive pumps can be gauged by removing the drive belts and
rotating the drive pulley, feeling for any roughness or looseness in the bearing.

The carbon faced water seal can be measured for seal spring tension by spinning the
pulley and observing the way the pulley stops. A seal with adequate spring tension will
stop the pulley spinning quickly with an abrupt ending of the pulley movement. The
condition of the rubber section of the seal cannot be inspected and if leakage is
detected, overhaul of the water pump is justified.

Pressure Testing

Figure 308

As a part of regular maintenance inspections, pressure testing for coolant leakage is


most important (Figure 308). A small drip over a number of hours of continuous engine
operation may result in a significant loss of coolant.

Coolant maintained at the correct concentration level possesses a low PH level. This in
effect means that the coolant is classed as soft water and possesses leak-searching
qualities. Unless hose clamps are correctly tightened, or gasket tension correctly

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maintained, leakage will occur.

Coolant leaks may occur:

 When the engine is cold due to the relaxed system pressure and no heat expansion

of the cooling system joints

 When the system is at operating temperature and pressure builds up

Leakage may be difficult to detect as small leaks may evaporate as they occur.
Remember that temperature and pressure work together. When making a diagnosis of
a cooling system problem, check both temperature and pressure. The pressure will
have an effect on the system’s temperatures.

Testing Cooling Systems for external Leaks

Follow the radiator and cooling system leak test procedure:

1) Remove the pressure cap from the radiator.

2) Make sure the coolant is over the top of the radiator core.

3) Put the Pressurising Pump on the radiator.

4) Operate the pump group and get a pressure reading on the indicator that is

10% more than the pressure marked on the pressure cap.

5) Check the radiator for outside leakage.

6) Check all connections and hoses for the cooling system for outside leakage.

7) If there are no outside leakages and the pressure reading on the indicator is

still the same after five minutes, the radiator and cooling system does not have

leakage. If the reading on the indicator goes down and there are no outside

leakages, this indicates a leakage on the inside of the cooling system. Make

repairs as necessary.

Checking Pressure Cap

One cause for a pressure loss in the cooling system can be a defective seal on the
radiator pressure cap. After the engine is cool, loosen the pressure cap and let the
pressure out of the cooling system. Then remove the pressure cap.

Inspect the pressure cap carefully. Look for damage to the seal or to the surface that
seals. Any foreign material or deposits on the cap, seal or surface that seals, must be
removed.

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Figure 309

The Cooling System Pressurising Pump, as shown in Figure 309, is used to test
pressure caps and to pressure check the cooling system for leaks.

To check the pressure cap for the correct opening pressure, then use the following
procedure:

1) Remove the pressure cap from the radiator. Inspect the cap.

2) Place the pressure cap on the Cooling System Pressurising Pump.

3) Look at the indicator for the exact pressure that makes the pressure cap open.

4) Make a comparison of the reading on the indicator with the correct opening

pressure as per specifications (normally stamped on the cap).

5) If the pressure cap is defective, install a new pressure cap.

Water Temperature Indicator Test

If the engine gets too hot and a loss of coolant is a problem, a pressure loss in the
cooling system could be the cause. If the indicator (gauge or warning light) for water
temperature shows that the engine is getting too hot, inspect for coolant leakage. If a
place can not be found where there is coolant leakage, check the accuracy of the
indicator to water temperature. A temperature indicator of known accuracy can be used
to make this check. The Caterpillar 4C6500 Digital Thermometer Group may be used.

Start the engine and run it until the temperature is at the desired range according to
the test indicator or thermometer. If necessary, put a cover over part of the radiator or
cause a restriction of the coolant flow. The reading on the indicator for water
temperature must be the same as the test indicator or thermometer.

Thermostat (Temperature Regulator) Testing

A thermostat may be checked for correct operation. It should be fully open by


approximately 8°C (45°F) above the opening temperature indicated on the sensing
bulb.

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Do not clean a thermostat before testing if it is suspected of causing the cooling system
problem. Sludge or corrosion build up may restrict the flow of heat to the sensing bulb,
and this needs to be observed.

A general procedure for testing a thermostat is as follows:

1. Immerse the thermostat in a container of water and heat until the valve opens.

2. Remove the thermostat from the water and insert a long feeler strip between

the valve and the seat, (valve will close and clamp the strip).

3. Let the water cool or add cold water to reduce the temperature below the

opening temperature.

4. Again, immerse the thermostat, with a thermometer into water, holding the

thermostat by the strip. Gradually heat and stir the water. The strip will be

released when the thermostat begins to open. At this point of the test the

temperature of the water should be checked to ensure the thermostat is opening

within specifications.

5. Heat the water to a higher temperature to determine at which temperature the

valve is fully open.

NOTE:
Never assume the valve is fully open – always check it. Lift the thermostat with a piece of
hooked wire to check it.

When making these tests, do not let the thermostat or the thermometer rest
against the container walls as this will give a false reading.

Procedure for Testing Caterpillar Thermostats

1. Remove the thermostat.

2. Heat water in a pan until the temperature is 98°C (208°F). Move the water

around in the pan to make it all the same temperature.

3. Hang the thermostat in the pan of water. The regulator must be below the

surface of the water and it must be away from the sides and bottom of the pan.

4. Keep the water at the correct temperature for ten minutes.

5. After ten minutes, remove the thermostat and immediately measure the

distance the regulator has opened. The distance must be a minimum of:

 111-8010 Water Temperature Thermostat ... 9.5 mm (0.37 in).

 4W4794 Water Temperature Thermostat ... 10.4mm (0.41 in).

6. Make a replacement of the regulator if the distance is less than these

measurements.

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Cleaning Radiator Cores

WARNING:
Wear eye protection at all times when cleaning the cooling system. Always clean the
radiator core with the engine stopped.

Conventional Radiators

Remove the radiator grill from the machine. Determine the direction of air flow. If the
machine is equipped with a blower fan, the core must be cleaned from the side opposite
the fan. If the machine is equipped with a suction fan, the core must be cleaned from
the fan side of the radiator. The fan shrouds have to be removed to clean a radiator
core that uses a suction fan.

For normal debris such as dust, leaves, small twigs, nettles, cotton fluff, etc., use shop
air at a pressure of 345 kPa (50 psi) to clean the core. Hold the air nozzle
approximately 6 mm (3”) from the fins. Slowly move the air nozzle from the top of the
core to the bottom of the core in order to clean the debris from between the vertically
positioned tubes in the radiator core.

Normally, the debris in a radiator core on machines equipped with a blower fan
is thicker and packed more tightly than the debris in a radiator core on machines
equipped with a suction fan. If necessary, use a light behind the radiator core to see if
it is completely clean.

Figure 310

On machines equipped with a blower fan, the thicker debris will be in area A (Figure
310) on the outside edge of the radiator core surrounding the fan. Area B of the
radiator core, which is the approximate location of the fan and subsequent air velocity
will be high, will have some debris, but it will not be as thick as the debris in area A.

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This will cause most of the debris to be in the second and third rows of tubes in the
radiator core. Area C of the radiator core is the approximate location of the fan hub.
The air velocity is very low in this area and most of the time it remains quite clean.

High pressure water is an excellent means to clean the debris out of a radiator core.
Ensure water pressure is not high enough to damage radiator fins.

If there is oil in the fins of the radiator core, use a steam cleaner and soap to remove
it. Use shop air to remove any loose debris before using the steam cleaner. Some
materials like red-wood bark or shredded paper (normally found in sanitary landfill
operations) and very stringy type materials can be difficult to remove. If necessary,
remove the radiator core from the machine and use shop air and a steam cleaner.
Make sure the core is thoroughly cleaned before it is installed in the machine.

Cleaning the Outside of a Folded Core Radiator

Figure 311 – Folded Core Radiator

Although the Folded Core Radiator looks different from a standard core radiator, the
principle of cooling and cleaning are the same. The same precautions taken with a
standard radiator should be used with the folded core radiator. For example, in a
wooded application, engine enclosures should be used and kept in good repair. For
machines used in dusty applications, the radiator should be blown out at regular
intervals. The radiator is susceptible to plugging in certain applications and
maintenance action should be adjusted for these conditions. As with the standard core,
reasonable maintenance should still be practised.

Compressed air, high pressure water and steam are three preferred cleaning mediums
that can be used to clean these radiator cores. For dust, leaves, and general debris,
any of these methods may be used. However, the use of compressed air is preferred.
Acceptable results will be obtained by opening the front grill and directing the cleaning
medium at right angles to the front of each core face. Move the nozzle from the middle
to the upper end of each core, working from the rear of the vee, and then back again
to the front of the vee.
Go across the entire face of each core and then do the lower half.

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In a field environment and after the core has had a general clean (brush, water, etc.),
start and warm up the engine, and accelerate to high idle several times or until
loosened debris is no longer blown from the core. Stop the engine and go over the face
again. Exposure time may be kept shorter on this second pass. Restart the engine and
accelerate it to high idle several times.

A method to increase the air velocity is to place a piece of plywood over the lower third
of the radiator. Put the plywood in between the grill and the radiator toward the
bottom of the core. The plywood may have to be wired into place. Start and accelerate
the engine several times or until debris ceases to be expelled. Stop the engine and
then reposition the plywood toward the top of the core. Repeat the engine acceleration
process. The increased air velocities will aid in the removal of debris from between the
fins. If steam or water is used, continue running the engine until the core is hot and
does not have water vapour coming off the fins. The machine is then ready for use.

CAUTION:
Don’t spray cold water onto a hot engine or radiator. Thermal cracking could result, causing
severe damage to the engine.

If oil, sap or mud is encountered, a different cleaning procedure is required. Oil and
sap can be cleaned from a core by using a commercial degreaser. The degreaser must
be applied to both sides of the core face, especially in the area of visible plugging. Let
it soak for a minimum of five minutes and then wash the core. Use very hot water
under high pressure and a small amount of laundry detergent. Concentrate the
cleaning efforts on areas that were exposed to the oil or sap, working from both sides
of the core. Be sure to wash the areas on each end of each core in the area around the
seal. Excess oil in this area can be detrimental to the seals. After washing, rinse the
core with hot water. Start the engine. Accelerate the engine several times and rinse
the core again. Repeat this rinse process until detergent bubbles are no longer emitted
from the fins. Continue to operate the engine until there are no water vapours coming
off the fins.

Plugging by mud may be of two types: mud splatter and mud impregnation. Mud
splatter may be easily removed by shutting the engine off and spraying water on both
sides of the core to soften the mud. If heat from the radiator causes the water to
evaporate, spray the core again. Once the mud has softened, direct the water nozzle
from the fan side towards the front of the radiator. Try to keep the nozzle
perpendicular to the face of each core. Ensure the hose nozzle is not pressed against
the radiator fins. Pressing against the fins may bend or damage them. Then go to the
front of the radiator and spray water at each core. Keep the nozzle pointed to the rear
of the engine. This nozzle position will allow the mud to flake or peel off. After the mud
has flaked off, reposition the nozzle as in general cleaning and go across the core
assemblies. When the water from the core appears clear, the core has been cleaned.
Be sure to dry the radiator as previously described. Small patches of mud splatter and
other debris may be removed with a bristled brush.

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Mud impregnation is very difficult to clean on any type of radiator. For best results,
remove the fan guards, fan and shroud. Thoroughly flush both sides with high pressure
water until the water flowing from between the fins is clear. To check for cleanliness of
the radiator core, a light behind the core can be used to check for dirt. If dirt is visible,
additional cleaning is necessary. If this method of cleaning impregnated mud does not
give good results, remove the radiator. Cap the inlet and outlet holes in the top and
bottom tank and place it in a large tank of water and laundry detergent. After soaking
and agitating the core in water, rinse with hot water and blow dry. The time required
for soaking is dictated by the particular problem.

Cleaning the Outside of a Multiple Row Radiator

Figure 312 – Multiple row module radiator

The Multiple Row Module Radiator has evolved from the folded core radiator, which
replaced the standard core radiator in most equipment. The multiple row module
radiator uses individual core assemblies, however it greatly reduces many plugging
problems previously experienced. Since it is similar to the other two types, see
Cleaning the Outside of a Standard Radiator Core, and Cleaning the Outside of a
Folded Core Radiator.

Cleaning Inside Parts of the Cooling System

WARNING:
Do not use Caterpillar Cooling System Cleaner with Dowtherm 209 Full-Fill. There are
several ways to determine if the cooling system needs more than a mild cleaning.

 Flow restrictions
Remove the radiator cap and see if the cooling tubes are plugged. If so, simply
using a mild cleaner will not be satisfactory.

 Constant overheating

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If the fan belt, thermostat, and water pump are functioning properly, but the
engine continues to overheat, then the cooling system may be badly plugged.

 Water pump failure


If the water pump fails and upon inspection, heavy water contamination
damage is found in the bearing, seal, and shaft area, the cooling system probably
needs a thorough cleaning with special chemicals.

 Visible heavy rust and green slime


If green slime (chromium hydroxide) is evident in the bottom of the radiator cap
and the coolant is so cloudy that an antifreeze tester cannot be read, the system
will need a more thorough cleaning with special solvents.

 Contamination
When the inside parts of the cooling system become contaminated, normal heat
transfer is not possible. Oil is a common form of contamination in cooling systems.
If an oil cooler has a defect, oil can enter the cooling system when the engine runs
because the oil pressure is higher than the water pressure. When the engine stops,
coolant will settle into the oil sump because the circulation stops and cooling
system pressure drops very slowly compared to engine oil pressure. A pressure
check of the oil cooler may reveal a defect. Alternatively, oil samples may
determine the presence of antifreeze or water in the oil.

After the problem that caused contamination of the cooling system has been found,
after cooling down, the cooling system can be cleaned as follows:

1. Drain all of the coolant from the cooling system.

2. Fill the cooling system with clean water.

3. Start the engine and run it until the thermostats open.

4. Add two cups of non-foaming soap. Automatic dishwasher soap is best. Do not

use plain laundry soap (Caterpillar Ref. SEBDO518).

5. Run the engine for approximately twenty minutes. Check to see if the oil is

breaking up or if the water has oil patches.

6. If oil patches are still present, add two more cups of soap and run the engine

for ten minutes. Drain the mixture from the cooling system.

7. Fill the cooling system again with clean water. Check the surface of the water

for oil. If oil is still present, repeat Steps 3 through 7. When the water is clear,

drain and rinse the cooling system one more time. Add coolant and conditioner.

 Scale or Rust
Scale or rust in a cooling system can affect heat transfer. The scale and rust can be
cleaned out of the cooling system with a two-step type heavy duty radiator

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cleaner. This cleaner consists of an oxalic acid, which cleans the scale and rust, and
a neutraliser. Two-step type heavy duty radiator cleaners are available from
industrial supply outlets or they can be mixed as follows:

o Acid

Mix 900 g of sodium bisulfate (NaHSO ) per 38 litres of water (25 grams
per litre).

o Neutraliser

Mix 225 g of sodium carbonate crystals (Na CO ) per 38 litres of


water (6 grams per litre).

The cooling system may also be cleaned with Caterpillar Cooling System Cleaners.
These are designed to clean the system of harmful scale and corrosion without taking
the engine out of service. It can be used in all CaterpillarEngines and other
manufacturers’ cooling systems in any application. This mild solvent must not be used
in systems that have been neglected or have heavy scale buildup. These systems
require a stronger commercial solvent, available from local distributors, or disassembly
of the system and mechanical cleaning.

Caterpillar’s Cooling System Cleaners are available (Part Number 6V4511) in 1.9 litres
containers or, if an immediate cleaning is desired, the following Caterpillar Cooling
System Cleaners can be used:

o 4C4609: 0.236 L

o 4C4610: 1.980 L

o 4C4611: 3.780 L

o 4C4612: 18.90 L

o 4C4613: 208 L

Drain the cooling system completely. Refill with clean water and a 6-10 per cent
concentration of cleaner. Run the engine for 1 hour. Then, drain the coolant and flush
the system with clean water. Refill the system with the proper amount of Caterpillar
Antifreeze (Part Number 8C3684) and water. If Caterpillar Antifreeze is not used, the
appropriate amount of Supplemental Coolant Additive must be added too.

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Reverse-flush

Figure 313

The cooling system can be flushed with tap water using a normal water hose. There is
also flushing equipment which uses compressed air and water pressure. With this
equipment, air pressure is used to create surges of water, which helps to dislodge
scale and corrosion. The radiator and the water-jackets in the engine are usually
flushed separately.

Figure 313 shows a radiator being reverse-flushed. Air and water pressure are being
applied to the bottom of the radiator, and a hose has been connected to the top of the
radiator to carry the water away. Reverse-flushing dislodges particles that would not
be moved by flushing in the normal direction, particularly particles of rust and scale
that have lodged in the tubes at the top radiator tank.

The water-jackets in the engine can be flushed in a similar way remembering to


remove the thermostat before commencing to flush. During flushing and cleaning, the
interior heater control should be turned to the heat position so that water will circulate
through the heater.

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Test Equipment

Coolant Inspection and Concentration Testing

Over time, coolant concentration decreases and therefore requires regular testing.
Additional coolant additives can be added to boost the concentration level to the
required amount. This may be in the form of concentrated liquid, pre-mixed coolant or
contained in the water filter replacement unit.

Coolant concentration level should be checked at every oil change interval or as


specified by the manufacturer.

Engine manufacturers usually have their own coolant concentration test kits.
A visual inspection of the coolant is first required. It should show colour and be free
from the appearance of rust and sludge.

Some manufacturers use special paper test strips that are dipped in the coolant and
compare the colour change to a master sheet showing various concentration levels.
This test may cover both the level of anti-freeze and the level of corrosion/cavitation
protection. The level of anti-freeze may also be checked with a refractometer or a
coolant hydrometer.

The level of corrosion/cavitation protection may also be measured with specific


manufacturers’ chemical test kit. A measured quantity of coolant is placed in a test
tube. Certain chemicals are then added, noting the number of drops to cause a distinct
colour change. The number of drops is then transferred to a master chart, which then
states the concentration level and the amount of coolant additives required to boost
the concentration level back to the correct proportion.

ALWAYS:
 Use the specific engine manufacturers test kit for testing the coolant and follow

the directions.

 Use the manufacturers’ specified coolant or water filters.

DO NOT:

 Mix different engine manufacturers coolants or water filters.

 Add excessive concentrations of additives in anticipation of the decline in level

of protection that occurs over time.

The practice of adding excessive concentrations of additives may cause deposits to


form on all coolant surfaces, reducing heat transfer. Dry deposits are extremely
difficult to remove, requiring the dismantling of the engine and mechanical cleaning of
the cooling passages.

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Alternately if the cooling system is under-treated, insufficient protection against


corrosion, cavitation and freezing will occur.

Most manufacturers recommend periodical changing of the coolant. The coolant must
be correctly drained and the system flushed with clean water. The coolant must be
collected and disposed of as per company policies and procedures.

Test Equipment

Troubleshooting and analysing cooling system conditions can be easier with the right
test equipment. Cooling system test equipment that is available from Caterpillar
Incorporated includes:

8T2700 Blowby/Air Flow Indicator Group

Figure 314

The 8T2700 Blowby/Air Flow Indicator Group (Figure 314) contains a hand-held digital
indicator, a remote mounted pick-up, 915 mm (3 ft) of cable, a blowby hose, and the
necessary connections. The group can measure the volume of blowby gases coming
out the crankcase breather or the air velocity through the radiator. Specifically, it will
indicate whether the air flow through the radiator is within specifications. By using it to
check different areas of a core, it can also identify plugged areas. Special Instruction,
Form SEH58712 provides instructions for using the 8T2700 Blowby/Air Flow Indicator
Group.

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The 4C6500 Digital Thermometer Group (ex 8T0470)

Figure 315

The 4C6500 Digital Thermometer Group (Figure 315) is used in the diagnosis of
overheating (engine hotter than normal) or over-cooling (engine cooler than normal)
problems. This group can be used to check temperatures in several different parts of
the cooling system. The testing procedure is in Operating Manual NEHSO554.

5P2720, 5P2725 and 5P3591 Self-Sealing Probe Adaptors

Figure 316

These self-sealing probe adaptors (Figure 316) make it possible to install temperature
and pressure probes in the cooling system without first having to cool and drain the
system. The probe adaptors automatically seal themselves when the probes are
removed. Use of the probe adaptors make the set-up for a cooling test much faster
and easier. The probe adaptors can be used in any cooling system with pressures up to
690 kPa (100 psi) and temperatures up to 120°C (250°F). The 5P2720 Self-Sealing
Probe Adaptor has 1/4” pipe threads, the 5P2725 Self-Sealing Probe Adaptor has 3”
pipe threads and the 5P3591 Self-Sealing Probe Adaptor has 9/16”-18” TPI.

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Figure 317 – How the self sealing probe adaptors operate.

1U 7297 Coolant and Battery Testers

Figure 318

The coolant and battery tester (Figure 318) gives a rapid and accurate reading of the
coolant freezing temperature. The tester can be used for coolants with ethylene glycol.
Only a few drops are needed to make the test. The coolant can be tested either hot or
cold since the tester automatically corrects for the coolant temperature. The 5P0957
Tester shows temperature in degrees Fahrenheit and the 5P3514 Tester shows
temperature in degrees centigrade.

This tester can also be used to test specific gravity of lead-acid battery electrolyte.

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Supplemental Coolant Additive (8T 5296)

Figure 319

Figure 320

These simple, inexpensive test kits (Figure 319 and Figure 320) accurately measure
the concentration of Caterpillar supplemental coolant additive and the ethylene glycol
range in the coolant mixture. It helps protect against insufficient or excessive
concentrations that can damage the engine. The test only takes minutes to perform.

This test determines conditioner level and gives maintenance recommendations for
cooling systems. These kits are specifically for use with Caterpillar liquid cooling
system conditioners and coolant conditioner precharge and maintenance element
filters.

Testing is recommended on a regular basis because conditioners are constantly


depleted at a rate that cannot always be predicted. Different anti-freeze formulas,
maintenance errors, blowby gases, topping up of radiator with water, engine usage
and other typical conditions found with the use of heavy duty diesel and gasoline
engines, effect depletion rate.

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NOTE:
The Caterpillar Supplemental Coolant Additive Test Kit checks for the concentration of
nitrites in the coolant. Some other brands of supplemental coolant additives are phosphate
based, and the test kit will yield inaccurate readings. If another supplemental coolant
additive is used, Caterpillar recommends using that manufacturer’s test.

9U 7400 (Previously 6V 3121) Multitach Groups

Figure 321

The 9U7400 Multitach Group (Figure 321) is optional and has phototach attachment
required to measure fan speed. The testing procedure is in Operators Manual
NEHSO6O5.

9S8140 System Pressurising Pump

Figure 322

The 9S8140 System Pressurising Pump (Figure 322) is designed to apply pressure into
the cooling system to test for leaks. It can also be used to test the pressure relief
valve and pressure gauges.

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164-2192 Pressure Probe

Figure 323

The pressure probe (Figure 323) is used with a pressure gauge to check the coolant
pressure normally used at the water pump inlet or outlet. This probe can be installed
in a hole with pipe thread or any of the mentioned probe adaptors.

Cooling system Diagnostics

Introduction

Whenever diagnosing any type of system, it is important to first thoroughly


understand the system, how it operates, and how it is related to other systems. Find
out what you can about the machine from operators, owners, and maintenance people.
List possible causes for the problem, and look for them in a logical manner. The
Troubleshooting Guides provided in the service manual will be helpful. (CHECK THE
EASY AND OBVIOUS THINGS FIRST) Then check the more difficult items with
diagnostic tools. The last thing will be actual disassembly and inspection of
components.

Cooling system problems are fairly common. Although overheating is the most
common, the problems could be any of several types of overheating or
overcooling. The first step in troubleshooting the cooling system for cooling and
heating problems, is to check on the machine history:

 What repairs have been completed recently?

 these repairs affect the cooling system?

Any such information may give an indication of a possible cause for the problem.
The next step is to talk with the operator.

 Ask questions, like when, how often, and under what conditions does the

problem take place?

 What symptoms were seen?

 Does coolant need to be added regularly?

 What application is the machine being used for?

 Is the load factor higher than normal?


This step is very important. An operator can generally give an indication of where the
problem may be.

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There are three basic problems typical of cooling systems:

 Overheating
This takes place when the engine is operating at a much higher than
normal temperature.

 Loss of coolant
This can take place because of leakage or overheating.

 Overcooling
This is a condition where the engine does not reach normal operating temperature.
Overcooling is more common in colder areas, however it can occur in hotter areas.
The result from running a machine in this condition over a period of time
can be rapid engine wear due to acid formation in the piston ring area and
formation of hard abrasive carbon deposits.

A problem in the cooling system should first be diagnosed by visual inspection.


Generally the cause of the problem can be found quickly because the eyes and
other senses can pick up faults quickly. If the cause cannot easily be found use of
diagnostic tools and even removal of components for inspection may be required.

Overheating – Visual Inspections

Coolant Level

Figure 324

The first and most common problem to look for is overheating. This is very important
because of possible engine failure due to a loss of coolant. The first and easiest item to
check is the coolant level (Figure 324). If it is low it could cause overheating as well as
crack the cylinder head or block.

WARNING:
DO NOT loosen the filler or pressure cap on a hot engine. Steam or hot coolant can cause
severe burns. Check for coolant leaks or steam coming out of the overflow on the radiator
when the engine is stopped.

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Check the level of the coolant in the radiator and make sure the coolant is cool first. A
low coolant level can sometimes cause overheating, but it can also be the result of
overheating. If the coolant begins to boil, the pressure relief valve in the radiator top
tank will open. This keeps the cooling system pressure constant, but permits loss of
coolant.

Rule of Thumb:
1. Coolant must be covering any internal tubes or core elements.

2. In a non-recovery system, the top tank should have a coolant level at about 12
to 20mm (1/2” to 3/4”) below the neck.In a recovery system, the level should
be up to the neck when the system is hot and as indicated by a mark on the
bottle when cold.

If the level of the coolant is low, add more as needed. See the appropriate Operation
and Maintenance Guide for the amount of coolant to add. If the engine overheats
again, the low coolant level will not be the cause of overheating. If the coolant level
constantly goes down there is a loss of coolant problem.

Radiator

Figure 325 – Radiator with Bent Cooling Fins

If the coolant level is correct, next look at the radiator. Check for restrictions that can
stop the flow of air through the radiator. Look for dirt in the cores, especially outside
of the fan blast area. To check for this condition, put a light behind the radiator. If the
light does not show through to the other side, the radiator may be clogged with dirt
and debris.

Also check the radiator for bent or broken fins which could restrict air flow or show
signs of leakage from the radiator (Figure 325). On truck engines that have shutters
on the radiator, check to see if the shutters are stuck in the closed position.
Use radiator fin combs to straighten any bent fins. Use compressed air to clean any
debris from the radiator core.

Check the radiator air entry and exit points. The end user may have fitted lights,
coolers or mesh screens. These will impede air flow causing overheating.

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Fan Shrouds

Figure 326

Check the condition of the shrouds (Figure 326). Make sure they are installed
correctly. Also, make sure the rubber strips are in good condition. Fan and radiator
shrouds increase the efficiency of the fan by helping to move air through the radiator
and by preventing recirculation of air around the sides of the radiator. The fan shroud
must be near the outer edges of the fan blade to prevent recirculation of air around
the ends of the fan.

Fan

Figure 327

Check that fan blades are not damaged (Figure 327, left). Check that the fan is
installed correctly. A fixed-blade fan that is installed backwards can lose approximately
50 per cent of its capacity. Check that the correct fan is fitted to the machine.

Check fan belts and pulley grooves (Figure 327, right) (refer to SEBF8O46 if necessary
to check pulley groove wear limits). Loose fan belts will wear at a faster rate and cause
damage to pulleys. It is also possible for loose fan belts to slip and cause the fan to
turn at a slower rate. This can cause overheating.

Make sure there is no oil or grease on the fan belts or pulleys. Oil or grease will cause
the belts to slip. The outside diameter of a new fan belt must extend beyond the edge
of the pulley a small amount. If the fan belt is even with the outside diameter of the

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pulley, either the fan belt or pulley is worn. Check theinside surface of the fan belts for
cracks. Cracks on the inside surface of the fan belt will cause the belt to break after a
period of time. Replace fan belts in sets. A new fan belt will stretch a small amount
after several days of operation. A new fan belt and a used fan belt used together will
cause excessive stress on the new fan belt. When an adjustment is made to the belts,
the new belt will tighten before the used belt and thus carry all of the load.

NOTE:
Excessive tension will put an unnecessary load on the water pump bearings and other pulley
bearings. It will also cause the belts to wear at a much faster rate. Not enough tension will
cause the belts to slip, which will cause the fan to turn slower than normal. Belts should flex
approximately 10mm, when pushed in, on the longest length.

Fan Clutch

Figure 328

On vehicles fitted with a fan clutch (Figure 328), if the fan clutch is slipping, the
symptoms will be the same as when the airflow is restricted. If the clutch is not
working correctly, the fan may not turn. If the fan does not turn there will not be
enough air flow through the radiator to cool the engine coolant.

With the use of the 9U7400 Multitach II, the fan speed can be measured and
compared to the engine speed to find out if the clutch is operating correctly.
Measurement of fan speed is discussed later.

Rule of Thumb:

When hot and stationary, try to spin fluid fan by hand. If it rotates more than 4 times,
it is not working correctly. Also check for roughness. Be careful not to burn hands and
arms when performing this test.

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Shutter System

Figure 329

Although not often used in warmer climates, if the vehicle has a shutter system
(Figure 329), check to see if it is stuck closed or partially closed. This will restrict the
flow of air through the radiator causing overheating. Generally a visual check will tell
you if the system is operating correctly. If the system is not operating correctly, repair
or replace it.

Check for correct shutter opening temperature. The relationship between the
thermostat and shutter operating temperature must be defined.

Coolant Hoses

Figure 330

Look for coolant flow problems that could be caused by collapsed or restricted hoses
(Figure 330). Also check for worn and improperly installed hoses.

A collapsed hose on the suction side to the water pump is an indication that the water
pump cannot draw enough coolant because of a restriction somewhere upstream.
Allow for paint on hoses. It gives a brittle feeling.

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Water Pump and Cylinder Head Gasket

Check for leaks around the water pump. On all engines, there is a drain hole between
the coolant seal and the bearing seal in the water pump. Without this drain hole,
coolant can get into the oil if there is a failure of the seals in the water pump.

The drain hole is for expansion and contraction. A bit of old crusty coolant around the
opening is normal. The seal is designed to leak slightly to keep it cool and lubricated.

Look for signs of coolant or oil leaks at the junction of the cylinder head and cylinder
block. Leaks in this area are an indication of head gasket failure.

Other Checks

Check the condition of the gasket in the radiator cap. If necessary, install a new gasket
or radiator cap.

 Check the radiator gasket sealing surface in the cap for gouges, nicks or

grooves. This surface must be smooth and even.

 On gas engines, manifolds and converters will also have coolant in them. They

can leak internally and externally.

 On vehicles, check the heater/demister circuit for leaks.

 If the radiator cap is held in position by a stud, tighten the cap and feel for

contact between the gasket and the surface on the radiator top tank. If the

stud is too long or damaged, the cap will not provide a complete seal.

 Air compressors are cooled by a surrounding jacket water. It can leak coolant

or aerate the coolant.

 Inspect recovery pipes and hoses for leakage.

WARNING:
Do not disassemble the relief valve in the cooling system until the radiator cap has been
removed from the radiator and the pressure in the cooling system is released. If there is
pressure in the cooling system when the relief valve is removed, steam can be released.
This can cause personal injury.

 If a pressure relief valve is fitted to the top tank of the radiator, remove the
relief valve and check its condition and the condition of the gasket surface.
If the parts are in good condition, remove any rust or scale deposits and
install the relief valve back in the top tank.

 Check the governor seal to see if the fuel setting has changed. Make sure
the machine is not used in an overload condition or is not operated near the

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stall speed of the torque converter.

 Check for transmission and steering clutch slippage.

 Make sure the brakes on the machine are not dragging.

 If fitted, check the vehicle retarding device to see if it is fully disengaged.

 Check the glycol concentration of the coolant. The glycol should not exceed
50 per cent.

Overheating - Tests

Figure 331 - 4C6500 Digital Thermometer Group

If making a thorough visual inspection did not identify the cause of the problem, some
diagnostic checks will need to be made.

It may be an advantage to install digital thermometer probes (Figure 331) in several


locations prior to making any tests. To do so, first let the engine temperature cool and
install self-sealing probe adaptors in the following positions:

 Radiator top tank

 Radiator bottom tank or water pump inlet

 Water pump outlet

 Thermostat housing

 Torque converter oil cooler inlet and outlet

 Engine oil manifold or oil cooler outlet

The cooler inlet oil temperature must not be more than 132°C (270°F).

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The normal temperature range for cooler inlet oil temperature is 6° to 11°C (42° to
52°F) over the radiator top tank temperature when a machine is operated under full
load. The cooler outlet oil temperature will be 8° to 22°C (45° to 72°F) lower than the
cooler inlet oil temperature.

Check the Cooling system Relief Valve

Figure 332

The cooling system relief valve must open at the pressure level indicated in the
appropriate Engine Specification Module. To check the pressure, install a pressure
gauge on the radiator top tank (Figure 332). Use an Air Pressure Pump to put pressure
in the cooling system. Any additional pressure above manufacturer’s specifications
must go past the relief valve. The system must hold the minimum pressure indicated
in the specifications for the specified period of time.

Air, Gases and Steam in the Cooling System

A cooling system that is not filled to the correct level or that is not filled correctly can
cause air in the cooling system. Leaks in some components, such as after-coolers and
hoses, permit air to get into the cooling system, especially on the inlet side of the
water pump.

Air in the cooling system causes foaming or aeration and affects the performance of
the water pump. The air bubbles in the system act as insulation and will reduce pump
flow. Coolant cannot come in contact with different parts of the engine that have air
bubbles, so hot spots develop on these different parts. To keep air out of the system,
fill the cooling system slowly at the original fill and make sure all suction hose clamps
are tight. Start the engine. Check the coolant level to make sure the radiator is still
full, especially after the thermostat has opened and coolant circulates throughout the
complete system.

Exhaust gas leakage into the cooling system also causes foaming or aeration. Exhaust
gases can get into the cooling system through cylinder head gaskets that have internal
cracks or defects. Most of the causes can be found by a visual check but some need
disassembly or a simple test.

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Gas in the cooling system is one cause of overheating which can be found by a test
known as the bottle test. Use 9U6737 Radiator tool Group for the bottle test. Fill the
cooling system to the correct level with coolant. Fasten a hose to the outlet relief valve
in the radiator top tank. Put the other end of the hose in a jar of water. Install the
radiator cap and tighten it. Start the machine and run it until operating temperature is
obtained (thermostat opens). Make sure the temperature of the cooling system is
between 85°C (185°F) and 99°C (210°F). This temperature can be checked by
installing a thermistor probe in the regulator housing ahead of the regulator.

This is a test for gas in the system, not steam, which can produce similar conditions if
the temperature is permitted to increase. Look at the amount of bubbles in the glass
jar. If an occasional bubble is visible there is no air or combustion gases in the cooling
system. However, a constant violent flow of bubbles indicates the presence of air or
combustion gases.

Loose precombustion chambers, defective precombustion chamber seals, a loose


cylinder head or a damaged head gasket also cause combustion gases to leak into the
cooling system. A quick check of this is achieved by filling the radiator with coolant,
keep the radiator cap off and start the engine. Violent bubbling in the top tank will
indicate combustion gases in the cooling system.

Temperature Gauge

Figure 333

Check to see if the coolant temperature gauge is accurate by comparing the gauge
temperature with the temperature of the coolant in the thermostat housing (Figure
333). The older style coolant temperature gauges for pressurised cooling systems are
calibrated to show overheating at approximately 108°C (226°F) or 113°C (235°F) for
most models.

Install the thermometer probe in the water temperature regulator housing and bring
the system up to operating temperature.

When the engine is at operating temperature, make a comparison of the temperatures

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on the thermometer group with that shown on the gauge. If the gauge shows
overheating and the thermometer shows normal temperature, confirm that the gauge
is faulty by doing the test again with another thermometer probe before replacing the
gauge. Obviously, if both the gauge and the digital thermometer show higher than
normal temperatures, an overheating problem exists.

Radiator-Ambient Temperature Differential

Figure 334

Install a thermometer probe in the top tank of the radiator and hold one probe in the
hand to measure ambient (air) temperature. Ensure that the ambient temperature is
taken in an area that is not affected by other heat sources. If the fan is blowing air
over a hot manifold, this could affect the ambient temperature reading.

If the cooling system has a shunt line, install the top tank probe in the water
temperature regulator housing outlet. With the engine in operation and the thermostat
fully open on a Caterpillar designed machine, the difference in temperature between
the radiator top tank and ambient temperature should be no more than 61 degrees
Celsius with the machine at full load and the thermostat fully open. This is known as
the temperature differential. Temperature differentials will be used at other times in
the troubleshooting procedure.

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Torque Converter Temperature

Figure 335

Check for high torque converter temperatures. If the torque converter is not operating
properly and it is placing too much load on the engine it may create too much heat in
the cooling system (Figure 335).

If the gauge pointer is in the red danger zone, install thermometer probes in the torque
converter, oil cooler, oil inlet and outlet. With the engine running, the temperature
differential must be between 8°C and 22°C (45° and 72°F).

If the differential is less than 8°C (45°F), the water tubes may be plugged and must be
cleaned or replaced. If the differential is more than 22°C (72°F), the oil passages may
be blocked. The oil is then not flowing quickly enough through the passages. The oil is
in contact with the water tubes longer, causing it to be cooled more than normal.

Retarder

Figure 336

If the machine is equipped with an oil cooled retarding or braking system this may be a
possible cause of overheating (Figure 336). If it is not operating correctly it may be
putting more heat into the cooling system than normal. This can also be caused by the
operator not using the brakes correctly especially in the case of hauling units. The oil
cooler can be checked in the same way as the torque converter.

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Radiator Coolant flow Resistance

Figure 337

The radiator can be verified for heat transfer and flow resistance. This is accomplished
by measuring the temperature differential between the top and bottom tanks of the
radiator. Make sure the tip of the probe in the top tank is submerged (under the
surface) in coolant. Put the bottom probe at the radiator outlet elbow or the water
pump inlet. The overheating problem can now be conveyed into a flow or capacity
problem. If the temperature differential is more than 11°C (52°F), the water is flowing
past the radiator fins too slowly. This would indicate a resistance to flow in the cooling
system. If the differential is less than 4.5°C (40°F), there is insufficient heat transfer by
the radiator, therefore the coolant is not being cooled sufficiently. This can be caused by
too much heat being carried into the coolant or insufficient heat being rejected by the
system.

Both of these problems can cause overheating in the cooling system.

Temperature Regulator or Thermostat

Figure 338

If the overheating problem is caused by a flow restriction, there are several ways to
determine the cause of the problem. The first item checked is the thermostat. The
opening temperature of the thermostat can be checked without removing it. To
completely check the thermostat, it will need to be removed from the system.

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The opening temperature of the thermostat is the set temperature when it starts to
open. The running temperature is the temperature when the thermostat is fully open
and is higher than the opening temperature.

To check the opening temperature of the thermostat in the system, put one thermistor
probe in the water pump outlet and a second probe in the thermostat housing.

Run the engine and watch the temperature of the water pump outlet. While the engine
is cold, water will by-pass the radiator. The coolant will get gradually warmer until a
point is reached when the temperature suddenly drops. This is the opening temperature
for the thermostat and should be within 1 or 2°C of the fully open specified temperature
(Figure 338).

If in doubt, thermostat should be checked outside the engine as previously described.

If the thermostat does not operate correctly, replace it with a new one.

Water Pump

Figure 339

If the thermostat is operating correctly there may be a flow restriction somewhere else
in the system, or the pump may not be operating to capacity. Pressure gauges are good
tools to use in finding the problem. Put one in the inlet of the pump, the outlet of the
pump, and the top of the radiator (Figure 339). Pressure readings can be used to help
isolate the restriction.

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Radiator Air flow Resistance

Before the air velocity is checked, put the transmission of the machine in neutral
position. Put the parking brakes ON and lower all implements (if fitted). Make all checks
at rated speed with the radiator grill swung out of the way.

NOTE:
Wear eye and hearing protection

Check the air velocity with a Blowby/Air Flow Indicator. Care must be taken when trying
to pinpoint problem areas in the radiator core. It is normal for velocities at the centre
(fan hub area) and outside edges of the radiator to be as much as five times less than
the velocity at the blade sweep area of the core.

This meter not only measures air velocity but also helps pinpoint the location of any
core clogging that can cause overheating. Use Special Instruction, Form SEHS8712, as
a guide for using the Caterpillar 8T2700 Blowby/Air Flow Indicator Group.

Fan Speed

Figure 340

If the radiator core has no restrictions, check the fan speed with the Caterpillar 9V7400
Multitach II Group (Figure 340). The complete test procedure is given in Special
Instruction, Form SEHS78O7. This works on a count of how many times light is
interrupted by the fan blades. The meter has a setting for the number of blades on the
fan and takes this into consideration to measure what the RPM of the fan is.

If the speed is not correct, replace or repair fan clutch or fluid drive. Also belts may be
worn or loose, or pulleys could be the wrong size.

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Track type tractor and wheel loader fans are sometimes driven by a separate hydraulic
motor. Check the Service Information System on test procedures for this type of fan set
up.

Measure Manifold and After-Cooler Temperatures

The temperature of the oil in the engine oil cooler manifold is approximately 6 to 11°C
(42° to 52°F) higher than the water temperature at the pump outlet. If the temperature
of the oil in the oil manifold is 19° to 22°C (66° to 72°F) higher than the water pump
outlet temperature, then scaling may be the cause.

A dirty after-cooler will result in high inlet air temperature. For every 1° (Fahrenheit or,
Centigrade) increase in inlet air temperature the exhaust temperature increases 3°
(Fahrenheit or Centigrade). High exhaust temperatures will cause overheating. A dirty
after-cooler, contaminated with oil mist or corrosion, will not permit normal heat
transfer.

Engine Timing

Figure 341

Incorrect engine fuel timing could cause overheating problems. The engine timing can
be checked with the 1P3500 Injection Timing Group (Figure 341).

If the timing is late, overheating of the engine will be a problem because the fuel will
burn for too short a period of time. If the timing is too early, the fuel will be burning
in the cylinder longer. This extra heat produced by early timing must also be removed
by the cooling system.

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Loss of Coolant

Check Coolant Level

Figure 342

The next cooling system problem to discuss is loss of coolant. If the operator is
complaining about loss of coolant, check their filling procedure. For example; they fill
the radiator to the top of the filler tube and the next day the coolant level is just
below the filler tube. If the level does not get any lower than this, they are filling the
cooling system too full. The water expands when heated and gets out through the
relief valve. The correct coolant level for the system is shown in the Lubrication and
Maintenance Guides.

As a general guideline, recovery systems should be full. Non-recovery systems should


have water level approximately 20mm (¾”) below the filler neck (Figure 342).

Check for Leaks

If there is a coolant loss problem, start looking for the easiest problems first. Check
all the systems for possible leaks. Sometimes leaks do not show unless the system
has pressure in it. Use the 9S8140 Pump Group to put pressure into the cooling
system. Pressurise the system to the cap rating. Check again for leaks and repair any
that are found.

For very slow leaks, connect an air supply via an air regulator. It will maintain a set
pressure, so the leak remains until it is located.

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Check Pressure Relief Valve & Radiator Cap

Figure 343

If there are no leaks use the pump group to check the condition of the pressure relief
valve (Figure 343). Again pressurise the system until constant pumping can not
increase the pressure gauge reading. After it gets to this setting the pressure will drop
approximately 7 kPa, then hold. During this operation, place the end of the radiator
overflow tube in a container filled with water. If the relief valve is operating correctly,
the bubbles will stop. If the bubbles do not stop, there is a problem with the pressure
relief valve and it must be replaced. If the bubbles stop, but the reading on the
pressure gauge still drops, there is a leak somewhere else. Check the radiator cap
seal condition.

Check for Indication of Combustion Gases in Cooling System

Figure 344

If the pump group gives an indication of a leak somewhere in the system and there
are no external leaks, check for combustion gases getting into the cooling system.
Open the radiator cap and run the engine under load. Look for bubbles in the coolant.
If the bubbles are hard to see, the Bottle Test can also be used to check for
combustion gas in the cooling system (Figure 344).

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Before making the Bottle Test make sure the cooling system is filled correctly. Use a
wire to hold the relief valve in the radiator cap open. Install the radiator cap and
tighten it.

Put a hose over the end of the overflow tube, or connect a hose to the relief valve
outlet. Start the engine and operate it at high idle rpm for a minimum of five minutes
after the engine is at normal operating temperature. Use a cover on the radiator core
to keep the engine at operating temperature. After five or more minutes at operating
temperature, place the loose end of the hose in a bottle filled with water. Put the
bottle in a bucket of water with the top down. If the water gets out of the bottle in
less than forty seconds, there is too much combustion gas leakage in the cooling
system.

Figure 345

Combustion gases can get into the cooling system through a cracked head, block,
precombustion chamber, bad head gasket as shown above (Figure 345), or
precombustion chamber seals. Check these things and repair or replace as necessary.
The air compressor can also be a source of air entering the cooling system from failed
gaskets or cracks.

Check for Water in the Oil

Figure 346

Check the crankcase oil (Figure 346). If the oil is a milky colour (water and oil mix),
this gives an indication that water is leaking into the oil. This leakage can be through

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a damaged gasket, a worn seal, a leaking oil cooler, a cracked head or block, or any
place where oil and water come close together.

Generally, the higher pressure fluid will leak into the lower pressure fluid.
For example, a leaking water pump gasket or seal could cause water to pass into the
low pressure oil drain passages.

Check for Oil in Cooling Water

Figure 347

Oil may also be in the coolant water (Figure 347). It can get into the coolant the same
way coolant can get into the oil.

Check Torque Converter Oil

Figure 348

Check the torque converter oil (Figure 348). If it appears milky (water and oil mixed),
it generally has water in it. In this case the only divider between the oil and the water
in the cooling system is the torque converter or marine gear oil cooler. The cooler is
probably leaking and should be disassembled and inspected.

If oil has been present in the cooling system, the system will need to be thoroughly
cleaned prior to returning the machine to service.

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Engine Overcooling

Generally when an operator complains of an overcooling problem it will be in the


winter when his heater is not supplying enough heat.

Overcooling can damage an engine just as overheating can. Overcooling occurs when
the normal temperature at which the engine operates cannot be reached. This
condition is most severe with the use of high sulphur fuel. High sulphur fuel increases
wear if the temperature is not over 80°C (175°F). Overcooling is the result of coolant
bypassing the water temperature regulators and flowing directly to the radiator.

Causes of Overcooling

Low ambient air temperature and light load applications cause overcooling even
though no coolant flows through the radiator under these conditions.

The most common cause of overcooling is from thermostats that are held open
because of a defect. It is possible for coolant to flow around a thermostat that is in
good condition. This too will give an indication of overcooling.

Inspections

Temperature Gauge

Figure 349

A defective temperature gauge can give an indication of overcooling. The gauge can be
checked for accuracy by comparing the actual temperature of the coolant in the
thermostat housing with the temperature indication on the gauge. Use a thermometer
to check the temperature of the coolant. If necessary, install a new gauge.

Check the temperature gauge for correct operation by installing a thermistor probe in
the thermostat housing. Compare the temperature reading with the temperature
gauge (Figure 349). If they are not approximately the same, replace the gauge.

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Shutter System

If the gauge is working correctly, and there is an overcooling problem, check the
operation of the shutter system (if equipped). If the shutters are stuck open or
partially open, the water will be cooled too much and will not maintain the correct
temperature.

The vehicle radiator is designed to cater for full load operation and in light running
conditions, could cause overcooling and result in thermal shock loads to occur in the
cooling system.

Fan Clutches

Figure 350

The same is true of fan clutches. If the fan is stuck on or partially on, it is causing
more air to pass by the radiator than is necessary to cool the water. The water is then
cooled too much and will not keep the engine at the correct operating temperature.

Thermostat

Figure 351

It is possible for the thermostat to be stuck open or partially open.

The thermometer group can be used to check the regulator operation. Put a probe in
the top tank of the radiator, and the outlet of the block. Run the engine for 10-15

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minutes. Read the temperatures on the thermometer gauge. If the temperatures are
approximately the same and below the normal operating temperature of the engine,
the thermostat is stuck open. This causes water to constantly flow through the radiator
to be cooled, causing the engine to be cooled too much. If this is the case, replace the
thermostat. If the thermostat was operating correctly, the temperature at the top tank
of the radiator would be much lower than at the outlet of the block.

Even if the thermostat opens and closes correctly, check it for other defects.

Figure 352 – Check bonnet-type thermostats for grooves and dents

On bonnet-type thermostats that are used in a full-flow bypass system, check the
bonnets for grooves and dents (Figure 352). These can prevent the regulator from
sealing correctly.

After the thermostats have been checked thoroughly, inspect the thermostat housing.
Check the counterbores that they fit into, make sure the surfaces are clean, smooth
and free of foreign material. Check the seal in the thermostat housing and check for
cocking which causes coolant to flow past the thermostat and seal. Some housings
have a bleed hole and orifice to permit coolant flow past the thermostats and to bleed
air out of the cooling system when it is filled with coolant. Make sure this bleed hole is
open. Do not enlarge this hole; it could cause overcooling. In some machinery, check
valves are used to limit coolant flow through the bleed hole.

Vent Line under Low Load

Overcooling may occur on some truck engines due to an open vent line installed by
Other Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs). This line allows unrestricted coolant flow to
the radiator top tank and creates overcooling during low load or overnight idle
conditions. This situation can usually be eliminated by installing a check valve in the
vent line.

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Components that affect the Cooling system

Battery Ground Connections

Improper ground connections at the engine can cause problems in the cooling system
by electrolysis. Make sure all ground connections are clean and tight.

Oil Cooler Cores

A pressure check of the oil cooler cores can be made to detect leaks; the cooler must
be removed for such a check. Depending on their size and location, some leaks can be
repaired.

Oil flows around the tube bundles in an oil cooler core and the water flows through the
tubes. If the tubes that the water flows through become plugged, they must be
cleaned. If the oil passages in the cooler core become plugged, they cannot be
cleaned.

Cooler cores contaminated by a system failure should be replaced. Before installing the
new core, inspect the oil filter. The oil filter will give an indication of the condition of
the oil cooler core. Inspect the oil filter as follows:

1. Check the schematic of the lubrication system to determine if oil flows through
the oil filter before it goes to the oil cooler core, or if oil flows through the oil
cooler first and then goes to the oil filter. In most lubrication systems, oil flows
through the cooler and then to the oil filter before it goes to the oil gallery.

2. Look for chips in the oil filter. If the oil flows from the oil cooler to the oil filter
and the filter is full of chips, the oil cooler can also be full of chips. It is not
possible to clean these chips out of the cooler core, so the core is not

3. reusable. If the oil flows through the oil filter first, check the amount of chips in
the oil filter and inspect the inlet of the oil cooler core to see if it contains any
chips. If the oil filter is clean, the oil cooler will probably be clean.

4. Check the cause of a wear failure. If the failure was instant, only a few chips
will be present. If the wear failure was gradual, the first few chips will be small,
increasing in size as the failure progresses.

A failure that stops the flow of oil will not produce chips in the oil cooler even if there is
a large amount of failure debris.

Refer to SEBF8O77 Caterpillar® Guideline For Reusable Parts and Salvage Operations
“Engine Oil Coolers” and SEBF8O85 Caterpillar® Guideline For Reusable Parts and
Salvage Operations “Endsheet Inspection of Rubber Endsheet Oil Coolers”.

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After-cooler Cores

Usually, an after-cooler core used on a vehicle receives adequate air supply. However,
adequate air supply is crucial if an after-cooler core is used on an engine that is in a
room. If this is the case, make sure all blowby fumes are directed out of the room. If
the fumes are piped into the air intake, they will decrease the efficiency of the after-
cooler.

Because of the construction of the after-cooler, it is impossible to clean the inside of


the tube bundles with a rod. But it is possible, with special plumbing, to reverse the
flow of raw water through the after-cooler to back flush it. This can be accomplished
by running the engine for approximately one hour with a light load or no load. This will
help clean the core. If this is not possible, remove all the pipes connected to the after-
cooler and make adaptors that can be used to flush the core with fresh water. If fresh
water is used to clean the core, the water pressure must not be more than 170 to 210
kPa (25 to 30 psi). Do not stop the outlet flow of water out of the core and let the
water pressure build up in the core. If the after-cooler core can be removed easily, it is
best to clean it in a shop.

Radiator Cap

The radiator cap must prevent water and pressure loss in the cooling system. On large
radiator caps, a worn gasket can be replaced. Smaller automotive type radiator caps
cannot be serviced; a new cap must be installed.

Relief Valve

The cooling system relief valve cannot be serviced but it can be cleaned. If there is a
loss of pressure in the cooling system, install a new relief valve and plate.

Fan Belts

Fan belts come in a set. If one of the fan belts is worn, all the fan belts must be
replaced.

Pulleys

Some pulleys can be reconditioned under certain conditions. A pulley is reconditioned


by re-machining the grooves. For reconditioning procedures and specifications, see
Guideline for Reusable Parts, Cast Iron And Steel Pulley Grooves, Form SEBF8O46.
Pulleys wear on the side faces of the groove. This wear is caused by abrasive material
between belts and grooves. As the pulley wears, the belt will drop deeper into the
groove. If the belt and pulley are in good condition, the belt will extend beyond the
pulley edge.

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Do not use belt dressing or other compounds that prevent belt slippage. Most of these
compounds will make the side walls of the belt soft and weak and cause the belt to
wear.

Fan Assembly

Do not repair a damaged fan assembly. When a fan is constructed, a balance point is
established so the fan will run with a minimum amount of vibration.

A repair would affect this balance point and can weaken the structure of the fan.

Fan Shroud and Baffles

The fan shroud and baffles cannot be reconditioned. Make sure these parts are
installed when a radiator core is replaced. The fan shroud and baffles have an effect on
fan efficiency and prevent recirculation of air. At times, wear or interference between
the fan blade tips and the baffles will be noticed. This is normal. When a radiator guard
flexes, it can cause the shroud to contact the tips of the fan blades.

Radiator Mounts

The flexible radiator mounts protect the radiator from damage normally caused by
machine and/or engine vibration. When a radiator is removed for any repair, check the
mounts, especially the condition of the rubber. If the rubber is deteriorated, install new
mounts. Be sure the mounting bolts are tightened to the correct torque. See the
appropriate Service Manual.

Fan Guards

Vibration can damage fan guards. Make sure the bolts that hold the fan guards are
tight at all times. If a guard wire is broken at an original weld joint it can be tack
welded into place. If a guard wire is broken, a new wire must be installed.

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Hoses and Clamps

Figure 353

Hoses must be correctly clamped, (Figure 353 above), or cavity corrosion will occur.

When hose clamps are installed, do not tighten them too much. Tighten the clamp
until it bites into the rubber coating on the hose. If the clamp tears the rubber coating,
revealing the cords in the hose, it has been over-tightened. Hoses are usually replaced
when they have a leak or during a scheduled service interval. Remember, all hoses in
the cooling system are made of similar material and operate in the same environment.
So, if any one hose starts to leak, replace all of the hoses. If a scheduled service
interval is used, hoses change are recommended every three years or 4000 hours.

Sometimes, it is difficult to check the condition of a hose because hoses may be


painted and it is normal for paint to flake or crack. While the exterior appearance of
the hose is not a good indication of wear, the feel of the hose is. When the
temperature of the cooling system is cold and the pressure in the system is released, if
the hose feels soft it will need to be replaced. Softness of the hose may be due to a
number of factors. If a radiator or cooling system has had oil in it, the inner liner of
the hose will soften. The hose will also feel soft if it is very old and the inner liner has
loosened from the fabric. A loose inner liner can fold down into a water passage on the
suction side of the water pump and restrict the flow of coolant. This is not only rare,
but because there is no external leakage it is also difficult to find, especially if
troubleshooting an overheating problem.

During summer months, turn the valves in the heater lines to the OFF position so that
there is no system pressure in the heater hoses. If one heater hose comes loose, all of
the coolant can be lost if coolant flow is available to these hoses. Knowing the location
of heater hoses is important because they must be checked often.

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Thermostats

There are no parts in the thermostat that can be repaired.

Temperature Gauges

There are two types of temperature gauges, electrical and mechanical. If there is a
problem with an electric gauge, the temperature sending unit and the gauge must be
checked separately.

Rule of thumb check:

Single wire type can be earthed. With key to the on position, the gauge should go to
hot (overheat). If it doesn’t check the gauge and wiring.

With the mechanical gauge, the bulb and tube are fastened to the gauge and must be
checked as a unit. If a new mechanical gauge is installed, make sure the tube is long
enough for the correct installation.

There are different types of mechanical gauges and their red ranges are different. The
red range is 108°C (227°F) for most gauges, 113°C (235°F) for Track-Type Tractors,
and 99°C (210°F) for highway trucks. The red range for most transmission
temperature gauges is 132°C (270°F). The part number is different on each gauge
because of the difference in the length of the tube to the bulb.

Later model machines have EMS panels. On these machines, the high coolant
temperature light will come on at a temperature of 107°C (225°F).

Water Pump

Figure 354

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The need for water pump repair is generally the result of seal leakage. All water pumps
have a drain cavity in the pump housing. The cavity will direct water leakage to the
ground. If this cavity is closed, the water will be pushed past the oil seal on the shaft,
allowing the water to get into the engine oil system. This will cause damage to the
engine. Some drain holes are plugged with a porous material. This prevents
contamination entering the cavity. It looks similar to the safety ear protectors (plugs).

Seal assemblies are available for all water pumps. Some seal assemblies come with a
small tool that is used to install the seal and ring correctly. Clean water, used as a
lubricant, will make the installation of the seal easier. Never use oil as a lubricant. Oil
can make the seal swell or soften or cause it to turn on the shaft. Most seals are made
of teflon, which is a lubricant. Do not touch them or put anything on them during
assembly.

The bearings in the water pump can be replaced when the pump is reconditioned. The
impeller, shaft and cover can be used again unless there was a bearing failure and the
pump has operated for some period of time. Most of the time the impeller wears into
the cover when there is a bearing failure and the water pump assembly will need to be
replaced.

When reconditioning a water pump, before you pull it apart, you must check:

1. Shaft position

2. Pulley alignment

3. Impeller clearance

Make sure the shaft is clean before any seals are installed. Rust or scale can tear the
seal. Do not use a hammer to install the impeller. A hammer will crack the seal face.
Use a press or a retaining bolt to pull it in position on the shaft. Make sure the housing
is supported correctly as it is brittle. It will break if pressed out of square.

When installing a new water pump, put a small amount of oil on the bearings. Do not
start or turn over an engine unless the cooling system is filled with coolant. If the
water pump is operated in a dry condition, seal failure will result from overheating.

If a cooling system has been flushed, check the condition of the water pump closely for
approximately one week. Many times, a seal failure will result soon after the cooling
system has been flushed. This is because the loose rust and scale, which is purged by
the cleaning process, goes through the pump seal area.

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Cylinder Heads

Normally, cylinder head repair is needed because of leaks or cracks. A defect in an


expansion plug (welch plug) in the top deck of the cylinder head can cause a leak. If
there is a leak in this area, water spots will be visible in the plug recess. The old plug
must be removed, the hole for the plug cleaned and a new plug installed. Make sure to
put a sealant on the new plug before installation.

Cracks in a cylinder head are generally found between valve ports. Cracks can also be
found at precombustion chamber or nozzle openings to a valve port. Cracks in a
cylinder head can be repaired by a remanufacturing welding process.

Check the cylinder head for bend and warpage. Before installing a new precombustion
chamber in a cylinder head, check the precombustion chamber gasket surface in the
head for pits or rust. If there are pits or rust, a new precombustion chamber will not
seal correctly.

If a precombustion chamber is removed from a cylinder head, install a new O-ring seal
on the precombustion chamber before it is used again in the head.
O-ring seals can harden and break. If there is a leak in the area around the seal,
overheating will result, especially if scale prevents heat transfer from the body of the
precombustion chamber. Also, it is important that a new gasket is installed. This
gasket helps make sure the hole for the glow plug is in the correct position. See the
appropriate Service Manual module for the orientation of this hole.

Electrical Ground Problems

It has become apparent that many preventive engine failures, due to problems noted
in the cooling system, are caused by an electrical current passing through the coolant
from electrical ground problems and generation of static electricity elsewhere on the
equipment. This can destroy an engine in 24,000 miles regardless of the quality of
cooling system maintenance. The only way it can be stopped is to correct the electrical
problem causing the current flow and the resultant electrolysis.

Engine damage from an electrical current will be pitted liners, oil coolers, radiators,
extreme aluminium corrosion, and abnormal water pump and head gasket failure.
Aluminium corrosion products will stop the flow of coolant through the oil cooler
causing severe ring and bearing wear due to improperly cooled engine oil. Copper will
plate out onto the iron components causing iron destruction One may also notice
abnormal rusting of cabs and other sections of equipment.

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Field Problems That Led To This Test Procedure

1. Copper injector shells in a truck engine were being destroyed in 30 days because a
broken cab ground strap allowed the electrical current to ground through the
coolant.

2. A twelve cylinder marine engine was destroyed by liner pitting. As indicated by


laboratory testing of the coolant, the overhauled engine was again damaged. The
starter, which was starting the engine with no apparent problem to the operator,
was causing a 12 volt current to ground through the coolant.

3. Engine blocks in a large towboat were destroyed by pitting. The pitting was caused
by an electrical current due to two defective electrical switches on the after cooler
systems and one switch on the air conditioning unit in the Captain’s cabin.

4. The aluminium top tanks of truck radiators were pitting on a new fleet of trucks
equipped with rubber air bag suspension on the rear ends. The rear ends were
generating a current which passed up the drive shaft to the cooling system.
Grounding the rear ends and transmissions stopped the problem before the
engines were destroyed.

5. A large fleet of trucks made up of half tankers and half flatbeds, using the same
brand of engines and trucks, lost sixty engines in one year. Fifty-four engines failed
in the flatbeds while only six engines failed in the tankers. Tankers have a bonded
ground system while flatbeds do not. The nine to one ratio indicates the potential
for damage.

6. A truck hauling plastic pipe was losing the engine every 100,000 miles(161,0000
kms). The operator noted the load was glowing because of static electricity due to
air brushing down the open ended pipe. The operator covered the pipe with a tarp
and the engine lasted over 300,000 miles (483,000 kms).

Newer model electronic controlled engines, head gaskets, water pumps, radiators, oil
coolers, and transmissions were being damaged. Capacitors in the computers were
allowing a stored electrical current to enter the coolant when the engines were turned
off or starting after a period when the engine was not in use. The electrical current was
present even with the battery removed from the unit.

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Meter Reading

1. 0-to-0.3 volt is normal in a coolant of a cast iron engine. 0.5 volts will destroy a
cast iron engine and engine manufacturers are reporting 0.15 volts will damage an
aluminium engine.

2. The current will be AC if the problem is due to static electricity or a diode problem
in the alternator.

3. If the coolant shows an electrical problem with all the equipment turned on, turn
off one system at a time until you finally turn off the system that stops the
electrical current. When the current stops this will indicate the electrical system
causing the problem.

4. Be particularly careful of starters. They can cause as much damage to an engine as


a direct connection to an arc welder. This is due to the amperage present.

5. Always change the coolant if a current is detected. The iron protecting chemicals in
a properly inhibited coolant will be destroyed by the electrical current.

6. If aluminium damage has occurred, check the oil cooler and radiator tobe sure they
are not stopped up with aluminium oxide corrosion products. This can lead to liner
scoring and cause engine failure. If a current is present with the engine turned off,
battery disconnected, and reverses direction it usually indicates capacitor problems
in the computer.

Standing Vehicles

If a vehicle has been standing for a period of time, especially out in the elements,
problems may be created in the cooling system. Contaminants in the system may
lodge on components and coagulate. Some of the following problems to be aware of
are:

 Pump seals
After sitting for a period of time, seals may become hard and brittle and have a
deposit of contaminants on them that may have solidified to some extent. On
initial start up, these seats may tear or crack.

 Hoses
May become brittle and tend to crack or split, especially around the area
of the clamp.

 Thermostat

May be stuck open or closed because of a build up of contaminants.

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 Radiator core

May be clogged by a build up of contaminants (scale or rust)

 Radiator pressure cap


Seals may have dried out and become cracked and the valve action may be
clogged by contaminants.

 Galleries
Through the oil cooler, by-pass and shunt lines may be clogged due to a build up of
contaminants.

Prior to start up a full visual inspection should occur with emphasis on hoses, lines,
radiator cap and the amount of coolant in the system. After starting the vehicle, check
to see if coolant is being lost and ensure the thermostat is operating correctly.

If the vehicle has been standing for a long period of time, it is recommended that a
reverse flush of the system be applied and coolant replaced.

Afterboil

If a vehicle cooling system has been working at operating temperature and the engine
is then shut down, the effect on the cooling system is that the coolant temperature will
actually rise before it starts to cool.

The heat build up around the cylinders and cylinder head will still be conducted to the
coolant, and with the water pump stationary, the coolant will not be passed through
the radiator and the cooling effect through fan operation will not occur. Some vehicles
will tend to boil because of this and coolant directed through the pressure cap will be
collected by the reservoir.

Once the engine and coolant starts to cool, a low pressure created in the cooling
system will allow engine coolant from the reservoir to be directed back into the
radiator. Reservoir levels should always be checked when the engine is cold.

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TOPIC 8
Engine Lubrication

Introduction

Figure 355

The lubrication system in a diesel engine is impor tant due to the demands created by
high output and the requirement for low emissions. Not only is the lube system
required to provide clean oil to the proper places in the engine, but the oil itself must
withstand higher temperatures and be able to extend drain inter vals while
maintaining a low rate of consumption.

In this lear ning outcome, we will review the components and operation of a
Cater pillar 3406 engine. This system is typical of a Cater pillar engine, however,
some engines will differ slightly.

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Lubrication System Components

Figure 356 - Lubrication System Components

The lubrication system contains the following components (Figure 350):

1. Oil pan or sump

2. Oil pick-up tube and suction bell

3. Oil pump

4. Oil pressure relief valve

5. Oil cooler with a bypass valve

6. Oil filter with a bypass valve

7. Oil galleries (supply to engine)

8. Piston cooling jets

9. Crankcase breather, lines and pipes.

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Figure 357

Caterpillar wants customers to receive maximum equipment service life with a


minimum of downtime. Proper maintenance is important to ensure continuous,
trouble-free operation. Selecting the correct lubricating oil is a vital key. When an
engine failure occurs, the lubrication system is frequently involved.
.

Figure 358

The primary functions of oil are lubrication, removal of heat, and cleaning of debris
and residue from the engine parts.

Secondarily, the oil seals, insulates, provides corrosion protection, inhibits oxidation,
controls foaming action, and more.

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Figure 359

Lubricants function to separate moving surfaces and reduce friction. If moving parts
come in contact without a lubricant, material transfer will occur. This action can be
controlled by use of a lubricant to keep the parts from actual contact.

Figure 360

Lubricating oil used in the first Caterpillar diesel, introduced more than 60 years ago,
was straight mineral crankcase oil. However, when the engines began experiencing
ring sticking and cylinder liner scratching, it became apparent that more effective oil
was needed. In 1935, the first additive crankcase oil was developed in a cooperative
effort of several US oil companies and Caterpillar.

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Figure 361

The performance standards for this and subsequent oils were established by tests
performed on a single cylinder test engine designed and built by Caterpillar specifically
for oil testing. As engineers introduced new concepts, additional oil test engines were
developed.

This initial crankcase oil was named “Superior Lubricants for Caterpillar Engines” and
was sold only through Caterpillar dealers.

Figure 362

The test, run by engine manufacturers, required that the single cylinder test engine be
disassembled after it had run for a designated period of time at a pre-determined load
and speed. Pistons were inspected, and the color change caused by lacquering was
observed and recorded.

Other critical factors such as ring wear and deposits were measured. In 1958,
Caterpillar established the Series 3 classification.

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Figure 363

It wasn’t until 1970, that the API (American Petroleum Institute) recognized the need
to revise its classification system. The API, SAE, and ASTM collaborated in this effort.
Their new system was based on the same type of performance specifications which
Caterpillar and others had been using.

Figure 364

For this reason, Caterpillar was able to drop its classification system in 1972.
The new API/SAE system established CD, CC and other SAE letter designations for oil
classifications. These referred to performance levels in engine tests.

A list of all brand name API-rated oils is included in the Engine Manufacturers
Association Lubricating Oils-Data Book, available from your Caterpillar Dealer under
Caterpillar form number SEBU5939.

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Figure 365

The classification system used letters to denote performance levels of the oil.

The first letter denotes whether the oil is to be used in a spark ignited (S) or
combustion ignited (C) application.

The second letter denotes the performance and service category of the oil. As
performance demands have increased, the oils have had to be reformulated to provide
adequate protection. This can be seen through the second letter changes through the
years.

Figure 366

Over the years, the oil recommendations for engines have changed. Just a few years
ago, the 3208 engine required CC oil while the heavy duty engines required CD oil.

In 1983, with the introduction of unit injected truck engines, CE type oil was
recommended for these applications.

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In 1991 new emissions laws required a higher top ring which caused a need for CF-4
oil to replace CE.

With the requirement for use of very low sulfur fuel for truck applications in North
America, a new oil was formulated and classified CG-4. Although this oil was
formulated for very low sulfur fuel, it was also compatable for use with regular fuel
sulfur levels.

In 1999 CH-4 oil replaced CG-4 and, unless otherwise noted, is recommended for all of
the production diesel engines except the 3600 series engines.

Figure 367

CF classification oil was released as an upgraded CD style oil. It was released only in
single viscosity weights. It is the oil classification of choice for the 3600 series engines
due to its high detergency. It is also used as a break in oil for 3054/3056 to better
seat the rings.

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Figure 368

Two of the functions of oil are to provide support and lubrication. Lubricant’s basic
purpose is to separate moving surfaces with friction reducing oil films or layers. Liquid
lubricants form three types of oil films, the boundary layer, the hydrodynamic layer,
and the elastohydrodynamic layer. The boundary layer is formed by chemical reaction
between the lubricant, the metal surface, and the atmosphere. It is a thin, tough layer
that is effective under lighter load and slower speed conditions. The hydrodynamic oil
film is built by moving surfaces carrying oil with them. It is effective under moderate
load and moderate speed conditions. The Elastohydrodynamic oil film is formed when
hydrodynamic oil films are placed under very high loads, causing elastic deformation of
parts surfaces. It is effective under highest load and speed conditions.

Figure 369

The most important single characteristic of a liquid lubricant is viscosity, or the internal
liquid friction developed with movement. We associate viscosity with flowability.

Viscosity determines how well an oil will lubricate and protect rubbing surfaces. On the
other hand, too viscous an oil will have excessive resistance to flow at low

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temperatures. It may not permit ready cranking of an engine or may not flow quickly
enough to the parts requiring lubrication.

Thus, it is important that an oil have the correct viscosity at starting and at both the
highest and lowest temperatures at which the equipment is expected to operate.
Improper oil pressure may result from improper oil viscosity.

Figure 370

With the advent of multi-viscosity oils, those units with wide varieties of ambient
temperature operation were afforded wider protection.

An SAE 10W-30 means that this oil meets SAE specifications for both winter 10W and
summer 30 weight oils.

In some applications, the same weight oil could be used year around.

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Figure 371

Oxidation will thicken and darken lubricants. Oxidized oil acts as a catalyst to deplete
other additives, to build varnish and sludge, and to produce acids and corrosion.

Oxidation inhibitors help in both oxidation and corrosion control.

Oxidation inhibitors stop the chain reaction of additive depletion and acid production.

As the inhibitor molecules do their job, they are depleted. If they get used up, the
chain reaction will progress again.

Figure 372

Foam can contaminate lubricants, causing lack of lubrication and increased oxidation.
Anti-foam additives (often silicone compounds) weaken bubbles and allow them to
break up or escape more readily.

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Figure 373

Detergent and dispersant additives neutralize acids, protect metal surfaces, and keep
contaminants in suspension so they can be removed by filtration or by oil change.

Figure 374

When additives can no longer function they are said to be “used up”, and can
physically drop out of lubricants, forming black residues or buildups in lube
compartment and filters.

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Figure 375

Lubricants are often black and viscous after additive depletion. In addition to additive
residues, oil oxidation and contamination (moisture, acids, carbon, wear metals, etc.)
play a part in the black, viscous oil.

Figure 376

After lubricants fail, parts which were lubricated begin to fail.

These bearings failed only days after the lubricant passed the additive depletion zone
and became black and thick. Notice the adhesive wear caused by insufficient friction
control.

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Figure 377

Another critical factor in determining engine performance and engine life is related to
the amount of sulfur in the fuel. Sulfuric acid is a byproduct of the burning of diesel
fuel in a diesel engine as the sulfur that is not consumed in the combustion chamber
unites with water vapor.

TBN is the additive that counteracts the formation of sulfuric acid formed in the
engine. In the United States, fuels which meet ASTM l-D and 2-D specifications contain
no more than 0.5% sulfur by weight. This does not mean that every fuel in the United
States will meet this specification. In fact, fuels with sulfur content in excess of 0.5%
have been found in field surveys.
In North America, diesel fuel used for on-highway use, and for pleasure craft marine
engines must have less than 0.05% sulfur. As industry moves toward exhaust
aftertreatment devices, the sulfur will need to be close to 0%.

Figure 378

The amount of sulfur normally found in the fuel could vary from onetenth of one
percent (in Malaysia) to more than three percent (in South America). The only way to
provide fuel meeting standards would be through refinement of those fuels having
natural sulfur levels higher than standard.

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Figure 379

Sulfur in the fuel reacts during combustion and then combines with available water to
form sulfuric acid.

The acid attacks cylinder liners, piston rings, exhaust valve guides, and other engine
parts.

Corrosive wear can cause accelerated oil consumption, as well as increasing the
chances of early engine failure.

Figure 380

Factors that affect acid formation:

• Fuel sulfur content

• Engine temperature

• Combustion air humidity

• Fuel consumption

• Clean oil addition

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Figure 381

High humidity levels in combustion air supply the water necessary to promote
corrosive acid formation. An operator cannot control the working environment.

However, when operating in high humidity, he needs to be more careful with fuel and
lube selection. Another factor that determines the quantity of acid formed is the
amount of fuel burned during an oil change interval. The more fuel used, the more
sulfur oxides available to combine with available water.

Figure 382

The level of humidity in the combustion air does not increase the amount of iron in the
oil a great amount in lower levels of fuel sulfur, but with higher amounts of sulfur, iron
content is greatly increased with increased humidity.

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Figure 383

Engine temperature is an important factor in the process of creating sulfuric acid.


Sulfur oxides must combine with water to form sulfuric acid.

An engine operating at l90 ºF. Jacket water outlet temperature will generally minimize
the amount of acid formed; by operating above the “dew point” temperature for
sulfuric acid condensation.

Working the engine at or below 175 ºF will provide a suitable climate for acid
condensation. This means that an engine should not run “overcooled.”

Figure 384

Indicators of corrosive wear:

• Increased oil consumption

• Crankcase blowby

• Vapor in blowby

• Blue exhaust smoke

Dirt ingestion through air induction systems may produce similar symptoms. Be sure
air filtration safeguards are adequate for working conditions.

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Figure 385

Alkaline agents, also called buffers, are added to oil to counteract the sulfuric acid.

The relative alkaline level is quantified by the Total Base Number (TBN) of an oil.

The higher the TBN value of an oil, the greater its ability to neutralize acids.

Therefore, the higher the fuel sulfur percentage, the higher the minimum TBN level the
oil needs to protect the engine from acid corrosion.

Figure 386

After extensive testing and evaluation, it was determined that standard oil change
intervals may be maintained when oils with proper TBN values are used.

For fuels with sulfur contents above 0.5%, Caterpillar recommends that the TBN of the
oil should be 10 times that of the fuel sulfur content for DI engines and 20 times that
of the fuel sulfur content for PC engines. The oil should be changed when 50% of the
original TBN has been depleted

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Figure 387

Now that you have an understanding of these six factors, remember that any one of
them may cause rapid deterioration of the oil which could shorten engine life.

• Low jacket water temperature


• High humidity
• Heavy engine load
• Use of improper tools (using a tool that will overload the engine)
• Poor maintenance practices
• Low oil consumption

Figure 388

Caterpillar recommends that you use SOS Fluid Analysis, a service offered by most
Caterpillar dealers.

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An analysis of your engine oil can show the presence of metal wear particles which can
indicate acid attack or other abnormal wear. Before taking an oil sample, operate the
engine until it is at the normal operating temperature.

Use a sampling valve and adapter to take an oil sample while the engine is running.
Fill the new sample bottle approximately 75% full.

If a sample is taken from the oil drain stream do not get the sample from the first part
or the last part of the oil drain. Use caution to prevent burns or injuries caused by the
hot oil.

Fill out the sample and shipment labels, making sure the engine serial number, miles
or hours on the oil, and unit number are indicated.

Figure 389

A testing laboratory can determine the TBN of an oil sample through American Society
for Testing Material (ASTM) test D2896. You can use these test results to ensure that
your engine oil still has adequate alkalinity at the end of the oil change interval. ASTM
D664 can also be used to test for TBN. For the sake of uniformity, Caterpillar
recommends the use of ASTM D2896. If you are unable to find a testing laboratory to
perform this test for you, government agencies or universities may have the necessary
equipment to determine the condition of a used lube oil. Basically, the IR test
compares a used oil sample against a new oil sample. This test can measure the
presence of additional sulfur products and soot, as well as oil oxidation.

Know the fuels and lube oils you buy. To assure maximum service life from your
Caterpillar engines, buy the best fuel and lube available. Use the proper API-rated oils,
and match lube oil Total Base Number (TBN) to fuel sulfur content.

Following these guidelines for fuel and lube oil selection will help assure maximum
engine performance and service life.

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Attachment

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