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ABSTRACT

This experiment was conducted to evaluate and study the performance of the shell and tube heat
exchanger heat load and heat balance, LMTD, overall heat transfer coefficient (U), turbulent/laminar
flow, Reynold’s shell side and tube side, heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop at shell side and
tube side.

This experiment will run in 5 with 3 sets each. Each 5 runs will be using different nominal flow rates
for CW and HW. The QC/QH that close to 1.00 will be chosen to use for U calculation. Every run will
be using different flow rate. For RUN I, CW will be 10 USGPM and HW will be 25 USGPM. For RUN
II, CW will be 10 USGPM and HW will be 20 USGPM. For RUN III, CW will be on 10 USGPM and
HW will be on 15 USGPM. For RUN IV, CW will be 10 USGPM and HW will be 10 USGPM. For
RUN V, CW will be on 6 USGPM and HW will be on 10 USGPM. Temperature reading will be taken
simultaneously for CW and HW temperatures. We will be concentration on taking the reading of
temperature, flow rate and pressure drop reading. Note that the pressure drop depends on the flow rate
and not on the temperature.

INTRODUCTION
Heat exchangers are widely used in the process industries so their design has been highly developed.
Most exchangers are liquid-to-liquid, but gas and non condensing vapors can also be treated in them.
The simple double-pipe exchanger is inadequate for flow rates that cannot readily be handled in a few
tubes. If several double pipes are used in parallel, the weight of metal required for the outer tubes
becomes large. The shell-and tube construction, where one shell serves for many tubes, is more
economical. This exchanger, because it has one shell-side pass and one tube-side pass, is a 1-1
exchanger. In an exchanger the shell-side and tube-side heat-transfer coefficients are of comparable
importance, and both must be large if a satisfactory overall coefficient is to be attained. The velocity
and turbulence of the shell-side liquid are as important as those of the tube-side liquid. To prevent
weakening of the tube sheets there must be a minimum distance between the tubes. It is not practicable
to space the tubes so closely that the area of the path outside the tubes is as small as that inside the
tubes. If the two streams are of comparable magnitude, the velocity on the shell side is low in
comparison with that on the tube side. Baffles are installed in the shell to decrease the cross section of
the shell-side liquid and to force the liquid to flow across the tube bank rather than parallel with it. The
added turbulence generated in this type of flow further increases the shell-side coefficient.
OBJECTIVE
The experiment is conducted to evaluate and study the performance of the shell and tube heat
exchanger at various operating conditions. The conditions are heat load and heat balance, LMTD,
overall heat transfer coefficient (U), turbulent/laminar flow, Reynold’s shell side and tube side, heat
transfer coefficient and pressure drop at shell side and tube side.

THEORY
Head Transfer Coefficient, hi.

The heat-transfer coefficient for the tube-side fluid in a shell-and-tube exchanger can be calculated
from the following equation:

The viscosity correction term is omitted in the above equation as well as in all equations that follow
since the temperature difference is not much. In this equation the physical properties of the fluid, are
evaluated at the bulk temperature. The coefficient for the shell-side ho cannot be so calculated because
the direction of flow is partly parallel to the tubes and partly across them and because the cross-
sectional area of the stream and the mass velocity of the stream vary as the fluid crosses the tube
bundle back and forth across the shell. Also, leakage between baffles and shell and between baffles and
tubes short circuits some of the shell-side liquid and reduces the effectiveness of the exchanger. An
approximate but generally useful equation for predicting shell side coefficients is the Donohue equation
(5), which is based on a weighted average mass velocity Ge of the fluid flowing parallel with the tubes
and that flowing across the tubes. The mass velocity Gb parallel with the tubes is the mass flow rate
divided by the free area for flow in the baffle window Sb. (The baffle window is the portion of the shell
cross section not occupied by the baffle). This area is the total area of the baffle window less the area
occupied by the tubes, or
where :
fb = fraction of the cross-sectional area of shell occupied by baffle window
Ds = inside diameter of shell
Nb = number of tubes in baffle window
Do = outside diameter of tubes

In cross flow the mass velocity passes through a local maximum each time the fluid passes a row of
tubes. For correlating purposes the mass velocity Gc for cross-flow is based on the area Sc for
transverse flow between the tubes in the row at or closest to the center line of the exchanger. In a large
exchanger Sc can be estimated from the equation :

where :

p = center-to-center distance between tubes (1.65 cm)


P = baffle spacing (15 cm)
LMTD

If a fluid flows perpendicularly to a heated or cooled tube bank, the LMTD, as given by the equation :

applies only if the temperature of one of the fluids is constant. If the temperatures of both fluids
change, the temperature conditions do not correspond to either counter current or parallel flow but to a
type of flow called cross flow. When flow types other than counter current or parallel appear, it is
customary to define a correction factor FG, which is so determined that when it is multiplied by the
LMTD for counter current flow, the product is the true average temperature drop. Figure 2 shows a
correlation for FG for cross flow derived on the assumption that neither stream mixes with itself during
flow through the exchanger. FG = 1 for 1-1 heat exchanger.

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

The true mean temperature drop will be used in the following equation to obtain overall heat transfer
coefficient, U.

Note: Ro ≅ Ri = 3.0 * 10-4 m2 oC w-1 .


where q could be calculated from the following equation which is applicable to both hot and cold
fluids.

Ha, Hb = enthalpies per unit mass of stream at entrance and exit, respectively.

APPARATUS

1. Shell and tube heat exchanger


2. Heating medium HW tank T1
3. Cold water tank T2
4. Instrumentation
• Flow rate, USGPM
• Temperatures, °C
• Pressure drops, mm H2O ; Pressure, psig
• Paperless recorder
PROCEDURES

Preliminary experiment

1. Tank D1 and D2 are filled with clean water. Switch on the pump.
2. Valve V2 and V2', V5 and V7 are opened. Then, the valve V4 and V6 are closed.
3. Valve V3 is adjusted to establish flow and allow the water to circulate in 2 to 3 minutes.
4. Make sure that there are no bubbles trapped in the water manometer column. Use purging
method to remove the bubbles by increasing water height in the manometer column until the
bubbles disappear. Then, measure also the total height of the bed.

Experiment 1: Lost of load of a porous bed

1. Valve V3 is adjusted and if necessary, close valve V2 to obtain the differences of pressure of
1000 mm between tube 1 and 30. Then, note the readings from tube 1 to tube 30.
2. The experiment is repeated to get the 10 different flows covering the range of flow meter Take
readings are noted in Table 1.
3. Fully open valve V2 and fully close valve V3 before stopping the pump to avoid entrance of air
to the circuit.

Experiment 2: Loss of load hf' in function of depth and time

1. The solid-suspension liquid is prepared in tank D2 about 100 g of flour.


2. The clarity of the liquid is tested by using turbidity
3. Start the pump with V1 and V2 completely open, V3 is closed.
4. Then, valve V3 is opened until flow Q=60 L/min is reached.
5. Start the timing and register the time when the cloudy suspension reached the packed bed.
6. The readings are noted in Table 2. Verify that the flow remains constant and if necessary, the
flow is adjusted by using valve V3.
7. The readings are repeated in every 30 minutes.
8. The samples are collected at each tabulated points below and measure the turbidity of the
samples by using turbidity The results are recorded in Table 3.
9. When the experiments finished, stop the pump.
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

TABLE 1 : QC and QH CALCULATION

RUN I SET 1 SET 2 SET 3


CW HW CW HW CW HW
Nominal Flow,USGPM FC: 10 FH: 25 10 25 10 25
Actual Flow, USGPM FC: 10.1 FH: 25.0 10.1 24.6 10.1 24.4
Temp, °C, Inlet T13:T1:32.5 T11:t1: 68.1 33.9 58.3 36.7 54.8
Temp, °C, Outlet T14:T2: 61.0 T12:t2: 58.2 51.7 51.2 49.5 49.6
Pressure, psig, Inlet PG-C: 8.2 PG-H: 9.0 8.2 9.0 8.2 9.0
Pressure drop, mm H2O DP: 522 DP: 3700 3207 533 3247
(SHELL) (TUBE)
CALCULATE:
* Temp change, °C 28.5 9.9 17.8 7.1 12.8 5.2
* Average Temp, °C 47 63 43 55 43 52
*Q, Head load, BTU/HR QC: 256474 QH: 218919 160572 155188 115468 112913
QC 1.17 1.035 1.022
QH

Select QC nearest to 1.0 NOT SELECTED NOT SELECTED SELECTED


QH

Selected set, compute 114191


0.5(QC+QH), BTU/HR
RUN II SET 1 SET 2 SET 3
CW HW CW HW CW HW
Nominal Flow,USGPM FC: 10 FH: 20 10 20 10 20
Actual Flow, USGPM FC: 10.0 FH: 19.9 10.0 19.8 10.0 19.8
Temp, °C, Inlet T13:T1: 40.0 T11:t1: 66.0 41.0 62.8 42.8 60.7
Temp, °C, Outlet T14:T2: 57.7 T12:t2: 57.2 55.8 55.4 54.8 54.6
Pressure, psig, Inlet PG-C: 8.2 PG-H: 6.0 8.2 6.0 8.2 6.0
Pressure drop, mm H2O DP: 518 DP: 2181 539 2185 536 2184
(SHELL) (TUBE)
CALCULATE:
* Temp change, °C 17.7 8.8 14.8 7.4 12.0 6.1
* Average Temp, °C 49 62 48 59 49 58
*Q, Head load, BTU/HR QC: 157707 QH: 154992 131916 129869 106920 107054
QC 1.018 1.016 0.999
QH

Select QC nearest to 1.0 NOT SELECTED NOT SELECTED SELECTED


QH

Selected set, compute 106987


0.5(QC+QH), BTU/HR
RUN III SET 1 SET 2 SET 3
CW HW CW HW CW HW
Nominal Flow,USGPM FC: 10 FH: 15 10 15 10 15
Actual Flow, USGPM FC: 10.7 FH: 15.1 10.7 15.1 10.6 15.0
Temp, °C, Inlet T13:T1: 44.8 T11:t1: 68.3 45.7 66.2 46.3 64.8
Temp, °C, Outlet T14:T2: 59.3 T12:t2: 58.6 57.7 57.5 57.3 57.1
Pressure, psig, Inlet PG-C: 7.5 PG-H: 4.0 7.5 4.0 7.5 4.0
Pressure drop, mm H2O DP: 598 DP: 1307 606 1313 594 1304
(SHELL) (TUBE)
CALCULATE:
* Temp change, °C 14.5 9.7 12.0 8.7 11.0 7.7
* Average Temp, °C 52 63 52 62 52 61
*Q, Head load, BTU/HR QC: 138071 QH: 129557 114266 116370 103765 102237
QC 1.066 0.982 1.014
QH

Select QC nearest to 1.0 NOT SELECTED NOT SELECTED SELECTED


QH

Selected set, compute 103026


0.5(QC+QH), BTU/HR
RUN 1V SET 1 SET 2 SET 3
CW HW CW HW CW HW
Nominal Flow,USGPM FC: 10 FH: 10 10 10 10 10
Actual Flow, USGPM FC: 10.2 FH: 10.1 10.2 10.0 9.5 10.1
Temp, °C, Inlet T13:T1: 45.9 T11:t1: 69.3 45.8 68.0 44.0 66.9
Temp, °C, Outlet T14:T2: 57.9 T12:t2: 57.3 57.0 56.6 56.2 55.7
Pressure, psig, Inlet PG-C: 7.0 PG-H: 2.0 7.0 2.0 8.0 2.0
Pressure drop, mm H2O DP: 553 DP: 594 544 595 473 591
(SHELL) (TUBE)
CALCULATE:
* Temp change, °C 12.0 12.0 11.2 11.4 12.2 11.2
* Average Temp, °C 52 63 51 62 50 61
*Q, Head load, BTU/HR QC: 108926 QH: 107204 101664 100897 103217 100179
QC 1.016 1.008 1.03
QH

Select QC nearest to 1.0 NOT SELECTED SELECTED NOT SELECTED


QH

Selected set, compute 101281


0.5(QC+QH), BTU/HR
RUN V SET 1 SET 2 SET 3
CW HW CW HW CW HW
Nominal Flow,USGPM FC: 6 FH: 10 6 10 6 10
Actual Flow, USGPM FC: 6.2 FH: 10.0 6.2 10.0 6.2 10.0
Temp, °C, Inlet T13:T1: 41.1 T11:t1: 68.4 41.0 67.7 41.1 67.3
Temp, °C, Outlet T14:T2: 57.7 T12:t2: 57.0 58.3 56.9 58.0 56.8
Pressure, psig, Inlet PG-C: 6.2 PG-H: 2.0 6.2 2.0 6.2 2.0
Pressure drop, mm H2O DP: 208 DP: 579 207 585 209 586
(SHELL) (TUBE)
CALCULATE:
* Temp change, °C 16.6 11.4 17.3 10.8 16.9 10.5
* Average Temp, °C 49 63 50 62 50 62
*Q, Head load, BTU/HR QC: 91702 QH: 100835 95522 95586 93314 92931
QC 0.909 0.993 1.004
QH

Select QC nearest to 1.0 NOT SELECTED NOT SELECTED SELECTED


QH

Selected set, compute 93123


0.5(QC+QH), BTU/HR
TABLE 2 : CALCULATION OF HEAD LOAD, LMTD and U.

RUN QC QH 0.5 (QC + QH) LMTD x FT U


(BTU/HR) (BTU/HR) (BTU/HR) °F (BTU/hr.ft²°F)
I. SET 3 115,468 112,913 114,191 15.4 x 0.795 296

II. SET 3 106,920 107,054 106,987 15.3 x 0.79 281


III. SET 3 103,765 102,237 103,026 16.3 x 0.77 261
IV.SET 2 101,664 100,897 101,281 19.7 x 0.79 207
V. SET 3 93,314 92,931 93,123 22 x 0.73 184
The U value calculated above shall be referred to as the ‘dirty’ overall heat transfer coefficient UD .

CALCULATION

TABLE 1

RUN I (Set 1)

Temperature change

(CW) T2 – T1 = 28.5 °C
(HW) t2 –t1 = 9.9 °C

Average Temperature

(CW) T2+T1 = 47 °C
2

(HW) t2+t1 = 63 °C
2

QC = 10.1 USG x 8.25 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 28.5 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 256,474 BTU
min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR
QH = 25 USG x 8.19 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 9.9 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 218,919 BTU
min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

RUN I (Set 2)

Temperature change

(CW)T2 – T1 = 17.8°C
(HW) t2 –t1 = 7.1°C

Average Temperature

(CW) T2+T1 = 43 °C
2

(HW) t2+t1 = 55 °C
2

QC = 10.1 USG x 8.27 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 17.8 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 160,572 BTU
min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

QH = 24.6 USG x 8.227 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 7.1 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 155,188 BTU
min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR
RUN I (Set 3)

Temperature change

(CW)T2 – T1 = 12.8°C
(HW) t2 –t1 = 5.2°C

Average Temperature

(CW) T2+T1 = 43 °C
2

(HW) t2+t1 = 52 °C
2

QC = 10.1 USG x 8.27 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 12.8 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 115,468 BTU
min USG bm°F 1 hr HR

QH = 24.4 USG x 8.24 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 5.2 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 155,188 BTU
min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR
TABLE 2

FOR RUN 1 (SET 3)

LMTD = ( t1-T2 ) – ( t2-T1 )


ln [(t1-T2) / (t2/T1)]
= ( 54.8 – 49.5 ) – ( 49.6 – 36.7 )
ln [(54.8 - 49.5) / (49.6 – 36.7)]
= – ( 7.6 )
ln [(5.3) / (12.9)]
= 8.54 ° C = 15.4 °F

- ( T1 – T2 ) R = 12.8 = 2.46
- ( t1 – t2 ) 5.2

- ( T1 – T2 ) S = 5.2 = 0.287
- ( t1 – t2 ) 18.1

FT = 0.795

U = 114,191 BTU x 1 x 1
HR 31.50 ft² 15.4 x 0.795 °F
= 296 BTU
HR. ft². °F
REYNOLDS NUMBER (SHELL) & REYNOLD NUMBER (TUBE)

Re (s) for shell side, CW for RUN I , set 3.

Re (s) = De . GS
µ

DE = 4 [½ x 0.81 x 0.86 x 0.81 – ½ x 3.1416 x ((0.625)²/ 4)]


½ x 3.1416 x 0.625
= 0.0438 ft

Average CW temperature is 43°C with density at 8.27lbm and viscosity µ at 4.17 x 10¬4lbm
USG ft.sec
1.502 lbm
hr.ft

AS = 0.029 ft²

WS = 10.1 USG x 8.27 lbm x 60 min = 5012 lbm


min USG hr

GS = 5012 = 172,828 lbm


0.029 hr.ft²

Re (s) = 0.0438 ft x 172,828 lbm x ft.hr


hr.ft² 1.502 lbm

Re (s) = 5040

Assuming simple proportionality, Re (s) is 3000 when the CW flow rate is 3000 x 10.1 USGPM is 6.0
USGPM.
Re (s) for tube side, HW for RUN I, set 3.

Re (s) = De . GS
µ

DE = 4 [½ x 0.81 x 0.86 x 0.81 – ½ x 3.1416 x ((0.625)²/ 4)]


½ x 3.1416 x 0.625
= 0.0438 ft

Average HW temperature is 52°C with density at 8.24lbm and viscosity µ at 4.17 x 10¬4lbm
USG ft.sec
1.502 lbm
ft.hr

AS = 0.029 ft²

WS = 24.4 USG x 8.24 lbm x 60 min = 12063 lbm


min USG hr

GS = 12063 = 415,966 lbm


0.029 hr.ft²

Re (s) = 0.0438 ft x 415,966 lbm x ft.hr


hr.ft² 1.502 lbm

Re (s) = 12130

Calculation for RUN II, RUN III, RUN IV and RUN V are shown in appendices.
DISCUSSION

This experiment is done to evaluate and study the performance of the Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
at various operations conditions. This heat exchanger is operated with heated water (HW) as the
heating medium at the tube side and ambient or warm water at CW at the Shell side.

As we can see, for all RUN, the temperature inlet for CW are lower than temperature outlet and
temperature inlet for HW are much higher than temperature outlet. This proven that there are heat
exchanger process happened during the experiment.

We chose RUN I set 3. The QC for this set is 115,468 btu/hr and QH is 112,913 btu/hr. This makes that
0.5 (QC+QH) is 114,191 btu/hr. The Reynolds number at the shell side is 5040 while at the tube side is
12136. For RUN 2, we chose set 3 as well. This time, for set 3, the QC is 106,920 btu/hr and QH is
107, 054 btu/hr. The amount of 0.5 (QC+QH) is 106,987 btu/hr. The Reynolds number at the shell side
is 4978 while at the tube side is 9804. Same goes for RUN III, set 3 is chosen. The QC is 103,765
btu/hr and QH is 102,237 btu/hr. That makes the 0.5 (QC+QH) is 102,237 btu/hr. The Reynolds number
at the shell side is 5270 while at the tube side is 7421. For RUN IV is different. We decided to take set
2 instead of set 1 and set 3. The QC is 101,664 btu/hr and QH is 100,897 btu/hr. The 0.5 (QC+QH) is
101,281 btu/hr. The Reynolds number at the shell side is 5071 while at the tube side is 4997. For RUN
V, set 3 is chosen. The QC is 93,314 btu/hr and QH is 92,931 btu/hr. The 0.5 (QC+QH) is 93,123 btu/hr.
The Reynolds number at the shell side is 3085 while at the tube side is 4944.

From above, we could conclude that the number of QC is decreasing from RUN I to RUN V and same
pattern goes to QH and 0.5(QC+QH). For RUN I, U is 296 btu/hr. For RUN II, U is 281 btu/hr. For
RUN III, U is 261 btu/hr. For RUN IV, U is 207 btu/hr and for RUN V, U is 184 btu/hr. U is decreasing
from RUN I to RUN V.

The overall heat transfer coefficient, U, Reynolds number and flow rates of hot water are keep
decreasing together while the LMTD values are contrarily. Proven that hot water and cold water are
still in the turbulent flow range which is > 4000.
CONCLUSION

We can evaluate the data based at various condition of heat exchanger. Experiments were
conducted on a Shell and Tube heat exchanger. The effect of these parameters on
the shell outlet temperature, tube outlet temperature and overall heat transfer
coefficients were studied. It was found that cold fluid outlet temperature
decreases and the overall heat transfer coefficient increases with increase in flow
rate of cold fluid.

RECOMMENDATION

 The eye position should be perpendicular to the meniscus and the scale.
 Avoid any leakage of the instrument, the instrument should be working
properly
 Avoid direct contact with water because it is hot

REFERENCES
http://www.scribd.com/doc/23125684/Heat-Exchanger-Experiment
http://www-unix.ecs.umass.edu/~rlaurenc/Courses/che333/Reference/exchanger.pdf
http://opencourseware.kfupm.edu.sa/colleges/ces/che/che309/files/2-
Experiments_Heat_Transfer_in_Shell_Tube_HE.pdf
APPENDICES

TABLE 1

RUN II (Set 1)

 Temperature change

(CW) T2 – T1 = 17.7 °C
(HW) t2 –t1 = 8.8 °C

 Average Temperature

(CW) T2+T1 = 49°C


2

(HW) t2+t1 = 62 °C
2

 QC = 10.0 USG x 8.25 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 17.7 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 157,707 BTU
min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

 QH = 19.9 USG x 8.195 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 8.8 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 154,992 BTU
min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

RUN II (Set 2)

 Temperature change

(CW)T2 – T1 = 14.8°C
(HW) t2 –t1 = 7.4°C

 Average Temperature

(CW) T2+T1 = 48 °C
2

(HW) t2+t1 = 59 °C
2

 QC = 10.0 USG x 8.253 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 14.8 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 131,916 BTU
min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR
 QH = 24.6 USG x 8.207 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 7.4 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 129,869 BTU
min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

RUN II (Set 3)

 Temperature change

(CW)T2 – T1 = 12.0°C
(HW) t2 –t1 = 6.1°C

 Average Temperature

(CW) T2+T1 = 49 °C
2

(HW) t2+t1 = 58 °C
2

 QC = 10.0 USG x 8.25 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 12.0 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 106,920 BTU
min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

 QH = 19.8 USG x 8.207 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 6.1 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 107,054 BTU
min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

RUN III (Set 1)

 Temperature change

(CW) T2 – T1 = 14.5 °C
(HW) t2 –t1 = 9.7 °C

 Average Temperature

(CW) T2+T1 = 52 °C
2

(HW) t2+t1 = 63 °C
2

 QC = 10.7 USG x 8.24 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 14.5 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 138,071 BTU
min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

 QH = 15.1 USG x 8.19 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 9.7 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 129,557 BTU
min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR
RUN III (Set 2)

 Temperature change

(CW)T2 – T1 = 12.0°C
(HW) t2 –t1 = 8.7°C

 Average Temperature

(CW) T2+T1 = 52 °C
2

(HW) t2+t1 = 62 °C
2

 QC = 10.7 USG x 8.24 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 12.0 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 114,266 BTU
min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

 QH = 15.1 USG x 8.195 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 8.7 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 116,270 BTU
min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

RUN III (Set 3)

 Temperature change

(CW)T2 – T1 = 11.0°C
(HW) t2 –t1 = 7.7°C

 Average Temperature

(CW) T2+T1 = 52 °C
2

(HW) t2+t1 = 61 °C
2

 QC = 10.6 USG x 8.24 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 11 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 103,765 BTU
min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

 QH = 15.0 USG x 8.20 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 7.7 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 102,287 BTU
min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR
RUN IV (Set 1)

 Temperature change

(CW) T2 – T1 = 12.0 °C
(HW) t2 –t1 = 12.0 °C

 Average Temperature

(CW) T2+T1 = 51 °C
2

(HW) t2+t1 = 62 °C
2

 QC = 10.2 USG x 8.24 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 12.0 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 108,926 BTU
min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

 QH = 10.1 USG x 8.19 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 12.0 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 107,204 BTU
min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

RUN IV (Set 2)

 Temperature change

(CW)T2 – T1 = 11.2°C
(HW) t2 –t1 = 11.4°C

 Average Temperature

(CW) T2+T1 = 51 °C
2

(HW) t2+t1 = 62 °C
2

 QC = 10.2 USG x 8.24 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 11.2 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 101,664 BTU
min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

 QH = 10.0 USG x 8.195 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 11.4 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 100,897 BTU
min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR
RUN IV (Set 3)

 Temperature change

(CW)T2 – T1 = 12.2°C
(HW) t2 –t1 = 11.2°C

 Average Temperature

(CW) T2+T1 = 50 °C
2

(HW) t2+t1 = 61 °C
2

 QC = 9.5 USG x 8.246 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 12.2 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 103,217 BTU
min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

 QH = 10.1 USG x 8.20 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 11.2 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 100,179 BTU
min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

RUN V (Set 1)

 Temperature change

(CW) T2 – T1 = 16.6 °C
(HW) t2 –t1 = 11.4°C

 Average Temperature

(CW) T2+T1 = 49 °C
2

(HW) t2+t1 = 63 °C
2

 QC = 6.2 USG x 8.25 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 16.6 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 91,702 BTU
min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

 QH = 10.0 USG x 8.19 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 11.4 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 100,835 BTU
min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR
RUN V (Set 2)

 Temperature change

(CW)T2 – T1 = 17.3°C
(HW) t2 –t1 = 10.8°C

 Average Temperature

(CW) T2+T1 = 50 °C
2

(HW) t2+t1 = 62 °C
2

 QC = 6.2 USG x 8.246 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 17.3 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 95,522 BTU
min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

 QH = 10.0 USG x 8.195 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 10.8 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 95,587 BTU
min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

RUN V (Set 3)

 Temperature change

(CW)T2 – T1 = 16.9°C
(HW) t2 –t1 = 10.5°C

 Average Temperature

(CW) T2+T1 = 50 °C
2

(HW) t2+t1 = 62 °C
2

 QC = 6.2 USG x 8.246 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 16.9 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 93,314 BTU
min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

 QH = 10.0 USG x 8.195 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 10.5 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 92,931 BTU
min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR
TABLE 2

FOR RUN II (SET 3)

LMTD = ( t1-T2 ) – ( t2-T1 )


ln [(t1-T2) / (t2/T1)]
= ( 60.7 – 54.8 ) – ( 54.6 – 42.8 )
ln [(60.7 – 54.8) / (54.6 – 42.8)]
= 8.51 ° C = 15.3 °F

- ( T1 – T2 ) R
- ( t1 – t2 )
FT = 0.79
- ( T1 – T2 ) S
- ( t1 – t2 )

 U = 106,987 BTU x 1 x 1
Hr 31.50 ft² 15.3 x 0.79 °F

= 281 BTU
Hr. ft². °F

FOR RUN III (SET 3)

LMTD = ( t1-T2 ) – ( t2-T1 )


ln [(t1-T2) / (t2/T1)]
= ( 64.8 – 57.3 ) – ( 57.1 – 46.3 )
ln [(64.8 – 57.3) / (57.1 – 46.3)]
= 9.1 ° C = 16.3 °F

- ( T1 – T2 ) R
- ( t1 – t2 )
FT = 0.77
- ( T1 – T2 ) S
- ( t1 – t2 )

 U = 103,026 BTU x 1 x 1 ___


Hr 31.50 ft² 15.3 x 0.77 °F
= 261 BTU
Hr. ft². °F
FOR RUN IV (SET 2)

LMTD = ( t1-T2 ) – ( t2-T1 )


ln [(t1-T2) / (t2/T1)]
= ( 66.9 – 56.2 ) – ( 55.7 – 44.0 )
ln [(66.9 – 56.2) / (55.7 – 44.0)]
= 10.9 ° C = 19.7 °F

- ( T1 – T2 ) R
- ( t1 – t2 )
FT = 0.79
- ( T1 – T2 ) S
- ( t1 – t2 )

 U = 101,281 BTU x 1 x 1
Hr 31.50 ft² 19.7 x 0.79 °F
= 207 BTU
Hr. ft². °F

FOR RUN V (SET 3)

LMTD = ( t1-T2 ) – ( t2-T1 )


ln [(t1-T2) / (t2/T1)]
= ( 67.3 – 58.0 ) – ( 56.8 – 41.14 )
ln [(67.3 – 58.0) / (56.8 – 41.14)]
= 12.2 ° C = 22 °F

- ( T1 – T2 ) R
- ( t1 – t2 )
FT = 0.73
- ( T1 – T2 ) S
- ( t1 – t2 )

 U = 93,123 BTU x 1 x 1
Hr 31.50 ft² 22 x 0.73 °F
= 184 BTU
Hr. ft². °F
REYNOLDS NUMBER (SHELL) & REYNOLD NUMBER (TUBE)
Re (s) for shell side, CW for RUN II, set 3.

Re (s) = De . GS
µ

DE = 4 [½ x 0.81 x 0.86 x 0.81 – ½ x 3.1416 x ((0.625)²/ 4)]


½ x 3.1416 x 0.625
= 0.0438 ft

Average CW temperature is 49°C with density at 8.25lbm and viscosity µ at 4.17 x 10¬4lbm
USG ft.sec
1.502 lbm
ft.hr

AS = 0.029 ft²

WS = 10.0 USG x 8.25 lbm x 60 min = 4950 lbm


min USG hr

GS = 4950 = 170,690 lbm


0.029 hr.ft²

Re (s) = 0.0438 ft x 170,690 lbm x ft.hr


hr.ft² 1.502 lbm

Re (s) = 4978

Re (s) for shell side, CW for RUN III, set 3.

Re (s) = De . GS
µ

DE = 4 [½ x 0.81 x 0.86 x 0.81 – ½ x 3.1416 x ((0.625)²/ 4)]


½ x 3.1416 x 0.625
= 0.0438 ft

Average CW temperature is 52°C with density at 8.24lbm and viscosity µ at 4.17 x 10¬4lbm
USG ft.sec
1.502 lbm
ft.hr
AS = 0.029 ft²

WS = 10.6 USG x 8.24 lbm x 60 min = 5241 lbm


min USG hr

GS = 5241 = 180,712 lbm


0.029 hr.ft²

Re (s) = 0.0438 ft x 180,712 lbm x ft.hr


hr.ft² 1.502 lbm

Re (s) = 5270

Re (s) for shell side, CW for RUN IV, set 2.

Re (s) = De . GS
µ

DE = 4 [½ x 0.81 x 0.86 x 0.81 – ½ x 3.1416 x ((0.625)²/ 4)]


½ x 3.1416 x 0.625
= 0.0438 ft

Average CW temperature is 51°C with density at 8.24lbm and viscosity µ at 4.17 x 10¬4lbm
USG ft.sec
OR 1.502 lbm
ft.hr

AS = 0.029 ft²

WS = 10.2 USG x 8.24 lbm x 60 min = 5043 lbm


min USG hr

GS = 5043 = 173,897 lbm


0.029 hr.ft²

Re (s) = 0.0438 ft x 173,897lbm x ft.hr


hr.ft² 1.502 lbm

Re (s) = 5071
Re (s) for shell side, CW for RUN V, set 3.

Re (s) = De . GS
µ

DE = 4 [½ x 0.81 x 0.86 x 0.81 – ½ x 3.1416 x ((0.625)²/ 4)]


½ x 3.1416 x 0.625
= 0.0438 ft

Average CW temperature is 50°C with density at 8.246lbm and viscosity µ at 4.17x 10¬4lbm
USG ft.sec
OR 1.502 lbm
ft.hr

AS = 0.029 ft²

WS = 6.2 USG x 8.246 lbm x 60 min = 3068 lbm


min USG hr

GS = 3068 = 105,776 lbm


0.029 hr.ft²

Re (s) = 0.0438 ft x 105,776 lbm x ft.hr


hr.ft² 1.502 lbm

Re (s) = 3085
1. Re (s) for tube side, HW for RUN II, set 3.

Re (s) = De . GS
µ

DE = 4 [½ x 0.81 x 0.86 x 0.81 – ½ x 3.1416 x ((0.625)²/ 4)]


½ x 3.1416 x 0.625
= 0.0438 ft

Average HW temperature is 58°C with density at 8.207lbm and viscosity µ at 4.17x 10¬4lbm
USG ft.sec
1.502 lbm
ft.hr

AS = 0.029 ft²

WS = 19.8 USG x 8.207 lbm x 60 min = 9750 lbm


min USG hr

GS = 9750 = 336,207 lbm


0.029 hr.ft²

Re (s) = 0.0438 ft x 336,207 lbm x ft.hr


hr.ft² 1.502 lbm

Re (s) = 9804

2. Re (s) for tube side, HW for RUN III, set 3.

Re (s) = De . GS
µ

DE = 4 [½ x 0.81 x 0.86 x 0.81 – ½ x 3.1416 x ((0.625)²/ 4)]


½ x 3.1416 x 0.625
= 0.0438 ft

Average HW temperature is 61°C with density at 8.20lbm and viscosity µ at 4.17 x 10¬4lbm
USG ft.sec
1.502 lbm
ft.hr

AS = 0.029 ft²

WS = 15.0 USG x 8.20 lbm x 60 min = 7380 lbm


min USG hr
GS = 7380 = 254,482 lbm
0.029 hr.ft²

Re (s) = 0.0438 ft x 254,482 lbm x ft.hr


hr.ft² 1.502 lbm

Re (s) = 7421

3. Re (s) for tube side, HW for RUN IV, set 2.

Re (s) = De . GS
µ

DE = 4 [½ x 0.81 x 0.86 x 0.81 – ½ x 3.1416 x ((0.625)²/ 4)]


½ x 3.1416 x 0.625
= 0.0438 ft

Average HW temperature is 62°C with density at 8.20lbm and viscosity µ at 4.17 x 10¬4lbm
USG ft.sec
1.502 lbm
ft.hr

AS = 0.029 ft²

WS = 10.1 USG x 8.20 lbm x 60 min = 4969 lbm


min USG hr

GS = 4969 = 171,345 lbm


0.029 hr.ft²

Re (s) = 0.0438 ft x 171,345 lbm x ft.hr


hr.ft² 1.502 lbm

Re (s) = 4997

4. Re (s) for tube side, HW for RUN V, set 3.

Re (s) = De . GS
µ

DE = 4 [½ x 0.81 x 0.86 x 0.81 – ½ x 3.1416 x ((0.625)²/ 4)]


½ x 3.1416 x 0.625
= 0.0438 ft
Average HW temperature is 62°C with density at 8.195lbm and viscosity µ at 4.17x 10¬4lbm
USG ft.sec
1.502 lbm
ft.hr

AS = 0.029 ft²

WS = 10.0 USG x 8.195 lbm x 60 min = 4917 lbm


min USG hr

GS = 4917 = 169,552 lbm


0.029 hr.ft²

Re (s) = 0.0438 ft x 169,552 lbm x ft.hr


hr.ft² 1.502 lbm

Re (s) = 4944