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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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This experiment was conducted to evaluate and study the performance of the shell and tube heat

exchanger heat load and heat balance, LMTD, overall heat transfer coefficient (U), turbulent/laminar

flow, Reynold’s shell side and tube side, heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop at shell side and

tube side.

This experiment will run in 5 with 3 sets each. Each 5 runs will be using different nominal flow rates

for CW and HW. The QC/QH that close to 1.00 will be chosen to use for U calculation. Every run will

be using different flow rate. For RUN I, CW will be 10 USGPM and HW will be 25 USGPM. For RUN

II, CW will be 10 USGPM and HW will be 20 USGPM. For RUN III, CW will be on 10 USGPM and

HW will be on 15 USGPM. For RUN IV, CW will be 10 USGPM and HW will be 10 USGPM. For

RUN V, CW will be on 6 USGPM and HW will be on 10 USGPM. Temperature reading will be taken

simultaneously for CW and HW temperatures. We will be concentration on taking the reading of

temperature, flow rate and pressure drop reading. Note that the pressure drop depends on the flow rate

and not on the temperature.

INTRODUCTION

Heat exchangers are widely used in the process industries so their design has been highly developed.

Most exchangers are liquid-to-liquid, but gas and non condensing vapors can also be treated in them.

The simple double-pipe exchanger is inadequate for flow rates that cannot readily be handled in a few

tubes. If several double pipes are used in parallel, the weight of metal required for the outer tubes

becomes large. The shell-and tube construction, where one shell serves for many tubes, is more

economical. This exchanger, because it has one shell-side pass and one tube-side pass, is a 1-1

exchanger. In an exchanger the shell-side and tube-side heat-transfer coefficients are of comparable

importance, and both must be large if a satisfactory overall coefficient is to be attained. The velocity

and turbulence of the shell-side liquid are as important as those of the tube-side liquid. To prevent

weakening of the tube sheets there must be a minimum distance between the tubes. It is not practicable

to space the tubes so closely that the area of the path outside the tubes is as small as that inside the

tubes. If the two streams are of comparable magnitude, the velocity on the shell side is low in

comparison with that on the tube side. Baffles are installed in the shell to decrease the cross section of

the shell-side liquid and to force the liquid to flow across the tube bank rather than parallel with it. The

added turbulence generated in this type of flow further increases the shell-side coefficient.

OBJECTIVE

The experiment is conducted to evaluate and study the performance of the shell and tube heat

exchanger at various operating conditions. The conditions are heat load and heat balance, LMTD,

overall heat transfer coefficient (U), turbulent/laminar flow, Reynold’s shell side and tube side, heat

transfer coefficient and pressure drop at shell side and tube side.

THEORY

Head Transfer Coefficient, hi.

The heat-transfer coefficient for the tube-side fluid in a shell-and-tube exchanger can be calculated

from the following equation:

The viscosity correction term is omitted in the above equation as well as in all equations that follow

since the temperature difference is not much. In this equation the physical properties of the fluid, are

evaluated at the bulk temperature. The coefficient for the shell-side ho cannot be so calculated because

the direction of flow is partly parallel to the tubes and partly across them and because the cross-

sectional area of the stream and the mass velocity of the stream vary as the fluid crosses the tube

bundle back and forth across the shell. Also, leakage between baffles and shell and between baffles and

tubes short circuits some of the shell-side liquid and reduces the effectiveness of the exchanger. An

approximate but generally useful equation for predicting shell side coefficients is the Donohue equation

(5), which is based on a weighted average mass velocity Ge of the fluid flowing parallel with the tubes

and that flowing across the tubes. The mass velocity Gb parallel with the tubes is the mass flow rate

divided by the free area for flow in the baffle window Sb. (The baffle window is the portion of the shell

cross section not occupied by the baffle). This area is the total area of the baffle window less the area

occupied by the tubes, or

where :

fb = fraction of the cross-sectional area of shell occupied by baffle window

Ds = inside diameter of shell

Nb = number of tubes in baffle window

Do = outside diameter of tubes

In cross flow the mass velocity passes through a local maximum each time the fluid passes a row of

tubes. For correlating purposes the mass velocity Gc for cross-flow is based on the area Sc for

transverse flow between the tubes in the row at or closest to the center line of the exchanger. In a large

exchanger Sc can be estimated from the equation :

where :

P = baffle spacing (15 cm)

LMTD

If a fluid flows perpendicularly to a heated or cooled tube bank, the LMTD, as given by the equation :

applies only if the temperature of one of the fluids is constant. If the temperatures of both fluids

change, the temperature conditions do not correspond to either counter current or parallel flow but to a

type of flow called cross flow. When flow types other than counter current or parallel appear, it is

customary to define a correction factor FG, which is so determined that when it is multiplied by the

LMTD for counter current flow, the product is the true average temperature drop. Figure 2 shows a

correlation for FG for cross flow derived on the assumption that neither stream mixes with itself during

flow through the exchanger. FG = 1 for 1-1 heat exchanger.

The true mean temperature drop will be used in the following equation to obtain overall heat transfer

coefficient, U.

where q could be calculated from the following equation which is applicable to both hot and cold

fluids.

Ha, Hb = enthalpies per unit mass of stream at entrance and exit, respectively.

APPARATUS

2. Heating medium HW tank T1

3. Cold water tank T2

4. Instrumentation

• Flow rate, USGPM

• Temperatures, °C

• Pressure drops, mm H2O ; Pressure, psig

• Paperless recorder

PROCEDURES

Preliminary experiment

1. Tank D1 and D2 are filled with clean water. Switch on the pump.

2. Valve V2 and V2', V5 and V7 are opened. Then, the valve V4 and V6 are closed.

3. Valve V3 is adjusted to establish flow and allow the water to circulate in 2 to 3 minutes.

4. Make sure that there are no bubbles trapped in the water manometer column. Use purging

method to remove the bubbles by increasing water height in the manometer column until the

bubbles disappear. Then, measure also the total height of the bed.

1. Valve V3 is adjusted and if necessary, close valve V2 to obtain the differences of pressure of

1000 mm between tube 1 and 30. Then, note the readings from tube 1 to tube 30.

2. The experiment is repeated to get the 10 different flows covering the range of flow meter Take

readings are noted in Table 1.

3. Fully open valve V2 and fully close valve V3 before stopping the pump to avoid entrance of air

to the circuit.

2. The clarity of the liquid is tested by using turbidity

3. Start the pump with V1 and V2 completely open, V3 is closed.

4. Then, valve V3 is opened until flow Q=60 L/min is reached.

5. Start the timing and register the time when the cloudy suspension reached the packed bed.

6. The readings are noted in Table 2. Verify that the flow remains constant and if necessary, the

flow is adjusted by using valve V3.

7. The readings are repeated in every 30 minutes.

8. The samples are collected at each tabulated points below and measure the turbidity of the

samples by using turbidity The results are recorded in Table 3.

9. When the experiments finished, stop the pump.

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

CW HW CW HW CW HW

Nominal Flow,USGPM FC: 10 FH: 25 10 25 10 25

Actual Flow, USGPM FC: 10.1 FH: 25.0 10.1 24.6 10.1 24.4

Temp, °C, Inlet T13:T1:32.5 T11:t1: 68.1 33.9 58.3 36.7 54.8

Temp, °C, Outlet T14:T2: 61.0 T12:t2: 58.2 51.7 51.2 49.5 49.6

Pressure, psig, Inlet PG-C: 8.2 PG-H: 9.0 8.2 9.0 8.2 9.0

Pressure drop, mm H2O DP: 522 DP: 3700 3207 533 3247

(SHELL) (TUBE)

CALCULATE:

* Temp change, °C 28.5 9.9 17.8 7.1 12.8 5.2

* Average Temp, °C 47 63 43 55 43 52

*Q, Head load, BTU/HR QC: 256474 QH: 218919 160572 155188 115468 112913

QC 1.17 1.035 1.022

QH

QH

0.5(QC+QH), BTU/HR

RUN II SET 1 SET 2 SET 3

CW HW CW HW CW HW

Nominal Flow,USGPM FC: 10 FH: 20 10 20 10 20

Actual Flow, USGPM FC: 10.0 FH: 19.9 10.0 19.8 10.0 19.8

Temp, °C, Inlet T13:T1: 40.0 T11:t1: 66.0 41.0 62.8 42.8 60.7

Temp, °C, Outlet T14:T2: 57.7 T12:t2: 57.2 55.8 55.4 54.8 54.6

Pressure, psig, Inlet PG-C: 8.2 PG-H: 6.0 8.2 6.0 8.2 6.0

Pressure drop, mm H2O DP: 518 DP: 2181 539 2185 536 2184

(SHELL) (TUBE)

CALCULATE:

* Temp change, °C 17.7 8.8 14.8 7.4 12.0 6.1

* Average Temp, °C 49 62 48 59 49 58

*Q, Head load, BTU/HR QC: 157707 QH: 154992 131916 129869 106920 107054

QC 1.018 1.016 0.999

QH

QH

0.5(QC+QH), BTU/HR

RUN III SET 1 SET 2 SET 3

CW HW CW HW CW HW

Nominal Flow,USGPM FC: 10 FH: 15 10 15 10 15

Actual Flow, USGPM FC: 10.7 FH: 15.1 10.7 15.1 10.6 15.0

Temp, °C, Inlet T13:T1: 44.8 T11:t1: 68.3 45.7 66.2 46.3 64.8

Temp, °C, Outlet T14:T2: 59.3 T12:t2: 58.6 57.7 57.5 57.3 57.1

Pressure, psig, Inlet PG-C: 7.5 PG-H: 4.0 7.5 4.0 7.5 4.0

Pressure drop, mm H2O DP: 598 DP: 1307 606 1313 594 1304

(SHELL) (TUBE)

CALCULATE:

* Temp change, °C 14.5 9.7 12.0 8.7 11.0 7.7

* Average Temp, °C 52 63 52 62 52 61

*Q, Head load, BTU/HR QC: 138071 QH: 129557 114266 116370 103765 102237

QC 1.066 0.982 1.014

QH

QH

0.5(QC+QH), BTU/HR

RUN 1V SET 1 SET 2 SET 3

CW HW CW HW CW HW

Nominal Flow,USGPM FC: 10 FH: 10 10 10 10 10

Actual Flow, USGPM FC: 10.2 FH: 10.1 10.2 10.0 9.5 10.1

Temp, °C, Inlet T13:T1: 45.9 T11:t1: 69.3 45.8 68.0 44.0 66.9

Temp, °C, Outlet T14:T2: 57.9 T12:t2: 57.3 57.0 56.6 56.2 55.7

Pressure, psig, Inlet PG-C: 7.0 PG-H: 2.0 7.0 2.0 8.0 2.0

Pressure drop, mm H2O DP: 553 DP: 594 544 595 473 591

(SHELL) (TUBE)

CALCULATE:

* Temp change, °C 12.0 12.0 11.2 11.4 12.2 11.2

* Average Temp, °C 52 63 51 62 50 61

*Q, Head load, BTU/HR QC: 108926 QH: 107204 101664 100897 103217 100179

QC 1.016 1.008 1.03

QH

QH

0.5(QC+QH), BTU/HR

RUN V SET 1 SET 2 SET 3

CW HW CW HW CW HW

Nominal Flow,USGPM FC: 6 FH: 10 6 10 6 10

Actual Flow, USGPM FC: 6.2 FH: 10.0 6.2 10.0 6.2 10.0

Temp, °C, Inlet T13:T1: 41.1 T11:t1: 68.4 41.0 67.7 41.1 67.3

Temp, °C, Outlet T14:T2: 57.7 T12:t2: 57.0 58.3 56.9 58.0 56.8

Pressure, psig, Inlet PG-C: 6.2 PG-H: 2.0 6.2 2.0 6.2 2.0

Pressure drop, mm H2O DP: 208 DP: 579 207 585 209 586

(SHELL) (TUBE)

CALCULATE:

* Temp change, °C 16.6 11.4 17.3 10.8 16.9 10.5

* Average Temp, °C 49 63 50 62 50 62

*Q, Head load, BTU/HR QC: 91702 QH: 100835 95522 95586 93314 92931

QC 0.909 0.993 1.004

QH

QH

0.5(QC+QH), BTU/HR

TABLE 2 : CALCULATION OF HEAD LOAD, LMTD and U.

(BTU/HR) (BTU/HR) (BTU/HR) °F (BTU/hr.ft²°F)

I. SET 3 115,468 112,913 114,191 15.4 x 0.795 296

III. SET 3 103,765 102,237 103,026 16.3 x 0.77 261

IV.SET 2 101,664 100,897 101,281 19.7 x 0.79 207

V. SET 3 93,314 92,931 93,123 22 x 0.73 184

The U value calculated above shall be referred to as the ‘dirty’ overall heat transfer coefficient UD .

CALCULATION

TABLE 1

RUN I (Set 1)

Temperature change

(CW) T2 – T1 = 28.5 °C

(HW) t2 –t1 = 9.9 °C

Average Temperature

(CW) T2+T1 = 47 °C

2

(HW) t2+t1 = 63 °C

2

QC = 10.1 USG x 8.25 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 28.5 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 256,474 BTU

min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

QH = 25 USG x 8.19 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 9.9 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 218,919 BTU

min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

RUN I (Set 2)

Temperature change

(CW)T2 – T1 = 17.8°C

(HW) t2 –t1 = 7.1°C

Average Temperature

(CW) T2+T1 = 43 °C

2

(HW) t2+t1 = 55 °C

2

QC = 10.1 USG x 8.27 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 17.8 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 160,572 BTU

min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

QH = 24.6 USG x 8.227 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 7.1 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 155,188 BTU

min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

RUN I (Set 3)

Temperature change

(CW)T2 – T1 = 12.8°C

(HW) t2 –t1 = 5.2°C

Average Temperature

(CW) T2+T1 = 43 °C

2

(HW) t2+t1 = 52 °C

2

QC = 10.1 USG x 8.27 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 12.8 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 115,468 BTU

min USG bm°F 1 hr HR

QH = 24.4 USG x 8.24 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 5.2 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 155,188 BTU

min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

TABLE 2

ln [(t1-T2) / (t2/T1)]

= ( 54.8 – 49.5 ) – ( 49.6 – 36.7 )

ln [(54.8 - 49.5) / (49.6 – 36.7)]

= – ( 7.6 )

ln [(5.3) / (12.9)]

= 8.54 ° C = 15.4 °F

- ( T1 – T2 ) R = 12.8 = 2.46

- ( t1 – t2 ) 5.2

- ( T1 – T2 ) S = 5.2 = 0.287

- ( t1 – t2 ) 18.1

FT = 0.795

U = 114,191 BTU x 1 x 1

HR 31.50 ft² 15.4 x 0.795 °F

= 296 BTU

HR. ft². °F

REYNOLDS NUMBER (SHELL) & REYNOLD NUMBER (TUBE)

Re (s) = De . GS

µ

½ x 3.1416 x 0.625

= 0.0438 ft

Average CW temperature is 43°C with density at 8.27lbm and viscosity µ at 4.17 x 10¬4lbm

USG ft.sec

1.502 lbm

hr.ft

AS = 0.029 ft²

min USG hr

0.029 hr.ft²

hr.ft² 1.502 lbm

Re (s) = 5040

Assuming simple proportionality, Re (s) is 3000 when the CW flow rate is 3000 x 10.1 USGPM is 6.0

USGPM.

Re (s) for tube side, HW for RUN I, set 3.

Re (s) = De . GS

µ

½ x 3.1416 x 0.625

= 0.0438 ft

Average HW temperature is 52°C with density at 8.24lbm and viscosity µ at 4.17 x 10¬4lbm

USG ft.sec

1.502 lbm

ft.hr

AS = 0.029 ft²

min USG hr

0.029 hr.ft²

hr.ft² 1.502 lbm

Re (s) = 12130

Calculation for RUN II, RUN III, RUN IV and RUN V are shown in appendices.

DISCUSSION

This experiment is done to evaluate and study the performance of the Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

at various operations conditions. This heat exchanger is operated with heated water (HW) as the

heating medium at the tube side and ambient or warm water at CW at the Shell side.

As we can see, for all RUN, the temperature inlet for CW are lower than temperature outlet and

temperature inlet for HW are much higher than temperature outlet. This proven that there are heat

exchanger process happened during the experiment.

We chose RUN I set 3. The QC for this set is 115,468 btu/hr and QH is 112,913 btu/hr. This makes that

0.5 (QC+QH) is 114,191 btu/hr. The Reynolds number at the shell side is 5040 while at the tube side is

12136. For RUN 2, we chose set 3 as well. This time, for set 3, the QC is 106,920 btu/hr and QH is

107, 054 btu/hr. The amount of 0.5 (QC+QH) is 106,987 btu/hr. The Reynolds number at the shell side

is 4978 while at the tube side is 9804. Same goes for RUN III, set 3 is chosen. The QC is 103,765

btu/hr and QH is 102,237 btu/hr. That makes the 0.5 (QC+QH) is 102,237 btu/hr. The Reynolds number

at the shell side is 5270 while at the tube side is 7421. For RUN IV is different. We decided to take set

2 instead of set 1 and set 3. The QC is 101,664 btu/hr and QH is 100,897 btu/hr. The 0.5 (QC+QH) is

101,281 btu/hr. The Reynolds number at the shell side is 5071 while at the tube side is 4997. For RUN

V, set 3 is chosen. The QC is 93,314 btu/hr and QH is 92,931 btu/hr. The 0.5 (QC+QH) is 93,123 btu/hr.

The Reynolds number at the shell side is 3085 while at the tube side is 4944.

From above, we could conclude that the number of QC is decreasing from RUN I to RUN V and same

pattern goes to QH and 0.5(QC+QH). For RUN I, U is 296 btu/hr. For RUN II, U is 281 btu/hr. For

RUN III, U is 261 btu/hr. For RUN IV, U is 207 btu/hr and for RUN V, U is 184 btu/hr. U is decreasing

from RUN I to RUN V.

The overall heat transfer coefficient, U, Reynolds number and flow rates of hot water are keep

decreasing together while the LMTD values are contrarily. Proven that hot water and cold water are

still in the turbulent flow range which is > 4000.

CONCLUSION

We can evaluate the data based at various condition of heat exchanger. Experiments were

conducted on a Shell and Tube heat exchanger. The effect of these parameters on

the shell outlet temperature, tube outlet temperature and overall heat transfer

coefficients were studied. It was found that cold fluid outlet temperature

decreases and the overall heat transfer coefficient increases with increase in flow

rate of cold fluid.

RECOMMENDATION

The eye position should be perpendicular to the meniscus and the scale.

Avoid any leakage of the instrument, the instrument should be working

properly

Avoid direct contact with water because it is hot

REFERENCES

http://www.scribd.com/doc/23125684/Heat-Exchanger-Experiment

http://www-unix.ecs.umass.edu/~rlaurenc/Courses/che333/Reference/exchanger.pdf

http://opencourseware.kfupm.edu.sa/colleges/ces/che/che309/files/2-

Experiments_Heat_Transfer_in_Shell_Tube_HE.pdf

APPENDICES

TABLE 1

RUN II (Set 1)

Temperature change

(CW) T2 – T1 = 17.7 °C

(HW) t2 –t1 = 8.8 °C

Average Temperature

2

(HW) t2+t1 = 62 °C

2

QC = 10.0 USG x 8.25 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 17.7 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 157,707 BTU

min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

QH = 19.9 USG x 8.195 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 8.8 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 154,992 BTU

min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

RUN II (Set 2)

Temperature change

(CW)T2 – T1 = 14.8°C

(HW) t2 –t1 = 7.4°C

Average Temperature

(CW) T2+T1 = 48 °C

2

(HW) t2+t1 = 59 °C

2

QC = 10.0 USG x 8.253 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 14.8 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 131,916 BTU

min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

QH = 24.6 USG x 8.207 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 7.4 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 129,869 BTU

min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

RUN II (Set 3)

Temperature change

(CW)T2 – T1 = 12.0°C

(HW) t2 –t1 = 6.1°C

Average Temperature

(CW) T2+T1 = 49 °C

2

(HW) t2+t1 = 58 °C

2

QC = 10.0 USG x 8.25 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 12.0 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 106,920 BTU

min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

QH = 19.8 USG x 8.207 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 6.1 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 107,054 BTU

min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

Temperature change

(CW) T2 – T1 = 14.5 °C

(HW) t2 –t1 = 9.7 °C

Average Temperature

(CW) T2+T1 = 52 °C

2

(HW) t2+t1 = 63 °C

2

QC = 10.7 USG x 8.24 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 14.5 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 138,071 BTU

min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

QH = 15.1 USG x 8.19 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 9.7 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 129,557 BTU

min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

RUN III (Set 2)

Temperature change

(CW)T2 – T1 = 12.0°C

(HW) t2 –t1 = 8.7°C

Average Temperature

(CW) T2+T1 = 52 °C

2

(HW) t2+t1 = 62 °C

2

QC = 10.7 USG x 8.24 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 12.0 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 114,266 BTU

min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

QH = 15.1 USG x 8.195 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 8.7 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 116,270 BTU

min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

Temperature change

(CW)T2 – T1 = 11.0°C

(HW) t2 –t1 = 7.7°C

Average Temperature

(CW) T2+T1 = 52 °C

2

(HW) t2+t1 = 61 °C

2

QC = 10.6 USG x 8.24 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 11 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 103,765 BTU

min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

QH = 15.0 USG x 8.20 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 7.7 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 102,287 BTU

min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

RUN IV (Set 1)

Temperature change

(CW) T2 – T1 = 12.0 °C

(HW) t2 –t1 = 12.0 °C

Average Temperature

(CW) T2+T1 = 51 °C

2

(HW) t2+t1 = 62 °C

2

QC = 10.2 USG x 8.24 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 12.0 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 108,926 BTU

min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

QH = 10.1 USG x 8.19 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 12.0 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 107,204 BTU

min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

RUN IV (Set 2)

Temperature change

(CW)T2 – T1 = 11.2°C

(HW) t2 –t1 = 11.4°C

Average Temperature

(CW) T2+T1 = 51 °C

2

(HW) t2+t1 = 62 °C

2

QC = 10.2 USG x 8.24 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 11.2 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 101,664 BTU

min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

QH = 10.0 USG x 8.195 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 11.4 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 100,897 BTU

min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

RUN IV (Set 3)

Temperature change

(CW)T2 – T1 = 12.2°C

(HW) t2 –t1 = 11.2°C

Average Temperature

(CW) T2+T1 = 50 °C

2

(HW) t2+t1 = 61 °C

2

QC = 9.5 USG x 8.246 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 12.2 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 103,217 BTU

min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

QH = 10.1 USG x 8.20 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 11.2 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 100,179 BTU

min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

RUN V (Set 1)

Temperature change

(CW) T2 – T1 = 16.6 °C

(HW) t2 –t1 = 11.4°C

Average Temperature

(CW) T2+T1 = 49 °C

2

(HW) t2+t1 = 63 °C

2

QC = 6.2 USG x 8.25 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 16.6 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 91,702 BTU

min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

QH = 10.0 USG x 8.19 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 11.4 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 100,835 BTU

min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

RUN V (Set 2)

Temperature change

(CW)T2 – T1 = 17.3°C

(HW) t2 –t1 = 10.8°C

Average Temperature

(CW) T2+T1 = 50 °C

2

(HW) t2+t1 = 62 °C

2

QC = 6.2 USG x 8.246 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 17.3 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 95,522 BTU

min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

QH = 10.0 USG x 8.195 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 10.8 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 95,587 BTU

min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

RUN V (Set 3)

Temperature change

(CW)T2 – T1 = 16.9°C

(HW) t2 –t1 = 10.5°C

Average Temperature

(CW) T2+T1 = 50 °C

2

(HW) t2+t1 = 62 °C

2

QC = 6.2 USG x 8.246 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 16.9 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 93,314 BTU

min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

QH = 10.0 USG x 8.195 lbm x 1.0 BTU x 10.5 x 1.8°F x 60 min = 92,931 BTU

min USG lbm°F 1 hr HR

TABLE 2

ln [(t1-T2) / (t2/T1)]

= ( 60.7 – 54.8 ) – ( 54.6 – 42.8 )

ln [(60.7 – 54.8) / (54.6 – 42.8)]

= 8.51 ° C = 15.3 °F

- ( T1 – T2 ) R

- ( t1 – t2 )

FT = 0.79

- ( T1 – T2 ) S

- ( t1 – t2 )

U = 106,987 BTU x 1 x 1

Hr 31.50 ft² 15.3 x 0.79 °F

= 281 BTU

Hr. ft². °F

ln [(t1-T2) / (t2/T1)]

= ( 64.8 – 57.3 ) – ( 57.1 – 46.3 )

ln [(64.8 – 57.3) / (57.1 – 46.3)]

= 9.1 ° C = 16.3 °F

- ( T1 – T2 ) R

- ( t1 – t2 )

FT = 0.77

- ( T1 – T2 ) S

- ( t1 – t2 )

Hr 31.50 ft² 15.3 x 0.77 °F

= 261 BTU

Hr. ft². °F

FOR RUN IV (SET 2)

ln [(t1-T2) / (t2/T1)]

= ( 66.9 – 56.2 ) – ( 55.7 – 44.0 )

ln [(66.9 – 56.2) / (55.7 – 44.0)]

= 10.9 ° C = 19.7 °F

- ( T1 – T2 ) R

- ( t1 – t2 )

FT = 0.79

- ( T1 – T2 ) S

- ( t1 – t2 )

U = 101,281 BTU x 1 x 1

Hr 31.50 ft² 19.7 x 0.79 °F

= 207 BTU

Hr. ft². °F

ln [(t1-T2) / (t2/T1)]

= ( 67.3 – 58.0 ) – ( 56.8 – 41.14 )

ln [(67.3 – 58.0) / (56.8 – 41.14)]

= 12.2 ° C = 22 °F

- ( T1 – T2 ) R

- ( t1 – t2 )

FT = 0.73

- ( T1 – T2 ) S

- ( t1 – t2 )

U = 93,123 BTU x 1 x 1

Hr 31.50 ft² 22 x 0.73 °F

= 184 BTU

Hr. ft². °F

REYNOLDS NUMBER (SHELL) & REYNOLD NUMBER (TUBE)

Re (s) for shell side, CW for RUN II, set 3.

Re (s) = De . GS

µ

½ x 3.1416 x 0.625

= 0.0438 ft

Average CW temperature is 49°C with density at 8.25lbm and viscosity µ at 4.17 x 10¬4lbm

USG ft.sec

1.502 lbm

ft.hr

AS = 0.029 ft²

min USG hr

0.029 hr.ft²

hr.ft² 1.502 lbm

Re (s) = 4978

Re (s) = De . GS

µ

½ x 3.1416 x 0.625

= 0.0438 ft

Average CW temperature is 52°C with density at 8.24lbm and viscosity µ at 4.17 x 10¬4lbm

USG ft.sec

1.502 lbm

ft.hr

AS = 0.029 ft²

min USG hr

0.029 hr.ft²

hr.ft² 1.502 lbm

Re (s) = 5270

Re (s) = De . GS

µ

½ x 3.1416 x 0.625

= 0.0438 ft

Average CW temperature is 51°C with density at 8.24lbm and viscosity µ at 4.17 x 10¬4lbm

USG ft.sec

OR 1.502 lbm

ft.hr

AS = 0.029 ft²

min USG hr

0.029 hr.ft²

hr.ft² 1.502 lbm

Re (s) = 5071

Re (s) for shell side, CW for RUN V, set 3.

Re (s) = De . GS

µ

½ x 3.1416 x 0.625

= 0.0438 ft

Average CW temperature is 50°C with density at 8.246lbm and viscosity µ at 4.17x 10¬4lbm

USG ft.sec

OR 1.502 lbm

ft.hr

AS = 0.029 ft²

min USG hr

0.029 hr.ft²

hr.ft² 1.502 lbm

Re (s) = 3085

1. Re (s) for tube side, HW for RUN II, set 3.

Re (s) = De . GS

µ

½ x 3.1416 x 0.625

= 0.0438 ft

Average HW temperature is 58°C with density at 8.207lbm and viscosity µ at 4.17x 10¬4lbm

USG ft.sec

1.502 lbm

ft.hr

AS = 0.029 ft²

min USG hr

0.029 hr.ft²

hr.ft² 1.502 lbm

Re (s) = 9804

Re (s) = De . GS

µ

½ x 3.1416 x 0.625

= 0.0438 ft

Average HW temperature is 61°C with density at 8.20lbm and viscosity µ at 4.17 x 10¬4lbm

USG ft.sec

1.502 lbm

ft.hr

AS = 0.029 ft²

min USG hr

GS = 7380 = 254,482 lbm

0.029 hr.ft²

hr.ft² 1.502 lbm

Re (s) = 7421

Re (s) = De . GS

µ

½ x 3.1416 x 0.625

= 0.0438 ft

Average HW temperature is 62°C with density at 8.20lbm and viscosity µ at 4.17 x 10¬4lbm

USG ft.sec

1.502 lbm

ft.hr

AS = 0.029 ft²

min USG hr

0.029 hr.ft²

hr.ft² 1.502 lbm

Re (s) = 4997

Re (s) = De . GS

µ

½ x 3.1416 x 0.625

= 0.0438 ft

Average HW temperature is 62°C with density at 8.195lbm and viscosity µ at 4.17x 10¬4lbm

USG ft.sec

1.502 lbm

ft.hr

AS = 0.029 ft²

min USG hr

0.029 hr.ft²

hr.ft² 1.502 lbm

Re (s) = 4944

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