Anda di halaman 1dari 27

Padma Awards, the country’s highest civilian awards, are conferred in three categories,

namely, Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan and Padma Shri. The awards are given in all
disciplines/ fields of activities, viz. art, social work, public affairs, science and
engineering, trade and industry, medicine, literature and education, sports, civil service,
etc. ‘Padma Vibhushan’ is awarded for exceptional and distinguished service; ‘Padma
Bhushan’ for distinguished service of high order and ‘Padma Shri’ for distinguished
service in any field. The awards are announced on the occasion of Republic Day every
year.
The awards are conferred by the President of India at a function held at Rashtrapati
Bhavan sometime around March/ April.

Indian Government has announced 128 Padma awards for 2011 on January 25, 2011
(Tuesday)

13 Padma Vibhushan Awardees 2011:


Name - Discipline (State/ Domicile)
● Dr. (Smt.) Kapila Vatsyayan — Art : Art Administration and Promotion (Delhi)
● Mrs. Homai Vyarawalla — Art : Photography (Gujarat)
● Shri A Nageshwara Rao — Art : Cinema (Andhra Pradesh)
● Shri Parasaran Kesava Iyengar — Public Affairs (Delhi)
● Dr. Akhlaq-ur-Rehman Kidwai — Public Affairs (Delhi)
● Shri Vijay Kelkar — Public Affairs (Delhi)
● Shri Montek Singh Ahluwalia — Public Affairs (Delhi)
● Shri Palle Rama Rao — Science and Engineering (Andhra Pradesh)
● Shri Azim Premji — Trade and Industry (Karnataka)
● Shri Brajesh Mishra — Civil Services (Madhya Pradesh)
● Prof. (Dr.) Ottaplakkal Neelakandan Velu Kurup — Literature and Education (Kerala)
● Dr. Sitakant Mahapatra — Literature and Education (Orissa)
● Late Shri L. C. Jain — Public Affairs (Delhi)*

31 Padma Bhushan Awardees 2011:


● Shri Satyadev Dubey - Art : Theatre (Maharashtra)
● Shri Mohammed Zahur Khayyam Hashmi alias Khayyam - Art : Cinema - Music
(Maharashtra)
● Shri Shashi Kapoor - Art : Cinema (Maharashtra)
● Shri Krishen Khanna - Art : Painting (Haryana)
● Shri Madavur Vasudevan Nair - Art : Dance - Kathakali (Kerala)
● Ms. Waheeda Rehman - Art : Cinema (Maharashtra)
● Shri Rudrapatna Krishna Shastry Srikantan - Art : Music-Vocal (Karnataka)
● Ms. Arpita Singh - Art : Painting (Delhi)
● Dr. Sripathi Panditharadhyula Balasubrahmanyam - Art : Playback Singing, Music
Direction & acting (Tamil Nadu)
● Shri C.V. Chandrasekhar - Art : Classical Dance-Bharatanatyam (Tamil Nadu)
● Shri Dwijen Mukherjee - Art (West Bengal)
● Smt. Rajashree Birla - Social work (Maharashtra)
● Mrs. Shobhana Ranade - Social work (Maharashtra)
● Dr. Suryanarayanan Ramachandran - Science and Engineering (Tamil Nadu)
● Shri S.(Kris) Gopalakrishnan - Trade and Industry (Karnataka)
● Shri Yogesh Chander Deveshwar - Trade and Industry (West Bengal)
● Ms. Chanda Kochhar - Trade and Industry (Maharashtra)
● Dr. K. Anji Reddy - Trade and Industry- Pharmacy (Andhra Pradesh)
● Shri Analjit Singh - Trade and Industry (Delhi)
● Shri Rajendra Singh Pawar - Trade and Industry (Haryana)
● Dr. Gunapati Venkata Krishna Reddy - Trade and Industry (Andhra Pradesh)
● Shri Ajai Chowdhary - Trade and Industry (Delhi)
● Shri Surendra Singh - Civil Services (Delhi)
● Shri M. N .Buch - Civil Services (Madhya Pradesh)
● Shri Shyam Saran - Civil Services (Delhi)
● Shri Thayil Jacob Sony George - Literature and Education (Karnataka)
● Dr. Ramdas Madhava Pai - Literature and Education (Karnataka)
● Shri Sankha Ghosh - Literature and Education (West Bengal)
● Late Shri K. Raghavan Thirumulpad - Medicine : Ayurveda. (Kerala)*
● Late Dr. Keki Byramjee Grant - Medicine : Cardiology (Maharashtra)*
● Late Shri Dashrath Patel - Art (Gujarat)*

Padma Vibhushan Award 2011:


● Ms. Neelam Mansingh Chowdhry - Art : Theatre (Chandigarh)
● Shri Makar Dhwaja Darogha - Art : Chhau Dance (Jharkhand)
● Shri Shaji Neelakantan Karun - Art : Film Direction (Kerala)
● Shri Girish Kasaravalli - Art : Film making (Karnataka)
● Ms. Tabassum Hashmi Khan alias Tabu - Art : Cinema (Maharashtra)
● Shri Jivya Soma Mase - Art : Warli Painting (Maharashtra)
● Guru (Ms.) M.K. Saroja - Art : Dance-Bharatnatyam (Tamil Nadu)
● Shri Jayaram Subramaniam - Art : Cinema (Tamil Nadu)
● Pandit Ajoy Chakraborty - Art : Music-Indian Classical Vocal (West Bengal)
● Smt. Mahasundari Devi - Art : Mithilia/Madhubani Painting (Bihar)
● Shri Gajam Govardhana - Art : Handloom Weaving (Andhra Pradesh)
● Ms. Sunayana Hazarilal - Art : Dance-Kathak (Maharashtra)
● Shri S.R. Janakiraman - Art : Carnatic Vocal Music (Tamil Nadu)
● Shri Peruvanam Kuttan Marar - Art : Chenda Melam-Drum concert (Kerala)
● Smt. Kalamandalam Kshemavathy Pavithran - Art : Dance-Mohiniattam (Kerala)
● Shri Dadi Dorab Pudumjee - Art : Puppetry (Delhi)
● Shri Khangembam Mangi Singh - Art : Traditional Music of Manipur (Pena) (Manipur)
● Shri Prahlad Singh Tipaniya - Art : Folk Music (Madhya Pradesh)
● Smt. Usha Uthup - Art : Music. (West Bengal)
● Smt. Kajol - Art : Cinema (Maharashtra)
● Shri Irfan Khan - Art : Cinema (Maharashtra)
● Shri Mamraj Agrawal - Social work (West Bengal)
● Shri Jockin Arputham - Social work (Maharashtra)
● Ms. Nomita Chandy - Social work (Karnataka)
● Ms. Sheela Patel - Social work (Maharashtra)
● Ms. Anita Reddy - Social work (Karnataka)
● Shri Kanubhai Hasmukhbhai Tailor - Social work (Gujarat)
● Shri Anant Darshan Shankar - Public Affairs (Karnataka)
● Prof. M. Annamalai - Science and Engineering (Karnataka)
● Dr. Mahesh Haribhai Mehta - Science and Engineering : Agricultural Science (Gujarat)
● Shri Coimbatore Narayana Rao Raghavendran - Science and Engineering (Tamil Nadu)
● Dr. (Mrs.) Suman Sahai - Science and Engineering (Delhi)
● Prof.(Dr.) E.A. Siddiq - Science and Engineering : Agricultural Science (Andhra
Pradesh)
● Shri Gopalan Nair Shankar - Science and Engineering : Architecture (Kerala)
● Shri Mecca Rafeeque Ahmed - Trade and Industry (Tamil Nadu)
● Shri Kailasam Raghavendra Rao - Trade and Industry (Tamil Nadu)
● Shri Narayan Singh Bhati - Civil Services (Andhra Pradesh)
● Shri P K Sen - Civil Services (Bihar)
● Ms. Shital Mahajan - Sports : Adventure Sports : Para Jumping (Maharashtra)
● Ms. Nameirakpam Kunjarani Devi - Sports : Weightlifting (Manipur)
● Shri Sushil Kumar - Sports : Wrestling (Delhi)
● Shri Vangipurapu Venkata Sai Laxman - Sports : Cricket (Andhra Pradesh)
● Shri Gagan Narang - Sports : Shooting (Andhra Pradesh)
● Smt. Krishna Poonia - Sports : Discus Throw (Rajasthan)
● Shri Harbhajan Singh - Sports : Mountaineering (Punjab)
● Dr. Pukhraj Bafna - Medicine : Padeatrics (Chhattisgarh)
● Prof. Mansoor Hasan - Medicine : Cardiology (Uttar Pradesh)
● Dr. Shyama Prasad Mandal - Medicine : Orthopaedic (Delhi)
● Prof. (Dr.) Sivapatham Vittal - Medicine : Endocrinology (Tamil Nadu)
● Prof. (Dr.) Madanur Ahmed Ali - Medicine : Gastroenterology (Tamil Nadu)
● Dr. Indira Hinduja - Medicine - Obstetrics and Gynaecology (Maharashtra)
● Dr. Jose Chacko Periappuram - Medicine : Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (Kerala)
● Prof. (Dr.) A. Marthanda Pillai - Medicine : Neurosurgery (Kerala)
● Shri Mahim Bora - Literature and Education (Assam)
● Prof. (Dr.) Pullella Srirama Chandrudu - Literature and Education- Sanskrit (Andhra
Pradesh)
● Dr. Pravin Darji - Literature and Education (Gujarat)
● Dr. Chandra Prakash Deval - Literature and Education (Rajasthan)
● Shri Balraj Komal - Literature and Education (Delhi)
● Mrs. Rajni Kumar - Literature and Education (Delhi)
● Dr. Devanooru Mahadeva - Literature and Education (Karnataka)
● Shri Barun Mazumder - Literature and Education (West Bengal)
● Dr. Avvai Natarajan - Literature and Education (Tamil Nadu)
● Shri Bhalchandra Nemade - Literature and Education (Himachal Pradesh)
● Prof. Riyaz Punjabi - Literature and Education (Jammu and Kashmir)
● Prof. Koneru Ramakrishna Rao - Literature and Education (Andhra Pradesh)
● Ms. Buangi Sailo - Literature and Education (Mizoram)
● Prof. Devi Dutt Sharma - Literature and Education (Uttarakhand)
● Shri Nilamber Dev Sharma - Literature and Education (Jammu and Kashmir)
● Ms. Urvashi Butalia# - Literature and Education (Delhi)
Ms. Ritu Menon# - Literature and Education (Delhi)
● Prof. Krishna Kumar - Literature and Education (Delhi)
● Shri Deviprasad Dwivedi - Literature and Education (Uttar Pradesh)
● Ms. Mamang Dai - Literature and Education (Arunachal Pradesh)
● Dr. Om Prakash Agrawal - Others : Heritage Conservation (Uttar Pradesh)
● Prof. Madhukar Keshav Dhavalikar - Others : Archeology (Maharashtra)
● Ms. Shanti Teresa Lakra - Others-Nursing (Andaman & Nicobar)
● Smt. Gulshan Nanda - Others - Handicrafts promotion (Delhi)
● Dr. Azad Moopen - Social work (UAE)*
● Prof. Upendra Baxi - Public Affairs -Legal Affairs (United Kingdom) *
● Dr. Mani Lal Bhaumik - Science and Engineering (USA)*
● Dr. Subra Suresh - Science and Engineering (USA)*
● Prof. Karl Harrington Potter - Literature and Education (USA)*
● Prof. Martha Chen - Social work (USA)*
● Shri Satpal Khattar - Trade and Industry (Singapore)*
● Shri Granville Austin - Literature and Education (USA)*
----------------------
Note:
* indicates awardees in the category of Foreigners/NRIs/PIOs/Posthumous.
# indicates duo case.

List of Nominees:
This year government has received 1303 nominations for the top civilian awards for
2011.

The list of Nominees include Yoga guru Baba Ramdev, fashion designer Ritu Beri and
shooter Tejaswami Sawant, Satyendra Dubey, Manjunath Sanmugham. The list of
Bollywood stars in the nomineees include Jaya Prada, Priyanka Chopra and Salman
Khan.

List of Politicians include, Uttarakhand chief minister Ramesh Pokhriyal known as


‘Nishank’ under literature and education category and former Orissa chief minister
Giridhar Gamang nominated under the ‘instrumental music’ category.

In 2010, Government announced 130 awards, including 13 in the category of foreigners,


NRIs and PIOs. The list included 6 Padma Vibhushan, 43 Padma Bhushan and 81 Padma
Shri. No one has been chosen for the Bharat Ratna award in 2010.

First Rupee 150 coin issued by India


India’s highest denomination commemorative coin released on 9th may 2010 at New
Delhi by Finance Minister Shri Pranab Mukherjee to mark 150th birth centenary of Nobel
Prize winner Gurudev Rabindra Nath Tagore. There were two coins with denominations
of rupees 5 and rupees 150 in a beautiful presentation set.

***********************************************************************

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE
Uttar Pradesh B.Ed. Joint Entrance Exam. 2010
Solved Paper : General Knowledge :: English Language ::
Efficiency Test

General Knowledge
1. How many schedules the Constitution of India contains ?
(A) 9
(B) 10
(C) 11
(D) 12
Ans : (D)

2. The Constitution of India was adopted in—


(A) 26 January, 1950
(B) 26 January, 1949
(C) 26 November, 1949
(D) 31 December, 1949
Ans : (C)

3. In a nuclear reactor, one of the following is used as a fuel—


(A) Coal
(B) Uranium
(C) Radium
(D) Diesel
Ans : (B)

4. The first muslim ruler to introduce the system of price control was—
(A) Balban
(B) Jalaluddin Khalji
(C) Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq
(D) Alauddin Khalji
Ans : (D)

5. Tansen, a great musician, was in the court of—


(A) Akbar
(B) Bahadur Shah
(C) Rana Kumbha
(D) Krishna Deva Rai
Ans : (A)

6. Who among the following attended all the three Round Table Conferences ?
(A) Jawaharlal Nehru
(B) Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
(C) Vallabh Bhai Patel
(D) Dr. Rajendra Prasad
Ans : (B)

7. Where is National Sugar Institute established?


(A) Kanpur
(B) New Delhi
(C) Lucknow
(D) Gajrola
Ans : (A)

8. A national leader, whose birthday is observed as the National Education Day on


November 11, is—
(A) J. B. Kriplani
(B) Rajiv Gandhi
(C) Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
(D) Sarojini Naidu
Ans : (C)

9. The Nagarjuna Sagar Project is constructed on the river—


(A) Kaveri
(B) Krishna
(C) Godavari
(D) Indus
Ans : (B)

10. The Bermuada Triangle lies in—


(A) Western North Atlantic Ocean
(B) Eastern South Atlantic Ocean
(C) North Pacific Ocean
(D) South Indian Ocean
Ans : (A)

11. Who among the following has been honoured with Bharat Ratna for the year 2008 ?
(A) Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
(B) G. Madhavan Nair
(C) Pt. Bhimsen Joshi
(D) Lata Mangeshkar
Ans : (C)
12. Which of the following is India’s first nuclear powered submarine launched on 26
July, 2009 ?
(A) INS Virat
(B) INS Arihant
(C) INS Vikrant
(D) INS Talwar
Ans : (B)

13. The speed of light will be minimum while passing through—


(A) Glass
(B) Vacuum
(C) Water
(D) Air
Ans : (A)

14. Galvanised iron sheets have a coating of—


(A) Tin
(B) Lead
(C) Zinc
(D) Chromium
Ans : (C)

15. I.B.R.D. is also known as—


(A) International Bank
(B) World Bank
(C) Asian Development Bank
(D) Bank of America
Ans : (B)

16. The Gupta king who assumed the title of Vikramaditya was—
(A) Skandagupta
(B) Samudragupta
(C) Chandragupta–II
(D) Kumaragupta
Ans : (C)

17. Part IV of the Constitution of India deals with—


(A) Fundamental Rights
(B) Citizenship
(C) Directive Principles of State Policy
(D) Union Executive
Ans : (C)

18. Which amidst the following countries of the European union has not adopted the
single currency Euro ?
(A) France
(B) U. K.
(C) Germany
(D) Spain
Ans : (B)

19. Permanent members of U. N. Security Council are—


(A) U.K., U.S.A., Russia, China, Japan
(B) U.S.A., France, China, U.K., Canada
(C) U.S.A., France, U.K., Russia, Canada
(D) U.S.A., U.K., France, Russia, China
Ans : (D)

20. The author of the book ‘My Country My Life’ is—


(A) Lal Krishna Advani
(B) Jaswant Singh
(C) Dilip Kumar
(D) Sunil Gavaskar
Ans : (A)

21. The Partition of Bengal was revoked by the British Government in the year—
(A) 1907
(B) 1917
(C) 1911
(D) 1921
Ans : (C)

22. The first talkie film in India was—


(A) Raja Harish Chandra
(B) Alam Ara
(C) Chandi Das
(D) Jhansi Ki Rani
Ans : (B)

23. ‘Blue Revolution’ is related to—


(A) Space research
(B) Irrigation
(C) Fisheries
(D) Drinking water
Ans : (C)

24. India has the maximum foreign trade with—


(A) Japan
(B) Germany
(C) U.S.A.
(D) U.K.
Ans : (C)
25. The most urbanised country in the world is—
(A) Japan
(B) Singapore
(C) Germany
(D) Israel
Ans : (B)

26. Which is the highest finance body for small scale industries ?
(A) IDBI
(B) SIDBI
(C) IFCI
(D) NABARD
Ans : (B)

27. What is the new name of the old region ‘Siam’ ?


(A) Myanmar
(B) Thailand
(C) Philippines
(D) Cambodia
Ans : (B)

28. Great poet Amir Khusarau’s birth place was—


(A) Patiyali (Etah)
(B) Kanpur
(C) Tehran
(D) Lahore
Ans : (A)

29. Bauxite is an ore of one of the following metals—


(A) Aluminium
(B) Silver
(C) Tin
(D) Steel
Ans : (A)

30. Who organized the fourth Buddhist council ?


(A) Ashoka
(B) Harsha
(C) Bindusara
(D) Kanishka
Ans : (D)

31. Who was the last ruler of Lodi dynasty ?


(A) Bahlol Lodi
(B) Ibrahim Lodi
(C) Sikandar Lodi
(D) Daulat Khan Lodi
Ans : (B)

32. The Capital of Andaman and Nicobar islands is—


(A) Port Blair
(B) Diu
(C) Kolkata
(D) Tirupati
Ans : (A)

33. Who among the following decides if a particular Bill is a Money Bill or not ?
(A) President
(B) Speaker of Lok Sabha
(C) Chairman of Rajya Sabha
(D) Finance Minister
Ans : (B)

34. ‘Bar’ is the unit of—


(A) Heat
(B) Temperature
(C) Current
(D) Atmospheric pressure
Ans : (D)

35. Right to vote is a—


(A) Political right
(B) Civil right
(C) Economic right
(D) Legal right
Ans : (A)

36. Koneru Humpy is associated with—


(A) Lawn Tennis
(B) Hockey
(C) Chess
(D) Badminton
Ans : (C)

37. Which of the following hills connect eastern and western ghats ?
(A) Satpura
(B) Vindhya
(C) Nilgiri
(D) Aravalli
Ans : (C)
38. Which country is known as the ‘Cockpit of Europe’ ?
(A) Belzium
(B) Switzerland
(C) Netherlands
(D) Luxembourg
Ans : (A)

39. In Uttar Pradesh, Charkula folk dance is related with—


(A) Ruhelkhand region
(B) Brij region
(C) Bundelkhand region
(D) Avadh region
Ans : (B)

40. Which among the following is a central university in Uttar Pradesh ?


(A) Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Avadh University, Faizabad
(B) Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapeeth, Varanasi
(C) Chhatrapati Sahuji Maharaj University, Kanpur
(D) Allahabad University, Allahabad
Ans : (D)

41. Lucknow Congress session 1916, was presided over by—


(A) Sarojini Naidu
(B) Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
(C) Ambika Charan Majumdar
(D) Pt. J. L. Nehru
Ans : (C)

42. Rihand Project is located at—


(A) Lalitpur district
(B) Mirzapur district
(C) Aligarh district
(D) Sultanpur district
Ans : (B)

43. Where was ‘Tanchoi’ brocade developed ?


(A) Varanasi
(B) Dhaka
(C) Surat
(D) Tanjavur
Ans : (A)

44. Who wrote ‘Sarfaroshi Ki Tamanna Ab Hamare Dil Mein Hai’ ?


(A) Mohammed Iqbal
(B) Kazi Nazrul Islam
(C) Anand Narayan Mulla
(D) Ram Prasad Bismil
Ans : (D)

45. The chemical that is used in making artificial rain is—


(A) Silver Nitrate
(B) Silver Iodide
(C) Silver Nitrite
(D) Silver Chloride
Ans : (B)

46. Which of the following is the hardest substance in the human body ?
(A) Bone
(B) Enamel
(C) Nail
(D) None of these
Ans : (B)

47. Agricultural income tax is a source of revenue to—


(A) Central Government
(B) State Government
(C) Local Administration
(D) Centre and State Governments
Ans : (B)

48. Largest Mica deposits are in—


(A) South Africa
(B) Australia
(C) Canada
(D) India
Ans : (D)

49. Lalitpur district in U. P. is known for the—


(A) Uranium deposits
(B) Sugar industry
(C) Polic training academy
(D) None of these
Ans : (A)

50. Which of the following oceans has the shape of the English alphabet ‘S’ ?
(A) Arctic Ocean
(B) Indian Ocean
(C) Atlantic Ocean
(D) Pacific Ocean
Ans : (C)
List of 'reshuffled' Council of Ministers

In the first major revamp of his Council of Ministers, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
Wednesday inducted three new ministers of state and promoted three to Cabinet rank
while reshuffling some portfolios. Here is the list of the changes:

Cabinet ministers:
1. Praful Patel: Heavy industries and public enterprises
2. Sriprakash Jaiswal: Coal
3. Salman Khursheed: Water resources and additional charge of minority affairs

Minister of state (independent charge) :


1. Ajay Maken: Youth affairs and sports
2. Beni Prasad Verma: steel
3. KV Thomas: Consumer affairs, food and public distribution

Ministers of state:
1. Ashwani Kumar: Planning and parliamentary affairs, science and technology, and earth
sciences
2. KC Venugopal: Power

The portfolios of the following ministers have also been changed:

Cabinet ministers:
1. Sharad Pawar: Agriculture and food processing industries
2. Virbhadra Singh: Micro, small and medium enterprises
3. Vilasrao Deshmukh: Rural development and additional charge of Panchayati Raj
4. S Jaipal Reddy : Petroleum and natural gas
5. Kamal Nath: Urban development
6. Vayalar Ravi: Overseas Indian affairs and additional charge of civil aviation
7. Murli Deora: Corporate affairs
8. Kapil Sibal: Human resource development and additional charge of communications
and information technology
9. BK Handique: Development of north-eastern region
10. CP Joshi: Road transport and highways
11. Kumari Selja: Housing and urban poverty alleviation and additional charge of culture
12. Subodh Kant Sahay: Tourism
13. M.S. Gill: Statistics and programme implementation
14. Pawan Kumar Bansal: Parliamentary affairs and additional charge of science and
technology and earth sciences

Minister of state (independent charge):


1. Dinsha Patel: Mines

Ministers of state:
1. E Ahamed: External affairs
2. Harish Rawat: Agriculture and food processing industries
3. V Narayanasamy: Parliamentary affairs and personnel, public grievances and pensions
and Prime Minister's Office
4. Gurudas Kamat: Home affairs
5. A. Sai Prathap: Heavy industries and public enterprises
6. Bharatsinh Solanki: Railways
7. Jitin Prasada: Road transport and highways
8. Mahadev S Khandela : Tribal affairs
9. RPN Singh: Petroleum and natural gas and corporate affairs
10. Tusharbhai Chaudhary: Road transport and highways
11. Arun Yadav: Agriculture and food processing industries
12. Pratik Prakashbapu Patil: coal
13. Vincent Pala: Water resources and minority affairs

The headquarters of the Department of Space and ISRO are located in Bangalore.
Indian Space Programme – the History and Achievements.
Programme—The primary objectives of Indian Space Programme are ‘‘Satellite Based
Communications, Resources Survey and Meteorological Applications.’’

Research and development activities under the space programme are carried out in
various centers/units of Deptt. of Space and ISRO. The major centers are-Vikram
Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Thiruvananthapuram; ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC),
Bangalore; SHAR Centre at Sriharikota (Andhra Pradesh); Space Applications Centre
(SAC), Ahmedabad; Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC) with its facilities at
Bangalore, Thiruvananthapuram and Mahendragiri; ISRO Telemetry Tracking and
Command Network (ISTRAC) with its network of ground stations and Development and
Educational Communication Unit (DECU), Ahmedabad.

The headquarters of the Department of Space and ISRO are located in Bangalore.

Space Programme & Achievements


Aryabhatta—India’s first Satellite launched from Soviet Cosmodrom on April 19, 1975.
Bhaskar—India’s Second Satellite launched on June 7, 1979.
Rohini I—Launched for the first time from Indian soil in July 1980.
Rohini II—Launched on May 21, 1981 but it was burnt on June 8, 1981.
Apple—(First Communication Satellite) Launched on June 19, 1981 by European Space
Agency from Kourou, French Guyana.
Bhaskar II—India’s second Earth Observation Satellite launched from Soviet
Cosmodrom on November 21, 1981.
INSAT–1A—India’ First Multipurpose satellite launched on April 10, 1982 from Cape
Canaveral in USA. It ended Functioning within 6 months of its launching.
Rohini–2—It was launched in April 1983 from Sriharikota (SHAR) by Indian made
SLV-3 D. 2 Rocket. It shows India’s satisfactory progress in Space Research.
INSAT–1B—It was launched on 30th August, 1983 from Cape Canaveral (America) by
American Shuttle Challenger.
A.S.L.V.—On March 24, 1987 India launched A.S.L.V. But it caught fire within three
minutes and was destroyed.
I.R.S.–1A—This satellite India’s first Remote Sensing Satellite was launched on March
17, 1988.
I.R.S.–1-B—Second Indian Remote Sensing Satellite was launched on Aug. 29 and it
became operative on 16th Sept. 1991.
A.S.L.V.–D2—A.S.L.V.-D2 was unsuccessfully launched from Sriharikota on July 13,
1988.
INSAT–1C—INSAT–1C was launched by Arian Rocket from French Guyana on July
22, 1988. It is partially working.
INSAT–1D—The last satellite of INSAT–1 series has been launched from Cape
Canaveral on 12th June, 1990. It has started giving its services since 17th July, 1990.
A.S.L.V.–D-3—This was launched from Sriharikota on May 20, 1992. It has successfully
placed into orbit a SROSS-III Satellite.
INSAT–2A—This was launched by Arian Rocket–4 from French Guyana on July 10,
1992.
INSAT-2B—This was launched by Arian Rocket from French Guyana on July 23, 1993.
PSLV-D1—It was unsuccessfully launched from Sriharikota on Sept. 20, 1993.
PSLV-D2—IRS-P2, 870 kg. Remote Sensing Satellite hurled into Polar Sun-
Synchronous Orbit by the successful launch of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-
D2) from Sriharikota on October 15, 1994.
INSAT-2C—Launched into Orbit from Kourou (French Guyana) on Dec. 7, 1995.
IRS-1C—Successfully launched on Dec. 28, 1995.
IRS-P3—It was successfully launched on March 21, 1996.
INSAT-2D—Successfully launched into orbit from Kourou (French Guyana) on June 4,
1997.
IRS-1D—It was successfully launched on Sept. 29, 1997 from Sriharikota.
INSAT-2E—Successfully launched into Orbit from Kourou (French Guyana) on April 3,
1999.
IRS-P—Successfully launched from Rocket Launching Centre, Sriharikota on 26th May,
1999 PSLV–C2.
PSLV-C4—It was successfully launched from Sriharikota on May 26, 1999. It carried
India’s IRSP4 (Ocean sat), South Korean Kit sat-3 and Germany’s Tubsat in space in
their respective orbits.
INSAT-3B—It was successfully launched from European Rocket Launching Station at
Kourou in French Guyana on March 22, 2000.
GSLV–D1—It was successfully launched from Sriharikota Range (SHAR), Andhra
Pradesh on April 18, 2001. It carried India’s satellite GSAT-1 and put it in the earth’s
orbit. Its purpose is commercial communication.
PSLV–C3—PSLV–C3 was launched on October 22, 2001 from ISRO’s SHAR Centre at
Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh carrying 3 satellites—ISRO’s Technology Experiment
Satellite (TES), Germany’s BIRD (Bispectral and Infrared Remote Detection) and
Belgium’s PROBA (Project for Onboard Autonomy).
INSAT-3C—It was successfully launched on January 24, 2002 by European Rocket
Arian-4 from Kourou launching station of French Guyana.
PSLV–C4—India’s first exclusive meteorological satellite (METSAT) was successfully
launched in Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) by PSLVC4 on September 12, 2002
from Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh.
INSAT-3A—India successfully launched into space its space satellite INSAT-3A on
Ariane rocket from Kourou in French Guyana on April 10, 2003. It is primarily a
meteorological satellite.
GSLV-D2—India successfully launched her GSLV-D2 carrying a communication
satellite GSAT-2 from Sriharikota on May 8, 2003.
INSAT-3E—India’s communication satellite INSAT-3E was successfully launched into
space from Kourou Space Centre on September 28, 2003.
Resource sat-1—India successfully launched its heaviest (1360 kg) and sophisticated
remote sensing satellite, Resource sat-1 using the indigenously built polar satellite launch
vehicle (PSLV) on October 17, 2003.
Rohini-200—On the 40th anniversary of launching Rohini rockets India’s ISRO
successfully launched Rohini-200 sounding rocket on November 21, 2003.
Edusat—India launched her first educational satellite EDUSAT on September 20, 2004
from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota.
CARTOSAT–1—India’s first mapping satellite CARTOSAT-1 was launched into space
on May 5, 2005 with the help of the launching rocket-Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle–
PSLV-CS. Another satellite–HAMSAT was also launched at the same time. Both
satellites were successfully placed in their geostationary orbit.
INSAT-4A—The latest and heaviest communication satellite of Indian Space Research
Organisations (ISRO), was successfully launched by the European Agency’s Ariane-5 G
launch vehicle from Kourou (French Guyana) on December 22, 2005.
INSAT-4C—Launched on July 10, 2006 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre in
Sriharikota with the help of Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV-FO2), the
2,168 kg. satellite to boost Direct to Home Television Service and digital news gathering
could not be a success owing to the failure of the launch vehicle. The mission was thus an
unfortunate failure.
PSLV-C9—In its thirteenth flight conducted from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, SHAR,
Sriharikota on April 28, 2008 ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle—PSLV-C9
successfully launched the 690 kg Indian remote, sensing satellite.
CARTOSAT-2A, the 83 kg Indian Mini Satellite (IMS-1) and eight nanosatellites for
international customers.
Chandrayaan-I—India’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C11) on Oct. 22, 2008
successfully put Chandrayaan-I into its initial orbit marking the spacecraft’s long journey
to the Moon. It was really a historic achievement on the part of India.
INSAT-4B—ISRO’s Satellite INSAT-4B successfully launched on March 12, 2007 by
the European Arian-5 ECA launch vehicle from the Kourou island in French Guiana. The
3025 kg INSAT-4B is the second Satellite in the INSAT-4 series. INSAT-4B will further
augment the INSAT capacity for Direct-To-Home (DTH) television services and other
communication and TV services.

India's Nicole Faria is Miss Earth 2010


Miss India Earth 2010 Nicole Faria has made India proud by winning the 2010 Miss
Earth crown. The 10th edition of the Miss Earth beauty pageant was held in Vinpearl
Land, Nha Trang, Vietnam on December 4, 2010.

Miss Puerto Rico Yeidy Bosquez was announced Miss Earth Fire and Miss Ecuador
Jennifer Pazmino won the Miss Earth Air title. Miss Thailand Watsaporn Wattanakoon
grabbed the Miss Earth Water crown.

Nicole also won the 2010 Miss Earth Talent Competition.

Talking about Nicole, Miss India World 2010, Manasvi Mamgai said, "I feel very happy
for her. This is the only title India has won this year, so it's great. Nicole has got the
looks, so we all had expectations that she would win."
Top 7 Finalists...
India: Nicole Faria
Venezuela: Mariangela Bonanni
Ecuador: Jennifer Stephanie Pazmino
Puerto Rico: Yeidy Bosques
Thailand : Watsaporn Wattanakoon
Japan: Marina Kishira
South Africa: Nondyebo Dzingwa

Tallest Fountain : Fountain Hills, Arizona

Highest, Longest, Biggest, Largest, Deepest, Smallest of the


World
● Largest Airport : King Abdul Khalid International Airport (Saudi
Arabia)
● Highest Airport : Lhasa Airport, Tibet
● Tallest Animal : Giraffe
● Largest Animal : Blue Bottom whale
● Largest Bay : Hudson Bay, Canada.
● Fastest Bird : Swift
● Largest Bird : Ostrich
● Smallest Bird : Humming bird
● Longest Bridge : Huey P. Long Bridge (USA)
● Tallest Building : Dubai Burj (Dubai)
● Longest Canal : Baltic sea White Canal
● Largest Cathedral : Cathedral Church of New York
● Largest Cemetry : Ohlsdorf Cemetry (Hamburg, Germany)
● Largest Church : Balisca of St. Peter in the Vatican City, Rome.
● Largest Continent : Asia
● Smallest Continent : Australia
● Largest Country (Area) : Russia
● Smallest Country (Area) : Vatican City
● Biggest Cinema House : Roxy, New York
● Highest City : Wenchuan, China
● Most Populous City : Tokyo
● Longest Day : June 21
● Shortest Day : December 22
● Largest Delta : Sunderban (India)
● Largest Desert : Sahara, North Africa

● Biggest Dome : Gol Gumbaz (Bijapur), India


● Largest Dams : Grand Coulee Dam, USA
● Tallest Fountain : Fountain Hills, Arizona
● Largest Gulf : Gulf of Mexico
● Largest Hotel : Excalibur Hotel (Las Vegas, Nevada, USA)
● Largest Island : Greenland
● Largest Lake : Caspian Sea.
● Deepest Lake : Baikal (Siberia)
● Highest Lake : Titicaca (Bolivia)
● Largest Library : United States Library of Congress, Washington
● Largest Mosque : Jama Masjid, Delhi (India)
● Highest Mountain Peak : Mount Everest (Nepal)
● Highest Mountain Range : Himalayas, Asia.
● Largest Mountain Range : Andes (South America)
● Biggest Museum : American Museum of Natural History (New
York).
● Largest Minaret : Sultan Hassan Mosque (Egypt)
● Tallest Minaret : Qutub Minar, Delhi (India)
● Biggest Oceans : Pacific Ocean
● Deepest Oceans : Pacific Ocean
● Biggest Palace : Vatican (Rome)
● Largest Palace : Imperial Palace (China)
● Largest Park : National Park of North-Eastern (Greenland)
● Largest Peninsula : Arabia
● Highest Plateau : Pamir (Tibet)
● Longest Platform : Kharagpur, W. Bengal (India)
● Largest Platform : Grand Central Terminal, (Rly. Station), New
York (USA)
● Biggest Planet : Jupiter
● Smallest Planet : Mercury
● Brightest Planet : Venus
● Coldest Planet : Neptune
● Nearest Planet (to the Sun) : Mercury
● Farthest Planet (from the Sun) : Neptune
● Longest River : Nile, Africa
● Longest River Dam : Hirakud Dam, India
● Largest Sea : South China Sea
● Largest Stadium : Starhove Stadium, Prague (Czech Republic)
● Brightest Star : Sirius A
● Tallest Statue : Motherland (Russia)
● Largest Sea-bird : Albatross
● Biggest Telescope : Mt. Palomar (USA)
● Longest Train : Flying Scotsman
● Largest Temple : Angkorwat in Combodia.
● Oldest Theatre : Teatro Olimpico (Itlay)
● Tallest Tower : C. N. Tower, Toronto (Canada)
● Longest Wall : Great Wall of China
● Highest Waterfall : Angel (Venezuela)
● Widest Waterfall : Khone Falls (Laos)
● Lowest Water Level : Dead Sea
● Longest Epic : Mahabharata
● Hottest Place : Azizia (Libya)
● Rainiest Place : Mosinram, near Cherrapunji (India)
● Highest Road : Leh-Nobra, Ladakh division India.
● Highest Village : Andean (Chile)
● Highest Volcano : Ojos del Salado, (Argentina) Chile
● Largest Volcano : Manuna Lea (Hawai)
● Lightest Gas : Hydrogen
● Fastest Animal : Cheetah
● Biggest Flower : Rafflesia (Java)
● Longest Corridor : Rameshwaram Temple (India)
● Largest Democracy : India
● Highest Cable Car Project : Gulmarg (Jammu-Kashmir)
● Biggest Airbus : Double Decker A-380
● Highest Rail Track : Kwinghai- Tibbet Railway (China)

The first woman civilian police adviser of the U.N. : Kiran Bedi

First in the World


● The first person to cross the Atlantic in an open wicker basket hot air balloon : David
Hempleman Adams
● The first woman civilian police adviser of the U.N. : Kiran Bedi
● The first person in the world to land on the moon : Neil Armstrong and Edwin E.
Aldrin
● The first man to enter space : Major Yuri Gagarin (Russian)
● The first woman cosmonaut of the world : Velentina Tereshkova
● The first unmanned spaceship to have softlanded and lifted off from the moon to return
to the earth : Luna-16 (USSR) Sept. 21, 1970
● The first space vehicle to land on the moon : Lunar Exploration Module (LEM) nick-
named ‘Eagle’
● The first space ship which carried three American astronauts to land two of them on the
moon : Apollo-11
● The first country to send man to the moon : USA

● The first space rocket brought back to earth after orbiting the moon : Zond-5
● First crew transfer between the orbiting space ships : Soyuz T-15 with Mir Space
Station
● The first mission of a ling-up in space by manned space ships of USA and Soviet
Union : Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Mission (ASTP) (launched on July 15 and linked up
in space on July 17, 1975)
● The first man to fly into space belonging to a country other than Russia or the USA :
Remek (Czechoslovakia)
● The first country to send nuclear powered space craft to explore Jupiter : USA
● The first to launch earth satellite or artificial baby moon : USSR
● The first spaceship in the world to sample moon’s crust : Surveyor-3 (USA)
● The first space vehicle to soft land on moon : Luna 9 (USSR)
● The first manned spaceship to perform the longest stay in space (11 days) : Apollo-7
(USA)
● The first man to win 4 Olympic gold medals : Alvin Kranzein (USA) in 1900
● The first lawn tennis player who won the Wimbledon championship for five years
consecutively : Bjorn Borg
● First batsman to score three Test Century in three successive Tests on debut : Mohd.
Azharuddin (India)
● World’s first Cricketer to score more than 11,000 runs in his test carrier : Allan Border
of Australia with more than 11,000 runs.
● The first person to reach the South Pole : Amundsen (Norway)
● The first person to have climbed Mount Everest : Edmund Hillary and Sherpa Tenzing
19th May, 1953
● The first person to sail round the world : Ferdinand Magellan (Portugal)
● The First woman to conquer Mount Everest : Mrs. Junko Tabei (Japan)
● The first man to have climber Mount Everest Twice : Nawang Gombu
● The first vessel ever to reach the North Pole by sailing thought the thick Arctic ice :
Soviet Arktika Atomic-powered (ice-breaker)
● The leader of the expedition ‘Ocean to Sky’ : Sir Edmund Hillary
● The first two mountaineers who reached the summit of Everest without using oxygen :
Peter Habeler (Austria) and Reinhold Messner (Italy)
● The first woman Prime Minister of a country twice : Mrs. S. Bandarnaike (Sri Lanka)
● The first President of the USA: George Washington
● The first President of the Chinese Republic : Sun Yet Sen
● The first Governor-General of Pakistan : Mohd. Ali Jinnah
● The first European to visit China : Marco Polo
● The first US President to resign Presidency : Richard Nixon
● The first woman Ambassador of Britain : Anne Warburton
● The first woman Prime Minister of a European Country : Margaret Thatcher
● Woman Bishop : Rev Barbara C. Harris (USA)
● Lady President of a country : Maria Estela Person (Argentina)
● The first Muslim women to win Nobel Prize : Shirin Ebadi.
● Civilian Police Advisor in U.N. : Ms. Kiran Bedi.
● 400 Run maker in an inning of Test Cricket : Brian Lara
● Claimer of hat-trick in first over of test match : Irfan Pathan (India)
● One Thousand wicket taker in international cricket : M. Murlitharan (Sri Lanka)
● 16 thousand runs in ODI : Sachin Tendulkar (2008)
● Hitter of six sixes in an over in T-20 Match : Yuvraj Singh (India)
● 4 wickets taler in 4 consecutive balls in ODI : Lasith Malinga (Srilanka)
● 600 Wickets taker & Century. maker in test cricket : Anil Kumble (India) (2008)
● 8 Gold Medal Winner in Olympic : Michael Phelps (USA) (2008)
● Double Century maker in one day cricket (mens) : Sachin Tendulkar (India)

Road bridge, Longest — Mahatma Gandhi Setu (across Ganga—Patna 5.575 Km.)
Highest, Biggest, Largest & Longest In India
• Award for Gallantry, Highest — Param Vir Chakra
• Award, highest civilian — Bharat Ratna
• Bank with largest number of branches — State Bank of India
• Road bridge, Longest — Mahatma Gandhi Setu (across Ganga—Patna 5.575 Km.)
• Cantilever Span Bridge, Largest — Howrah Bridge (Kolkata)
• Cattle Fair, Largest — Sonepur Fair (Bihar)
• City, Most Populous — Mumbai
• Corridor, Longest — Ramanathaswamy Corridor, Tamil Nadu (1,220 mt.)
• Desert, Largest — Thar (Rajasthan)
• Dam, Longest — Hirakud Dam (Orissa)
• Dam, Highest — Bhakra Dam on river Sutlej (740 ft.)
• Delta, Largest — Sunderban (12,872 Sq. km.)
• Dome, Largest — Gol Gumbaz (Bijapur)
• Gateway, Highest — Buland Darwaja at Fatehpur Sikri (54 m.)
• Lake, Largest — Wular Lake (Kashmir)
• Literacy, Highest — Kerala

• Museum, Largest — Indian Museum (Kolkata)


• Mosque, Biggest — Jama Masjid (Delhi)
• Peak, Highest — K-2 (8,611 mt.)
• Railway Platform, Longest — Kharagpur, SE Railway (2,733 ft.)
• Railway Bridge, Largest — Nehru Setu, Bihar (river Sone)
• River, Longest — The Ganga river (2,525 km.)
• Rainfall, Highest (annual mean) — Mowsyrnam near Cherrapunji (1,080 mm)
(Meghalaya)
• Road, Longest — Grand Trunk Road
• Rock-cut Temple, Largest — KailashTemples, Ellora (Maharashtra)
• State, maximum forest cover — Mizoram (cover 75.5% area)
• Statue Tallest — Statue of Risabhnath (Khargone, M.P.) 84 ft.
• State, Largest (area) — Rajasthan (3,42,239 sq. km.)
• State, Most Populous — Uttar Pradesh (16,61,97,921)
• State with Maximum — West Bengal (903 persons per sq. km.) density of population
• Tunnel, Longest (Road) — Jawahar Tunnel (J & K—1.75 miles)
• Tunnel, Longest (Railway) — Between Monkey Hill and Khandala stations (2,100 mt.
long)
• Tower, Highest — Qutub Minar (Delhi, 72.5 mt.)
• Waterfall, Highest — Gersoppa Waterfall, Mysore (290 m.)
• Zoo, Largest — Zoologica Gardens, Kolkata
• Man-made Lake, Largest — Govind Sagar (Bhakra)
• Longest Run-way — Indira Gandhi International Airport (New Delhi)
• Longest Sea Bridge — Rajiv Gandhi Sea Bridge (Worli-Bandra Sea-Link), Mumbai
• Longest Flyover — PVR-6 Express Way, Hyderabad

Pope John Paul II visited India in February 1986. His first engagement was at Rajghat
where he laid a wreath at the Samadhi of Mahatma Gandhi. Then he delivered the
following speech. My visit to India is a pilgrimage of good will and peace, and the
fulfilment of a desire to experience personally the very soul of your country.

At Rajghat
—John Paul II
It is entirely fitting that this pilgrimage should begin here, at Rajghat, dedicated to the
memory of the illustrious Mahatma Gandhi, the Father of the Nation and ‘apostle of non-
violence”.

The figure of Mahatma Gandhi and the meaning of his life’s work have penetrated the
consciousness of humanity. In his famous words, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru has expressed
the conviction of the whole world : “The light that shone in this country was no ordinary
light.”

Two days ago marked the thirty-eighth anniversary of his death. He who lived by non-
violence appeared to be defeated by violence. For a brief moment the light seemed to
have gone out. Yet his teachings and the example of his life live on in the minds and
hearts of millions of men and women. And so it was said : “The light has gone out of our
lives and there is darkness everywhere and I do not quite know what to tell you and how
to say it …… The light has gone out, I said, and yet I was wrong. For the light that shone
in this country was no ordinary light. The light that has illumined this country for these
many years will illumine this country for many more years ……” Yes, the light is still
shining, and the heritage of Mahatma Gandhi speaks to us still. And today as a pilgrim of
peace I have come here to pay homage to Mahatma Gandhi, hero of humanity.

From this place, which is forever bound to the memory of this extraordinary man, I wish
to express to the people of India and of the world my profound conviction that the peace
and justice of which contemporary society has such great need will only be achieved
along the path which was at the core of his teaching : the supremacy of the spirit and
Satyagraha, the “truthforce”, which conquers without violence by the dynamism intrinsic
to just action.

The power of truth leads us to recognize with Mahatma Gandhi the dignity, equality and
fraternal solidarity of all human beings, and it prompts us to reject every form of
discrimination. It shows us once again the need for mutual understanding, acceptance and
collaboration between religious groups in the pluralist society of modern India and
throughout the world.

The traditional problems of poverty, hunger and disease have not yet been eradicated
from our world. Indeed, in some ways they are more virulent than ever. In addition, new
sources of tension and anxiety have emerged as well. The existence of immense arsenals
of weapons of mass-destruction causes a grave and justified uneasiness in our minds. The
inequality of development favours some and plunges others into inextricable dependence.
In these conditions peace is fragile and injustice abounds.

From this place, which belongs in a sense to the history of the entire human family, I
wish, however, to reaffirm the conviction that with the help of God the construction of a
better world, in peace and justice, lies within the reach of human beings.

But the leaders of peoples, and all men and women of good will, must believe and act on
the belief that the solution lies within the human heart : “from a new heart, peace is
born”. Mahatma Gandhi reveals to us his own heart as he repeats today to those who
listen : “The law of love governs the world …… Truth triumphs over untruth. Love
conquers have ……” (Young India, 23 October, 1924).

In this place, as we meditate on the figure of this man so marked by his noble devotion to
God and his respect for every living being, I wish also to recall those words of Jesus
recorded in the Christian Scriptures—with which the Mahatma was very familiar and in
which he found the confirmation of the deep thoughts of his heart :

“Blessed are the poor in spirit,


for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
Blessed are those who mourn,
for they shall be comforted.
Blessed are the meek,
for they shall inherit the earth.
Blessed are those who hunger and thirst
for righteousness,
for they shall be satisfied.
Blessed are the merciful,
for they shall obtain mercy.
Blessed are the pure in heart,
for they shall see God.
Blessed are the peacemakers,
for they shall be called sons of God.
Blessed are those who are persecuted
for righteousness’ sake, for their is the
kingdom of heaven” (Mt 5 : 3 – 10).

May these words, and other expressions in the sacred books of the great religious
traditions present on the fruitful soul of India be a source of inspiration to all peoples, and
to their leaders, in the search for justice among people and peace between all the nations
of the world.

Mahatma Gandhi taught that if all men and women, whatever the differences between
them, cling to the truth, with respect for the unique dignty of every human being, a new
world order—a civilization of love—can be achieved. And today we hear him still
pleading with the world : “Conquer hate by love, untruth by truth, violence by suffering.”
May God guide us and bless us as we strive to walk together, hand in hand, and build
together a world of peace !

Latest News

ShareThis

A Great Speech by Abraham Lincoln

Great Speech

The Gettysburg Speech


—Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln, President of U.S.A.
hat from these honoured dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they
gave the last full measure of devotion; that we here highly resolve that these dead shall
not have died in vain; that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom; and
that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the
earth.