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Delivery System To Increase The Selectivity Of Drugs In Phagocytic Cells:

Resealed Erythrocytes.
Godge G.R., Pawar S.P, Bhange S.A, Munshi Z.M.

Address: P.D.V.V.P.F’S College of Pharmacy, Ahmednagar-414111.


Email : grgodge@yahoo.com

Abstract:

Phagocytic cells are an essential component of the immune system and their main
function is to ingest and destroy microorganisms. There are different types of phagocytic
cells, such as blood polymorphonuclear leucocytes, (neutrophils or granulocytes), able to
migrate to sites of infection. Monocytes are another type of phagocytic cell that are also
found in the blood stream. When monocytes leave the circulation and penetrate tissues,
they change shape and become macrophages. Pathogenic microorganisms are sometimes
able to survive and reproduce after they have been ingested by phagocytic cells,
especially macrophages, which hinder the treatment of this type of infection. The
intracellular location of these microorganisms protects them from the host defense
mechanisms and from the action of drugs, which may encounter difficulties in
penetrating phagocytic cells.
Carrier erythrocytes, resealed erythrocytes loaded by a drug or other therapeutic agents,
have been exploited extensively in recent years for both temporally and spatially
controlled delivery of a wide variety of drugs and other bioactive agents owing to their
remarkable degree of biocompatibility, biodegradability and a series of other potential
advantages.
One strategy used to improve the penetration of drugs into phagocytic cells is the use of
carrier systems that deliver these drugs directly to the target cell. Delivery systems such
as liposomes, micro/nanoparticles, lipid systems, conjugates, and biological carriers such
as erythrocyte ghosts may contribute to increasing the therapeutic efficacy of various
agents in the treatment of infections caused by intracellular microorganisms.
The advancement of carrier erythrocytes through their five decades of development has
covered a wide variety of drugs and other bioactive agents. This is mainly due to their
remarkable degree of biocompatibility, biodegradability, availability and ease of
preparation and use, the most important among other advantages. The controlled and/or
targeted release of biopharmaceuticals is among the mostly attractive applications of
erythrocyte carriers in drug delivery in the recent decade. In this context, a series of
successful studies have been carried out to extend the benefits of these cellular carriers to
peptide/protein, gene/oligonucleotide and vaccine delivery.
Drug-containing erythrocytes, known as erythrocyte ghosts, and more recently bacterial
ghosts are able to selectively direct antibiotics to the phagocytic cells of the RES, and are
potentially useful for the treatment of infections caused by intracellular microorganisms.
Erythrocytes account for most of the blood cells and are the main transporters of oxygen
to the cells and tissues of the organism. When they age, they are lysed in the circulation
or phagocytosed in the RES, especially in the spleen, where they are attacked by
lysosomal enzymes, which cause the cell membrane to break and haemoglobin to
degrade. Erythrocytes are potential biocompatible vectors for different bioactive
substances, including drugs and proteins. They may find clinical application as drug
reservoirs able to provide sustained release in the organism or as vehicles to selectively
direct drugs to the RES, especially the liver, spleen and bone marrow.
In this article, the potential applications of erythrocytes in drug delivery have been
reviewed with a particular stress on the studies on successful erythrocyte loading.

Key-words: Phagocytic cells, resealed erythrocytes, erythrocyte ghosts, Reticulo


Endothelial System, biopharmaceuticals.