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Comparison Between Different Fibers

Proper Asbest
ties Cotton Flax Wool Silk Jute Sisal Polyester
os

Protein Cellulose
Cellulose Cellulose Protein Cellulose Mineral Polymer
(NATURAL (NATURAL
(NATURAL) (NATURAL) (NATURAL) (NATURAL) (NATURAL) (MAN MADE)
) )
Creamy Yellow to brown and
Creamy white or white 2 continuous Sisal Fibers Colorless It has
125-150 white Yellowish white, sometimes grey.
color or pale yellow to filament have 6% lignin Occur in crystalline and smooth and
convolutions color, Smooth, uniform, Natural Silky and
brown color acc. To cemented by and 94% form partially glass like
per inch when its lustrous appearance Lustrous. Rough and
breed. sericin gum. cellulose transparent structure
picked harsh feel
In raw form- Continuous strand
Natural Luster. English Rough and off form made by number If processing is
Structur Appearance depends on Smooth shiny and
Wool has mote luster white, low of fibers bound done correctly
Retting. Dew Retting can regular surface
e& than Merino Wool. luster. together. then creamy
Fair luster. cause a black or grey resembling Glass
Appeara coloring of fiber
Natural Crimp is Degummed Bound by gummy white with a
fibers Little luster can be
Convolutions Can be present in Wool Silk-more luster material called as good luster
nce are important increased
reduced by adding
and shine. Lignin. delusturant Titanium
For by
Coarser fibers have Degummed silk Dioxide (TiO2) during
spin ability Mercerizat
darker and finer have white and semi production
ion Luster improves when Individual
light color. Finer have transparent Jute fiber contains
impurities fibers are bound Mineral obtained in
30 twist/inch and coarser color. Finer fiber 20% Lignin
are improved by natural gum form of silicates
have 2 to 3 twists per in center of
inch cocoon.
Polyester
Sericin b/w two fiber are
Diameter of Epicuticle has thickness filaments .Silk Retting sometimes manufactu
Sometimes Harder as Polyester is
Cotton ranges Mean diameter is about of 10-10 m Epithelial layer has rough destroys the cells red in
30 compared to also
to 12 20 microns(0.02mm) has avg thickness of 0.05 surface and giving a hairy variety of
Microns Bast fibers available in
to 20 microns to 0.5 microns cracks in its appearance to it. counts and
sericin layer staple micro
lengths denier (0.7)
form called
Fine Finest Crystals – No limit as micro
Coarser
Structur Diameter of flax varies fibers have
fibers have
Combined form But retting doesn’t to the fibers fiber
e at 2000 give oval shape separate individual
700 scales
different points scales per to the silk strand fiber from each other
per inch
Individual cotton fiber has inch Continuous
two walls Avg length of Cortex is strand Form
Primary & Secondary 80 to 110 microns, width In beginning its Leaf Fiber
Individual fiber length Fine and lustrous
is 2 to 5 microns and coarser ,and in Shiny surface with smooth
ranges from ¾ to 3 shine on fiber, when
thickness is 1 to 3 end its becomes texture
inches lignin is removed
microns finer

Average Fiber Longer are


Different fiber length can
In strand Length of length of coarser Strand of raw Strand form
Individual fiber = be achieved in multi
form strand is wool fiber and silk of diameter length is about
0.1 inch Length of Asbestos filament, monofilament
(3 feet) 8 to 24 is 1.5 to 15 Shorter are 0.178mm 2 to 4 feet
inches Fiber varies from and short staple
inches finer
0.5 to 15 inches
Fiber 1.5 inch 2.5 to 3 inch Fine wools Medium Degummed silk
Length of Jute in Individual Fiber
Length (Pakistan) (Egypt) have 1 to have 2.5 to has diameter of
6 inches
strand form is 7 feet Length is about Fine fiber as micro fiber
But after breaking and 1.5 inches 0.0127 mm.
0.1 inch. can be made with its extra
scutching the length Length of Silk
Mean diameter of Cannot be used fine properties
becomes 16 inches Coarser have 5 to 15 strand is 1 to 2
individual jute fiber is in individual
inches of length Km
about 0.022 mm form
Polyesters in which
Titanium dioxide is used
Degummed silk
Specific have1.40. Most
1. 54 1. 54 1.32 has 1.25. Raw 1.5 1.5
Gravity Polyesters have 1.38
silk has 1.5
and modified have
1.25 -1.50
Good moisture
absorbency. Even at
Under
Under (std Cond.) Very low 100%
At 65% Wool absorbs more Great Normal
Absorbs it regains 11%. moisture humidity
humidity, Moisture regain moisture than any other affinity condition
moisture Under humid Absorbs regain of its
moisture of 12%. fiber. Under Std of , it has
from conditions regains moisture readily 0.4% at moisture
regain of More than cotton Conditions , moisture absorbing moisture
atmosphere. 35%. Strength (std regain is
8.5% regain of 16 to 18% moisture regain of
decreases by 15 Cond.) only 0.6 –
13.75%
to 25% when 0.8%
Effects it’s wet. It doesn’t absorb
of Wool can regain 35% of water
Moisture moisture from air. In wet Under Strength
Low
state strength of wool Can also absorbs Strength moisture
humid decreases in Quick
100% decreases but its volume salts in nature. decreases absorption
condition wet form in the drying
humidity, increases by 10%.Hot This property by 10 to generates
strong 20% 20% strong in wet s regain presence of salt property.
regain of water damages wool. it helps in the 15% more
in wet state conditions looses its elasticity &
of 23/% in water. The Good
20% to processing of when it is static
becomes completely. At approx product gets wash
25% increasing the in wet electricity
120oC water dissolves same to heavy when its ability
weight of fabric. condition in the
wool. By absorbing water, cotton wet
fibers
wool releases heat.
Good Bad conductor of
At 150oC, Withstands
resistant to Good resistance to heat. heat. Most Since its
decomposes Resistant to heat. At higher
heat. At At 100oC wool softens. Good outstanding thermopla Melting
more 120oC its temperature in
120oC, At 130oC it decomposes insulation, property. Resistant stic it point is
quickly, at color starts to change comparison to Good insulator of heat
small and turns yellow. At because of air to heat at even high melts and 238-290oC
Thermal visible
240oC, it before
300oC it burns giving wool. At 140oC, pockets temperatures. Its form
Properti readily it decomposes. it remains
change is smell burning feathers. doesn’t burn or beads
es decomposes unaffected.
seen catch fire or melt
At 175oC it
Good conductors of heat decomposes and 15% strength is lost
Wool burns in flame and Air When exposed to
Burns giving paper like therefore, they are used gives smell of Ability of trapping air when prolonged
when its removed, its permeability is temperature above
smell leaving Ash in hot countries like burning hairs. inside exposure at 150o C and
stops burning good 300oC can turn red
Pakistan 50% at 185oC
Less photo
Good resistance to
degradation as
Keratin present in wool sunlight, better than
Photo compared to wool. Sunlight has no effect
Slightly Its decomposes in presence Loss in strength Nylon. On prolonged
degradation is No Sulphur. Gradual loss of on asbestos.
Effect Of Loss of effected strength of sunlight. Sulphur when its exposed exposure, photo
accelerated in Attack by strength when Atmospheric oxygen
Sunlight strength
the presence
by gradually present in wool is
atmospheric exposed to sunlight
to sunlight for a
also doesn’t effect
degradation occurs, but
sunlight decreases converted to H2SO4 and long time doesn’t become yellow.
of Moisture oxygen with Asbestos
.discolors wool UV light destroys inner
sunlight causes
hydrogen bonds
lost in strength
Cold dilute acids Hot
Wool is
Can withstand cold (No). Hot dilute Cold weak
only Keratin is Cold weak acids Good resistance to
Highly Attacked by dilute acids. However (YES) weak and
attacked sensitive doesn’t harm it, string acids at room
resistant hot(dil) and hot (dil) Concentrated acids acids cold
by hot to most of hot weak and temperature but hot
to Cold(conc.) and cold (Conc.) can attack Fibroin does not (conc.)
sulphuric the cold (conc.) can strong acids can destroy
chemicals acids acids of Silk and harm acids
acid and .Alkalis destroy the fiber polyester
damage it. damaging amino the fiber destroy
nitric acid
links. the fiber
Great care Moderate conc. Not affected by weak
Highly resistant to
Wool is is taken Acids can cause Alkalis at room
Chemical Not attacked by cold dilute chemicals, acids and
Resistant to Alkalis. dissolved when wool contraction in Silk, Sodium temperature. Its not
acids. Excellent resistant to organic solvents and
Propertie alkalis.
Its difficult to bleach in caustic is washed used as creped Hydroxi In most of the
commonly used
dissolved by most of the
s b/c of its hard surface soda is treated fabrics. Organic de, cases it’s not Organic Solvents. Not
textile chemicals at
solution. by solvents attack the Very Soda bleached because affected by dry cleaning
high concentrations
detergents. surface. sensitive Ash and it’s used for rope. agents
Alkalis to most bleachi If they are
Bringing destroy of the ng bleached they are
Cupra-Ammonium Alkalis
Has good resistance to crushed more agents bleached with Strong Alkalis destroy
hydroxide and
Not effected by organic solvents, such as appearan than not low PH alkaline polyester at room
cupriethylene diamine can
organic solvents dry cleaning agents and ce called wool. recomm solution temperature and degrade
dissolve cotton(Organic as
solvents NaOH ended it at high temperatures
Solvents) Scroop. dissolv
es Silk
After 50
Good age Extremely resistant to
years of As the time passes
Can be Shows little loss in resistance. Its used aging. Can be stored As it’s a man made fiber
Effect Of storage it Can be store atmospheric Good age
stored for strength after a long for storage and for long period of its age factor is
Age long time
doesn’t show for long time
period of storage
oxygen destroys its
gradually can be
resistance.
time without any loss excellent.
loss in strength.
stored for log time in strength
strength
Microorganism attack
Wool has poor resistance
Resistanc can increase in humid
to microorganisms. Microorganisms
e Attacked by Fungi, Mildew conditions. Resistance Mildew neither discolors
Mildew and fungi can Better resistant Good resistance to destroy it when Not at all attacked by
can feed on cotton and increases in pure nor weakens polyester.
to Micro - make it weak bleached form.
attack and damage wool. than wool fibers microorganisms its for long Microorganisms
Good resistance
Organism This is due to Keratin period of time
Mildews can attack it
s serves as food
in unbleached form
Resistanc Bleaching and Good resistance
Fiber is highly Can be attacked by Insects can attack food
scouring increases to insects when Not attacked by
e To Its not attacked by Insects resistant to the attack Insects damages Wool insects and
the resistance Lignin is insects
stains on the fabric,
Insects of insects microorganisms damaging fibers
removes lignin removed

Alamgir Khan® (08-TE-07)