Anda di halaman 1dari 12


PAPER SERIES 2001-01-2501

Comparative Study of Hybrid

Powertrain Strategies
Jim Walters, Harry Husted and Kaushik Rajashekara
Delphi Automotive Systems

Reprinted From: New Energy Systems and Environmental Impact


Future Transportation Technology Conference

Costa Mesa, California
August 20-22, 2001

400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001 U.S.A. Tel: (724) 776-4841 Fax: (724) 776-5760
The appearance of this ISSN code at the bottom of this page indicates SAE’s consent that copies of the
paper may be made for personal or internal use of specific clients. This consent is given on the condition,
however, that the copier pay a $8.00 per article copy fee through the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc.
Operations Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923 for copying beyond that permitted by Sec-
tions 107 or 108 of the U.S. Copyright Law. This consent does not extend to other kinds of copying such as
copying for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective works,
or for resale.

SAE routinely stocks printed papers for a period of three years following date of publication. Direct your
orders to SAE Customer Sales and Satisfaction Department.

Quantity reprint rates can be obtained from the Customer Sales and Satisfaction Department.

To request permission to reprint a technical paper or permission to use copyrighted SAE publications in
other works, contact the SAE Publications Group.

All SAE papers, standards, and selected

books are abstracted and indexed in the
Global Mobility Database

No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise, without the prior written
permission of the publisher.

ISSN 0148-7191
Copyright 2001 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.

Positions and opinions advanced in this paper are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of SAE. The author is solely
responsible for the content of the paper. A process is available by which discussions will be printed with the paper if it is published in
SAE Transactions. For permission to publish this paper in full or in part, contact the SAE Publications Group.

Persons wishing to submit papers to be considered for presentation or publication through SAE should send the manuscript or a 300
word abstract of a proposed manuscript to: Secretary, Engineering Meetings Board, SAE.

Printed in USA

Comparative Study of Hybrid Powertrain Strategies

Jim Walters, Harry Husted and Kaushik Rajashekara
Delphi Automotive Systems

Copyright © 2001 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.

ABSTRACT These five vehicles represent hundreds of man-years of

engineering and design effort by five of the world’s major
Hybrid electric vehicles have the potential to reduce air automakers. In addition, they are in most cases the
pollution and improve fuel economy without sacrificing product of a sequence of hybrid vehicle learning
the present conveniences of long range and available experiences and the attendant prior effort. By our
infrastructure that conventional vehicles offer. Hybrid analysis, we hope to gain a view into the future of
vehicles are generally classified as series or parallel successful hybrid electric drivetrain strategies. Keeping
hybrids. A series hybrid vehicle is essentially an electric in mind that these vehicles represent the
vehicle with an on-board source of power for charging subcompact/compact class of passenger cars, the
the batteries. In a parallel hybrid vehicle, the engine and conclusions drawn will be most relevant to this class of
the electric motor can be used to drive the vehicle vehicle, versus, for example, large sport utility vehicles.
simultaneously. There are various possible
configurations of parallel hybrid vehicles depending on VEHICLE COMPARISON
the role of the electric motor/generator and the engine.
A comparison of the five hybrid vehicles selected for this
In this paper, a comparative study of the drivetrains of paper must first start with the acknowledgement that
five different hybrid vehicles is presented. The these vehicles were developed with different goals in
underlying design architectures are examined, with mind. Therefore, we should expect the resulting
analysis as to the tradeoffs and advantages represented products to lie in somewhat different directions. Both the
in these architectures. Where appropriate, comparisons Prius and the Insight were designed to be produced in
to five popular non-hybrid vehicles are made to give the volume, marketed, and sold to the public in Japan and
reader a sense of perspective. The primary drivetrain the United States. In contrast, the PNGV vehicles were
components of engine, transmission, electric machine, designed to meet a set of pre-established targets that
inverter, and battery pack are evaluated and changes to included an especially aggressive fuel economy target.
the user interface paradigm are highlighted. Based on The build volume for each was a small handful of
the comparative study, hybrid drivetrain technology vehicles at most. However, if we keep these two paths
strategies for future vehicles are proposed. in mind, we can hold open the possibility of charting a
future path by balancing what is commercially available
INTRODUCTION in today’s market against what is possible with HEV
technology from the PNGV vehicles.
Presently there are two production hybrid electric
vehicles (HEV) on sale in the United States: the Toyota To begin our study, a comparison to five non-HEV
Prius and the Honda Insight. Both of these vehicles have passenger cars is presented. This information is
unique design approaches that were incorporated in included to give the reader a sense of perspective by
order to attain lower emissions and increased fuel showing passenger cars currently sold in high volume in
economy. North America. The five conventional (non-HEV)
vehicles are the 2001 Chevrolet Impala, DaimlerChrysler
In addition, DaimlerChrysler, Ford, and General Motors Concorde, Ford Taurus, Honda Accord, and Toyota
have developed Technology Demonstration Vehicles Camry. The first three cars are the progeny of the three
(TDV) to satisfy the requirements of the Partnership for a original 1994 PNGV reference vehicles. The latter two
New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) [1]. The primary cars represent popular, high-volume cars in the U.S.,
PNGV requirement was to develop a family sedan with a and also represent non-HEV offerings by the two
fuel economy of 80 mpg. The three concept vehicles that manufacturers currently offering HEV vehicles for sale in
were developed for the project, ESX3, P2000 and the U.S
Precept, each differ in terms of the hybrid architecture
selected as well as the underlying electric drive Figure 1 shows a vehicle size and mass comparison of
technology. the five non-HEV vehicles to the HEV vehicles in this
study. Vehicle length is used as an approximation of
Vehicle Length vs. Curb Weight Engine Electric 5 speed
Integral Front
5.50 3-cyl. Machine Elec. Shifted
Differential Wheels
5.10 (Dual Clutch)
Vehicle Length (m)

4.70 Inverter Battery
4.50 Electronics Pack
4.10 a. DaimlerChrysler ESX3
Engine Electric 5 speed
3.50 Integral Front
4-cyl. Machine Elec. Shifted
Differential Wheels
800 1000 1200 1400 1600 CIDI 8kW AC Ind. M/T

Curb Weight (kg)

Non-HEV HEV Linear Fit (Non-HEV)

Inverter Battery
Electronics Pack
Figure 1. Vehicle Length vs. Curb Weight
b. Ford P2000
vehicle size on this graph. All the HEV's are lower in
mass than the non-HEV cars. The larger of the HEV's Electric Integral
are comparable to the smaller of the conventional Front
Machine Reducer &
passenger cars. A line was fitted through the non-HEV 25kW IPM Differential

vehicles and then extrapolated down to the minimum

curb weight. It is notable that the 840-kilogram Honda
Insight rests nearly on this extrapolated line, indicating it Battery
has the same length-to-mass ratio as the 2001 non-HEV Pack
vehicles. This would indicate that it is not a lighter Electronics
vehicle per se, just smaller. The two HEV vehicles
above the line are lighter per unit length than Engine Electric 4 speed
Integral Rear
conventional vehicles, indicating that mass has been 3-cyl. Machine Elec. Shifted
Differential Wheels
reduced while maintaining vehicle size.
(No Reverse)

ARCHITECTURE - To begin the comparison of the c. GM Precept

hybrid drivetrains, we will examine the drivetrain
architectures. The architectures for the drivetrains are Engine Electric
CVT or Integral Front
shown in figure 2. As can be seen, the vehicles fall into 3-cyl. Machine 5 speed M/T Differential Wheels
two categories: mild hybrids with electric machines Gasoline 10kW IPM
mounted in the engine-transmission interface zone and
medium hybrids with two electric machines and a higher Starter
level of electric propulsion capability. Inverter Battery
Electronics Pack

The DaimlerChrysler ESX3, Ford P2000, and Honda

Insight represent the mild hybrids. These vehicles have d. Honda Insight
a very similar engine and electric machine architecture,
but differ in the area of transmissions. One difference in
the Honda Insight architecture is the use of a Battery
conventional 12V cranking motor. On the surface, this Pack
Generator Inverter
hardware appears curiously redundant with the 10kW
10kW IPM
crankshaft-mounted machine. However, this choice
allows battery pack size to be reduced by avoiding cold- Engine
Planetary Reduction
cranking issues. 3-cyl. Gearing

The medium hybrids are the GM Precept and Toyota

Prius. These vehicles each use considerably different Wheels
drivetrain arrangements. The GM Precept is unique in
offering four-wheel drive through the use of a coaxial e. Toyota Prius
electric machine driving the front wheels in conjunction
with an engine/IMG combination in the rear. Also unique Figure 2. Drivetrain Architectures
is the fact that the heat engine is rear-mounted in the
because more energy is being recaptured in the city
Peak Power-to-Weight Ratio cycle.
HEV Avg.=8.1
DRIVETRAIN SIZING – One metric that can be used to
Mild Medium
evaluate the size of the powertrain for a vehicle is the
7.00 power-to-weight ratio. For the purposes of comparison,
Ratio (kW/100 kg)

the peak power of the engine and the electric machines
5.00 that provide propulsion were added together to calculate
4.00 a peak power for the hybrid vehicles. Figure 3 shows the
3.00 2
peak power-to-weight ratios for the five hybrid vehicles
2.00 3
and the five non-HEV vehicles . For the HEV vehicles in
this paper, the peak engine plus electric ratios were very
800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600
consistent across all vehicles in a broad weight
Vehicle Weight (kg)
spectrum, with an average of 6.74 kW per 100 kg. of
curb weight. This would seem to indicate a similar set of
Peak Engine + Electric Ratio
Engine-Only Ratio performance goals that the vehicles were attempting to
Non-HEV Engine-Only meet in the area of acceleration and hill climbing ability.
As can be seen in figure 3, three of the five conventional
Figure 3. Peak Power-to-Weight Ratio cars have a very similar power-to-weight ratio as the
hybrid vehicles. Two higher-output engines skew the
vehicle. This unconventional mounting choice allows for non-HEV average to 8.1 kW per 100 kg. Overall, this is
reduced exhaust system length and for significant gains an indication that the hybrid powertrains are adequately
in vehicle aerodynamics by allowing a full belly pan and sized to provide performance similar to, but slightly lower
rear-quarter cooling openings [2]. Because the front than, popular non-HEV cars in the North American
electric machine is adequately sized, it can provide the market.
propulsion for the vehicle in the reverse direction,
allowing elimination of reverse gear in the transmission. By examining the engine-only power-to-weight ratios in
Finally, a unique drive scheme for the HVAC compressor figure 3, we can see a clear distinction between the three
on the rear electric machine allows heating and cooling mild hybrids (the three leftmost sets of points) and the
when the engine is off and direct use of regenerative two medium hybrids (the two rightmost sets of points).
braking energy. The medium hybrids have significantly lower engine-only
ratios, and use a larger electric motor to achieve the
The Toyota Prius architecture includes an internal desirable power-to-weight ratio. This strategy allows the
combustion engine and two electric machines arranged use of a relatively smaller internal combustion engine on
to allow both parallel and series hybrid operation. This these vehicles which can aid in higher fuel economy.
architecture uses a planetary gearset to allow “power The electric machine is used to supplement the engine’s
splitting” of the engine power between the electric power for more rapid accelerations and for grade
generator and the power going to the wheels. The climbing.
planetary gearset and reduction gearing take the place of
a “conventional” multi-geared transmission and
implement a continuously variable transmission (CVT)
function. The generator can draw power from the engine
to charge the battery pack or power the main propulsion As can be seen in the architecture diagrams in figure 2,
electric machine in a series hybrid configuration . The all the vehicles have a common set of drivetrain
propulsion electric machine can drive the wheels subsystems. In this paper we will examine and compare
simultaneously with the engine, thus implementing a the following major drivetrain subsystems: heat engine,
parallel hybrid function [3]. transmission, electric machine(s), inverter, and battery
The medium hybrids have the advantage of being able to
more aggressively recapture vehicle kinetic energy HEAT ENGINE – The combination of significantly
because the electric machine, inverter, and battery are reduced mass and electric hybridization allows the use of
sized for higher power levels. More kinetic energy smaller engines in the HEV’s than is normal for this
recaptured equates to increased driving efficiency. The vehicle size. Table 1 shows a comparison of the engines
penalty incurred for this benefit is increased system employed in the five vehicles. As can be seen in the
complexity, cost, and mass. Such efficiency gains are table, the engines all have 3 or 4 cylinders and range in
mainly visible in city driving schedules and are less displacement from 1.0 to 1.5 liters. The two production
appreciable in highway cycles. For example, the 2001 vehicles use gasoline spark-ignited (SI) engines, while
Prius is rated at 52 mpg city, 45 mpg highway in the US
[4]. A significantly lower highway rating is very unusual in
non-HEV vehicles, but is understandable in the Prius 2
A scaling of kilowatts per 100 kilograms of curb weight
was used, as it provided conveniently scaled results.
1 3
In this series configuration the power travels through Base models with base engines were used for all
two inverters, incurring an extra efficiency loss. makes.
60 140
Turbocharged CIDI
50 120

Specific Torque (Nm/L)

Specific Power (kW/L)

C 100
40 Engine capability C is
higher than used in
this application 80
Normally Aspirated Gasoline SI


0 0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
Engine Displacement (Liters) Engine Displacement (Liters)


Figure 4: Specific Power vs. Displacement Figure 5: Specific Torque vs. Displacement

the three PNGV vehicles use compression-ignition schemes are in production on non-HEV cars, but are
direct-injection (CIDI) engines. beneficial to the HEV's because they offer the ability to
design for improved fuel economy in normal rpm ranges
The three PNGV vehicles use compression ignition and higher power at higher rpm.
(CIDI) engines because a study of fuel economy
projections showed a CIDI parallel hybrid as the only Figure 4 shows the specific power for the five HEV
drivetrain with the potential to offer 80 mpg, an important engines and the five non-HEV engines from the 2001
PNGV goal [5]. These engines offer inherently higher cars mentioned earlier. It is quickly apparent that the
cycle efficiency compared to gasoline SI engines. The HEV engines are much lower in displacement, with the
P2000 engine boasts a peak efficiency of 43% [6] and closest non-HEV engines being the base 4-cylinder
the Precept engine achieves greater than 40% efficiency engines on the Accord and Camry. In terms of
at high loads [7]. The use of electronically controlled maximum power per liter they are roughly on par with
common rail fuel injection gives these engines a number their non-HEV counterparts. This might be expected for
of benefits: the gasoline engines since they use very similar engine
technologies (4 valves per cylinder, variable valve timing,
• Audible noise reduction through the use of pilot etc.). This is also laudable since the primary goals for
injection the HEV's were fuel economy and emissions. Power is
• Precise injection timing and quantity still very important - the vehicles need a certain power-to-
• Reductant provision for the catalyst through the use weight ratio for acceptable acceleration and gradeability.
of post injection
Specific torque of the engines is shown in figure 5. The
All three CIDI engines also employ turbocharging to higher torque of the turbocharged diesels is clearly
significantly improve low-end torque and volumetric apparent. They are over 30% higher than the highest SI
efficiency. While CIDI engines have a low application engine in specific torque. This is explained by the
rate in North America, they are increasingly popular in natural benefits of turbocharging as well as the higher
the European car market. cylinder pressures associated with CI engines. The
gasoline SI engines offered in the hybrids are
The two production hybrids, the Insight and Prius, use comparable in specific torque to their non-HEV
gasoline SI engines. The choice of a gasoline engine is counterparts.
in line with the US car market as a whole, which has a
very low penetration rate for diesel engines in cars. (In TRANSMISSION – The transmission choices for the
1999, only 13,600 diesel-engine cars were sold in the hybrid vehicles fall into two groups: continuously-variable
US, out of a total of 8.7 million cars [8].) Both engines transmissions (CVT) and automatically-shifted manual
also employ 4 valves per cylinder and variable valve (ASM) transmissions. Both production HEV's come with
timing schemes, with the Prius using Toyota’s VVT-i and a CVT , which provides a smooth application of torque
the Insight using Honda’s VTEC-E. VVT-i offers as the vehicle accelerates and allows the engine to be
continuously variable valve timing adjustment while held at desirable operating speeds relatively independent
VTEC-E offers two lobe profiles allowing switching
between two distinct sets of timing and lift. Both of these The Insight entered the U.S. market with a manual
transmission and will be offered with a CVT in 2001. In
Commonly known as “diesel” engines. Japan, both transmissions are available.
ESX3 P2000 Insight Precept Prius
Engine Type CIDI CIDI Gas CIDI Gas
# of Cylinders 3 4 3 3 4
Displacement (Liters) 1.5 1.2 1.0 1.3 1.5
Peak Power (kW) 55 kW 55 kW 50 kW 40 kW 53 kW
Peak Torque (Nm) 153 Nm 90 Nm 170 Nm 112 Nm
Compression Ratio 10.8:1 17.6:1 13:1
Engine Details Turbocharger 4V/cyl., SOHC, 4V/cyl., DOHC, 4V/cyl., DOHC, 4V/cyl.,
with intercooler, Turbocharger VTEC-E variable Turbocharger with VVT-i Variable
common rail with variable valve lift & timing variable geometry & valve timing
fuel injection, geometry, intercooling, common
all-aluminum; common rail rail fuel injection
fuel injection
Engine Mass 113 kg. 110kg. 80 kg.
(including elec.
Transmission 6 speed 5 speed CVT 4 speed E-CVT
Automatically- Automatically- or 5 speed M/T Automatically-shifted
shifted manual shifted manual manual, (no reverse)
with 2-clutch
Configuration Parallel IMG Parallel IMG Parallel IMG Series/Parallel Series/Parallel
Machine #1 Type PM (15 kW) IM (8 kW) PM (10 kW) PM (25 kW) PM (33kW)
Machine #2 Type N/A N/A N/A PM (10 kW) PM
Sensor Resolver 90 tooth 3 hall sensor and 2 Resolvers
quadrature target wheel
Switch Technology IGBT IGBT IGBT IGBT
Bus Voltage Vdc 150 V 280 V 144 V 350 V 288 V
Machine #1 Regen. Braking Regen Braking Regen. Braking Vehicle Launch Vehicle Launch
Functionality Starter/Alt. Starter/Alt. Starter/Alt.(warm) Regen. Braking Regen. Braking
Motor Boost Motor Boost Motor Boost Reverse
Firing pulse Firing pulse Firing pulse Acceleration
Smoothing Smoothing Smoothing Boost
Machine #2 N/A N/A N/A Starter/Alt. Alternator
Functionality Regen. Braking Motor Boost
Motor Boost Starter
AC Compressor Drive
Synchronize gear
Table 1: Summary of Hybrid Drivetrain Technology by Vehicle

of vehicle speed to achieve economy or performance. braking energy to go directly to the compressor, avoiding
The three PNGV vehicles all use ASM transmissions. the electrical round-trip losses through the battery.
This type of transmission offers the automatic control of
shift selection that is desirable for fuel economy and ELECTRIC MACHINE – The mild hybrid vehicles use an
performance, while providing the near-perfect integrated motor generator (IMG) system while the
transmission efficiency of a manual transmission. The higher power applications use a dual-machine approach.
DaimlerChrysler ASM is unique in offering a dual clutch An IMG system has an electric machine attached to the
arrangement with alternating gears on two shafts end of the transmission such that the rotor is linked to
(even/odd). This scheme allows for continuous the crankshaft. Due to driveline volume constraints, the
application of torque, with no interruptions during shifting challenging thermal environment and the engine’s
[9]. Conventional single-clutch ASM transmission dynamics, this configuration requires careful attention to
experience a torque interruption during shifting, which design considerations.
can dissatisfy the driver [10].
In the dual-machine strategy, a motor either driving a
The GM Precept has a novel transmission feature that separate axle or integrated through a planetary gear
allows the air conditioning compressor to be driven system to the engine is used. These systems have an
directly off the input shaft of the transaxle [11]. This additional machine that acts primarily as a
allows the compressor to be powered by the engine or motor/generator and is interfaced to the engine through a
the electric machine, which means the electric machine gear assembly. Table 1 summarizes the hybrid systems
can continue to run the HVAC compressor even after the for the vehicles evaluated.
engine shuts off. This scheme also allows regenerative
Of the vehicles that use an IMG system, the permanent there is more axial space available which allows a lower
magnet (PM) machine has been more commonly pole number machine and higher torque capability. The
selected. This choice can be understood from an Prius system has an advantage in that both machines
efficiency and energy density perspective. Efficiency is and their inverters are located close together. This
important to the overall vehicle but can also impact the allows for simplicity in the cooling system as well as the
motor design since less heat will be dissipated in a more wiring system.
efficient machine. In addition, the PM machine’s high
energy density helps to meet the demanding volume For both the Precept and the Prius, liquid cooling was
constraints of the IMG systems. Nevertheless, care used for the propulsion machine and the
must be taken to make sure the machine does not motor/generator. Liquid cooling helps to increase the
become too small for a given power level since air- continuous power rating and the length of time that peak
cooling may become inadequate. power can be provided. However, the use of liquid
cooling does add cost, mass, and complexity. A PM
The ESX3 uses a conventional 12 pole interior PM machine may appear to have less-challenging cooling
machine. This motor design utilizes both magnet and needs due to its higher efficiency. But, due to the higher
reluctance torque to increase the torque/current ratio. In energy density, cooling could become complex because
order to further reduce phase currents over the operating the heat generation is more concentrated. In summary,
range, field-weakened operation is used [12]. This mode the need for a liquid-cooling system is a clear
of operation reduces the inverter currents for low and disadvantage relative to the air-cooled IMG systems.
moderate speeds but requires more attention to the
machine controller’s performance under high-speed With PM machines, there are some safety/protection
conditions since loss of field-weakening can cause an concerns that need to be addressed. If a large field-
over-voltage condition on the power bus. weakening range is used, the electronics need to be
protected in case of a controller fault. This is because
The Insight machine is a 12-pole surface mounted the induced electromotive force (EMF) in the machine
magnet design featuring a bobbin-wound stator. This exceeds the Power Bus voltage throughout the field-
unique construction helps to simplify construction and weakened region. The protection can be provided by
reduce manufacturing costs [13]. The peak torque of the ensuring that the short circuit current causes enough
Insight machine is inadequate for cold temperature voltage drop in the machine to protect the electronics or
engine cranking at –29C [14]. During these conditions a by over-designing the inverter using higher-voltage
conventional starter is used. This design choice was capacitors and switches. There is also a concern of the
likely made to help mitigate the challenge of designing a amount of torque that will be produced during a machine
machine with a high-torque/low-speed region and a wide or inverter fault. This torque is generally quite small due
constant power range. to the fact that it is out of phase with the motor currents.
At low speeds, the in-phase component will increase but
Ford’s P2000 utilizes an induction machine (IM). A PM the current level is much lower. Hence, the loss of field-
machine was not selected due to high-temperature weakening control issue as generally perceived is not a
demagnetization concerns [15]. IMG systems are major concern in the PM machine.
located close to the heat engine as well as the
transmission, which can cause high operating INVERTER - The IMG systems with a PM machine use a
temperatures under heavy loads. The P2000 machine voltage near 150 V while the higher power systems use a
has a rather large torque capability of 300 Nm for higher voltage in the 288-360 V range. Ford’s induction-
cranking. Due to this high cranking torque, there is likely based IMG vehicle uses a 280 V system, which may
a rather large field weakened range of operation for this have been required due to the lower energy density of
vehicle at higher speeds. Ford had previously indicated the IM and/or a desire to limit the phase currents. The
the possibility of using a winding change from series to higher voltage reduces the phase current level required,
parallel to change the torque speed characteristic of the but forces an IGBT switch technology selection, rather
machine [16]. This idea does not appear to have been than MOSFETs. The higher voltage also requires
pursued further. greater attention to vehicle safety.

For the dual-machine systems, permanent magnet All the inverters, with the exception of the Insight, appear
machines were the universal selection for both the main to be liquid cooled with a single integrated power switch
propulsion machine and the motor/generator machine. module. Considerable focus has been given to
The Precept utilizes a 25 kW interior permanent magnet developing integrated electronic switch packages to
(IPM) machine for the front axle and a 10 kW surface reduce cost, mass and volume. The Insight is unique in
mount PM machine with the rear engine [17]. The Prius its forced air cooling approach, which saves the mass
also utilizes two PM machines. The two PM machines and volume of a coolant pump, hoses, heat exchanger,
are linked to the engine by a planetary gear system. The and coolant.
original Prius motor was an 8 Pole 30 kW interior design
with a torque capability of 300 Nm. The new Prius has a There is also a significant distinction between the IMG
torque capability of 350 Nm [18]. Since the main and dual-machine systems. The Prius and Precept each
propulsion motors are not directly tied into the driveline require two inverter power stages, but with different
ratings. Either two different inverter designs are used, as mode with additional calculations to provide a better
is the case in the Prius, or one of the inverters is angle estimate to enhance performance to allow vector
significantly over-rated, as is the case in the Precept [19]. control or phase angle control. The sensor selection is
The two inverters may lead to an increase in the cost of also unique due to the fact that three separate sensors
the total system. are used rather than three elements in one package.
This creates cost and sensor location variability issues.
Machine Controller- Within the inverter, the machine
controller is the intelligence that monitors sensors and 800
performs sophisticated closed-loop control of the electric Lithium 25oC
machines. The controller’s sophistication varies based
on the application. For dual-machine vehicles, the 600
dynamic requirement of the main propulsion machine is NiMH 25 oC
generally small. Thus, the need for high-performance
PbA 25 oC Lithium -29oC
control algorithms, such as vector control strategies, may 400
not be required. By contrast, two machine controllers as
well as two sensor strategies are used due to the
separate propulsion and motor/generator functions of the 200
machines. NiMH -29 oC PbA -29oC

In regard to the reduced controller requirements, the new 0

6 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Prius design incorporates the ability in the field- State of Charge (SOC)
weakened range to move to 6-step operation with phase
angle control. The new Prius also appears to use Figure 6: Battery Technology Comparison
trapezoidal operation for cranking and then switches to
sinusoidal operation at higher speeds. This may explain BATTERY PACK - The vehicles considered in this study
why more expensive resolvers are used for position chose either a nickel metal hydride (NiMH) or lithium ion
sensing, as opposed to hall-effect sensors. Like the technology. These two technologies are preferred to the
Prius, the Precept’s front motor fits the slow dynamic traditional lead acid technology and to nickel cadmium
characteristic due to its connection to the wheels. The technology for reasons of energy density, power density,
rear motor generally has slow dynamics but it is also and power output at low state of charge. Figure 6 shows
used for gear synchronization during shifting which can the specific power versus state of charge characteristics
require some additional control capability. for three technologies at two different temperatures.
Clearly lithium ion and NiMH have much higher specific
The IMG vehicles have challenges that require greater power than lead acid (PbA) technology, meaning that
control capability. Operating modes to suppress they will result in a much lighter battery pack for a given
driveline oscillations or to cancel engine firing pulse set of specifications. The higher specific power also
vibrations require greater dynamic performance. means that NiMH and lithium ion are better able to
Driveline accelerations due to harsh shifts are also more accept the high peak power levels associated with
severe than wheel accelerations. Ford and Chrysler both regenerative braking. This is often a factor that drives a
appear to have chosen vector control strategies for their lead acid battery pack to increased size and weight.
vehicles. The sensors for the controllers were likewise
selected to maintain high dynamic performance. The At the present time, NiMH is four to five times more
ESX3 was initially designed to use a reluctance-based expensive than lead acid. Lithium ion, while being
resolver [20]. The P2000 uses a quadrature 90-tooth expensive at present, is viewed as having the potential to
wheel which, because of resolution limitations, can become cost competitive in high volumes over time.
compromise cranking performance and cause torque Lithium ion does require more control monitoring than
ripple across the speed range unless other NiMH due to undesirable overcharge and over-
compensation techniques are used. temperature characteristics. NiMH is more desirable
from this standpoint due to its inherent internal charge
The Honda Insight's motor control strategy is the most balancing, although there are still thermal runaway
interesting of the three IMG vehicles as it uses three characteristics that require cooling systems. NiMH also
separate hall-effect position sensors as would typically demonstrates severe output power degradation at low
be used for trapezoidal operation. Trapezoidal operation temperatures as shown in figure 6 with the –29C curve.
during engine starting allows for higher torque capability.
Depending on the presence of a field-weakened range Battery pack design is extremely important and requires
this scheme can provide adequate performance with the careful system analysis in order to determine the proper
possible exception of the harmonic cancellation mode. strategy. In sizing battery packs for hybrid vehicles, the
The three sensors could also be used in an incremental required peak power becomes a dominant concern. The
ability to handle regenerative braking as well as peak
6 motoring demands sets the power rating that the battery
The original Prius was introduced for sale in Japan in pack must meet. The power requirement is further
1997. A significantly improved version was introduced to defined by expected cold temperature performance.
the US market in 2000. See [3] for more information.
This is in contrast to electric vehicles where the energy statistics. The existing paradigm for control is a foot
capability drives the battery pack design due to the pedal to command power and vehicle speed and a
desire to maximize range. Voltage is also important to shifter to select transmission mode.
consider since for a fixed power requirement, a higher
voltage system will lower the current requirements which The hybrid architecture adds several new components
can reduce losses, lower required battery volume and (electric machine, power inverter, battery) which in turn
save cost in connectors and wires. offer several possible needs for monitoring. The Honda
Insight offers additional displays to the driver to show
The IMG systems have used distinctly different battery state of charge (SOC) and electric machine
strategies to solve the battery pack question. The Insight charge/assist magnitude, which essentially shows the
system is a 144 V NiMH system designed to handle a operating state of the electric machine and inverter.
peak machine load of 10 kW [21]. The P2000 system is
a 288 V NiMH 22 kW system designed to handle a peak For the control interface, all the hybrid vehicles maintain
load of 8 kW [22]. The large disparity in battery pack the familiar pedal and shifter arrangement. Behind the
ratings is interesting since both systems have similar scenes, a new controller performs the function of a
functionality. The lower power rating of the Insight hybrid system supervisor by monitoring the accelerator
system may be due to the presence of a separate 12V pedal and then parceling out torque commands to the
starter motor for cranking requirements. Since NiMH engine, transmission, and inverter based on the pedal
battery performance is poor at low temperature, a NiMH input and the optimum balance of key factors. This new
pack would have to be made significantly larger to meet control architecture is needed to optimize system
the cold-cranking requirements of the engine. By using a performance while maintaining an interface to the user
12 V lead acid battery and cranking motor, this cost is that is consistent with existing non-HEV vehicles. For
avoided. the interface to the ASM transmission, the
DaimlerChrysler ESX3 uses an automatic transmission
In terms of the dual-machine vehicles, significantly more PRNDL-like shifter interface, thus helping the user
power and energy are required. The Prius uses a 288 V understand this new transmission as similar to today's
21 kW NiMH system. The need for higher power is due automatic transmission function.
to the different requirements of these systems. Vehicle
launch requires substantially more torque than engine FUTURE HYBRID DRIVETRAIN STRATEGIES
cranking. Both also need extra capacity for assisting the
engine during extended hill climbing. The Prius battery Most existing passenger cars are already a showcase of
system was modified for the year 2000 US introduction, packaging efficiency and cost effectiveness in a very
which has substantially reduced the volume, complexity competitive global sector. The challenge in engineering
and weight of the pack [23]. The Precept was designed a hybrid vehicle is that components and systems are only
for a 42 kW power rating and a 3 kWh energy rating. being added to this showcase – none are being removed
The battery pack was selected based on the need for (although some can be reduced in size, mass, and
repeated accelerations and extended gradeability, which output). By definition, the HEV design team must at a
drive a relatively high energy requirement. Two options minimum add an electric machine, a power inverter, and
were considered for the vehicle. For the near future, a 8
a battery pack . In doing so, they add the cost, mass,
NiMH system is proposed while lithium ion technology is and volume of these components.
considered for the future [24]. Both systems are liquid-
cooled and require significant vehicle space. The size, Future hybrid drivetrain strategies will be driven not only
cost and weight of a 42 kW battery pack provides by the availability of reliable technologies, but also by the
significant challenges in terms of cost, mass, and goals and incentives of the target markets .
volume. With NiMH technologies, the challenge of cold example, producing and selling hybrid vehicles in the
performance is clearly seen in terms of having an over- state of California will be a requirement for the seven
designed battery pack or of having a separate starting major automakers to continue selling conventional
system. Lithium ion packs offer the opportunity to passenger cars there. In other markets, the combination
reduce battery size by alleviating the cold power of higher fuel prices and government incentives can
performance issue at the expense of more careful make the higher fuel economy of a hybrid vehicle cost-
battery management. effective to the end consumer. The hybrid drivetrains
must also be designed to meet the performance
USER INTERFACE TO THE HEV DRIVETRAIN requirements of the market, which may mean several
drivetrain solutions are viable, each for a particular
Interface to the driver is an additional area that must be
considered as the vehicle changes from a conventional 7
drivetrain to a hybrid engine/electric drivetrain. The Note that in conventional vehicles the accelerator pedal
existing paradigm for monitoring is a gauge set typically input goes to the engine or powertrain controller.
showing vehicle speed, engine rpm, oil pressure, engine Or some other suitable energy storage device such as
temperature, and fuel tank level. Many vehicles also an ultra-capacitor or an inertial storage device.
offer a "trip computer" that shows the driver additional For example, Toyota Prius sales have been aided by a
information such as fuel remaining, range, and other government incentive in the form of a 250,000 yen
payback and tax acquisition reduction [3].
market. For example, the 1997 version of the Toyota inexpensive, thermally robust and have a high coulombic
Prius met market requirements in Japan. However, the efficiency to allow maximum reuse of recaptured kinetic
2000 version designed for the US market was modified energy. Lithium ion technology has most of these
for improved acceleration, improved passing characteristics with the exception of the battery
performance, extended hill climbing, and improved management. This however is being worked on by
electric-only operating region through increased power industry and assuming no material regulation issues
output, improved inverter cooling and technology, and an arise it promises to be an attractive technology.
improved battery pack [25].
ENGINE - The future engine strategy will provide a very
efficient, low-mass, high-output engine. Presently, The future of hybrid electric vehicles is dependent on
turbocharged CIDI engines with common rail fuel market economics and incentives. A future HEV for the
injection look attractive as long as they are not excluded US market may employ a CIDI engine in the rear with a
by emissions regulations in the target market. Presently, permanent-magnet electric machine and a small, but
challenges still exist in reducing oxides of nitrogen (NOx) powerful lithium-ion battery pack. In addition to its hybrid
and particulate matter [26]. A gasoline direct injected drivetrain, this five-passenger vehicle may have a
engine, perhaps turbocharged, may also be competitive lightweight plastic-molded body with superior
by allowing leaner operation and higher performance aerodynamics and a combination of creative approaches
without the challenges of NOx and particulate matter to achieving efficient heating and cooling of the
removal. passengers.

TRANSMISSION – The future transmission strategy will REFERENCES

be one that gives very high transmission efficiency, has
customer-pleasing characteristics, and allows a high
1. Christine S. Sloane, Bruce E. Zemke, et al,
degree of computer control to allow optimization of the
"Rationale for Technology Selections in GM's PNGV
engine and electric machine operation. An
Precept Concept Car based on Systems Analysis,"
automatically-shifted manual fits this description, and the
DaimlerChrysler dual-clutch scheme appears to solve SAE Technical Paper No. 2000-01-1567, Society of
the torque interruption that is normally associated with Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 2000.
shifting. High-efficiency vehicles such as the 2. William L. Shepard, Jr., George M. Claypole, et al,
Volkswagen Lupo already use an ASM transmission in "Architecture for Robust Efficiency: GM's Precept
production [27]. PNGV Vehicle," SAE Technical Paper No. 2000-01-
1582, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale,
ELECTRIC MACHINE – The future machine will have to PA, 2000.
be a cost effective and have high efficiency. Presently, 3. Shinichi Abe, “Development of the Hybrid Vehicle
the permanent magnet machine and the induction and Its Future Expectation,” SAE Convergence
machine are both commonly considered for hybrid Paper No. 2000-01-C042, Society of Automotive
applications. As magnet costs decrease in the future, a Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 2000.
shift towards PM machines is likely. The high efficiency 4. Website
and power density of the machine make it a better 5. Sloane, p.3.
candidate. 6. Arun K. Jaura, Wolfram Buschhaus, and Michael A.
Tamor, “Systems Approach in Achieving Higher Fuel
INVERTER – The strategy for future power inverters will Economy in Hybrid Vehicles,” SAE Technical Paper
have to move towards the ideal inverter with minimized No. 2000-01-1585, Society of Automotive Engineers,
losses and a small package size. Unless new device Warrendale, PA, 2000.
technologies emerge, high voltage applications will use
7. Mark George Kosowski and Prakash H. Desai, “A
IGBT technology due to the relatively high switching
Parallel Hybrid Traction System for GM’s Precept
frequency capability and low losses. Low voltage
PNGV Vehicle,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2000-01-
systems will consider MOSFETs for the low resistance
characteristics and lower cost. The future machine 1534, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale,
controller will control the machine to operate as efficiently PA, 2000.
as possible and ensure that the desired response 8. Ward’s Automotive Yearbook, 62 edition, Ward’s
characteristics of the drive can be met. For many Communications, Southfield, MI, p. 59.
applications a vector control based strategy is 9. Robert L. Davis and Thomas L. Kizer, "Energy
appropriate due to the need for relatively fast response Management in DaimlerChrysler's PNGV Concept
characteristics. As the Toyota Prius has demonstrated, Vehicle," SAE Convergence Paper No. 2000-01-
there are other systems that do not require that level of C062, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale,
response where a possible combination of several PA, 2000.
control strategies can be employed. 10. Jaura, p.5.
11. Kosowski, p.4.
BATTERY PACK – The battery pack for future vehicles 12. Davis, p.6.
would ideally have a high power-to-weight ratio, be
13. Kenji Nakano and Shinobu Ochai, "Development of 23. Abe, p.5.
the Motor Assist System for the Hybrid Automobile – 24. Shepard, p.4.
the Insight," SAE Convergence Paper No. 2000-01- 25. Abe, pp. 2-6.
C079, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, 26. Steven G. Chalk, H. Jackson Hale, and Fred W.
PA, 2000, p.3. Wagner, "Advanced Power Sources for a New
14. Nakano, p.7. Generation of Vehicles," SAE Technical Paper No.
15. John M. Miller, Allan R. Gale, et al, “Starter- 2000-01-1528, Society of Automotive Engineers,
Alternator for Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Comparison Warrendale, PA, 2000, p.9.
of Induction and Variable Reluctance Machines and 27. Hanno Jelden, "VW Lupo, the World's First 3-Liter
Drives,” Industry Applications Society - IEEE, St. Car," SAE Convergence Paper No. 2000-01-C044,
Louis, MO, 1998, p.514. Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA,
16. Miller, p.516. 2000, p.1.
17. Kosowski, pp. 2-5.
18. Abe, p.3. CONTACT
19. Kosowski, p.5.
20. Davis, p.6. Jim Walters, Senior Project Engineer, Delphi Energy and
21. Nakano, p.3. Chassis. Email:
22. Jaura, p.3.