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Important definitions

Nervous system:The central nervous system (CNS) is made up of the brain


and spinal cord. The primary form of communication in the CNS is the neuron. The brain
and spinal cord are absolutely vital to life and functioning, so there are a number of
protective barriers surrounding them starting with the bone (skull and spine) and
membrane tissues known as meninges. In addition, both structures are suspended in a
protective liquid known as cerebrospinal fluid.The CNS is responsible for processing
every sensation and thought you experience. The sensory information that is gathered by
receptors throughout the body then passes this information on to the central nervous
system. The CNS also passes messages out to the rest of the body in order to control
movement, actions and responses to the environment.

neurons: A neuron is a nerve cell that is the basic building block of the nervous
system. Neurons are similar to other cells in the human body in a number of ways, but
there is one key difference between neurons and other cells. Neurons are specialized to
transmit information throughout the body. These highly specialized nerve cells are
responsible for communicating information in both chemical and electrical forms.
Sensory neurons carry information from the sensory receptor cells throughout the body to
the brain.
Motor neurons transmit information from the brain to the muscles of the body.
Interneurons are responsible for communicating information between different neurons in
the body.

Peripheral Nervous System:The peripheral system (PNS) is


composed of a number of nerves that extend outside of the central nervous system. The
nerves and nerve networks that make up the PNS are actually bundles of axons from
neuron cells. Nerves can range from relatively small to large bundles that can be easily
seen by the human eye.
The PNS can be further divided into two different systems: the somatic nervous system
and the autonomic nervous system.

Somatic Nervous System:The somatic system transmits sensory


communications and is responsible for voluntary movement and action. This system is
composed of both sensory (afferent) neurons, which carry information from the nerves to
the brain and spinal cord, and motor (efferent) neurons, which transmit information from
the central nervous system to the muscle fibers.

Autonomic Nervous System:The autonomic nervous system is


responsible for controlling involuntary functions such as certain aspects of heartbeat,
respiration, digestion and blood pressure. This system is also related to emotional
responses such as sweating and crying. The autonomic system can then be further
subdivided into two subsystems known as the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems

•Sympathetic Nervous System:The sympathetic


system controls the body’s response to emergencies. When this system is
aroused, a number of things begin to occur: your heart and breathing rates
increase, digestion slows or stops, the pupils dilate and you begin to sweat.
Known as the fight-or-flight response, this system responds by preparing
your body to either fight the danger or flee.

•Parasympathetic Nervous System:The


parasympathetic nervous system functions to counter the sympathetic
system. After a crisis or danger has passed, this system helps to calm the
body. Heart and breathing rates slow, digestion resumes, pupil contract
and sweating ceases.

Brain:main organ of the central nervous system, intellect, mind


Verterbrates:Any of a large group of chordates of the subphylum Vertebrata
(or Craniata), characterized by having a backbone. Vertebrates are bilaterally
symmetrical and have an internal skeleton of bone or cartilage, a nervous system divided
into brain and spinal cord, and not more than two pairs of limbs. Vertebrates have a well-
developed body cavity (called a coelom) containing a chambered heart, large digestive
organs, liver, pancreas, and paired kidneys, and their blood contains both red and white
corpuscles. Vertebrates include fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.

Soma:The entire body of an organism, exclusive of the germ cells.


Dendrites:a slender branching process that extends from the cell body of a
neuron and that is capable of being stimulated by a neurotransmitter. Each neuron usually
possesses several dendrites, which receive synapses where chemical transmission occurs
from axons to dendrites (or an axon, in the case of unipolar neurons). The number of
dendrites and thus the number of synapses varies with the functions of a neuron. Also
called cytodendrite

Axons:1. that process of a neuron by which impulses travel away from the cell
body; at the terminal arborization of the axon, the impulses are transmitted to other nerve
cells or to effector organs.

mitochondria:Spherical or rod shaped parts of the cell. Mitochondria contain


genetic material (DNA and RNA) and are responsible for converting food to energy.

sensory neurons:sensory neuron any neuron having a sensory function;


an afferent neuron conveying sensory impulses. The first in an afferent pathway is the
primary sensory n. and the second is the secondary sensory n.

•motor neurons:
A neuron that conveys impulses from the central nervous system to a muscle, gland, or other
effector tissue.

Inter-neurons:A nerve cell found entirely within the central nervous system
that acts as a link between sensory neurons and motor neurons

Nerve Impulse:A wave of physical and chemical excitation that moves along
a nerve fiber in response to a stimulus

nerve cells:nerve cell; any of the conducting cells of the nervous system,
consisting of a cell body, containing the nucleus and its surrounding cytoplasm, and the
axon and dendrites. neuro´nal

nerve fibres:threadlike extension of a nerve cell


Cerebellum:one of the major divisions of the vertebrate brain, situated in man
above the medulla oblongata and beneath the cerebrum, whose function is coordination
of voluntary movements and maintenance of bodily equilibrium

Pons:A thick band of nerve fibers in the brainstem of humans and other mammals
that links the brainstem to the cerebellum and upper portions of the brain. It is important
in the reflex control of involuntary processes, including respiration and circulation. All
neural information transmitted between the spinal cord and the brain passes through the
pons

Medulla Oblongata:The medulla oblongata is the lower half of the


brainstem.The medulla contains the cardiac, respiratory, vomiting and vasomotor centers
and deals with autonomic functions, such as breathing, heart rate and blood pressure.

•Tactum:

Tegmentum:The tegmentum (from Latin for "covering"[1]) is a general area


within the brainstem. It is located between the ventricular system and distinctive basal or
ventral structures at each level. It forms the floor of the midbrain whereas the tectum
forms the ceiling.[2] It is a multisynaptic network of neurons that is involved in many
unconscious homeostatic and reflexive pathways

•Limbic system:
•thalamus

•Hypothalamus

•Cerebrum

•Central Culcus

•Lateral Sulcus

Endocrine System:the endocrine system is not a part of the nervous


system, but it is still essential to communication throughout the body. This system is
composed of glands, which secrete chemical messengers known as hormones. Hormones
are carried in the bloodstream to specific areas of the body, including organs and body
tissues. Some of the most important endocrine glands include the pineal gland, the
hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, the thyroid, the ovaries and the testes. Each of these
glands works in a number of unique ways in specific areas of the body.