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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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CAE INTRODUCTION

FEA Thermal and

Fluid Analysis

Kinematics

Dynamic

Anlaysis CAE

Mechanical

Event

Simulation

Performance

Simulation Process

Simulation

CAE INTRODUCTION

CAE INTRODUCTION

MULTIPHYSICS

SEA - POWERTRAIN TEAM S.Vijay 4

INTRODUCTION TO FEA

Why is FEA needed?

Computer simulation allows multiple “what-if” scenarios to be

tested quickly and effectively.

Example: Surgical implants, such as an artificial knee

Cost savings

Time savings… reduce time to market!

Create more reliable, better-quality designs

Solving Engineering Problem

Methods • Mathematical representation

• Classical Approach • Actual Measurements

• 100 % Accurate • Approximate, Assumptions • Approximate

• Simple problems • Real Life Complicated problems • Time Consuming & need

• Complete in itself • Results must be verified by Exp. Set up

either hand calculations or by Exp. • Results can not be believed

Method blindly & requires verification

• Boundary Element Method (BEM) • Photoelasticity

• Finite Difference Method (FDM) • Vibration Measurement

• Finite Volume Method (FVM) • Sensors for T & P

Taylor’s series:- f(x+h) = fi + hfi + (h2/2)fi+ (h3/3)fi + ……. fi = {(fi+1 - Fi-1)/2h} error =(-h2/6) fi

DEFINITION “FEM”

A Finite Element is a region in space in which a function φ is interpolated from nodal

values of φ on the boundary of the region in such a way that inter element continuity of φ tends

to be maintained in the assemblage.

……………….R. D. Cook

The Structure is idealized by just subdividing the original object into an assembly of

discrete elements such that the resulting structure will simulate the original one.

……...……V. Ramamurti

a) The continuum is divided in to finite number of parts (elements), the behavior of which is

specified by finite number of parameters and

b) The solution of the complete system as an assembly of its elements follows precisely the

same rules as those applicable to standard discrete problems.

………O.C. Zeinkiewiczs

FEM Today

Postprocessing Failure

[Q] = [K] [T] Solid modeling /Optimization

Meshing Analysis

[ I ] = [1/R] [V] Boundary conditions

Rayleigh-Ritz Method Galerkin Method

THEORETICAL FEA

BASIC FEA

What is Finite Element Analysis

A(FEA)?

computer aided, numerical analysis technique for obtaining approximate solutions to

a wide variety of engineering problems.

Solves for the fundamental differential and/or integral equations that predict the

response of physical systems to external effects.

FEA PROCESS

STEP 1

MESHING PROCESS

DOF

FUNDAMENTAL EQUATION

GLOBAL STIFFNESS MATRIX

SOLVING

BACKSUBSTITUION

SOLUTION

STEPS IN FEA PROCESS

Part is first divided into smaller, simpler regions called elements

This process is known as “mesh generation.”

Field variable are

- Displacement for a Structural analysis

- Temperature for a Thermal analysis

Functions are usually polynomials (often called interpolation functions)

Coefficients of these functions are the unknowns at each connection point

These are a function of the nodal coordinate location

Within an element and on it’s boundaries, the displacements are continuous

STEPS IN FEA PROCESS

Governing equations are transformed into algebraic equations for each element.

Represents approximate governing equations to the region

Structural analysis involve the solution of equations of equilibrium for each element at nodes.

Gradients of field variables are secondary quantities usually involving derivatives of primary

variables

PRE PROCESSING

GEOMETRY IMPORT AND MESHING

IMPORTING GEOMETRY

Key translator

*.iges

*. step

*. vrml

*. step

Features to consider

Fillets

Rounds

Chamfers

BREP-CSG

Holes

Units

Tolerance

CLEAN UP

Shortest edge length

Bad Angle Upper/Lower

Bounds

Overlap Check

Small Features Check

Common Edge

Common points

Common face

Discontinuities

Element types

Element representation

Triangular elements

Triangular Element

Pascal triangle Polynomial Number of (No. of Nodes = No. of terms)

degree ‘p’ terms ‘n’ n = (1/2)*(p+1)*(p+2)

1

0 (Constant) 1

x y

1 (Linear) 3

x2 xy y2 2 (Quadratic)

6

x3 x 2y xy2 y3

3 (Cubic)

10

4 (Quartic)

15

Quadrilateral Element

Quadrilateral Element

1

Linear Element

x y

x2 xy y2 Quadratic

x3y2 x2y3

Serendipity

x3y3

Lagrange

*** Lagrange :-Better performance

SEA - POWERTRAIN TEAM 48 S.Vijay 29

3D Elements

3-D Elements

Meshing

Linear Parabolic

Automatic Meshing

Meshing methods

When choosing elements and creating meshes for FEA problems users must make

sure that

•Chosen mesh size and density are optimal for the problem (to save

computational time)

•Chosen element types are appropriate for the analysis type performed (for

accuracy)

•Chosen elements and meshes can represent force distributions properly

•Make use of symmetry

Mesh pattern

QUAD

QUAD/TRI

Symmetry

Symmetry comparison

Meshing consideration

Discontinuity

Nodes must always be placed at locations where geometry, loads, or boundary

conditions change abruptly (discontinuities)

Element Size

Choose element types that are appropriate for the loading and stress conditions of the

problem

Element Type

Make sure that the elements chosen capture all possible significant stresses that may

result from the given loading, geometry, and boundary conditions

Mesh quality

Aspect ratio

For a good mesh all elements must have a low aspect

Ratio Specifically b/h < 2-4

where b and h are the longest and the shortest sides of an element

Element Shape

Angles between element sides must not approach 0°or 180°

Mesh refinement

Finer meshing must be used in regions of expected high stress gradients

(usually occur at discontinuities)

SOLVERS

•ANSYS (General purpose, PC and workstations)

ANALYSIS TYPES AND

POSTPROCESSING

Linear Static Analysis

It is a simple finite element analysis that is used to simulate the behavior of any

physical system. The stress is assumed to be directly proportional to strain and the

structure deformations are proportional to the loads. It is based on first principles.

•All deformations and strains are small

•Structural deformations are proportional to the loads applied

•All materials behave in a linear elastic fashion

•Loads are all static

•No boundary condition varies with time or application of load

Results obtained

•Von mises stress

•Max principal stress

•Deflections

•Reaction forces etc.,

Sample Report

2.0 L & 2.4L WE camshaft cap and bearing stress analysis

Non-linear Analysis

When stress is not proportional to the strain

nonlinear elasticity, plasticity, viscoelasticity,creep or other inelastic effects.

Geometric nonlinearity maybe due to large strains (membrane analyses or metal forming) or

small strains but with large displacements and/or rotations (fishing rod).

This is where the displacement boundary conditions depend on the deformation of the

structure

Sample Report

Non linearity modelling

Contact (Master/Slave)

Results

Material

Dynamic Analysis

This analysis is used to study the behavior of structures subjected to repetitive motion that can

be measured and observed. Vibration analysis is used to ensure that the system is not subject to

a dangerous resonant condition during the range of operation.

Modal analysis:

It is used to find the mode shape and natural frequency of structures. Modal analyses are

important in machines where there is likely to be cyclic out of balance forces, such as in rotating

machinery and fluid flow applications.

It is a response analysis technique, which is used to get the amplitude of response close to the

resonant zone when the natural frequency of the system/assembly falls within the excitation

frequency zone. It is used when the structure is subjected to steady-state harmonic excitations

(frequency).

Frequency response is the measure of any system's response at the output to a signal of varying

frequency (but constant amplitude) at its input

FREE VIBRATION

Define the following: y = Displacement along theY axis

y = Velocity along theY axis

y = Acceleration along theY axis

Sum all the forces on mass M: Inertia force

Mε Ω2 sin( Ω t ) − C y − K y = M y

Applied force Damping force Stiffness force

Assume e = 0, a perfectly balanced rotor so there is no force:

M y + C y + K y =0

Assume that the displacement y of the system varies sinusoidally with time

and substitute the assumed motion back into the equation for the balanced rotor:

y = A eλ t

(Mλ 2

+ C λ + K ) A eλ t = 0

This is a so-called “eigenvalue” (characteristic value) problem, which is

solved by finding values for l such that A ≠ 0.

We now define wn as the natural frequency of the structure, which is:

2

K C K

ωn ≡ − or ωn ≈ for small values of damping C.

M 2 M M

MODAL ANALYSIS

MODE SHAPES

FREQUENCY RESPONSE

FORCED VIBRATION

Frequency Response

Transient Analysis

Many structures are subject to time varying loads such as impulse, blast, impact &

seismic loadings. Transient dynamic analysis determines the time-response

history of a structure subjected to a forced displacement function.

Commercial FEM Software Packages

Commercial FEM Software Packages

FE Model :Rear Rigid Wall Impact

RESULTS

Plastic Strain Contour and Deformation: Top View

FATIQUE /DURABILITY ANALYSIS

Material properties Fatigue Process

target No Factor of safety analysis

Time Histories

yes

Stress

< target

yes No

Produce Design

SEA - POWERTRAIN TEAM S.Vijay 55

Fatigue Analysis

A fatigue life analysis utilizes the output from static analysis. In addition to the results

from the static run, The S-N curve of the material used in the structure and the load

history data are employed during the analysis. Engineers can get a very clear picture of

where and when fatigue cracks are most likely to occur under normal operation. The

accuracy of the fatigue life calculation is highly dependant on the use of the proper S-N

curves at various parts of the structure and the quality of the load history data used to

drive the analysis.

JOINT ANALYSIS

Bolted Joint analysis

This analysis is used to evaluate structural integrity of fastener joints by studying

its structural characteristics, abutment behavior and life of the bolted components.

This analysis is used to evaluate the structural integrity of welded components of

various structures by studying its yielding and fatigue characteristics.

WELD ANALYSIS

WELD ANALYSIS

WELD ANALYSIS

OTHER ANALYSIS

Rigid-body dynamics: It is used to find the force components for a sub-system

or system level. The force components will be used to evaluate the structural

integrity of structures.

responses like stresses and deformation. Force, motion or acceleration may be

given as input.

Static response: To determine the response of structure under unit load and

subsequently scaled up to dynamic excitations

Ride comfort: It is used to determine the operator’s comfort level under dynamic

loading.

the influence of fluid (sloshing effect).

and thermal solutions affect each other with cyclic loading pattern.

BACKUP SLIDES

Commercial FEM Software Packages

Von Mises Stress

Von Mises stress is a non-directional stress quantity that combines all stress directions and

states into one “average” value. By definition, this value is always positive and does not

specify whether the stress is tensile or compressive in nature. However, when working with

ductile metals such as mild steel, Von Mises stress is the best measure for predicting failure due

to yielding. The uniaxial yield strength of a material is compared to the calculated Von Mises

stress to determine whether ductile failure is a concern. Note that gross yielding will probably

not occur in the case of a stress concentration, but rather the stresses will redistribute quickly

after some minor local yielding. Von Mises stress is represented by the following equation.

Commercial FEM Software Packages

Max, Min, Mid Principal Stress

The idea of principal stresses is explored fully in mechanics texts, but it can be summarized as

the three stresses normal to three mutually orthogonal planes within a particle that is oriented in

a manner such that shear stress is zero. At that particle’s orientation, these three principal

stresses represent the most positive normal stress (σ1 - max principal), the least positive normal

stress (σ3 - min principal), and an intermediate stress (σ2 - mid principal). Typically, positive

stress is related to tension and negative stress is related to compression.

Principal stresses are primarily used for fatigue life calculations. Fatigue life calculations are

based on stress ranges (maximum minus minimum). Fatigue cracks will propagate in a direction

perpendicular to the maximum principal stress direction.

Commercial FEM Software Packages

Linear Structural Analysis: It is a simple finite element analysis that is used to

simulate the behavior of any physical system. The stress is assumed to be

directly proportional to strain and the structure deformations are proportional to

the loads. It is based on first principles.

predicts real behavior of the system where the applied load is not proportional

to the deformations. A stress analysis problem is linear only if all conditions of

proportionality hold. If any one of them is violated, then it is a non-linear

problem

called Material Non-linearity.

load-deflection relationship is called geometric non-linearity. Large deflections

and rotations of structures come under this type.

Boundary non-linearity (Contact problems): This type of non-linearity arises

from change in the boundary conditions such as opening and closing of gaps,

physical contacts and follower force.

Commercial FEM Software Packages

Boundary non-linearity (Contact problems): This type of non-linearity arises

from change in the boundary conditions such as opening and closing of gaps,

physical contacts and follower force.

Vibration analysis:

This analysis is used to study the behavior of structures subjected to repetitive

motion that can be measured and observed. Vibration analysis is used to ensure

that the system is not subject to a dangerous resonant condition during the

range of operation.

Modal analysis:

It is used to find the mode shape and natural frequency of structures. Modal

analyses are important in machines where there is likely to be cyclic out of

balance forces, such as in rotating machinery and fluid flow applications.

G-load analysis: It is a static load case in which all elements are subjected to an

equal acceleration load in a specified direction. It does not account for dynamic

excitation of system modes.

and material properties to find the best available design option using statistical

tools.

SEA - POWERTRAIN TEAM S.Vijay 66

Commercial FEM Software Packages

Bolted Joint analysis: This analysis is used to evaluate structural integrity of

fastener joints by studying its structural characteristics, abutment behavior and

life of the bolted components.

Welded joint analysis: This analysis is used to evaluate the structural integrity of

welded components of various structures by studying its yielding and fatigue

characteristics.

components, structures subjected to cyclic loading.

and thermal solutions affect each other simultaneously.

FEA correlation with OMSA: This analysis correlates the simulation results

obtained from FEA with the stress results got from experimental On Machine

Stress Analysis.

varying loads (forces or motion) are applied to a structure and the resulting time

varying structural response are computed.

SEA - POWERTRAIN TEAM S.Vijay 67

Commercial FEM Software Packages

Frequency response analysis: It is a response analysis technique, which is

used to get the amplitude of response close to the resonant zone when the

natural frequency of the system/assembly falls within the excitation frequency

zone. It is used when the structure is subjected to steady-state harmonic

excitations (frequency).

Dynamic analysis: Many structures are subject to time varying loads such as

impulse, blast, impact & seismic loadings. Transient dynamic analysis

determines the time-response history of a structure subjected to a forced

displacement function.

Inertia relief analysis: Inertia relief is a type of static analysis that predicts the

steady state response of a structure that is freely accelerating due to constant

applied loads. This type of analysis is useful to the structural designer since the

stress in an accelerating structure may be greater than the stress in the

corresponding restrained structure even when the applied loads are the same.

characteristics of structures subjected to torque and torsion related loads.

Impact analysis: This kind of analysis performed to predict the behavior of

structures subjected to blast or burst loads.

SEA - POWERTRAIN TEAM S.Vijay 68

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