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# APPLICATION OF CAE

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CAE INTRODUCTION

FEA Thermal and
Fluid Analysis
Kinematics

Dynamic
Anlaysis CAE
Mechanical
Event
Simulation

Performance
Simulation  Process
Simulation

CAE INTRODUCTION

CAE INTRODUCTION

MULTIPHYSICS

## CFD THERMAL ANALYSIS

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INTRODUCTION TO FEA

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Why is FEA needed?

## • To reduce the amount of prototype testing

Computer simulation allows multiple “what-if” scenarios to be
tested quickly and effectively.

## • To simulate designs that are not suitable for prototype testing

Example: Surgical implants, such as an artificial knee

## • The bottom line:

Cost savings
Time savings… reduce time to market!
Create more reliable, better-quality designs

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Solving Engineering Problem

## Analytical Methods Numerical Methods Experimental

Methods • Mathematical representation
• Classical Approach • Actual Measurements
• 100 % Accurate • Approximate, Assumptions • Approximate
• Simple problems • Real Life Complicated problems • Time Consuming & need
• Complete in itself • Results must be verified by Exp. Set up
either hand calculations or by Exp. • Results can not be believed
Method blindly & requires verification

## • Finite Element Method (FEA) • Strain Gauge

• Boundary Element Method (BEM) • Photoelasticity
• Finite Difference Method (FDM) • Vibration Measurement
• Finite Volume Method (FVM) • Sensors for T & P

Taylor’s series:- f(x+h) = fi + hfi + (h2/2)fi+ (h3/3)fi + ……. fi = {(fi+1 - Fi-1)/2h} error =(-h2/6) fi

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DEFINITION “FEM”
A Finite Element is a region in space in which a function φ is interpolated from nodal
values of φ on the boundary of the region in such a way that inter element continuity of φ tends
to be maintained in the assemblage.

……………….R. D. Cook

The Structure is idealized by just subdividing the original object into an assembly of
discrete elements such that the resulting structure will simulate the original one.

……...……V. Ramamurti

## Finite Element Method is a method of approximation to continuum problems such that

a) The continuum is divided in to finite number of parts (elements), the behavior of which is
specified by finite number of parameters and
b) The solution of the complete system as an assembly of its elements follows precisely the
same rules as those applicable to standard discrete problems.

………O.C. Zeinkiewiczs

FEM Today

## [F] = [K] [δ] Preprocessing Solution New Design Cost cutting

Postprocessing Failure
[Q] = [K] [T]  Solid modeling /Optimization
 Meshing Analysis
[ I ] = [1/R] [V]  Boundary conditions

## Direct Method Variational Method Weighted Residual

Rayleigh-Ritz Method Galerkin Method

THEORETICAL FEA

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BASIC FEA
What is Finite Element Analysis
A(FEA)?
computer aided, numerical analysis technique for obtaining approximate solutions to
a wide variety of engineering problems.

Solves for the fundamental differential and/or integral equations that predict the
response of physical systems to external effects.

FEA PROCESS

STEP 1

MESHING PROCESS

DOF

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FUNDAMENTAL EQUATION

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GLOBAL STIFFNESS MATRIX

SOLVING

BACKSUBSTITUION

SOLUTION

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STEPS IN FEA PROCESS
Part is first divided into smaller, simpler regions called elements
This process is known as “mesh generation.”

## Field variables in each element are approximated by functions

Field variable are
- Displacement for a Structural analysis
- Temperature for a Thermal analysis
Functions are usually polynomials (often called interpolation functions)
Coefficients of these functions are the unknowns at each connection point
These are a function of the nodal coordinate location
Within an element and on it’s boundaries, the displacements are continuous

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STEPS IN FEA PROCESS
Governing equations are transformed into algebraic equations for each element.
 Represents approximate governing equations to the region

##  Global stiffness matrix assembled from element matrices

Structural analysis involve the solution of equations of equilibrium for each element at nodes.

## Primary solution yields the nodal field variables (displacement, temperature)

Gradients of field variables are secondary quantities usually involving derivatives of primary
variables

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PRE PROCESSING
GEOMETRY IMPORT AND MESHING

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IMPORTING GEOMETRY

Key translator
*.iges
*. step
*. vrml
*. step

Features to consider
Fillets
Rounds
Chamfers
BREP-CSG
Holes
Units
Tolerance

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CLEAN UP
Shortest edge length
Bounds
Overlap Check
Small Features Check
Common Edge
Common points
Common face
Discontinuities

Element types

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Element representation

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Triangular elements
Triangular Element
Pascal triangle Polynomial Number of (No. of Nodes = No. of terms)
degree ‘p’ terms ‘n’ n = (1/2)*(p+1)*(p+2)

1
0 (Constant) 1

x y
1 (Linear) 3

6

x3 x 2y xy2 y3
3 (Cubic)
10

4 (Quartic)
15

1
Linear Element
x y

x3y2 x2y3

Serendipity
x3y3
Lagrange

## *** Serendipity :- No internal Nodes (Nodes only on side of the element)

*** Lagrange :-Better performance
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3D Elements

3-D Elements

##  Transition Element  Mapped / Manual

Meshing
Linear  Parabolic

 Automatic Meshing

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Meshing methods
When choosing elements and creating meshes for FEA problems users must make
sure that
•Chosen mesh size and density are optimal for the problem (to save
computational time)
•Chosen element types are appropriate for the analysis type performed (for
accuracy)
•Chosen elements and meshes can represent force distributions properly
•Make use of symmetry

Mesh pattern

Symmetry

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Symmetry comparison

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Meshing consideration
Discontinuity
Nodes must always be placed at locations where geometry, loads, or boundary
conditions change abruptly (discontinuities)

Element Size
Choose element types that are appropriate for the loading and stress conditions of the
problem

Element Type
Make sure that the elements chosen capture all possible significant stresses that may

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Mesh quality
Aspect ratio
For a good mesh all elements must have a low aspect
Ratio Specifically b/h < 2-4

where b and h are the longest and the shortest sides of an element

Element Shape
Angles between element sides must not approach 0°or 180°

Mesh refinement
Finer meshing must be used in regions of expected high stress gradients
(usually occur at discontinuities)

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SOLVERS
•ANSYS (General purpose, PC and workstations)

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ANALYSIS TYPES AND
POSTPROCESSING

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Linear Static Analysis
It is a simple finite element analysis that is used to simulate the behavior of any
physical system. The stress is assumed to be directly proportional to strain and the
structure deformations are proportional to the loads. It is based on first principles.

## Assumptions of Linear Static Analysis

•All deformations and strains are small
•Structural deformations are proportional to the loads applied
•All materials behave in a linear elastic fashion
•No boundary condition varies with time or application of load

Results obtained
•Von mises stress
•Max principal stress
•Deflections
•Reaction forces etc.,

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Sample Report
2.0 L & 2.4L WE camshaft cap and bearing stress analysis

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Non-linear Analysis
When stress is not proportional to the strain

## Material nonlinearity Material nonlinearity can be observed in structures undergoing

nonlinear elasticity, plasticity, viscoelasticity,creep or other inelastic effects.

## Geometric nonlinearity This is where there is a nonlinear strain-displacement relationship.

Geometric nonlinearity maybe due to large strains (membrane analyses or metal forming) or
small strains but with large displacements and/or rotations (fishing rod).

## Displacement boundary condition nonlinearities

This is where the displacement boundary conditions depend on the deformation of the
structure

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Sample Report
Non linearity modelling

Contact (Master/Slave)

Results

Material

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Dynamic Analysis
This analysis is used to study the behavior of structures subjected to repetitive motion that can
be measured and observed. Vibration analysis is used to ensure that the system is not subject to
a dangerous resonant condition during the range of operation.

Modal analysis:
It is used to find the mode shape and natural frequency of structures. Modal analyses are
important in machines where there is likely to be cyclic out of balance forces, such as in rotating
machinery and fluid flow applications.

## Frequency response analysis

It is a response analysis technique, which is used to get the amplitude of response close to the
resonant zone when the natural frequency of the system/assembly falls within the excitation
frequency zone. It is used when the structure is subjected to steady-state harmonic excitations
(frequency).

Frequency response is the measure of any system's response at the output to a signal of varying
frequency (but constant amplitude) at its input

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FREE VIBRATION
Define the following: y = Displacement along theY axis
y = Velocity along theY axis
y = Acceleration along theY axis
Sum all the forces on mass M: Inertia force
Mε Ω2 sin( Ω t ) − C y − K y = M y
Applied force Damping force Stiffness force
Assume e = 0, a perfectly balanced rotor so there is no force:
M y + C y + K y =0
Assume that the displacement y of the system varies sinusoidally with time
and substitute the assumed motion back into the equation for the balanced rotor:
y = A eλ t
(Mλ 2
+ C λ + K ) A eλ t = 0
This is a so-called “eigenvalue” (characteristic value) problem, which is
solved by finding values for l such that A ≠ 0.
We now define wn as the natural frequency of the structure, which is:
2
K  C  K
ωn ≡ −  or ωn ≈ for small values of damping C.
M 2 M  M

MODAL ANALYSIS

MODE SHAPES

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FREQUENCY RESPONSE

FORCED VIBRATION

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Frequency Response

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Transient Analysis
Many structures are subject to time varying loads such as impulse, blast, impact &
history of a structure subjected to a forced displacement function.

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Commercial FEM Software Packages

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Commercial FEM Software Packages

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FE Model :Rear Rigid Wall Impact

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RESULTS
Plastic Strain Contour and Deformation: Top View

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FATIQUE /DURABILITY ANALYSIS
Material properties Fatigue Process

## Life > Damaging event Stress

target No Factor of safety analysis
Time Histories
yes

Stress
< target
yes No

Produce Design
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Fatigue Analysis
A fatigue life analysis utilizes the output from static analysis. In addition to the results
from the static run, The S-N curve of the material used in the structure and the load
history data are employed during the analysis. Engineers can get a very clear picture of
where and when fatigue cracks are most likely to occur under normal operation. The
accuracy of the fatigue life calculation is highly dependant on the use of the proper S-N
curves at various parts of the structure and the quality of the load history data used to
drive the analysis.

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JOINT ANALYSIS
Bolted Joint analysis
This analysis is used to evaluate structural integrity of fastener joints by studying
its structural characteristics, abutment behavior and life of the bolted components.

## Welded joint analysis

This analysis is used to evaluate the structural integrity of welded components of
various structures by studying its yielding and fatigue characteristics.

WELD ANALYSIS

WELD ANALYSIS

WELD ANALYSIS

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OTHER ANALYSIS
Rigid-body dynamics: It is used to find the force components for a sub-system
or system level. The force components will be used to evaluate the structural
integrity of structures.

## Flexi-body dynamics: Mechanism with flexible mesh to get the structural

responses like stresses and deformation. Force, motion or acceleration may be
given as input.

Static response: To determine the response of structure under unit load and
subsequently scaled up to dynamic excitations

Ride comfort: It is used to determine the operator’s comfort level under dynamic

## Solid-Fluid interaction: It is used to study the response of the structure under

the influence of fluid (sloshing effect).

BACKUP SLIDES

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Commercial FEM Software Packages
Von Mises Stress

Von Mises stress is a non-directional stress quantity that combines all stress directions and
states into one “average” value. By definition, this value is always positive and does not
specify whether the stress is tensile or compressive in nature. However, when working with
ductile metals such as mild steel, Von Mises stress is the best measure for predicting failure due
to yielding. The uniaxial yield strength of a material is compared to the calculated Von Mises
stress to determine whether ductile failure is a concern. Note that gross yielding will probably
not occur in the case of a stress concentration, but rather the stresses will redistribute quickly
after some minor local yielding. Von Mises stress is represented by the following equation.

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Commercial FEM Software Packages
Max, Min, Mid Principal Stress
The idea of principal stresses is explored fully in mechanics texts, but it can be summarized as
the three stresses normal to three mutually orthogonal planes within a particle that is oriented in
a manner such that shear stress is zero. At that particle’s orientation, these three principal
stresses represent the most positive normal stress (σ1 - max principal), the least positive normal
stress (σ3 - min principal), and an intermediate stress (σ2 - mid principal). Typically, positive
stress is related to tension and negative stress is related to compression.
Principal stresses are primarily used for fatigue life calculations. Fatigue life calculations are
based on stress ranges (maximum minus minimum). Fatigue cracks will propagate in a direction
perpendicular to the maximum principal stress direction.

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Commercial FEM Software Packages
Linear Structural Analysis: It is a simple finite element analysis that is used to
simulate the behavior of any physical system. The stress is assumed to be
directly proportional to strain and the structure deformations are proportional to
the loads. It is based on first principles.

## Non-Linear Structural Analysis: It is a type of finite element analysis that

predicts real behavior of the system where the applied load is not proportional
to the deformations. A stress analysis problem is linear only if all conditions of
proportionality hold. If any one of them is violated, then it is a non-linear
problem

## Material non-linearity: The non-linearity arising from the nature of material is

called Material Non-linearity.

## Geometric non-linearity: The non-linear behavior that exhibits from a non-linear

load-deflection relationship is called geometric non-linearity. Large deflections
and rotations of structures come under this type.
Boundary non-linearity (Contact problems): This type of non-linearity arises
from change in the boundary conditions such as opening and closing of gaps,
physical contacts and follower force.

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Commercial FEM Software Packages
Boundary non-linearity (Contact problems): This type of non-linearity arises
from change in the boundary conditions such as opening and closing of gaps,
physical contacts and follower force.

Vibration analysis:
This analysis is used to study the behavior of structures subjected to repetitive
motion that can be measured and observed. Vibration analysis is used to ensure
that the system is not subject to a dangerous resonant condition during the
range of operation.

Modal analysis:
It is used to find the mode shape and natural frequency of structures. Modal
analyses are important in machines where there is likely to be cyclic out of
balance forces, such as in rotating machinery and fluid flow applications.

G-load analysis: It is a static load case in which all elements are subjected to an
equal acceleration load in a specified direction. It does not account for dynamic
excitation of system modes.

## Probabilistic analysis: It is a design of experiments combining geometry, load

and material properties to find the best available design option using statistical
tools.
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Commercial FEM Software Packages
Bolted Joint analysis: This analysis is used to evaluate structural integrity of
fastener joints by studying its structural characteristics, abutment behavior and
life of the bolted components.

Welded joint analysis: This analysis is used to evaluate the structural integrity of
welded components of various structures by studying its yielding and fatigue
characteristics.

## Thermo-Mechanical analysis: This analysis is performed when the mechanical

and thermal solutions affect each other simultaneously.

FEA correlation with OMSA: This analysis correlates the simulation results
obtained from FEA with the stress results got from experimental On Machine
Stress Analysis.

## Transient response analysis: It is a response analysis technique in which time

varying loads (forces or motion) are applied to a structure and the resulting time
varying structural response are computed.
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Commercial FEM Software Packages
Frequency response analysis: It is a response analysis technique, which is
used to get the amplitude of response close to the resonant zone when the
natural frequency of the system/assembly falls within the excitation frequency
zone. It is used when the structure is subjected to steady-state harmonic
excitations (frequency).

Dynamic analysis: Many structures are subject to time varying loads such as
determines the time-response history of a structure subjected to a forced
displacement function.

Inertia relief analysis: Inertia relief is a type of static analysis that predicts the
steady state response of a structure that is freely accelerating due to constant
applied loads. This type of analysis is useful to the structural designer since the
stress in an accelerating structure may be greater than the stress in the
corresponding restrained structure even when the applied loads are the same.

## Torsional Vibration analysis: This analysis is used to study the vibration

characteristics of structures subjected to torque and torsion related loads.
Impact analysis: This kind of analysis performed to predict the behavior of
structures subjected to blast or burst loads.
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