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Bahan Diskusi

Dalam situasi berikut ini, coba identifikasi dan berikan alasannya apakah sebaiknya
menggunakan pendekatan langsung atau pendekatan tidak langsung.

a. Surat untuk meminta keterangan apakah bulan depan akan digelar pesta diskon untuk
produk – produk elektronik. (Langsung)
b. Surat penolakan kepada salah seorang pelamar kerja di suatu perusahaan (Tidak
langsung)
c. Surat pemberitahuan promosi jabatan kepada salah seorang karyawan yang
berprestasi. (Langsung)
d. Surat pemberitahuan kepada salah seorang pemenang sayembara berhadiah sebuah
mobil mewah (Langsung)
e. Surat pemberitahuan berita musibah kecelakaan rombongan kerja bus karyawan suatu
perusahaan kepada sanak keluarganya (Tidak langsung)
f. Surat pengaduan konsumen terhadap manger suatu perusahaan (Tidak langsung)
g. Surat peringatan bagi nasabah yang mempunyai kredit macet (Tidak langsung)
h. Surat pengumuman pundah alamat kantor yang baru (Langsung)
i. Surat penerimaan kerja bagi para pelamar kerja di suatu perusahaan (Langsung)
j. Surat pemberhentian karyawan/pegawai suatu perusahaan (Tidak langsung)
k. Surat pengumuman obral produk dengan diskon hingga 70 persen (Langsung)

Tugas

Sebagai salah seorang pemilik Toko swalayan. Johnson tampak terlalu sibuk untuk
mengurusi berbagai urusan di luar toko yang dimilikinya. Oleh karena itu, sebagian tugasnya
dilimpahkan kepada salah seorang pegawai kepercayaannya di bagian pengawasan kualitas
produk. Akhir-akhir ini sering muncul keluhan atau pengaduan dari konsumen bahwa
terdapat beberapa jenis produk yang kualitasnya tidak baik.

Pertanyaan

Seandainya anda sebagai pemilik toko tersebut, maka buatlah sebuah memo kepada kepala
bagian pengawasan kualitas/mutu produk tersebut.

Toko Swalayan 5 Februari 21

MEMO
Bandung

No: 01

Dari: Pemilik Toko

Kepada: Kepala bagian pengawasan kualitas produk

Hal: Tolong di cek ulang kualitas produk setiap hari minimal 2 kali.

Pemilik Toko

Johnson

Online

1. Coba anda kunjungi sebuah Website yang beralamat http://www.refdesk.com, anda


akan dapat menemukan banyak sumber informasi baik yang berkaitan dengan
ensiklopedia, kamus, atlas, surat kabar virtual, dan sejumlah search engine. Pilih salah
satu artikel yang menarik bagi anda, selanjutnya analisis apa kelemahan artikel
tersebut dilihat dari sisi pengorganisasiannya.
Jawab:
11 Cooking Hacks From Real Chefs to Elevate Your Pasta Dishes
It’s one of the easiest and most popular dishes to make at home. Just boil noodles,
heat a jar of sauce, and voila! What many don’t realize, however, is that with some
attention to detail and just a few extra steps, you can take your spaghetti with
marinara sauce from serviceable to restaurant-quality. Here are a few tips from the
pros.
Kesimpulannya :
Artikel diatas menggunakan pendekatan langsung, karena artikel tersebut akan
membuat respon yang membacanya merasa terbantu.

2. Kunjungilah search engine Yahoo! Di http://www.yahoo.com. Pilih salah satu artikel


yang menarik bagi anda baik masalah pokok, ekonomi-bisnis, atau yang lainnya.
Menurut anda apa pendekatan yang digunakan dalam penulisan tersebut?
Jawab:
PT Sariwangi pailit, gagal bayar utang
Kabar mengejutkan datang dari PT Sariwangi Agricultural Estate Agency
(SAEA) dan PT Maskapai Perkebunan Indorub Sumber Wadung (MPISW) yang
dinyatakan pailit. Perusahaan teh ini bangkrut lantaran terlilit utang total Rp 1,5 triliun
kepada sejumlah bank.
Perusahaan tersebut tak bisa bayar utang karena gagal saat investasi untuk
meningkatkan produksi perkebunan. PT SAEA dan MPISW mengeluarkan uang
sangat besar untuk mengembangkan teknologi air, tapi hasilnya tak sesuai harapan.
Akibatnya pembayaran cicilan utang macet dan sejumlah bank mengajukan tagihan
namun tak mampu dibayar.
"Sariwangi tidak pernah membayar cicilan dan tidak pernah hadir di
persidangan. Kalau Indorub datang di sidang dan dia melanggar perjanjian karena
telat membayar cicilan setahun lebih," ujar Kuasa Hukum Bank ICBC Indonesia,
Swandy Halim dari Kantor Hukum Swandy Halim & Partners.
dari artikel diatas, bisa dilihat bahwa pendekatan yg sangat tepat dilakukan
adalah dengan pendekatan tidak langsung.

3. Penyampaian pesan-pesan bisnis dapat menggunakan pendekatan langsung dan tidak


langsung. Kunjungilah alamat berikut ini.
http://faculty.winthrop.edu/kosterj/WRIT465/management/directapproach.htm.
Berdasarkan artikel tersebut, apa yang membedakan pendekatan langsung dan
pendekatan tidak langsung dalam penyampaian pesan-pesan bisnis?
Jawab:
Direct Approach vs. Indirect Approach
[Sample Intro in Direct Approach]  [Sample Intro in Indirect Approach]
Direct Approach
When you use the direct approach, the main idea (such as a recommendation,
conclusion, or request) comes in the "top" of the document, followed by the evidence.
This is a deductive argument. This approach is used when your audience will be
neutral or positive about your message. In the formal report, the direct approach
usually mandates that you lead off with a summary of your key findings, conclusions,
and recommendations. This "up-front" arrangement is by far the most popular and
convenient for business reports. It saves time and makes the rest of the report easier to
follow. For those who have questions or want more information, later parts of the
report provide complete findings and supporting details. The direct approach also
produces a more forceful report. You sound sure of yourself when you state your
conclusions confidently at the outset.
Indirect Approach
In the indirect approach, the evidence is presented first, leading therefore to the main
idea. This is an inductive argument. This approach is best if your audience may be
displeased about or may resist what you have to say.
At times, especially if you are a junior member of an organization or if you are an
outsider, writing with an extremely confident stance may be regarded as arrogant. In
such cases, or if your audience will be skeptical or hostile, you may want to use the
indirect approach: Introduce your complete findings and discuss all supporting details
before presenting your conclusions and recommendations. The indirect approach
gives you a chance to prove your points and gradually overcome your audience’s
reservations. By deferring the conclusions and recommendations, you imply that
you’ve weighed the evidence objectively without prejudging the facts. You also imply
that you’re subordinating your judgment to the audience, whose members are capable
of drawing their own conclusions when they have access to all the facts.
Although the indirect approach has its advantages, some readers will always be in a
hurry to get to "the answer" and will flip to the recommendations immediately, thus
defeating your purpose. Therefore, consider length before choosing the direct or
indirect approach. In general, the longer the message, the less effective an indirect
approach is likely to be. Furthermore, an indirect argument is harder to follow than a
direct one.
Because both direct and indirect approaches have merit, businesspeople often
combine them. They reveal their conclusions and recommendations as they go along,
rather than putting them first or last. As a result, the approach strategy of business
reports can sometimes be hard to classify.
Two Sample Introductions for Formal Reports
Direct Approach (assumes audience will favor or be neutral to your
recommendations)
Since the company’s founding 25 years ago, we have provided regular repair service
for all our electric appliances. This service has been an important selling point as well
as a source of pride for our employees. However, we are paying a high price for our
image. Last year, we lost $500,000 on our repair business.
Because of your concern over these losses, you asked me to study the pros and cons
of discontinuing our repair service. With the help of John Hudson and Susan
Lefkowitz, I have studied the issue for the last two weeks and have come to the
conclusion that we have been embracing an expensive, impractical tradition.
By withdrawing from the electric appliance repair business, we can substantially
improve our financial performance without damaging our reputation with customers.
This conclusion is based on three main points that are covered in the following pages:
· It is highly unlikely that we will ever be able to make a profit in the repair business.
· Service is no longer an important selling point with customers.
· Closing down the service operation will create few internal problems.

Indirect Approach  (assumes audience will be hostile to or resistant to your


recommendations, or that you are much lower in the organizational power structure
than the primary reader)
Since the company’s founding 25 years ago, we have provided regular repair service
for all our electric appliances. This service has been an important selling point as well
as a source of pride for our employees. However, the repair business itself has
consistently lost money.
Because of your concern over these losses, you asked me to study the pros and cons
of discontinuing our repair service. With the help of John Hudson and Susan
Lefkowitz, I have studied the issue for the last two weeks. The following pages
present my findings for your review. Three basic questions are addressed:
· What is the extent of our losses, and what can we do to turn the business around?
· Would withdrawal of this service hurt our sales of electric appliances?
· What would be the internal repercussions of closing down the repair business?

Source: Bovée, Thill, and Schatzman, Business Communication Today 7th ed., pp.


115-16 and 408-09.

Berdasarkan artikel diatas, yang membedakan pendekatan langsung dan pendekatan


tidak langsung dalam menyampaikan pesan-pesan terletak pada kapan waktu yang
tepat menggunakannya. Pendekatan langsung digunakan ketika audiens Anda
bersikap netral atau positif tentang pesan Anda. Dalam laporan formal, pendekatan
langsung biasanya mengamanatkan Anda memimpin dengan ringkasan temuan utama,
kesimpulan, dan rekomendasi Anda. Sedangkan, pendekatan tidak langsung
digunakan jika audiens Anda mungkin tidak senang atau mungkin menolak apa yang
Anda katakan.