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I.

READING
A. Fill in each blank space with one appropriate word from the box.
mortality expanding growth increasing reach decline
population even slightly life variations available
WORLD POPULATION
Projections issued in 2000 showed the world population (31) increase from 6.1 billion in 2000, to 7.9 billion in
2050. "High" and "low" projections for 2025 are 8.4 billion and 7.5 billion respectively. The average world birth rate is
projected to (32) decline from the 1990 level of 26 per 1,000 to 22 per 1,000 at the .end of the century and to 17.6 per
1,000 in 2025 (corresponding to a fall in TFH from 3.3 in 1990 to 2.1 in 2025). Because of the (33) expanding share of
the population at high-mortality ages, the average world death Tate is expected to decline only (34) slightly; from 9 (per
1,000) in 1990 to 8.4 in 2025. Average world (35) life expectancy, however, is projected to rise from 65 years in 1990 to
71.3 years in 2025. Wide (36) variations in population growth will undoubtedly persist. In the developed world, population
growth will continue to be very low and in some nations will (37) even decline. Western Europe as a whole is projected to
have a declining population after 2000. U.S. Census Bureau projections, assuming middle fertility and (38) mortality
levels, show U.S. (39) population increasing from 250 million in' 1990 to 349 million in 2025 and 420 million in 2050.
Thereafter, (40) growth would be virtually zero.
B. Read the passage, then choose the correct answers.
No one knows the limits of population that the earth can support. Thomas Malthus, an English economist,
developed a theory that became widely accepted in the nineteenth century. He suggested that because world population
tended to increase more rapidly than the food supply, a continual strain was exerted upon available resources. Malthus
cited wars, famines, epidemics, and other diseases as the usual limitations of population growth.
With recent advances in science and technology, including improved
agricultural methods and great strides in medicine, some of the limiting factors in population growth have been lessened,
with obvious results.
International organizations have put forward several recommendations to alleviate the problem of overpopulation,
including an increase in food production, general economic development in target areas, and a decrease
in birth rate. Most experts agree that it will be necessary to combine all three recommendations in an effort to affect a
lasting solution.
41. It was suggested by Thomas Malthus that _______.
a. food was in short supply because of population increase
b. The rapid growth of population led to an acute shortage of natural resources
c. Rapid population growth put a great strain on available resources
d. Pressures on natural resources will increase as we face a population explosion
42. Which of the following was not mentioned as the usual limitations of population growth?
a. wars b. epidemics
c. famines d. agricultural methods
43. According to the passage, why has overpopulation been caused?
a. Improved technology b. Disasters c. Scarcity d. Precaution
44. What do most experts recommend in order to solve problems of overpopulation?
a. Famine and epidemic
b. Economic development and a decline in birth rate
c. Medical advance and improved agricultural methods
d. Conservation of available resources
45. Which of the following is not true according to the passage?
a. The earth have enough resources to support all of its population.
b. The theory developed by Thomas Malthus was believed by most people in the 19th century.
c. Medical advance has lessened some of the limiting factors in population growth.
d. International organizations arc seeking a lasting solution to the overpopulation problem.
Đọc đoạn văn sau và chọn một câu trả lời thích hợp nhất, từ câu 1 đến câu 5
The population of the world has increased more in modern times than in all other ages of history combined. World population
totalled about 500 million in 1650. It doubled in the period from 1650 - 1680. By the year 2000, the population will be about 6.6
billion. Estimates based on research by the United Nations indicate that it will double in the twenty-five years between 1975 and the
year 2000.
No one knows the limits of the population that the earth can support. Thomas Malthus, an English economist, developed a theory
that became widely accepted in the nineteenth century. He suggested that because world population tended to increase more rapidly
than food supply, we should continuously constrain available resources. Malthus cited wars, famines, epidemics and other disasters as
in the usual limitations of world population growth. With recent advances in science and technology, including improved agricultural
methods and great progresses and in medicine, some of the limiting factors in population growth have been lessened, with obvious
results. International organizations have recommended programmes to encourage general economic development that target areas
along with a decrease in birth rates to effect a lasting solution.
Câu 1: Which of the options below is the best title for the passage?
A. A Brief History of Population and Over-population B. Limiting Factors in Population Growth
C. The United Nations' Estimate D. Thomas Malthus's Theory
Câu 2: What is the population from the estimates based on research by the US?
A. Two million B. Five hundred million C. Seven billion D. Over six billion
Câu 3: Who was Thomas Malthus?
A. A scientist B. An economist C. A doctor of medicine D. A United Nations' representative
Câu 4: According to the passage, the limiting factors in population growth have been lessened because of __________.
A. precaution B. disasters C. improved technology D. scarcity
Câu 5: What do most experts recommend in order to solve problems of overpopulation?
A. Medical advance and improved agricultural methods. B. Famine and epidemic.
C. Economic development and a decline in the bith rate. D. Conservation of available resources.
Questions 22-31
People of Hispanic origin were on the North American continent centuries before settlers arrived from
Europe in the early 1600s and the thirteen colonies joined together to form the United States in the late 1700s.
The first census of the new nation was conducted in 1790, and counted about four million people, most of
whom were white. Of the white citizens, more than 80% traced their ancestry back to England. There were
close to 700,000 slaves and about 60,000 “free Negroes”. Only a few Native American Indians who paid taxes
were included in the census count, but the total Native American population was probably about one million.
By 1815, the population of the United States was 8.4 million. Over the next 100 years, the country took
in about 35 million immigrants, with the greatest numbers coming in the late 1800s and early 1900s. In 1882,
40,000 Chinese arrived, and between 1900 and 1907, there were more than 30,000 Japanese immigrants. But by
far, the largest numbers of the new immigrants were from central, eastern, and southern Europe.
An enormous amount of racial and ethnic assimilation has taken place in the United States. In 1908, play-write
Israel Zangwill first used the term “melting pot” to describe the concept of a place where many races melted in
a crucible and re-formed to populate a new land. Some years during the first two decades of the 20 th century,
there were as many as one million new immigrants per year, an astonishing 1 percent of the total population of
the United States.
In 1921, however, the country began to limit immigration, and the Immigration Act of 1924 virtually closed
the door. The total number of immigrants admitted per year dropped from as many as a million to only 150,000.
A quota system was established that specified the number of immigrants that could come from each country. It
heavily favored immigrants from northern and western Europe and severely limited everyone else. This system
remained in effect until 1965, although after World War II, several exceptions were made to the quota system to
allow in groups of refugees.

22. *Why did the author write the passage?


(a) to outline the ways immigration has been restricted
(b) to emphasize the impact of migrants from Europe
(c) to explain and give examples of the concept of a “melting pot”
(d) to summarize the main features of immigration

23. *According to the passage, which ancestry predominated at the time of the first census?
(a) Native Americans
(b) Negroes
(c) English
(d) Hispanic

24. The word “ancestry” in line 5 is closest in meaning to


(a) origins
(b) inheritance
(c) color
(d) freedom

25. The word “their” in line 5 refers to which of the following


(a) immigrants
(b) people of Hispanic origin
(c) white citizens
(d) Native Americans

26. *Which of the following is true, according to the passage?


(a) a quota system was in place from 1908
(b) a peak period of immigration was in the late 1800s and early 1900s
(c) slaves were not counted in the first census
(d) only those who paid taxes were included in the first census

27. *The number of immigrants taken in over the 100 years to 1915 was
(a) probably about 1 million
(b) about 35 million
(c) 8.4 million
(d) about 4 million

28. *The word “concept” in line 16 is closest in meaning to


(a) location
(b) type
(c) complexity
(d) thought

29. *The word “virtually” in line 21 is closest in meaning to


(a) effectively
(b) occasionally
(c) thoroughly
(d) undeservedly

30. *Which of the following is NOT true about immigrants


(a) they were subjected to an official quota in the Immigration Act from 1924
(b) during the 1900s immigrants numbered 1 percent of the total population
(c) settlers of Hispanic origin arrived centuries before those from Europe
(d) numbers began to be limited from 1921

31. *Which of the following can be inferred from the passage


(a) preserving a developing “American” culture was a major factor leading to the introduction of the
quota system
(b) racial and ethnic assimilation did not occur as planned
(c) racial and ethnic tensions would have increased if the quota system had not been introduced
(d) the quota system was introduced to limit population growth
22.d 23.c 24.a 25.c 26.b 27.b 28.d 29.a 30.b

31.a

Brazil has become one of the developing world's great successes at reducing population growth but more by
accident than design. While countries such as India have made joint efforts to reduce birth rates, Brazil has had
better result without really trying, says George Martine at Harvard.

Brazil's population growth rate has dropped from 2.99 a year between 1951 and 1960 to 1.93 a year between
1981 and 1990, and Brazilian women now have only 2.7 children on average. Martine says this figure may have
fallen still further since 1990, an achievement that makes it the envy of many other Third World countries.
Martine puts it down to, among other things, soap operas and installment plans introduced in the 1970s. Both
played an important, although indirect, role in lowering the birth rate. Brazil is one of the world's biggest
producers of soap operas. Global, Brazil's most popular television network, shows three hours of soaps six
nights a week, while three others show at least one hour a night. Most soaps are based on wealthy characters
living the high life in big cities.

"Although they have never really tried to work in a massage towards the problems of reproduction, they
describe middle and upper class values not man children, different attitudes towards sex, women working," says
Martine. "They sent his image to all parts of Brazil and made people conscious of other patterns of behavior
and other values, which were put into a very attractive package."
Meanwhile, the installment plans tried to encourage the poor to become consumers. "This led to an enormous
change in consumption patterns and consumption was in compatible with unlimited reproduction." says
Martine.

11.According to the passage, Brazil has cut back its population growth _______.
A) by educating its citizens
B) by careful family panning
C) by developing TV programmers
D) by chance

12.According to the passage, many Third World countries _______.


A) haven't attached much importance to birth control
B) would soon join Brazil in controlling their birth rate
C) haven't yet found an effective measure to control their population
D) neglected the role of TV plays in family planning

13.The phrase "puts it down to" (Line 1, Para. 3) is closest in meaning to "_______".
A) attributes it to
B) sums it up as
C) finds it a reason for
D) compares it to

14.Soap operas have helped in lowering Brazil's birth rate because _______.
A) they keep people sitting long hours watching TV
B) they have gradually changed people's way of life
C) people are drawn to their attractive package
D) they popularize birth control measures

15.What is Martine's conclusion about Brazil's population growth?


A) The increase in birth rate will promote consumption.
B) The desire for consumption helps to reduce birth rate.
C) Consumption patterns and reproduction patterns are contradictory.
D) A country's production is limited by its population growth.