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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Design of Piping Systems - Mw Kellogg
- 62913120 Slug Flow Analysis CAESAR
- Air Cooler Analysis Solution in Ceasar 2
- Procedure for Piping Stres Analysis Offshore)
- Static & Dynamic analysis of piping system
- Load Cases and Combination
- Questions for Stress Analysis
- Design Guide for Slug Force Calculation Procedure
- Caesar
- caesar ii training
- Good Books-piping
- 5.Piping Dynamic Stress Analysis
- CAESAR Load Case
- ceasar ii pipe stress analysis
- SIF B31.3
- Piping Harmonic Analysis
- Dynamic-module-of-CAESAR-II.pdf
- Slug Flow Analysis
- Harmonic Analysis IN ANSYS
- Dynamic Analysis of Water Hammer Loads

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HARMONIC ANALYSIS

Harmonic analysis looks at dynamic problems where the forces or displacements acting

on the piping system take sinusoidal forms. The dynamic motion equation could be

solved directly thus obviating the need for response spectrum.

Loads with harmonic force/time profiles are best solved using the harmonic

method. Major types of loads with harmonic time profiles are:

tolerance, it may impose a small cyclic displacement onto the pipe at the point of

attachment, where the displacement cycle would most likely correspond to the

equipment’s operating cycle. The displacement at the pipe connection may be so

small as to not even be noticeable, but dynamically it could cause significant

problems. The loading vs. time can be easily predicted once the equipment’s

operating cycle and variation from tolerance is known.

• Acoustic vibration: If fluid flow characteristics are changed within a pipe (for

example if flow conditions change from laminar to turbulent as the fluid goes

through an orifice), slight lateral vibrations may be set up within the pipe. Often

these vibrations fit harmonic patterns, with predominant frequencies somewhat

predictable based upon the flow conditions. For example, Strouhal’s equation

predicts that the developed frequency (Hz) of vibration caused by flow through an

orifice will be somewhere between 0.2 V/D and 0.3 V/D, where V is the fluid

velocity and D is the diameter of the orifice. Wind flow around a pipe sets up

lateral displacements as well (a phenomenon known as vortex shedding), with an

exciting frequency in the area of 0.18 V/D, where V is the wind velocity and D is

the outer diameter of the pipe.

fluid is compressed by pistons driven by a rotating shaft. This causes a cyclic

change (vs. time) in the fluid pressure at any specified location in the system. If

the fluid pressures at opposing elbow pairs or closures are unequal, this creates an

unbalanced pressure load in the system. Since the pressure balance changes with

the cycle of the compressor, the unbalanced force changes as well. (Note that the

frequency of the force cycle will most likely be some multiple of that of the

equipment operating cycle, since multiple pistons will cause a corresponding

number of force variations during each shaft rotation.) The pressure variations

will continue to move along through the fluid, so in a steady state flow condition,

unbalanced forces may be present simultaneously at all elbow pairs in the system.

The load magnitudes may vary, and the load cycles may or may not be in phase

with each other, depending upon the pulse velocity, the distance of each elbow

pair from the compressor, and the length of the piping legs between the elbow

pairs.

The biggest use by far of the harmonic solver is in analyzing low frequency field

vibrations. The approach typically taken towards solving this type of problem (especially

if the problem investigated is for an actual existing pipeline where large vibrations are

noticed in operation) is described briefly below:

1. A potential dynamic problem is first identified in the field either in terms of large

cycle vibrations or high stresses (fatigue failure) being present in an existing

piping system, raising questions of whether this represents a dangerous situation.

As many symptoms of the problem (quantifiable displacements, overstress points,

etc.) are identified as possible, for future use in refining the dynamic model.

2. A model of the piping system is built using CAESAR II. This should be done as

accurately as possible, since the system as well as load characteristics affect the

magnitude of the developed response.

3. Postulate the cause of the load and from that, estimate the frequency, magnitude,

point, and direction of the load. This is somewhat difficult because the dynamic

loads can come from many sources. Dynamic loads may be due to internal

pressure pulses, external vibration, flow shedding at intersections, two phase flow,

etc., but in almost all cases, there is some frequency content of the excitation that

corresponds to (and therefore excites) a system mechanical natural frequency. If

the load is caused by equipment, then the forcing frequency is probably some

multiple of the operating frequency; if the load is due to acoustic flow problems,

then the forcing frequency can be estimated through the use of fluid dynamics

equations. Using the best assumptions available, the user should estimate the

magnitudes and points of application of the dynamic load. Note that the point of

application is not necessarily a point of high system response.

depending upon whether the cause is assumed to be pulsation or vibration) and

several harmonic analyses are done sweeping the frequencies through a range

centered about the target frequency (in order to account for uncertainty). The

results of each of the analyses are examined for signs of large displacements,

indicating harmonic resonance. If the resonance is present, the results of the

analyses are compared to known symptoms from the field. If they are not similar,

this indicates that the dynamic model must be improved, either in terms of a more

accurate system (static) model, a better estimate of the load, or a finer sweep

through the frequency range. Once the model has been refined, this step is

repeated until the mathematical model behaves just like the actual piping system

in the field.

5. If the situation is deemed to be a problem, its cause must be identified, where the

cause is normally the excitation of a single mode of vibration. A model extraction

of the system is done; one (or more) of these modes should have a natural

frequency close to the forcing frequency of the applied load. The guilty mode can

be further identified as the one having a shape very similar to the shape of the

total system vibration, since this mode shape has been dynamically magnified far

beyond the other modes and thus predominates in the final vibrated shape.

6. Once the guilty mode has been identified, it must be eliminated. This is done most

easily by adding a restraint at a high point of the mode shape. If this cannot be

done, the mode may also be altered by changing the mass distribution of the

system (for example, by adding operators to valves). If no modification of the

system is possible, it may be possible to alter the forcing frequency of the load. If

the dynamic load was postulated to be due to internal acoustics, it is

recommended that the pipe not be rerouted at this point, as rerouting the pipe will

change the internal flow conditions. After modifying the system, the harmonic

problem (using the single forcing frequency determined as a good model) is then

re-run, and the stresses, displacements, etc. are re-evaluated.

7. If the dynamic problem has been adequately solved, the system is now reanalyzed

statically to determine the effects of any modifications on the static loading cases.

(Remember that adding restraint normally increases expansion stresses, while

adding mass increases sustained stresses).

magnitude following a harmonic profile, ranging from its minimum to its maximum over

a fixed time period. Generally, the load may be described by a function of the form:

F (t) = A cos (ω t - Q)

Where:

F (t) = force magnitude as a function of time.

A = Magnitude of the force.

ω = angular frequency (radian/sec).

Q = phase angle (radians).

t = time (sec).

For the pulsating equipment, the magnitude of the pressure load (Fh) at each elbow is:

Fh = 0.5 (Pressure variation) (C.S.Area)

The harmonic loading can start with its maximum load at time equal to zero, or

the harmonic load can start with its maximum at any time between zero and t = 2π / ω

seconds. The phase angle is the method used to specify this time shift in the dynamic load

waveform. The phase angle can be calculated from the time shift using the equation:

Phase (degrees) = 180 t ω / π

Where, t is given in seconds and ω is given in radians per second. Most frequently the

phase angle is entered as either zero or 90. The phase specification is most useful when

defining eccentric loads on rotating equipment.

Phasing can be important if more than one force or displacement is included. The

phase angle relates the timing of one load to another. For example, if two harmonic loads

are acting along the same line but at different nodes, the loads can be directed towards

each other, which would produce no net dynamic imbalance on the system, or the loads

could be directed in the same direction, which would produce a net dynamic imbalance in

the system equal to the sum of the two forces. It is the phase angle which primarily

determines this relationship. For example, the harmonic load data (1500, X, 0, 10), and

(1500, X, 0, 105) produces an “in phase,” or same direction dynamic load in the system

(1500 in the X direction and zero phase at nodes 10 and 105), while (1500, X, 0, 10), and

(1500, X, 180, 105) produces an “out of phase,” or opposite direction dynamic load on

the system which will tend to pull the system apart.

The two most common phased loadings are those due to rotating equipment and

reciprocating pumps.

Rotating equipment may have an eccentricity, a speed, and a mass. These items

must be converted into a harmonic load that acts on the rotor at the theoretical mass

centerline. The magnitude of the harmonic load (Fh) is computed from:

Fh = (mass) (speed)2(eccentricity)

Where,

Speed: is the angular velocity of the shaft in cycles per second.

This load is applied along both axes perpendicular to the shaft axis and at a 90º phase

shift.

In the case of a reciprocating pump, the pump introduces a pressure wave into the

line at some regular interval that is related to the valving inside the pump and the pump

speed. This pressure wave moves away from the pump at the speed of sound in the fluid.

These pressure waves will cause loads at each bend in the piping system. The load on

each subsequent elbow in the system starting from the first elbow will be phase shifted by

an amount that is a function of the distance between the elbows, from the first elbow to

the current elbow. It is the amount of phase shift between elbow-elbow pairs that

produces the net unbalanced dynamic load in the piping. The phase shift, in degrees from

the first elbow, is calculated from:

Phase = [(frequency)(length) / (speed of sound)]360º

Where,

Frequency: is the frequency of wave introduction at the pump.

Length: is the distance from the first elbow to the current elbow under study.

The steps for modeling harmonic analysis using CAESAR II dynamic processor are

as follows:

1. Run the static analysis for the different load cases specified for the problem.

2. Open the dynamic input processor and select the type of analysis to be

Harmonic.

3. The first tab in the harmonic module is the Excitation Frequencies tab. In

this tab, the starting frequency (Hz.) is entered. Any number of individual

frequencies, or frequency ranges (indicated by a starting, ending, and

incremental frequency) may be specified, one to a line. CAESAR II performs

a separate analysis for each frequency requested. If the ending frequency is

not specified, it defaults to the starting frequency. If the frequency increment

is not specified then it defaults to 1 Hz. The number of anticipated load cycles

may be entered for each frequency range. If the number is entered, the load

cases are calculated with a fatigue stress type. Otherwise, the load cases are

calculated with an occasional stress type.

excitation frequency data.

force cell. The direction of the force is specified to be either X, Y, Z from the

pull down menu. Direction could be entered as direction cosines (cs, cy, cz),

or direction vectors (vx, vy, vz) as well. Phase angle is defined in degrees,

however, when there is no phase angle, it should be specified as zero. The

start node is also specified in the cell. If a range of nodes are specified, then a

stop node with node increment is specified.

6. In case of describing displacement instead of forces, Harmonic

Displacement tab is used where same parameters described for forces are

applied for displacement.

could be applied by adding a new row to the force/displacement table.

For the harmonic analysis, there are three parameter discussed as follows:

the static case that transient loading will probably occur and it is left

for the analyst decision (preferably, the operating case).

default value of 0.03 is usually used in time history analysis. However,

reducing this value yields more conservative results but with lower

accuracy. Changing this value affects the results directly, thus it should

be dealt with carefully.

1.6. REFERENCES

controlling the dynamic solution.

- CAESAR II - applications guide.

- COADE discussion forums.

- CAESAR II - user guide

- Various internet sources.

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- 62913120 Slug Flow Analysis CAESARDiunggah olehmapasabc
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- Procedure for Piping Stres Analysis Offshore)Diunggah olehayounga
- Static & Dynamic analysis of piping systemDiunggah olehkarthikeashwar
- Load Cases and CombinationDiunggah olehOluwachidi
- Questions for Stress AnalysisDiunggah olehSunday Paul
- Design Guide for Slug Force Calculation ProcedureDiunggah olehPratik Patre
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- ceasar ii pipe stress analysisDiunggah olehjbkrishnan
- SIF B31.3Diunggah olehRob Gillespie
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- Dynamic-module-of-CAESAR-II.pdfDiunggah olehPrashant Agrawal
- Slug Flow AnalysisDiunggah olehMohd Firdaus Abd Latif
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