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Multimodal Biometric Voting System


¾-Information Technology ¾-Information Technology

GITAM UNIVERSITY ANITS college of engineering


ABSTRACT voters have no evidence that proves which candidates

received their votes. The existence of such evidence
This paper encloses the information regarding the would allow votes to be purchased by a candidate.
present interesting topic, the biometrics; biometrics
technology allows determination and verification of The voting system must also be tamper-resistant to
ones identity through physical characteristics. To put thwart a wide range of attacks, including ballot stuffing
it simply, it turns your body in to your password. We by voters and incorrect tallying by insiders. Another
discussed various biometric techniques like finger factor, as shown by the so-called “butter y ballots” in
scan, retina scan, facial scan hand scan etc. An the Florida 2000 presidential election, is the importance
algorithm have been proposed by taking a multi of human factors. A voting system must be
modal biometric voting system to authenticate a comprehensible to and usable by the entire voting
person and consider his voting . population, regardless of age, infirmity, or disability.
We conclude that this voting system is superior for Providing accessibility to such a diverse population is
use in a general election when compared with an important engineering problem and one where, if
traditonal voting system and ven other security is done well, electronic voting could be a
Keywords great improvement over current paper systems. Flaws
Biometrics, Hashing, Database, Covert Surveillance in any of these aspects of a voting system, however,
can lead to indecisive or incorrect election results.
In electronic voting system there have been several
threats, and poor software development processes
including unauthorized privilege escalation, incorrect
Elections allow the people to choose their use of cryptography, vulnerabilities to network
representatives and express their preferences for how 1.1Draw back of traditional and electronic voting
they will be governed. Naturally, the integrity of the system-need for Biometrics
election process is fundamental to the integrity of Up to now the voting systems are taking the data
democracy itself. The election system must be of voting and they are not bothered about the
sufficiently robust to withstand a variety of authenticity of the person where by providing a chance
fraudulent behaviors and must be sufficiently for others to cast the votes i.e unauthorized privilege
transparent and comprehensible that voters and escalation .
candidates can accept the results of an election. The proposed voting system authenticates the
Unsurprisingly, history is littered with examples of person and considers the voting
elections being manipulated in order to nuence their 2. Classification of biometrics:
out come. The design of a “good” voting system, The two categories of biometric techniques are:
whether electronic or using traditional paper ballots The physiological based techniques, which
or mechanical devices, must satisfy a number of measure the physiological characteristics of a person.
sometimes competing criteria. These include fingerprint verification, iris analysis,
The anonymity of a voter’s ballot must be preserved, facial analysis, hand geometry-vein patterns, ear
both to guarantee the voter’s safety when voting recognition, odor detection and DNA pattern analysis.
against a malevolent candidate, and to guarantee that
The behavioral based techniques, which to locate one or more individuals that are a close fit to
measure the behavior of a person. These include hand the new data. Most biometrics technologies do not
written signature verification and speech analysis. seek exact equality between the new and the stored
These techniques involve two major steps. These are measures. Instead they have a pre-set tolerance range
the Authentication & the verification. within which the two are deemed to be sufficiently
Authentication is a process of one-to one close. In order to reduce transmission time, costs and
comparison, rather than a mass searching process. to require less storage space, compression algorithms
Identification is a process of checking for a particular are used. To provide better transfer rate of data
identity in the database available. during identification & authentication ‘hashing’ is
The setting of the error tolerance of these systems used. Hashing is a process of detecting the perfect
is critical to their performance. Both errors (False match of a particular input record from a large
Rejection and False Acceptance). database using a hashing function.
Should be low and they should both are quoted by the 4.Applications of biometrics
manufacturers. All the information regarding the fingerprints, retina
3.How biometric technology works Process involved etc… Are digitalized and stored. This can be
in using a compared with a database in seconds and with an
biometric system for security is: extraordinary degree of accuracy. Fingerprints have
the advantage of being cheaper and simpler than most
other biometrics.

4.1E-commerce Applications:
E-commerce developers are exploring the use of
biometrics to more accurately verify a trading party’s
4.2 Covert Surveillance:
Facial and body recognition biometric techniques come
in to picture automatically to identify known suspects
entering buildings or traversing crowed security areas
Figure1. such as airports.
During enrollment:
Capture the biometrics, which has to be stored in the 5.Types of Biometric security technologies:
database; 5.1 Finger scan:
Process the biometric, extract and enroll the Finger-scan biometrics is base on the distinctive
biometric template; characteristics of the human fingerprint. A fingerprint
Store the template in a local repository, a central image is read from a capture device, features are
repository, or a portable token such as a smart card. extracted from the image, and a template is created.
During access to database: Fingerprints are used in forensic applications: large-
4) Live-scan the biometric feature; scale, one-to-many searches on databases of up to
5) Process the biometric and extract the biometric millions of fingerprints. These searches can be done
template; within only a few hours by using AFIS (Automated
6) Match the scanned biometric against stored Fingerprint Identification Systems). The basic in both
templates; finger scan and finger prints is that the curvatures,
7) Incase of successful verification; provide a deltas, crossovers, pores, loops etc, are of a person are
matching score to business application; captured and stored in the database in digitized for and
8) Record a secure audit trail with respect to system are encrypted in cases of authentication or
use identification .

Biometric applications depend on comparing as new

Measure against previously captured information. In
Biometric application some aspect of a person is
measured; the measure is processed; and the resulting
data is stored; At a subsequent time, the same aspect
of a person is measured and compared against the
stored data .If it is being used for authentication, the
new data is compared against the data, already in
storage for that person. If it is being used for
Figure2: Finger Scanner
identification, the entire database is searched, in order
most would see nothing unusual in extending this to
encompass biometrics. Signature verification devices
are reasonably accurate in operation and obviously
lend themselves to applications where a signature is
an accepted identifier. Surprisingly, relatively few
5.2 Hand geometry significant signature applications have emerged
Hand geometry involves analyzing and measuring the compared with other biometric methodologies. But if
shape of the hand. This biometric offers a good balance your application fits, it is a technology worth
of performance characteristics and is relatively easy to considering.
use. It might be suitable where there are more users or
where users access the system infrequently and are 5.5 Voice
perhaps less disciplined in their approach to the system. Voice authentication is not based on voice
Accuracy can be very high if desired, and flexible recognition but on voice-to-print authentication,
performance tuning and configuration can where complex technology transforms voice into text.
accommodate a wide range of applications. Voice biometrics has the most potential for growth,
Organizations are using hand geometry readers in because it requires no new hardware—most PCs
various scenarios, including time and attendance already contain a microphone. However, poor quality
recording, where they have proved extremely popular. and ambient noise can affect verification addition, the
Ease of integration into other systems and processes, enrollment procedure has often been more
coupled with ease of use, makes hand geometry an complicated than with other biometrics, leading to
obvious first step for many biometric projects. the perception that voice verification is not user
friendly. Therefore, voice authentication software
needs improvement. One day, voice may become an
additive technology to finger-scan technology.
Because many people see finger scanning as a higher
authentication form, voice biometrics will most likely
be relegated to replacing or enhancing PINs,
passwords, or account names.

Fig.3 Hand Geometry 5.6 Retina scan:

Retina scan requires the user to situate his or her eye
5.3 Face with ½ inch of the capture device and hold still while
Face recognition analyzes facial characteristics. It the reader ascertains the patterns. The user looks at a
requires a digital camera to develop a facial image of rotating green light as the patterns of the retina are
the user for authentication. This technique has attracted measured at over 400 points; which leads a very high
considerable interest, although many people don't level off accuracy in comparison to most other
completely understand its capabilities. Some vendors biometrics. Retina scan is designed to use in military
have made extravagant claims— facilities, logical security applications such as
network access or PC logic. The patterns of blood
Multimodal Biometric Voting System vessels on the back of the human eye are unique from
person to person. The blood vessels on the back of
which are very difficult, if not impossible, to the retina are generally stable through one’s lifetime,
substantiate in practice—for facial recognition with the exception of degenerative diseases. Since the
devices. Because facial scanning needs an extra retina is an internal portion of the eye, retina
peripheral not customarily included with basic PCs, it scanning is considered intrusive. Thus the individual
is more of a niche market for network authentication. may be hesitant to get exposed to the scanning.
However, the casino industry has capitalized on this Moreover, retina scanning is a costly and sophisticated
technology to create a facial database of scam artists process
for quick detection by security personnel. 5.7 Iris scan:
5.4 Signature The iris has colored streaks and lines that radiate
Signature verification analyzes the way a user signs out from the pupil of the eye. The iris provides the
her name. Signing features such as speed, velocity, most comprehensive biometric data after DNA. And
and pressure are as important as the finished the chance that any two people may have the same
signature's static shape. Signature verification enjoys pattern is one in 10 to-the-power-78, which is
a synergy with existing processes that other way above the current population of the Earth. In this
biometrics do not. People are used to signatures as a scanning, the characteristics of the iris are taken into
means of transaction-related identity verification and account. About 266 unique points are recorded and
converted into a 512-byte iris code (somewhat similar ELSE GOTO STEP : 3)
to barcode). For recording the iris pattern, a STEP 3: The person is requested to give his or her
monochrome camera is used and the distance between fingerprint (as input) on the finger scan pad
the eye and the camera can be at most 3 feet. The iris The fingerprint taken as input in the above step is
code constructed contains information the compared with the fingerprints in the database of
characteristics and position of the unique points. The corresponding pin .
iris has more unique information than any other single d) IF
organ in the body. Fingerprint is matched with the fingerprint
6.Drawbacks of traditional and electronic voting available in the database of PIN (condition)
systems THEN,
A major problem with biometrics is how and where to GOTO STEP 8.
store the user’s template. Its storage introduces privacy ELSE (i.e., if finger print does not find a match)
concerns. On the other hand, storing the template on a GOTO STEP 4
smart card enhances individual privacy and increases e) STEP 4: The person is requested to speak few
protection from attack, because individual users control words, which is converted into digitalized code by
their own templates. the voice scanner
Inside the eye is a very delicate area and so, many
people are very hesitating to use laser eye device. Two
primary causes of errors affect biometric data: time and
environmental conditions. Biometrics may change as start
an individual ages. Environmental conditions may
either after the biometric directly (for example, if
a finger is cut and scarred) or interfere with the data Multi model biometric voting
collection (for instance, background noise when using a system
voice biometric).
7. Future of biometrics Finger
Biometric technology is one area that no segment of scan
the IT industry can afford to ignore, biometrics ©
provides security benefits across the spectrum, from IT Yes (d)
vendors to end users, and from security system Voice
developers to security system users. All these industry no
sectors must evaluate the costs and benefits of
implementing such security measures. Flow
8.Our work on biometrics (g)
Every biometric system has its limitations. Therefore, (f)
yes chart-2
identification based on multiple biometrics is an (k) no
emerging trend as multimode biometrics can provide a Hand
more balanced solution to the security multimode
systems involve the use of more than one biometric no
system. Our contribution to the above subject is that we yes Flow
have developed an algorithm on multi modal biometric (i)
voting system. The authenticity is assured by using
finger scan, voice scan, hand geometry scan and by
requesting the password given by the citizen for a Access the matched
particular user when necessary. The following are the into
file stop
flowcharts and the algorithms. database
Every citizen is given PIN number and his f) STEP 5: The code in the above step is compared
characteristics are with the voice codes in the database of PIN
stored in the corresponding location IF the code is matched (condition)
STEP 1: A person enters the polling booth that uses THEN,
multimodal biometric voting system (finger scan, voice GOTO ALGORITHM 2
scan & hand scan) for greater degree of security ELSE (i.e., if the code does not find a match)
STEP 2: The person is requested to ENTER his or her GOTO STEP 6.
PIN The PIN is checked whether it is in voted list or i) STEP6: The person is requested to place his
not hand above the hand scanner so that the structure of
IF ( PIN is in voted list GOTO STEP8 the hand is recorded.
j) STEP 7: The data in the above step is
compared with all the data available in the database.
IF the data is matched
Flow chart
ELSE (i.e., the data does not find a match) algorithm-2
GOTO Algorithm 2.

Glow theData
red light
k) STEP 8: The person is authorized for voting base
Password indicator
l) STEP 9: The corresponding pin is noted as voted
8.2.2 Algorithm 2: spoken
m) STEP 1: A request is sent to the database
querying it to send the password file from the OS
security files.
n) The passwords are received in an encrypted from Speech processing
(DES-data Encryption Standards). circuit.
0) STEP 2: The person is requested to speak his
p) STEP3: the vocal password spoken in the above Operating system
step is converted into textual password by the speech searches for
processing circuit security file
q)STEP-4:This password is compared with
password file from step 1.
IF match is found Textual password
Voting is denied
r) STEP5: Exit.

Consider the vote.

Figure 4.flowchart-2
Multimodal Biometric Voting System

Considering various biometric techniques like finger

scan, retina scan etc, finger scan is widely used.
Biometric technology has been around for decades
But has mainly been for highly secretive
environments with extreme security measures. The
proposed algorithm for multimodal biometric voting
system minimizes the corruption involved by human
intention . The technologies behind biometrics are
still emerging. This article gives a snapshot of the
dynamics under way in this emerging biometric
market, and we hope it will help all the possible
alternatives when acquiring new biometric
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Chris Mills, Karl Ware, Christopher Mills, April
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Samir Nanavati, March 2002, John Wiley & Sons