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Introduction

In this appendix we bring together the entire range of functions included by Excel. The material

is provided here in table form but is also contained on the CDROM under Appendix 01

Function List.xls

This Appendix provides classifications of the functions, their source, type, purpose and syntax.

There are additional tables after each classification that outline the details of the function

arguments used by that classification. Finally, we provide a consolidated listing of all of the

functions, which aids if there is any problem associated with discovering the classification. The

tables provided are as follows:

Table 2: Database Functions....................................................................................................................................6

Table 3: Database Function Arguments...................................................................................................................7

Table 4: Date and Time Functions............................................................................................................................8

Table 5: Date and Time Function Arguments.........................................................................................................10

Table 6: Engineering Functions..............................................................................................................................11

Table 7: Engineering Function Arguments..............................................................................................................14

Table 8: External Functions....................................................................................................................................16

Table 9: External Function Arguments....................................................................................................................17

Table 10: Financial Functions.................................................................................................................................19

Table 11: Financial Function Arguments................................................................................................................23

Table 12: Information Functions.............................................................................................................................26

Table 13: Information Function Arguments.............................................................................................................27

Table 14: Logical Functions....................................................................................................................................28

Table 15: Information Function Arguments.............................................................................................................29

Table 16: Lookup and Reference Functions...........................................................................................................30

Table 17: Lookup and Reference Function Arguments...........................................................................................32

Table 18: Maths Functions.....................................................................................................................................34

Table 19: Maths Function Arguments.....................................................................................................................38

Table 20: Statistical Functions................................................................................................................................40

Table 21: Statistical Function Arguments...............................................................................................................45

Table 22: Text Functions........................................................................................................................................48

Table 23: Text Function Arguments........................................................................................................................50

Table 24: Consolidated List of All Functions...........................................................................................................51

Function Arguments

In many instances important features or limitations of the functions are only revealed by the

knowledge of the arguments. We impart this knowledge not only by providing the syntax of

1

each function but also by providing a list and brief details of function arguments used by each

function classification.

There follows brief notes on individual functions and selected issues regarding classification /

purpose.

CONVERT Function

Well worth a visit! But how many, even intermediate users know of this carefully hidden but

very useful function?

CONVERT (perhaps more appropriately named “covert”?) is hidden under the Engineering

classification. CONVERT is a particularly powerful and comprehensive unit conversion

function. It allows conversions of units of:

Distance,

Time,

Pressure,

Force,

Energy,

Power,

Magnetism,

Temperature, and

Liquid measure

It also allows use of 18 prefix abbreviations that allow metric units from the largest to the

smallest magnitudes (eg kg = kilogram, mg = microgram). These prefixes facilitate metric unit

conversions between magnitudes as well as conversions between all metric magnitudes and

the non metric unit. Be honest, intermediate users! Did you really know of (and appreciate) the

existence range and power of this baby?

Counting is a standard task of Excel users and you may not be aware of the range of functions

available because they are located in different categories.

COUNTBLANK is under Information,

COUNTIF is provided under Maths, and

DCOUNT and DCOUNTA are provided as database functions.

Note that Excel regards a database as nothing more than a list where the rows represent

records and columns field.

2

DATEDIF Function

DATEDIF is a mysterious Excel built in function (not Analysis ToolPak). It is like the drunken

relative of a family; it exists but is not acknowledged! It clearly attempted drying out in Excel

2000 because it was the subject of a Help file for the first time. But it has regressed and In

Excel 2002 it has disappeared from Help and it does not appear in any of the function

classifications. See Appendix 2 for a copy of the Excel 2000 Help file on DATEDIF. ****

EUROCONVERT Function

EUROCONVERT is a specially released Excel Add-in that requires installation using Tools >

Add-Ins and selection of “Euro Currency Tools”. Once installed it appears under the User

Defined classification. In Excel 2002 Help files the classification is under External.

Although available as an Add-In for pre Excel 2002 versions, there is no Help file.

Conversions are from individual member currencies to Euros or to another member currency at

the officially prescribed exchange rates. With triangular conversions (eg DEM > EUR > FFR)

you have the choice between full precision or >= 3 significant figure precision in intermediate

conversions (eg DEM > EUR and EUR > FFR).

Microsoft has announced that the function will be updated as and when other member States

join the Euro Currency system.

Rounding is a common requirement of all Excel users. There are 12 functions that either round

numbers or perform operations that relate to parts of a number. These functions and their

operations are described in the following table which form a useful consolidation of the various

functions involved with this important task.

In finance we often need to round to the second decimal place or to the nearest 5 cents.

Furthermore, we need to know what happens to the mid-way point and how negative numbers

are treated. The terms “up” and “down” are pretty misleading to most users and all of our

descriptions of arguments append expressions such as “away from 0” and “towards 0” that are

invaluable in terms of knowing what happens to negative numbers.

In passing we must stress that a number returned using these rounding functions is stored by

Excel as per the return. This contrasts with “mere” formatting that does not impact upon the

number stored but only impacts upon how it is displayed.

Function Operation

Rounds a number (away from zero) to the nearest

CEILING

integer or to the nearest multiple of significance

3

Rounds a number (away from zero) to the nearest

EVEN

even integer

Rounds a number (towards zero) to the nearest

FLOOR

integer or to the nearest multiple of significance

INT Rounds a number away from 0 to the nearest integer

Returns the remainder from division with the result

MOD

having the same sign as the divisor

MROUND Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple.

(Analysis Toolpak) Midway points are rounded away from 0

Rounds a number away from zero to the nearest odd

ODD

integer

QUOTIENT Returns the integer portion of a division

Rounds a number to a specified number of digits to

ROUND the left (-) or right (+) of the decimal point. The

midway digit 5 is rounded away from 0.

Rounds a number down towards 0 to a specified

ROUNDDOWN number of digits to the left (-) or right (+) of the

decimal point

Round a number up away from 0 to a specified

ROUNDUP number of digits to the left (-) or right (+) of the

decimal point

Truncates a number to an integer or to specified

TRUNCATE precision by removing the fractional part of the

number. (Serves to round down towards 0)

There are cases where it can be argued that the classification is arbitrary or inconsistent:

COMBIN, which is used to calculate the number of combinations of a given number of items is

located under Maths. But PERMUT, which is used to calculate the permutations of a given

number of items out of another given number of items, is located under Statistical.

SUMX2PY2, and SUMXMY2 are basic tools of the statistician’s trade and they could lay a

good a claim to others.

We might also ask why Engineering should have acquired all the functions relating to

conversions between Binary, Decimal, Hexadecimal, and Octal number systems.

Similarly we might ask why Engineering is the “home” for all of the imaginary and complex

number functions. And why should the engineers be allowed to hijack the incredibly powerful

CONVERT function. Are they the sole users of DELTA, ERF, ERFC and GESTEP? It might

seem that at one stage the adage was, “If in doubt, stick in Engineering!”

4

Sub-Classification of Functions

In passing we could suggest that some sub-classifications might be warranted; for example,

there could be justification for extracting all of the geometry and trigonometry functions into a

separate sub-classification. Certainly, there are arguments for sub-classifying financial

functions under amortization, depreciation, securities, interest conversion and DCF.

But the end result is the justification for the following tables and associated Appendix 01

Functions Lists.xls workbook on the CDROM.

5

Table 2: Database Functions

DAVERAGE Built In Returns the average of selected list =DAVERAGE(database,field,criteria)

or database entries based on

specified criteria

DCOUNT* Built In Counts the cells containing numbers =DCOUNT(database,field,criteria)

from a specified database that match

specified criteria

DCOUNTA* Built In Counts non blank cells from a =DCOUNTA(database,field,criteria)

specified database that match

specified criteria criteria

DGET Built In Extracts from a specified database a =DGET(database,field,criteria)

single value that matches specified

criteria

DMAX Built In Extracts maximum number in a =DMAX(database,field,criteria)

column of a list or database that

matches specified conditions

DMIN Built In Extracts minimum number in a =DMIN(database,field,criteria)

column of a list or database that

matches specified conditions

DPRODUCT Built In Multiplies the values in a particular =DPRODUCT(database,field,criteria)

field of records that match the

specified criteria in a database

DSTDEV Built In Estimates standard deviation of a =DSTDEV(database,field,criteria)

population based on a sample using

numbers in a column of a list or

database that match specified

conditions

DSTDEVP Built In Calculates the standard deviation =DSTDEVP(database,field,criteria)

based on the entire population using

numbers in a column of a list or

database that match specified criteria

DSUM Built In Adds the numbers in the field column =DSUM(database,field,criteria)

of records in the database that match

the specified criteria

DVAR Built In Estimates the variance of a =DVAR(database,field,criteria)

population based on a sample by

using the numbers in a column of a

list or database that match specified

criteria

DVARP Built In Calculates the variance of a =DVARP(database,field,criteria)

population based on the entire

population by using the numbers in a

column of a list or database that

match specified criteria

Notes: * See also COUNT, COUNTA and FREQUENCY (Statistical) and COUNTIF (Maths) and

COUNTBLANK (Information)

6

Table 3: Database Function Arguments

Argument Description

Database The range of cells that makes up the list or database

Field Indicates which column is used in the function as text in inverted commas or as

number of field

Criteria The range of cells that contains the conditions you specify

7

Table 4: Date and Time Functions

DATE Built In Returns the sequential =DATE(year,month,day)

Excel date / time serial

number that represents a

particular date

DATEDIF* Analysis Calculates differences =DATEDIF(start_date,end_date,unit)

ToolPak between two dates in

terms of specified units

and assumptions

DATEVALUE Built In Converts a date text form =DATEVALUE(date_text)

to an Excel date / time

serial number

DAY Built In Converts an Excel date / =DAY(serial_number)

time serial number to the

day of a month

DAYS360 Built In Calculates the number of =DAYS360(start_date,end_date,method)

days between two dates

using a specified 30 day

month 360 day year

method

EDATE Analysis Returns the Excel date / =EDATE(start_date,months)

ToolPak time serial number of the

date that is the indicated

number of months before

or after the specified

number of months from

the start_date

EOMONTH Analysis Returns the Excel date / =EOMONTH(start_date,months)

ToolPak time serial number of the

last day of the month

before or after a specified

number of months from

start_date

HOUR Built In Converts an Excel date / =HOUR(serial_number)

time serial number to an

hour

MINUTE Built In Converts an Excel date / =MINUTE(serial_number)

time serial number to a

minute

MONTH Built In Converts an Excel date / =MONTH(serial_number)

time serial number to a

month number

NETWORKDAYS Analysis Returns the number of =NETWORKDAYS(start_date,end_date,

ToolPak whole working days holidays)

between two dates

excluding specified

holidays

NOW Built In Returns the Excel date / =NOW()

time serial number of the

current date and time

SECOND Built In Converts an Excel date / =SECOND(serial_number)

time serial number to a

second

8

Name Source Description Syntax

TIME Built In Returns the decimal =TIME(hour,minute,second)

portion of an Excel date /

time serial number for a

particular time

TIMEVALUE Built In Converts the time in an =TIMEVALUE(time_text)

acceptable form of text

enclosed in quotation

marks to the decimal

portion of an Excel date /

time serial number

TODAY Built In Returns the Excel date / =TODAY()

time serial number of

today's date

WEEKDAY Built In Converts an Excel date / =WEEKDAY(serial_number,return_type)

time serial number to the

number of the day of the

week based upon

counting system of

return_type

WEEKNUM Analysis Returns the weeknumber =WEEKNUM(serial_num,return_type)

ToolPak in the year based upon

return_type counting

basis

WORKDAY Analysis Returns the Excel date / =WORKDAY(start_date,days,holidays)

ToolPak time serial number of the

date before or after a

specified number of

workdays excluding

holidays

YEAR Built In Converts an Excel date / =YEAR(serial_number)

time serial number to a

year

YEARFRAC Analysis Returns the difference =YEARFRAC(start_date,end_date,basis)

ToolPak between start_date and

end_date expressed as a

number of years including

decimal fraction of a year.

Notes: * See Appendix 2. DATEDIF really does exist! It is an Excel built in function. It doesn't

appear in the listings in the function wizard and the only documentation reference is in

the Help files for Excel 2000.

9

Table 5: Date and Time Function Arguments

Argument Description

Basis The type of day count basis to use: 0 or omitted = US(NASD) 30/360

(For Securities 1 = Actual / Actual 2 = Actual / 360

Functions) 3 = Actual / 365 4 = European 30/360

Date_text A date enclosed in quotation marks that is in a date text form acceptable to Excel.

Note that acceptable date forms vary with system and Excel settings.

Day A number representing the day of the month. If day is greater than the number of

days in the month specified, day aggregates the month and year arguments

appropriately and day represents the balance after this aggregation

Days The number of nonweekend and nonholiday days before or after start_date. A

positive value for days yields a future date; a negative value yields a past date

End_date The last date as an acceptable date in inverted commas or as a serial number

Holidays An optional range of one or more dates to exclude from the working calendar. The

list can be either a range of cells that contains the dates or an array constant of the

serial numbers that represent the dates

Hour A number from 0 to 32767 representing the hour. Any value greater than 23 will be

divided by 24 and the remainder will be treated as the hour value

Method FALSE or omitted = US (NASD) 30/360 method; TRUE = European 30/360 method

Minute A number from 0 to 32767 representing the minute. Any value greater than 59 will be

converted to hours and minutes

Month A number representing the month of the year. If month is greater than 12, month

(For DATE function) adds that number of months to the first month in the year specified

Months The number of months before or after start_date

Return_type A number that determines the type of return value: 1 (or omitted) 1 = Sunday; 2 = 1 =

(WEEKDAY only) Monday; 3 = 0 = Monday

Return_type A number that determines on which day the week begins; 1 (or omitted) = starts

(WEEKNUM only) Sunday nums 1 to 7; 2 = starts Monday nums 1 to 7

Second A number from 0 to 32767 representing the second. Any value greater than 59 will

be converted to hours, minutes, and seconds

Serial_num A date / time serial number. Dates should be entered by using the DATE function, or

as results of other formulas or functions

Serial_Number An Excel date / time serial number. Dates should be entered by using the DATE

function, or as results of other formulas or functions. The Excel date serial number

varies according to setting of 1900 or 1904 date system in Tools > Options >

Calculation.

Start_date The first date as an acceptable date in inverted commas or as a serial number

Time_text A text string enclosed in quotation marks that represents a time in any one of the

Excel time formats

Unit "y" = years; "m" = months; "d" = days; "md" = days ignoring months and years; "ym"

= years and months; "yd" = years and days

Year The year number as one to four digits

10

Table 6: Engineering Functions

BESSELI Analysis Returns the Bessel function =BESSELI(x,n)

ToolPak evaluated for purely

imaginary arguments

BESSELJ Analysis Returns the Bessel function =BESSELJ(x,n)

ToolPak represented by Jn(x)

BESSELK Analysis Returns the modified Bessel =BESSELK(x,n)

ToolPak function represented by Kn(x)

BESSELY Analysis Returns the Bessel / Weber / =BESSELY(x,n)

ToolPak Neumann function Yn(x)

BIN2DEC Analysis Converts binary number to =BIN2DEC(Number)

ToolPak decimal

BIN2HEX Analysis Converts binary number to =BIN2HEX(Number,Places)

ToolPak hexadecimal

BIN2OCT Analysis Converts binary number to =BIN2OCT(Number,Places)

ToolPak octal

COMPLEX Analysis Converts real and imaginary =COMPLEX(real_num,i_num,suffix)

ToolPak coefficients into complex

numbers of the form x + yi or

x + yj depending upon suffix

CONVERT Analysis Converts a number from one =CONVERT(number,from_unit,to_unit)

ToolPak measurement system to

another

DEC2BIN Analysis Converts a decimal number =DEC2BIN(Number)

ToolPak to binary

DEC2HEX Analysis Converts a decimal number =DEC2HEX(Number)

ToolPak to hexadecimal

DEC2OCT Analysis Converts a decimal number =DEC2OCT(Number)

ToolPak to octal

DELTA Analysis Test whether two values are =DELTA(number1,number2)

ToolPak equal

ERF Analysis Returns the error function =ERF(lower_limit,upper_limit)

ToolPak integrated between

lower_limit and upper_limit

ERFC Analysis Returns the complementary =ERFC(x)

ToolPak ERF function integrated

between x and infinity

GESTEP Analysis Tests whether a number is =GESTEP(number,step)

ToolPak greater than a threshold

value

HEX2BIN Analysis Converts a hexadecimal to a =HEX2BIN(Number,Places)

ToolPak binary

HEX2DEC Analysis Converts a hexadecimal to a =HEX2DEC(Number)

ToolPak decimal

HEX2OCT Analysis Converts a hexadecimal to =HEX2OCT(Number,Places)

ToolPak an octal

IMABS Analysis Returns the absolute value =IMABS(inumber)

ToolPak (modulus) of a complex

number provided in the text

format “x + yi” or “x + yj”

IMAGINARY Analysis Returns the imaginary =IMAGINARY(inumber)

ToolPak coefficient of a complex

number provided in the text

format “x + yi” or “x + yj”

11

Name Source Description Syntax

IMARGUMENT Analysis Returns the argument theta – =IMARGUMENT(inumber)

ToolPak an angle expressed in

radians

IMCONJUGATE Analysis Returns the complex =IMCONJUGATE(inumber)

ToolPak conjugate of a complex

number provided in the text

format “x + yi” or “x + yj”

IMCOS Analysis Returns the cosine of a =IMCOS(inumber)

ToolPak complex number provided in

the text format “x + yi” or

”x + yj”

IMDIV Analysis Returns the quotient of two =IMDIV(inumber1,inumber2)

ToolPak complex numbers provided in

the text format “x + yi” or “x +

yj”

IMEXP Analysis Returns the exponential of a =IMEXP(inumber)

ToolPak complex number provided in

the text format “x + yi” or “x +

yj”

IMLN Analysis Returns the natural logarithm =IMLN(inumber)

ToolPak of a complex number

provided in the text format “x

+ yi” or “x + yj”

IMLOG10 Analysis Returns the base-10 =IMLOG10(inumber)

ToolPak logarithm of a complex

number provided in the text

format “x + yi” or “x + yj”

IMLOG2 Analysis Returns the base-2 logarithm =IMLOG2(inumber)

ToolPak of a complex number

provided in the text format “x

+ yi” or “x + yj”

IMPOWER Analysis Returns a complex number =IMPOWER(inumber,number)

ToolPak provided in the text format “x

+ yi” or “x + yj” raised to an

integer number

IMPRODUCT Analysis Returns the product of 2 – 29 =IMPRODUCT(inumber1,inumber2,…)

ToolPak complex numbers provided in

the text format “x + yi” or “x +

yj”

IMREAL Analysis Returns the real coefficient of =IMREAL(inumber)

ToolPak a complex number provided

in the text format “x + yi” or “x

+ yj”

IMSIN Analysis Returns the sine of a =IMSIN(inumber)

ToolPak complex number provided in

the text format “x + yi” or

”x + yj”

IMSQRT Analysis Returns the square root of a =IMSQRT(inumber)

ToolPak complex number provided in

the text format “x + yi” or “x +

yj”

IMSUB Analysis Returns the difference of two =IMSUB(inumber1,inumber2)

ToolPak complex numbers provided in

the text format “x + yi” or “x +

yj”

12

Name Source Description Syntax

IMSUM Analysis Returns the sum of 2 – 29 =IMSUM(inumber1,inumber2,…)

ToolPak complex numbers provided in

the text format “x + yi” or “x +

yj”

OCT2BIN Analysis Converts an octal number to =OCT2BIN(number,places)

ToolPak binary

OCT2DEC Analysis Converts an octal number to =OCT2DEC(number)

ToolPak decimal

OCT2HEX Analysis Converts an octal number to =OCT2HEX(number,places)

ToolPak hexadecimal

13

Table 7: Engineering Function Arguments

Argument Description

From_unit A unit of measurement

Weight & Mass: “g” = gram; “sg” = slug; “lbm” = pound (avoirdupois); “u” = Atomic mass;

“ozm” = ounces (avoirdupois)

Distance: “m” = meter; “mi” = Statute Mile; “Nmi” = Nautical mile; “in” = inch; “ft” = foot; “yd” =

yard;

”ang” = Angstrom; “pica” = pica (1/72in)

Time: “yr” = year; “day” = day; “hr” = hour; “mn” = minute; “sec” = second

Pressure: “pa” = Pascal; “atm” = atmosphere; “mmHg” = mm of mercury

Force: “N” = Newton; “dyn” = dyne; “lbf” = pound force

Energy: “J” = Joule; “e” = erg; “c” Thermodynamic calorie; “cal” = IT calorie; “eV” = electron

volt;

”HPh” = horsepower-hour; “Wh” = Watt-hour; “flb” = foot-pound; “BTU” = BTU

Power: “HP” = horsepower; “W” = Watt

Magnetism: “T” = Tesler; “ga” = Gauss

Temperature: “C” = degrees Celsius; “F” = degrees Fahrenheit; “K” = Kelvin

Liquid Measure: “tsp” = teaspoon; “tbs” = tablespoon; “oz” = fluid ounce; “cup” = cup;

”pt” = US Pint; “UK_pt” = UK pint; “qt” = quart; “gal” = gallon; “l” = liter

Prefix Abbreviations for metric: “E” = 1E+18 = exa; “P” = 1E+15 = peta; “T” 1E+12 = tera;

“G” = 1E+09 = giga; “M” = 1E+06 = mega; “k” = 1E+03 = kilo; “h” = 1E+02 = 14ector; “e” =

1E+01 = dekao; “d” = 1E-01 = deci; “c”=1E-02 = centi; “m” = 1E-03 = milli; “u” = 1E-06 =

micro; “n” = 1E-09 = nano; “p” = 1E-12 = pico; “f” = 1E-15 = femto; “a” = 1E-18 = atto

I_num Imaginary coeffient of the complex number

Number2,… Second of up to 30 numbers. You can also use a single array or a reference to an array

instead of arguments separated by commas

Places The number of characters to use. If places is omitted, Excel uses the minimum number of

characters necessary

Real_num The real coefficient of the complex number

14

Argument Description

Step The threshold value. If you omit a value for step, GESTEP uses zero

Suffix The suffix for the imaginary component of the complex number. If omitted, suffix is assumed

to be “i”

To_unit A unit of measurement

Weight & Mass: "g" = gram; "sg" = slug; "lbm" = pound (avoirdupois); "u" = Atomic mass;

"ozm" = ounces (avoirdupois)

Distance: "m" = meter; "mi" = Statute Mile; "Nmi" = Nautical mile; "in" = inch; "ft" = foot; "yd"

= yard;

"ang" = Angstrom; "pica" = pica (1/72in)

Time: "yr" = year; "day" = day; "hr" = hour; "mn" = minute; "sec" = second

Pressure: "pa" = Pascal; "atm" = atmosphere; "mmHg" = mm of mercury

Force: "N" = Newton; "dyn" = dyne; "lbf" = pound force

Energy: "J" = Joule; "e" = erg; "c" Thermodynamic calorie; "cal" = IT calorie; "eV" = electron

volt;

"HPh" = horsepower-hour; "Wh" = Watt-hour; "flb" = foot-pound; "BTU" = BTU

Power: "HP" = horsepower; "W" = Watt

Magnetism: "T" = Tesler; "ga" = Gauss

Temperature: "C" = degrees Celsius; "F" = degrees Fahrenheit; "K" = Kelvin

Liquid Measure: "tsp" = teaspoon; "tbs" = tablespoon; "oz" = fluid ounce; "cup" = cup;

"pt" = US Pint; "UK_pt" = UK pint; "qt" = quart; "gal" = gallon; "l" = liter

Prefix Abbreviations for metric: "E" = 1E+18 = exa; "P" = 1E+15 = peta; "T" 1E+12 = tera;

"G" = 1E+09 = giga; "M" = 1E+06 = mega; "k" = 1E+03 = kilo; "h" = 1E+02 = hecto; "e" =

1E+01 = dekao; "d" = 1E-01 = deci; "c"=1E-02 = centi; "m" = 1E-03 = milli; "u" = 1E-06 =

micro; "n" = 1E-09 = nano; "p" = 1E-12 = pico; "f" = 1E-15 = femto; "a" = 1E-18 = atto

Upper_limit The upper bound for integrating ERF. If omitted, ERF integrates between zero and

lower_limit

X The value at which to evaluate the function

15

Table 8: External Functions

CALL Built In Calls a procedure in a =CALL(register_id,argument1,...) With

dynamic link library or code Register.id

resource =CALL(module_text,procedure,type_text,

argument1,...) Excel for Windows

=CALL(file_text,resource,type_text,

argument1,...) Excel for Macintosh

EUROCONVERT Add-in Converts a number to or from =EUROCONVERT(number,source,target,

Euros to or from a member full_precision,triangulation_precision)

currency or converts between

one euro member currency to

another using the Euro as an

intermediary (triangulation)

GETPIVOTDATA Built In Returns data stored in a pivot =GETPIVOTDATA(data_field,pivot_table,

table field1,item1,field2,item2,...)

REGISTER.ID Built In Returns the register ID of the =REGISTER.ID(module_text,procedure,

specified dynamic link library type_text)

(DLL) or code resource that

has been previously

registered

SQL.REQUEST ODBC Connects with an external =SQL.REQUEST(connection_string,

data source, and runs a query output_ref,driver_prompt,

from a worksheet. query_text,col_names_logical)

SQL.REQUEST then returns

the result as an array

16

Table 9: External Function Arguments

Argument Description

Argument1,… The arguments to be passed to the procedure

Col_names_logical Indicates whether column names are returned as the first row of the results. TRUE if the

column names to be returned as the first row of the results. FALSE if column names not

wanted. If column_names_logical is omitted, SQL.REQUEST does not return column

names

Connection_string Supplies information, such as the data source name, user ID, and passwords, required

by the driver being used to connect to a data source and must follow the driver's format

Data_field The name, enclosed in quotation marks, for the data field that contains the data

Driver_prompt Specifies when the driver dialog box is displayed and which options are available

Field1, Item1 One of up to 14 pairs of field names and item names that describe the data

Field2, Item2,… Second of up to 14 pairs of field names and item names that describe the data

File_text The name of the file that contains the code resource in Microsoft Excel for the

Macintosh

Item1 One of up to 14 pairs of field names and item names that describe the data

Item2,… Second of up to 14 pairs of field names and item names that describe the data

Module_text Quoted text specifying the name of the dynamic link library (DLL) that contains the

procedure in Microsoft Excel for Windows

Number A number or expression that evaluates to a number

Output_ref A cell reference where you want the completed connection string placed

Pivot_table A reference to any cell, range of cells, or named range of cells in a PivotTable report

Procedure Text specifying the name of the function in the DLL. You can also use the ordinal value

of the function from the EXPORTS statement in the module-definition file (.DEF).

Query_text The SQL statement that you want to execute on the data source

Resource The name of the code resource in Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh. You can also use

the resource ID number. The resource ID number must not be in the form of text

Source A three-letter string, or reference to a cell containing the string, corresponding to the

ISO code for the source currency:

Belgium - franc - BEF Luxembourg - franc - LUF Germany - deutche mark - DEM

Spain - peseta - ESP France - franc - FRF Ireland - pound - IEP Italy - lira - ITL

Netherlands - guilder - NLG Austria - schilling - ATS Portugal - escudo - PTE

Finland - markka -FIM Euro member states - euro - EUR

Others may be added later:

Denmark - krone - DKK Greece - drachma - GRD Sweden - krona - SEK

UK - pound sterling - GBP

17

Argument Description

Target A three-letter string, or reference to a cell containing the string, corresponding to the

ISO code for the source currency

Belgium – franc – BEF Luxembourg – franc – LUF Germany – deutche mark –

DEM

Spain – peseta – ESP France – franc – FRF Ireland – pound – IEP Italy – lira –

ITL

Netherlands – guilder – NLG Austria – schilling – ATS Portugal – escudo – PTE

Finland – markka –FIM Euro member states – euro – EUR

Others may be added later:

Denmark – krone – DKK Greece – drachma – GRD Sweden – krona – SEK

UK – pound sterling – GBP

Type_text (CALL Text specifying the data type of the return value and the data types of all arguments to

function) the DLL or code resource

18

Table 10: Financial Functions

ACCRINT Analysis Returns the accrued interest for =ACCRINT(Issue,First_Interest,

ToolPak a security that pays periodic Settlement,Rate,Par,Frequency,

interest Basis)

ACCRINTM Analysis Returns the accrued interest for =ACCRINTM(Issue,Settlement,Rate,

ToolPak a security that pays interest at Par,Basis)

maturity

AMORDEGRC Analysis Returns the depreciation for =AMORDEGRC(Cost,Date_purchased,

ToolPak each accounting period using First_period,Salvage,Period,

the French accounting system Rate,Basis)

AMORLINC Analysis Returns the depreciation for =AMORLINC(Cost,Date_purchased,

ToolPak each accounting period using First_period,Salvage,Period,

the French accounting system Rate,Basis)

COUPDAYBS Analysis Returns the number of days =COUPDAYBS(settlement,maturity,

ToolPak from the beginning of the frequency,basis)

coupon period to the settlement

date using the specified or

default day counting basis

COUPDAYS Analysis Returns the number of days in =COUPDAYS(settlement,maturity,

ToolPak the coupon period that contains frequency,basis)

the settlent date using the

specified or default day

counting basis

COUPDAYSNC Analysis Returns the number of days =COUPDAYSNC(settlement,maturity,

ToolPak from the settlement date to the frequency,basis)

next coupon date using the

specified or default day

counting basis

COUPNCD Analysis Returns the next coupon date =COUPNCD(settlement,maturity,

ToolPak after the settlement date using frequency,basis)

the specified or default day

counting basis

COUPNUM Analysis Returns the number of coupons =COUPNUM(settlement,maturity,

ToolPak payable between the settlement frequency,basis)

date and maturity date using

the specified or default day

counting basis

COUPPCD Analysis Returns the previous coupon =COUPPCD(settlement,maturity,

ToolPak date before the settlement date frequency,basis)

using the specified or default

day counting basis

CUMIPMT Analysis Returns the cumulative interest =CUMIPMT(rate,nper,pv,start_period,

ToolPak paid between two periods end_period,type)

CUMPRINC Analysis Returns the cumulative =CUMPRINC(rate,nper,pv,start_period,

ToolPak principal paid on a loan end_period, type)

between two periods

DB Built In Returns the depreciation of an =DB(cost,salvage,life,period,month)

asset for a specified period,

using the fixed declining

balance method

19

Name Source Description Syntax

DDB Built In Returns the deoreciation of an =DDB(cost,salvage,life,period,factor)

asset for a specified period,

using the double-declining

balance method of some other

method that is specified

DISC Analysis Returns the discount rate for a =DISC(settlement,maturity,pr,

ToolPak security using the specified or redemption,basis)

default day counting basis

DOLLARDE Analysis Converts a dollar price =DOLLARDE(fractional_dollar,fraction)

ToolPak (expressed as a fraction) into a

dollar price expressed as a

decimal number

DOLLARFR Analysis Converts a dollar price =DOLLARFR(decimal_dollar,fraction)

ToolPak (expressed as a decimal

number) into a dollar price

expressed as a fraction

DURATION Analysis Returns the Macauley duration =DURATION(settlement,maturity,

ToolPak of a security with periodic coupon,yld,frequency,basis)

interest payments using the

specified or default day

counting basis

EFFECT Analysis Returns the effective annual =EFFECT(nominal_rate,npery)

ToolPak interest rate of a given nominal

rate with its compounding

frequency

FV Built In Returns the future value of an =FV(rate,nper,pmt,pv,type)

investment

FVSCHEDULE Analysis Returns the future value of an =FVSCHEDULE(principal,schedule)

ToolPak initial principal after applying a

series of compound interest

rates

INTRATE Analysis Returns the interest rate for a =INTRATE(settlement,maturity,

ToolPak fully invested security using the investment,redemption,basis)

specified or default day

counting basis

IPMT Built In Returns the amount of the =IPMT(rate,per,nper,pv,fv,type)

interest element in a payment

for an investment for a given

period

IRR Built In Returns the internal rate of =IRR(values,guess)

return for a series of cash flows

ISPMT Built In Returns the interest associated =ISPMT(rate,per,nper,pv)

with a specific loan payment

MDURATION Analysis Returns the Macauley modified =MDURATION(settlement,maturity,

ToolPak duration for a security with an coupon,yld,frequency,basis)

assumed par value of $100

using the specified or default

day counting basis

MIRR Built In Returns the modified internal =MIRR(values,finance_rate,

rate of return based on different reinvest_rate)

finance and reinvestment rates

for negative and positive cash

flows

20

Name Source Description Syntax

NOMINAL Analysis Returns the nominal rate =NOMINAL(effect_rate,npery)

ToolPak equivalent to a given annual

effective with a given

compounding frequency for the

nominal rate

NPER Built In Returns the number of periods =NPER(rate, pmt, pv, fv, type)

for an investment

NPV Built In Returns the net present value =NPV(rate,value1,value2, …)

of an investment based upon a

series of periodic cash flows

and a discount rate where the

first cash flow is received at the

end of the first period

ODDFPRICE Analysis Returns the price per $100 face =ODDFPRICE(settlement,maturity,

ToolPak value of a security with an odd issue,first_coupon,rate,yld,

first period using the specified redemption,frequency,basis)

or default day counting basis

ODDFYIELD Analysis Returns the yield of a security =ODDFYIELD(settlement,maturity,

ToolPak with an odd first period using issue,first_coupon,rate,pr,

the specified or default day redemption,frequency,basis)

counting basis

ODDLPRICE Analysis Returns the price per $100 face =ODDLPRICE(settlement,maturity,

ToolPak value of a security with an odd last_interest,rate,yld,

last period using the specified redemption,frequency,basis)

or default day counting basis

ODDLYIELD Analysis Returns the yield of a security =ODDLYIELD(settlement,maturity,

ToolPak with an odd last period using last_interest,rate,pr,

the specified or default day redemption,frequency,basis)

counting basis

PMT Built In Returns the periodic payment =PMT(rate,nper,pv,fv,type)

for an annuity

PPMT Built In Returns the amount of principal =PPMT(rate,per,nper,pv,fv,type)

element in a payment for an

investment for a given period

PRICE Analysis Returns the price per $100 face =PRICE(settlement,maturity,rate,

ToolPak value of a security that pays yld,redemption,frequency,basis)

periodic interest using the

specified or default day

counting basis

PRICEDISC Analysis Returns the price per $100 face =PRICEDISC(settlement,maturity,

ToolPak value of a discounted security discount,redemption,basis)

using the specified or default

day counting basis

PRICEMAT Analysis Returns the price per $100 face =PRICEMAT(settlement,maturity,

ToolPak value of a security that pays issue,rate,yld,basis)

interest at maturity using the

specified or default day

counting basis

PV Built In Returns the present value of an =PV(rate,nper,pmt,fv,type)

investment

RATE Built In Returns the interest rate per =RATE(nper,pmt,pv,fv,type,guess)

period of an annuity

21

Name Source Description Syntax

RECEIVED Analysis Returns the amount received at =RECEIVED(settlement,maturity,

ToolPak maturity for a fully invested investment,discount,basis)

security using the specified or

default day counting basis

SLN Built In Returns the straight-line =SLN(cost,salvage,life)

depreciation of an asset for one

period.

SYD Built In Returns the sum of years’ digits =SYD(cost,salvage,life,per)

depreciation of an asset for a

specified period

TBILLEQ Analysis Returns the bond-equivalent =TBILLEQ(settlement,maturity,

ToolPak yield for a treasury bill discount)

TBILLPRICE Analysis Returns the price per $100 face =TBILLPRICE(settlement,maturity,

ToolPak value for a Treasury bill discount)

TBILLYIELD Analysis Returns the yield for a treasury =TBILLYIELD(settlement,maturity,pr)

ToolPak bill

VDB Built In Returns the depreciation of an =VDB(cost,salvage,life,start_period,

asset for a specified or partial end_period,factor,no_switch)

period using a variable

declining balance method

XIRR Analysis Returns the annual effective =XIRR(values,dates,guess)

ToolPak interest rate for a schedule of

cash flows received at specified

dates

XNPV Analysis Returns the net present value =XNPV(rate,values,dates)

ToolPak for a schedule of cash flows

received at specified dates

YIELD Analysis Returns the yield on a security =YIELD(settlement,maturity,rate,

ToolPak that pays periodic interest using pr,redemption,frequency,basis)

the specified or default day

counting basis

YIELDDISC Analysis Returns the annual yield for a =YIELDDISC(settlement,maturity,

ToolPak discounted security using the pr,redemption,basis)

specified or default day

counting basis.

YIELDMAT Analysis Returns the annual yield of a =YIELDMAT(settlement,maturity,

ToolPak security that pays interest at issue,rate,pr,basis)

maturity using the specified or

default day counting basis

22

Table 11: Financial Function Arguments

Argument Description

Basis Year basis to be used: 0 or omitted 360 (NASD); 1 = Actual; 2 = 365; 3 = 360

(For Securities (European)

Functions)

Cost Cost of the asset

Date_purchased Date of purchase of the asset. Entered as an acceptable date in quotation marks or

as a serial number or function returning a date serial number

Dates A schedule of payment dates that corresponds to the cash flow payments. The first

payment date indicates the beginning of the schedule of payments. All other dates

must be later than this date, but they may occur in any order

Decimal_dollar A decimal number

Factor The rate at which the balance declines. If factor is omitted, it is assumed to be 2

(the double-declining balance method)

Finance_rate The interest rate you pay on the money used in the cash flows

First_Interest A security’s first interest date entered as an acceptable date in quotation marks or

as a serial number or function returning a date serial number

First_period Date of the end of the first period. Entered as an acceptable date in quotation

marks or as a serial number or function returning a date serial number

Fraction The integer to use in the denominator of the fraction

FV Future Value

serial number or function returning a date serial number

23

Argument Description

Last_interest The security’s last coupon date

Life The number of periods over which the asset is being depreciated (sometimes

called the useful life of the asset)

Maturity The security’s maturity date

Month (For DB The number of months in the first year. If month is omitted, it is assumed to be 12

function)

No_switch A logical value specifying whether to switch to straight-line depreciation when

depreciation is greater than the declining balance calculation.If TRUE, Excel does

not switch to straight-line depreciation even when the depreciation is greater than

the declining balance calculation. FALSE or omitted, Excel switches to straight-line

depreciation when depreciation is greater than the declining balance calculation

Nominal_rate The nominal interest rate

(For amortization

functions)

Rate The rate of depreciation

(For Depreciation

Functions)

Rate The discount rate

(For NPV and XNPV)

Rate A security’s annual coupon rate

(For Securities

Functions)

Redemption The security’s redemption value per $100 face value

Reinvest_rate The interest rate you receive on the cash flows as you reinvest them

24

Argument Description

Schedule An array of interest rates to apply

Settlement A security's settlement date, which is the date after the issue date when the

security is traded to the buyer. Entered as an acceptable date in quotation marks or

as a serial number or function returning a date serial number

Start_period First period number

functions)

Value1 A numeric value

Value2,… Second of 1 to n possible values (n=30 for AVERAGEA; n=29 for CHOOSE, NPV)

Values (IRR and An array or a reference to cells that contain numbers for which you want to

MIRR) calculate the internal rate of return. Values must contain at least one positive value

and one negative value to calculate the internal rate of return. If an array or

reference argument contains text, logical values, or empty cells, those values are

ignored.

Values (XIRR and A series of cash flows that corresponds to a schedule of payments in dates. The

XNPV) first payment is optional and corresponds to a cost or payment that occurs at the

beginning of the investment. If the first value is a cost or payment, it must be a

negative value. All succeeding payments are discounted based on a 365-day year.

The series of values must contain at least one positive value and one negative

value

Yld The security's annual yield

25

Table 12: Information Functions

CELL Built In Returns information about =CELL(info_type,reference)

the formatting , location or

contents of the cell or upper

left cell of the reference

COUNTBLANK* Built In Counts the number of blank =COUNTBLANK(range)

cells in the range

ERROR.TYPE Built In Returns a number =ERROR.TYPE(error_val)

corresponding to an Excel

error type

INFO Built In Returns information about =INFO(type_text)

the current operating

environment

ISBLANK Built In Returns TRUE if the value is =ISBLANK(Value)

blank

ISERR Built In Returns TRUE if the value is =ISERR(Value)

any error value except #N/A

ISERROR Built In Returns TRUE if the value is =ISERROR(Value)

any error value

ISEVEN Analysis Returns TRUE if the number =ISEVEN(Number)

ToolPak is even

ISLOGICAL Built In Returns TRUE if the value is =ISLOGICAL(Value)

a logical value

ISNA Built In Returns TRUE if the value is =ISNA(Value)

the #N/A error value

ISNONTEXT Built In Returns TRUE if the value is =ISNONTEXT(Value)

not text

ISNUMBER Built In Returns TRUE if the value is =ISNUMBER(Value)

a number

ISODD Analysis Returns TRUE if the number =ISODD(Number)

ToolPak is odd

ISREF Built In Returns TRUE if the value is =ISREF(Value)

a reference

ISTEXT Built In Returns TRUE if the value is =ISTEXT(Value)

text

N Built In Returns a value converted to =N(Value)

a number

NA Built In Returns the error value #N/A =NA()

for value is a number; 2 for

value is text; 4 for value is

logical value; 16 for value is

error value; 64 for value is

array)

Notes: * See also COUNT, COUNTA and FREQUENCY (Statistical) and COUNTIF (Maths) and

DCOUNT and DCOUNTA (Database)

26

Table 13: Information Function Arguments

Argument Description

Error_val The error value whose identifying number you want:

1 = #Null!; 2 = #Div/0!; 3 = #Value!; 4 = #Ref!; 5 = #Name?;

6 = #N/A

Info_type A text value that specifies what type of cell information you want:

"Address" = first cell in reference

"Col" = First column number in reference

"Color" Returns 1 for negative colored, 0 otherwise

"Contents" = Value of upper left cell in reference

"Format" = Text value corresponding to number format

"Prentheses" = Returns 1 for parenthese for positive or all values, 0 otherwise

"Prefix" = Text value corresponding to label prefix

"Protect" = returns 0 if unlucked, 1 if locked

"Row" = First row number in reference

"Type" = Text value for type of data; b for blank, l for label, v for value

"Width" = Column width rounded to nearest integer

Number A number or expression that evaluates to a number

Reference Reference to a cell or range of cells and can refer to multiple areas. If you want to

specify several references as a single argument, then you must include extra sets

of parentheses so that Microsoft Excel will not interpret the comma as a field

separator

Type_text (INFO Text that specifies what type of information you want returned:

function) "directory" = Path of current directory of folder;

"memavail" = Amount of currently available memory in bytes;

"memused" = Amount of memory being used for data;

"numfile" = number of active worksheets in open workbooks;

"origin" = cell reference of top leftmost cell visible in window, based on current

scrolling position;

"osversion" = current operating system version, as text;

"recalc" = current recalculation mode;

"release" = version of Excel;

"system" = name of the operating environment (Mac or pcdos);

"totmem" = total memory available

Value A value or an expression that evaluates to a value:

27

Table 14: Logical Functions

AND Built In Returns TRUE if all its =AND(Logical1,Logical2,…)

arguments are TRUE

FALSE Built In Returns the logical value =FALSE()

FALSE

IF Built In Returns one value specified =IF(logical_test,value_if_true,value_if_false)

condition evaluates to TRUE

and another value if it

evaluates to FALSE

NOT Built In Reverses the logic of its =NOT(Logical)

argument

OR Built In ReturnsTRUE if any =OR(logical1,logical2,...)

argument is TRUE

TRUE Built In Returns the logical value =TRUE()

TRUE

28

Table 15: Information Function Arguments

Argument Description

Logical A value or expression that can be evaluated to TRUE or FALSE

references that contain logical values

Logical2,… Second of up to 30 conditions you want to test that can be either TRUE or FALSE

29

Table 16: Lookup and Reference Functions

ADDRESS Built In Creates a cell address as =ADDRESS(Row_num,Column_num,Abs_num,

text based on given row A1,Sheet_text)

and column rumbers

AREAS Built In Returns the number of =AREAS(reference)

areas in a reference

CHOOSE Built In Uses a specified index =CHOOSE(index_num,value1,value2,...)

number to select one from

up to 29 specified values

COLUMN Built In Returns the column =COLUMN(reference)

number of the cell or a

specified reference

COLUMNS Built In Returns the number of =COLUMNS(array)

columns in an array or

reference

HLOOKUP Built In Looks in the top row of a =HLOOKUP(lookup_value,table_array,

table or array and returns row_index_num,range_lookup)

the value of the indicated

cell

HYPERLINK Built In Creates a shortcut that =HYPERLINK(link_location,friendly_name)

opens a document on your

hard drive, a server or the

internet

INDEX Built In Alternative forms. Array =INDEX(array,row_num,column_num)

form returns a value or =INDEX(reference,row_num,column_num,

array of values. Reference area_num)

form returns a reference.

INDIRECT Built In Returns a reference =INDIRECT(ref_text,a1)

indicated by a value

provided as text

LOOKUP Built In Alternative forms. Vector =LOOKUP(lookup_value,lookup_vector,

form looks up values in a result_vector)

one row or column range =LOOKUP(lookup_value,array)

and returns a value in a

second one row or column

range. Array form looks in

the first row or column of

an array for the specified

value and returns a value

from the same position in

the last row or column of

the array

MATCH Built In Returns the relative =MATCH(lookup_value,lookup_array,

position of an item in an match_type)

array that matches a

specified value in a

specified order

OFFSET Built In Returns a reference to a =OFFSET(reference,rows,cols,height,width)

range that is a specified

number of rows and

columns from a cell or

range of cells

ROW Built In Returns the row number of =ROW(reference)

a reference

30

Name Source Description Syntax

ROWS Built In Returns the number of =ROWS(array)

rows in a reference

RTD Built In Retrieves real-time data =RTD(ProgID,server,topic1,[topic2],...)

from a program that

supports COM automation

TRANSPOSE Built In Transposes vertical or =TRANSPOSE(array)

horizontal arrays. Entered

as an array formula in

same number of cells as

array.

VLOOKUP Built In Locates a specified value =VLOOKUP(lookup_value,table_array,

in the leftmost column of a col_index_num,range_lookup)

specified table, and

returns the value in the

same row from a specified

column in the table

31

Table 17: Lookup and Reference Function Arguments

Argument Description

A1 A logical value that specifies the A1 (TRUE) or R1C1 (FALSE) reference style

1 = Absolute; 2 = Abs Row / Rel Col; 3 = Rel Row / Abs Col; 4 = Relative

Area_num Selects a range in reference from which to return the intersection of row_num and

column_num

Array An array or array formula, or a reference to a range of cells

Col_index_num The column number in table_array from which the matching value must be

returned

Cols The number of columns, to the left (-) or right (+), that you want the upper-left cell

of the result to refer to

Column_num Column number

Friendly_name The jump text or numeric value that is displayed in the cell

Height The height, in number of rows, that you want the returned reference to be. Height

must be a positive number

Index_num Specifies which value argument is selected. Index_num must be a number

between 1 and 29, or a formula or reference to a cell containing a number between

1 and 29

Link_location The path and file name to the document to be opened as text

Lookup_array A contiguous range of cells containing possible lookup values. Lookup_array must

be an array or an array reference

Lookup_value The value to be found

Lookup_vector A range that contains only one row or one column. The values in lookup_vector

can be text, numbers, or logical values

Match_type The number -1, 0, or 1. Match_type specifies how Microsoft Excel matches

lookup_value with values in lookup_array:

1 = (default) largest value less than or equal to look_up value; 0 = first value to

exactly equal lookup value

-1 = smallest value greater than or equal to look_value

ProgID The name of the ProgID of a registered COM automation add-in that has been

installed on the local computer. Enclose the name in quotation marks

Range_lookup A logical value that specifies whether you want to find an exact match or an

approximate match. If TRUE = approximate match is returned FALSE = Exact

Ref_text Refers to another workbook (an external reference),

Reference Reference to a cell or range of cells and can refer to multiple areas. If you want to

specify several references as a single argument, then you must include extra sets

of parentheses so that Microsoft Excel will not interpret the comma as a field

separator

Result_vector A range that contains only one row or column. It must be the same size as

lookup_vector

32

Argument Description

Row_index_num The row number in table_array from which the matching value will be returned

Rows The number of rows, up (-) or down (+), that you want the upper-left cell to refer to

Server Name of the server where the add-in should be run. If there is no server, and the

program is run locally, leave the argument blank. Otherwise, enter quotation marks

(“”) around the server name

Sheet_text Text specifying the name of the worksheet to be used as the external reference. If

sheet_text is omitted, no sheet name is used

Table_array A table of information in which data is looked up

data

Topic2,… Second of up to 28 parameters that together represent a unique piece of real-time

data

Value1 A numeric value

Value2,… Second of 1 to n possible values (n=30 for AVERAGEA; n=29 for CHOOSE, NPV)

Width The width, in number of columns, that you want the returned reference to be.

Width must be a positive number

33

Table 18: Maths Functions

ABS Built In Returns the absolute =ABS(Number)

value of a number

ACOS Built In Returns in radians the =ACOS(Number)

arccosine of a number

ACOSH Built In Returns the inverse =ACOSH(Number)

hyperbolic cosine of a

number

ASIN Built In Returns in radians the =ASIN(Number)

arcsine of a number

ASINH Built In Returns the inverse =ASINH(Number)

hyperbolic sine of a

number

ATAN Built In Returns in radians the =ATAN(Number)

arctangent of a number

ATAN2 Built In Returns in radians the =ATAN2(x_num,y_num)

arctangent from x and y

coordinates

ATANH Built In Returns the inverse =ATANH(Number)

hyperbolic tangent of a

number

CEILING Built In Rounds a number (away =CEILING(number,significance)

from zero) to the nearest

integer or to the nearest

multiple of significance

COMBIN++ Built In Returns the number of =COMBIN(number,number_chosen)

combinations for a given

number of objects

COS Built In Returns the cosine of a =COS(Number)

given angle given in

radians

COSH Built In Returns the hyperbolic =COSH(Number)

cosine of a number

COUNTIF* Built In Counts the number of =COUNTIF(range,criteria)

cells that meet the

criteria specified in the

argument

DEGREES Built In Converts radians to =DEGREES(angle)

degrees

EVEN Built In Rounds a number away =EVEN(Number)

from zero to the nearest

even integer

EXP Built In Returns e =EXP(Number)

(=2.71828182845904)

raised to the power of a

given number

FACT Built In Returns the factorial of a =FACT(Number)

number

FACTDOUBLE Analysis Returns the double =FACTDOUBLE(number)

ToolPak factorial of a number

FLOOR Built In Rounds a number down =FLOOR(number,significance)

towards 0 to the nearest

integer or to the nearest

multiple of significance

34

Name Source Description Syntax

GCD Analysis Returns the greatest =GCD(number1,number2, …)

ToolPak common divisor of 2 – 29

integers

INT Built In Rounds a number away =INT(Number)

from 0 to the nearest

integer

LCM Analysis Returns the least =LCM(number1,number2, …)

ToolPak common multiple of 1 –

29 integers

LN Built In Returns the natural =LN(Number)

logarithm (base e =

2.71828182845904) of a

number

LOG Built In Returns the logarithm of =LOG(Number,base)

a number to a specified

base

LOG10 Built In Returns the base-10 =LOG10(Number)

logarithm of a number

MDETERM Built In Returns the matrix =MDETERM(array)

determinant of an array

MINVERSE Built In Returns the matrix =MINVERSE(array)

inverse of an array

MMULT Built In Returns the matrix =MMULT(array1,array2)

product of two arrays

MOD** Built In Returns the remainder =MOD(number,divisor)

from division with the

result having the same

sign as the divisor

MROUND Analysis Returns a number =MROUND(number,multiple)

ToolPak rounded to the desired

multiple. Midway points

are rounded away from 0

MULTINOMIAL Analysis Returns the ratio of the =MULTINOMIAL(number1,number2, …)

ToolPak factorial of a sum of

values to the product of

factorials

ODD Built In Rounds a number away =ODD(number)

from 0 to the nearest odd

integer

PI Built In Returns the number =PI()

3.14159265358979, the

mathematical constant

pi, accurate to 15 digits

POWER Built In Returns the result of a =POWER(number,power)

number raised to a

power

PRODUCT Built In Multiplies together 1 – 30 =PRODUCT(number1,number2, …)

numbers

QUOTIENT Analysis Returns the integer =QUOTIENT(numerator,denominator)

ToolPak portion of a division

RADIANS Built In Converts degrees to =RADIANS(angle)

radians

RAND Built In Returns an evenly =RAND()

distributed random

number greater than or

equal to 0 and less than

1

35

Name Source Description Syntax

RANDBETWEEN Analysis Returns a random =RANDBETWEEN(bottom,top)

ToolPak number between (and

inclusive of) two

specified numbers

ROMAN Built In Converts an arabic =ROMAN(number,form)

number to Roman, as

text

ROUND Built In Rounds a number to a =ROUND(number,num_digits)

specified number of

digits to the left (-) or

right (+) of the decimal

point. The midway digit 5

is rounded away from 0.

ROUNDDOWN Built In Rounds a number down =ROUNDDOWN(number,num_digits)

towards 0 to a specified

number of digits to the

left (-) or right (+) of the

decimal point

ROUNDUP Built In Round a number up =ROUNDUP(number,num_digits)

away from 0 to a

specified number of

digits to the left (-) or

right (+) of the decimal

point

SERIESSUM Analysis Returns the sum of a =SERIESSUM(x,n,m,coefficients)

ToolPak power series expansion

SIGN Built In Returns 1 for positve =SIGN(number)

numbers, 0 if the number

is 0 and, -1 if the number

is negative

SIN Built In Returns the sine of a =SIN(number)

given angle given in

radians

SINH Built In Returns the hyperbolic =SINH(number)

sine of a given number

SQRT Built In Returns a positive =SQRT(number)

square root

SQRTPI Analysis Returns the square root =SQRTPI(number)

ToolPak of a number multiplied by

pi

SUBTOTAL Built In Returns the sutotal in a =SUBTOTAL(function_num,ref1,ref2,...)

list or database

SUM Built In Adds its arguments =SUM(number1,number2, ...)

SUMIF Built In Add the cells specified by =SUMIF(range,criteria,sum_range)

a given criteria

SUMPRODUCT Built In Returns the sum of the =SUMPRODUCT(array1,array2,array3, ...)

products of

corresponding array

components

SUMSQ Built In Returns the sum of the =SUMSQ(number1,number2, ...)

squares of 1 - 30

numbers

SUMX2MY2 Built In Returns the sum of the =SUMX2MY2(array_x,array_y)

difference of squares of

corresponding values in

two arrays

36

Name Source Description Syntax

SUMX2PY2 Built In Returns the sum of the =SUMX2PY2(array_x,array_y)

sum of squares of

corresponding values in

two arrays

SUMXMY2 Built In Returns the sum of =SUMXMY2(array_x,array_y)

squares of differences of

corresponding values in

two array

TAN Built In Returns the tangent of a =TAN(number)

given angle given in

radians

TANH Built In Returns the hyperbolic =TANH(number)

tangent of a number

TRUNC Built In Truncates a number to =TRUNC(number,num_digits)

an integer or to specified

precision by removing

the fractional part of the

number. (Serves to

round down towards 0)

Notes: * See also COUNT, COUNTA and FREQUENCY (Statistical) and COUNTBLANK

(Information) and DCOUNT and DCOUNTA (Database)

** The Excel MOD function uses a different definition of MOD to that used by VBA Mod

function insofar as negative numbers are concerned.

++

See also PERMUT function (Statistical)

37

Table 19: Maths Function Arguments

Argument Description

Angle The angle in radians

(SUMPRODUCT)

Array2 A second cell range of values (up to 30 with SUMPRODUCT)

(SUMPRODUCT)

Array3,… A third cell range of values (up to 30 with SUMPRODUCT)

number of values in coefficients determines the number of terms in the power

series

Criteria The range of cells that contains the conditions you specify

Form A number specifying the type of roman numeral you want; 0 (Default) = Classic; 1-

4 Progressively simplified; TRUE = Classic; FALSE = Most Simplified

Function_num The number 1 to 11 that specifies which function to use in calculating subtotals

within a list: 1 = AVERAGE; 2 = COUNT; 3 = COUNTA; 4 = MAX; 5 = MIN; 6 =

PRODUCT; 7 = STDEV; 8 = STDEVP; 9 = SUM; 10 = VAR; 11 = VARP

M The step by which to increase n for each term in the series

Num_digits Specifies the number of digits to which you want to round number: 0 = Integer;

-numbers = to left of decimal; +numbers = to right of decimal

Number A number or expression that evaluates to a number

Number2,… Second of up to 30 numbers. You can also use a single array or a reference to an

array instead of arguments separated by commas

Numerator The dividend

38

Argument Description

Range A range

Ref1 First of up to 29 ranges or references for which you want the subtotal

Ref2,… Second of up to 29 ranges or references for which you want the subtotal

39

Table 20: Statistical Functions

AVEDEV Built In Returns the average of the =AVEDEV(Number1,Number2,…)

absolute deviations of data points

from their mean

AVERAGE Built In Returns the average (arithmetic =AVERAGE(Number1,Number2,…)

mean) of up to 30 numeric

arguments

AVERAGEA Built In Returns the average (arithmetic =AVERAGEA(Value1,Value2,…)

mean) of its arguments and

includes evaluation of text and

logical arguments

BETADIST Built In Returns the cumulative beta =BETADIST(x,alpha,beta,A,B)

probability density function

BETAINV Built In Returns the inverse of the =BETAINV(probability,alpha,beta,A,B)

cumulative beta probability density

function

BINOMDIST Built In Returns the individual term =BINOMDIST(number_s,trials,

binomial distribution probability probability_s,cumulative)

CHIDIST Built In Returns the one-tailed probability =CHIDIST(x,degrees_freedom)

of the chi-squared distribution

CHIINV Built In Returns the inverse of the one- =CHIINV(probability,degrees_freedom)

tailed probability of the chi-squared

distribution

CHITEST Built In Returns the value from the chi- =CHITEST(actual_range,expected_range)

squared (γ2) distribution for the

statistic and the appropriate

degrees of freedom

CONFIDENCE Built In Returns the confidence interval for =CONFIDENCE(alpha,standard_dev,size)

a population mean

CORREL Built In Returns the correlation coefficient =CORREL(array1,array2)

between two arrays of data

COUNT* Built In Counts the number of cells that =COUNT(value1,value2, …)

contain numbers and also numbers

within the list of arguments

COUNTA* Built In Counts the number of non-empty =COUNTA(value1,value2, …)

cells and the values within the list

of arguments

COVAR Built In Returns covariance; the average of =COVAR(array1,array2)

the products of deviations for each

data point pair

CRITBINOM Built In Returns the smallest value for =CRITBINOM(trials,probability_s,alpha)

which the cumulative binomial

distribution is less than or equal to

a criterion value

DEVSQ Built In Returns the sum of the squares of =DEVSQ(number1,number2,…)

the deviations from the sample

mean

EXPONDIST Built In Returns the exponential distribution =EXPONDIST(x,lambda,cumulative)

distribution degrees_freedom2)

40

Name Source Description Syntax

FINV Built In Returns the inverse of the F =FINV(probability,degrees_freedom1,

probability distribution degrees_freedom2)

FISHER Built In Returns the Fisher transformation =FISHER(x)

at x

FISHERINV Built In Returns the inverse of the Fisher =FISHERINV(y)

transformation

FORECAST Built In Calculates a predicted value of y =FORECAST(x,known_y’s,known_x’s)

for a given x value based on known

values for x and y

FREQUENCY* Built In Counts how often values occur =FREQUENCY(data_array,bins_array)

within given ranges of values and

returns those counts as a vertical

array of numbers

FTEST Built In Returns the result of an F-test; the =FTEST(array1,array2)

one-tailed probability that the

variances in array1 and array2 are

not significantly different

GAMMADIST Built In Returns the gamma distribution =GAMMADIST(x,alpha,beta,cumulative)

distribution

GAMMALN Built In Returns the natural logarithm of the =GAMMALN(x)

gamma function Γ(x).

GEOMEAN Built In Returns the geometric mean of an =GEOMEAN(number1,number2, …)

array or range of positive data

GROWTH Built In Calculates predicted exponential =GROWTH(known_y’s,known_x’s,

growth and returns the y-values for new_x’s,const)

a series of specified new x-values

by using known x-values and y-

values

HARMEAN Built In Returns the harmonic mean of a =HARMEAN(number1,number2, …)

data set by calculating the

reciprocal of the arithmetic mean of

reciprocals

HYPGEOMDIST Built In Returns the hypergeometric =HYPGEOMDIST(sample_s,

distribution by calculating the number_sample,population_s,

probability of a given number of number_population)

sample successes, given the

sample size, population successes,

and population size

INTERCEPT Built In Calculates from given x and y =INTERCEPT(known_y’s,known_x’s)

values the point at which a line will

intersect the y-axis

KURT Built In Returns the kurtosis of a data set; =KURT(number1,number2, …)

a measure that compares the

relative peakedness or flatness of a

distribution compared with the

normal distribution

LARGE Built In Returns the kth largest value in a =LARGE(array,k)

data set

41

Name Source Description Syntax

LINEST Built In Entered as an array formula, =LINEST(known_y’s,known_x’s,const,stats)

LINEST returns an array that

describes a line of best fit by using

the least squares method

LOGEST Built In Entered as an array formula, =LOGEST(known_y’s,known_x’s,const,stats)

LOGEST calculates an exponential

curve that fits known data and

returns an array of values that

describes that curve

LOGINV Built In Returns the inverse of the =LOGINV(probability,mean,standard_dev)

lognormal cumulative distribution

function of x, where ln(x) is

normally distributed with given

probability, mean, and standard

deviation

LOGNORMDIST Built In Returns the cumulative lognormal =LOGNORMDIST(x,mean,standard_dev)

distribution of x, where ln(x) is

normally distributed with known

mean and standard deviation

MAX Built In Returns the maximum value in a =MAX(number1,number2,…)

list of arguments ignoring logical

values and text

MAXA Built In Returns the maximum value in a =MAXA(value1,value2,…)

list of arguments including logical

values and text

MEDIAN Built In Returns the median of the given =MEDIAN(number1,number2, …)

numbers

MIN Built In Returns the minimum value in a list =MIN(number1,number2,…)

of arguments ignoring logical

values and text

MINA Built In Returns the minimum value in a list =MINA(value1,value2,…)

of arguments including logical

values and text

MODE Built In Returns the most common value in =MODE(number1,number2,…)

a data set

NEGBINOMDIST Built In Returns the negative binomial =NEGBINOMDIST(number_f,number_s,

distribution; the probability that probability_s)

there will be number_f failures

before the number_s-th success,

when the constant probability of a

success is probability_s

NORMDIST Built In Returns the cumulative distribution =NORMDIST(x,mean,standard_dev,

function or probability mass cumulative)

function for the value x with

specified mean and standard

deviation

NORMINV Built In Returns the inverse of the normal =NORMINV(probability,mean,

cumulative distribution for the standard_dev)

specified probability, mean, and

standard deviation

NORMSDIST Built In Returns the standard normal =NORMSDIST(z)

cumulative distribution function.

The distribution has a mean of 0

and a standard deviation of 1

42

Name Source Description Syntax

NORMSINV Built In Returns the inverse of the standard =NORMSINV(probability)

normal cumulative distribution

PEARSON Built In Returns the Pearson product =PEARSON(array1,array2)

moment correlation coefficient

PERCENTILE Built In Returns the kth percentile of values =PERCENTILE(array,k)

in a range

PERCENTRANK Built In Returns the percentage rank of a =PERCENTRANK(array,x,significance)

value in a data set

PERMUT** Built In Returns the number of =PERMUT(number,number_chosen)

permutations for a given number of

objects that can be selected from a

number of objects without

replacement

POISSON Built In Returns the Poisson distribution =POISSON(x,mean,cumulative)

values in a range are between two upper_limit)

limits or if upper_limit is not

specified, the probability that

values in x_range are equal to

lower_limit

QUARTILE Built In Returns the quartile of a data set =QUARTILE(array,quart)

list of numbers

RSQ Built In Returns the square of the Pearson =RSQ(known_y’s,known_x’s)

product moment correlation

coefficient through data points in

known_y’s and known_x’s

SKEW Built In Returns the skewness of a =SKEW(number1,number2,…)

distribution

SLOPE Built In Returns the slope (vertical distance =SLOPE(known_y’s,known_x’s)

/ horizontal distance) of the linear

regression line through data points

in known_y’s and known_x’s

SMALL Built In Returns the kth smallest value in a =SMALL(array,k)

data set

STANDARDIZE Built In Returns a normalized value from a =STANDARDIZE(x,mean,standard_dev)

distribution with known mean and

standard_dev

STDEV Built In Estimates standard distribution =STDEV(number1,number2,…)

based on a sample ignoring text

and logical values

STDEVA Built In Estimates standard deviation =STDEVA(value1,value2,…)

based on a sample including text

and logical values

STDEVP Built In Calculates standard distribution =STDEVP(number1,number2,…)

based on the entire population

ignoring text and logical values

STDEVPA Built In Calculates standard deviation =STDEVPA(value1,value2,…)

based on the entire population

including text and logical values

43

Name Source Description Syntax

STEYX Built In Returns the standard error of the =STEYX(known_y’s,known_x’s)

predicted y-value for each x in the

regression

TDIST Built In Returns the probability for the =TDIST(x,degrees_freedom,tails)

Student t-distribution where a

numeric value (x) is a calculated

value of t for which the probability

is to be computed

TINV Built In Returns the t-value of the Student’s =TINV(probability,degrees_freedom)

t-distribution based on given

probability and degrees of freedom

TREND Built In Entered as an array formula, =TREND(known_y’s,known_x’s,new_x’s,

TREND fits a straight line using the const)

least squares method to arrays of

known_y’s and known_x’s and

returns the y-values along that line

for the array of specified new_x’s

TRIMMEAN Built In Calculates the mean by excluding =TRIMMEAN(array,percent)

a specified percentage of data

points from the top and bottom tails

of a data set

TTEST Built In Returns the probability associated =TTEST(array1,array2,tails,type)

with a student’s t-test

VAR Built In Estimates variance based on a =VAR(number1,number2,…)

sample ignoring logical values and

text

VARA Built In Estimates variance based on a =VARA(value1,value2,…)

sample including text and logical

values

VARP Built In Calculates variance based on the =VARP(number1,number2,…)

entire population ignoring text and

logical values

VARPA Built In Calculates variance based on the =VARPA(value1,value2,…)

entire population including text and

logical values

WEIBULL Built In Returns the Weibull distribution =WEIBULL(x,alpha,beta,cumulative)

z-test

Notes: * See also COUNTIF (Maths) and COUNTBLANK (Information) and DCOUNT and DCOUNTA

(Database)

** See also COMBIN function (Maths)

44

Table 21: Statistical Function Arguments

Argument Description

A An optional lower bound to the interval of x

Actual_range The range of data that contains observations to test against expected values

function)

Array2 (PEARSON A set of dependent values

function)

B An optional lower bound to the interval of y

Bins_array An array of or reference to intervals into which you want to group the values

TRUE or omitted, b is calculated normally; FALSE, b is set equal to 1 and the m-

values are adjusted so that y = m^x

Criteria The range of cells that contains the conditions you specify

Expected_range The range of data that contains the ratio of the product of row totals and column

totals to the grand total

K Is the position in the array or cell range of data to return

45

Argument Description

Mean The arithmetic mean

and LOGINV)

New_x’s new x-values for which you want GROWTH to return corresponding y-values

Number2,… Second of up to 30 numbers. You can also use a single array or a reference to an

array instead of arguments separated by commas

Order A number specifying how to rank number; 0 or omitted = descending; non-zero =

ascending

Percent The fractional number of data points to exclude from the calculation

Quart Indicates which value to return: 0 = minimum value; 1 = 1st Quartile (25th

Percentile); 2 = 2nd Quartile; 3 = 3rd Quartile; 4 = Maximum value

Range A range

Sigma The population (known) standard deviation. If omitted, the sample standard

deviation is used

Significance The multiple to which you want to round

46

Argument Description

Standard_dev The population standard deviation for the data range

(LOGNORMDIST and ln(x).

LOGINV)

Stats A logical value specifying whether to return additional regression statistics TRUE

returns additional statistics

Tails Specifies the number of distribution tails to return. If tails = 1, TDIST returns the

one-tailed distribution. If tails = 2, TDIST returns the two-tailed distribution

Trials The number of independent trials

Type (TTEST function) The kind of t-Test to perform; 1 = Paired; 2 = Two-sample equal variance

(homoscedastic); 3 = Two-sample unequal variance (heteroscedastic)

Upper_limit The upper bound for integrating ERF. If omitted, ERF integrates between zero and

lower_limit

Value1 A numeric value

Value2,… Second of 1 to n possible values (n=30 for AVERAGEA; n=29 for CHOOSE, NPV)

X_range The range of numeric values of x with which there are associated probabilities

47

Table 22: Text Functions

ASC Built In Changes full-width (double-byte) =ASC(Text)

English letters or katakana within

a character string to half-width

(single-byte) characters

BAHTTEXT Built In Converts a number to Thai text =BAHTTEXT(number)

and adds a suffix of “Baht”

CHAR Built In Returns the ANSI character set =CHAR(Number)

(Microsoft) or Macintosh

character set (Macintosh)

specified by the code number

CLEAN Built In Removes all nonprintable =CLEAN(text)

characters from text

CODE Built In Returns a numeric code for the =CODE(text)

first character in a text string

CONCATENATE Built In Joins several text items into one =CONCATENATE (text1,text2,…)

text item

DOLLAR Built In Converts a number to text, using =DOLLAR(number,decimals)

currency format

EXACT Built In Checks to see whether two text =EXACT(text1,text2)

values are identical

FIND Built In Finds one text value within =FIND(find_text,within_text,start_num)

another (case sensitive)

FINDB Built In Finds one text value within =FINDB(find_text,within_text,start_num)

another (case sensitive) based

on the number of bytes each

character uses.

FIXED Built In Formats a number as text with a =FIXED(number,decimals,no_commas)

fixed number of decimals

JIS Built In Changes half-width (single-byte) =JIS(text)

English letters or katakana within

a character string to full-width

(double-byte) characters.

LEFT Built In Returns the left most characters =LEFT(text,num_chars)

from a text value

LEFTB Built In Returns the first character or =LEFTB(text,num_bytes)

characters in a text string, based

on the number of bytes you

specify.

LEN Built In Returns the number of =LEN(text)

characters in a text string

LENB Built In Returns the number of bytes =LENB(text)

used to represent the characters

in a text string

LOWER Built In Converts text to lowercase =LOWER(text)

characters from a string starting

at a specified position

48

Name Source Description Syntax

MIDB Built In Returns a specific number of =MIDB(text,start_num,num_bytes)

characters from a text string,

starting at the position you

specify, based on the number of

bytes specified

PHONETIC Built In Extracts the phonetic (furigana) =PHONETIC(reference)

characters from a text string

PROPER Built In Capitalizes the first letter in each =PROPER(text)

word of a text value

REPLACE Built In Replaces characters within text =REPLACE(old_text,start_num,

num_chars,new_text)

REPLACEB Built In Replaces part of a text string, =REPLACEB(old_text,start_num,

based on the number of bytes num_bytes,new_text)

you specify, with a different text

string.

REPT Built In Repeats text a given number of =REPT(text,number_times)

times

RIGHT Built In Returns the rightmost characters =RIGHT(text,num_chars)

from a text value

RIGHTB Built In Returns the last character or =RIGHTB(text,num_bytes)

characters in a text string, based

on the number of bytes you

specify

SEARCH Built In Finds one text value within =SEARCH(find_text,within_text,

another (not case sensitive) and start_num)

returns the number of the starting

position

SEARCHB Built In Finds one text string (find_text) =SEARCHB(find_text,within_text,

within another text string start_num)

(within_text), and returns the

number of the starting position of

find_text. The result is based on

the number of bytes each

character uses, beginning with

start_num

SUBSTITUTE Built In Substitutes new text for old text =SUBSTITUTE(text,old_text,new_text,

in a text string instance_num)

T Built In Converts its arguments to text =T(value)

it to text

TRIM Built In Removes all spaces from text =TRIM(text)

except single spaces between

words

UPPER Built In Converts text to uppercase =UPPER(text)

number

YEN Built In Converts a number to text, using =YEN(number,decimals)

the ¥ (yen) currency format, with

the number rounded to a

specified place

49

Table 23: Text Function Arguments

Argument Description

Decimals The number of digits to the right of the decimal point. If decimals is negative,

number is rounded to the left of the decimal point. If you omit decimals, it is

assumed to be 2

Find_text The text you want to find

Format_text A number format in text form from in the Category box on the Number tab in the

Format Cells dialog box

Instance_num Specifies which occurrence of old_text you want to replace with new_text. If you

specify instance_num, only that instance of old_text is replaced. Otherwise, every

occurrence of old_text in text is changed to new_text

New_text The text that will replace characters in old_text

No_commas A logical value that, if TRUE, prevents FIXED from including commas in the

returned text

Num_bytes The number of bytes you want to extract

Reference Reference to a cell or range of cells and can refer to multiple areas. If you want to

specify several references as a single argument, then you must include extra sets

of parentheses so that Microsoft Excel will not interpret the comma as a field

separator

Start_num The character at which to start the search

Text Text or a reference to a cell that contains the text you want to change

50

Table 24: Consolidated List of All Functions

ABS Built In Maths Returns the absolute value of a number =ABS(Number)

ACCRINT Analysis Financial Returns the accrued interest for a security that =ACCRINT(Issue,First_Interest,Settlement,Rate,

ToolPak pays periodic interest Par,Frequency,Basis)

ACCRINTM Analysis Financial Returns the accrued interest for a security that =ACCRINTM(Issue,Settlement,Rate,Par,Basis)

ToolPak pays interest at maturity

ACOS Built In Maths Returns in radians the arccosine of a number =ACOS(Number)

number

ADDRESS Built In Lookup & Creates a cell address as text based on given row =ADDRESS(Row_num,Column_num,Abs_num,

Ref and column rumbers A1,Sheet_text)

AMORDEGRC Analysis Financial Returns the depreciation for each accounting =AMORDEGRC(Cost,Date_purchased,First_period,

ToolPak period using the French accounting system Salvage,Period,Rate,Basis)

AMORLINC Analysis Financial Returns the depreciation for each accounting =AMORLINC(Cost,Date_purchased,First_period,

ToolPak period using the French accounting system Salvage,Period,Rate,Basis)

AND Built In Logical Returns TRUE if all its arguments are TRUE =AND(Logical1,Logical2,…)

AREAS Built In Lookup & Returns the number of areas in a reference =AREAS(reference)

Ref

ASC Built In Text Changes full-width (double-byte) English letters or =ASC(Text)

katakana within a character string to half-width

(single-byte) characters

ASIN Built In Maths Returns in radians the arcsine of a number =ASIN(Number)

ASINH Built In Maths Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number =ASINH(Number)

51

Name Source Type Description Syntax

ATAN Built In Maths Returns in radians the arctangent of a number =ATAN(Number)

ATAN2 Built In Maths Returns in radians the arctangent from x and y =ATAN2(x_num,y_num)

coordinates

ATANH Built In Maths Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a =ATANH(Number)

number

AVEDEV Built In Statistical Returns the average of the absolute deviations of =AVEDEV(Number1,Number2,…)

data points from their mean

AVERAGE Built In Statistical Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of up to 30 =AVERAGE(Number1,Number2,…)

numeric arguments

AVERAGEA Built In Statistical Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of its =AVERAGEA(Value1,Value2,…)

arguments and includes evaluation of text and

logical arguments

BAHTTEXT Built In Text Converts a number to Thai text and adds a suffix =BAHTTEXT(number)

of “Baht”

BESSELI Analysis Engineering Returns the Bessel function evaluated for purely =BESSELI(x,n)

ToolPak imaginary arguments

BESSELJ Analysis Engineering Returns the Bessel function represented by Jn(x) =BESSELJ(x,n)

ToolPak

BESSELK Analysis Engineering Returns the modified Bessel function represented =BESSELK(x,n)

ToolPak by Kn(x)

BESSELY Analysis Engineering Returns the Bessel / Weber / Neumann function =BESSELY(x,n)

ToolPak Yn(x)

BETADIST Built In Statistical Returns the cumulative beta probability density =BETADIST(x,alpha,beta,A,B)

function

BETAINV Built In Statistical Returns the inverse of the cumulative beta =BETAINV(probability,alpha,beta,A,B)

probability density function

BIN2DEC Analysis Engineering Converts binary number to decimal =BIN2DEC(Number)

ToolPak

BIN2HEX Analysis Engineering Converts binary number to hexadecimal =BIN2HEX(Number,Places)

ToolPak

52

Name Source Type Description Syntax

BIN2OCT Analysis Engineering Converts binary number to octal =BIN2OCT(Number,Places)

ToolPak

BINOMDIST Built In Statistical Returns the individual term binomial distribution =BINOMDIST(number_s,trials,probability_s,

probability cumulative)

CALL Built In External Calls a procedure in a dynamic link library or code =CALL(register_id,argument1,…) With Register.id

resource =CALL(module_text,procedure,type_text,

argument1,…) Excel for Windows

=CALL(file_text,resource,type_text,

argument1,…) Excel for Macintosh

CEILING Built In Maths Rounds a number (away from zero) to the nearest =CEILING(number,significance)

integer or to the nearest multiple of significance

CELL Built In Information Returns information about the formatting , location =CELL(info_type,reference)

or contents of the cell or upper left cell of the

reference

CHAR Built In Text Returns the ANSI character set (Microsoft) or =CHAR(Number)

Macintosh character set (Macintosh) specified by

the code number

CHIDIST Built In Statistical Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi- =CHIDIST(x,degrees_freedom)

squared distribution

CHIINV Built In Statistical Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of =CHIINV(probability,degrees_freedom)

the chi-squared distribution

CHITEST Built In Statistical Returns the value from the chi-squared (γ2) =CHITEST(actual_range,expected_range)

distribution for the statistic and the appropriate

degrees of freedom

CHOOSE Built In Lookup & Uses a specified index number to select one from =CHOOSE(index_num,value1,value2,…)

Ref up to 29 specified values

CLEAN Built In Text Removes all nonprintable characters from text =CLEAN(text)

CODE Built In Text Returns a numeric code for the first character in a =CODE(text)

text string

COLUMN Built In Lookup & Returns the column number of the cell or a =COLUMN(reference)

Ref specified reference

53

Name Source Type Description Syntax

COLUMNS Built In Lookup & Returns the number of columns in an array or =COLUMNS(array)

Ref reference

COMBIN Built In Maths Returns the number of combinations for a given =COMBIN(number,number_chosen)

number of objects

COMPLEX Analysis Engineering Converts real and imaginary coefficients into =COMPLEX(real_num,i_num,suffix)

ToolPak complex numbers of the form x + yi or x + yj

depending upon suffix

CONCATENATE Built In Text Joins several text items into one text item =CONCATENATE (text1,text2,…)

CONFIDENCE Built In Statistical Returns the confidence interval for a population =CONFIDENCE(alpha,standard_dev,size)

mean

CONVERT Analysis Engineering Converts a number from one measurement =CONVERT(number,from_unit,to_unit)

ToolPak system to another

CORREL Built In Statistical Returns the correlation coefficient between two =CORREL(array1,array2)

arrays of data

COS Built In Maths Returns the cosine of a given angle given in =COS(Number)

radians

COSH Built In Maths Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number =COSH(Number)

COUNT Built In Statistical Counts the number of cells that contain numbers =COUNT(value1,value2, …)

and also numbers within the list of arguments

COUNTA Built In Statistical counts how many values are in the list of =COUNTA(value1,value2, …)

arguments

COUNTBLANK Built In Information Counts the number of non-empty cells and the =COUNTBLANK(range)

values within the list of arguments

COUNTIF Built In Maths Counts the number of cells that meet the criteria =COUNTIF(range,criteria)

specified in the argument

COUPDAYBS Analysis Financial Returns the number of days from the beginning of =COUPDAYBS(settlement,maturity,

ToolPak the coupon period to the settlement date using frequency,basis)

the specified or default day counting basis

54

Name Source Type Description Syntax

COUPDAYS Analysis Financial Returns the number of days in the coupon period =COUPDAYS(settlement,maturity,

ToolPak that contains the settlent date using the specified frequency,basis)

or default day counting basis

COUPDAYSNC Analysis Financial Returns the number of days from the settlement =COUPDAYSNC(settlement,maturity,

ToolPak date to the next coupon date using the specified frequency,basis)

or default day counting basis

COUPNCD Analysis Financial Returns the next coupon date after the settlement =COUPNCD(settlement,maturity,frequency,basis)

ToolPak date using the specified or default day counting

basis

COUPNUM Analysis Financial Returns the number of coupons payable between =COUPNUM(settlement,maturity,frequency,basis)

ToolPak the settlement date and maturity date using the

specified or default day counting basis

COUPPCD Analysis Financial Returns the previous coupon date before the =COUPPCD(settlement,maturity,frequency,basis)

ToolPak settlement date using the specified or default day

counting basis

COVAR Built In Statistical Returns covariance; the average of the products =COVAR(array1,array2)

of deviations for each data point pair

CRITBINOM Built In Statistical Returns the smallest value for which the =CRITBINOM(trials,probability_s,alpha)

cumulative binomial distribution is less than or

equal to a criterion value

CUMIPMT Analysis Financial Returns the cumulative interest paid between two =CUMIPMT(rate,nper,pv,start_period,end_period,

ToolPak periods type)

CUMPRINC Analysis Financial Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan =CUMPRINC(rate,nper,pv,start_period,end_period,

ToolPak between two periods type)

DATE Built In Date & Returns the sequential Excel date / time serial =DATE(year,month,day)

Time number that represents a particular date

DATEDIF Analysis Date & Calculates differences between two dates in =DATEDIF(start_date,end_date,unit)

ToolPak Time terms of specified units and assumptions

DATEVALUE Built In Date & Converts a date text form to an Excel date / time =DATEVALUE(date_text)

Time serial number

DAVERAGE Built In Database Returns the average of selected list or database =DAVERAGE(database,field,criteria)

entries based on specified criteria

DAY Built In Date & Converts an Excel date / time serial number to the =DAY(serial_number)

Time day of a month

55

Name Source Type Description Syntax

DAYS360 Built In Date & Calculates the number of days between two dates =DAYS360(start_date,end_date,method)

Time using a specified 30 day month 360 day year

method

DB Built In Financial Returns the depreciation of an asset for a =DB(cost,salvage,life,period,month)

specified period, using the fixed declining balance

method

DCOUNT Built In Database Counts the cells containing numbers from a =DCOUNT(database,field,criteria)

specified database that match specified criteria

DCOUNTA Built In Database Counts non blank cells from a specified database =DCOUNTA(database,field,criteria)

that match specified criteria criteria

DDB Built In Financial Returns the deoreciation of an asset for a =DDB(cost,salvage,life,period,factor)

specified period, using the double-declining

balance method of some other method that is

specified

DEC2BIN Analysis Engineering Converts a decimal number to binary =DEC2BIN(Number)

ToolPak

DEC2HEX Analysis Engineering Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal =DEC2HEX(Number)

ToolPak

DEC2OCT Analysis Engineering Converts a decimal number to octal =DEC2OCT(Number)

ToolPak

DEGREES Built In Maths Converts radians to degrees =DEGREES(angle)

DELTA Analysis Engineering Test whether two values are equal =DELTA(number1,number2)

ToolPak

DEVSQ Built In Statistical Returns the sum of the squares of the deviations =DEVSQ(number1,number2,…)

from the sample mean

DGET Built In Database Extracts from a specified database a single value =DGET(database,field,criteria)

that matches specified criteria

DISC Analysis Financial Returns the discount rate for a security using the =DISC(settlement,maturity,pr,redemption,basis)

ToolPak specified or default day counting basis

56

Name Source Type Description Syntax

DMAX Built In Database Extracts maximum number in a column of a list or =DMAX(database,field,criteria)

database that matches specified conditions

DMIN Built In Database Extracts minimum number in a column of a list or =DMIN(database,field,criteria)

database that matches specified conditions

DOLLAR Built In Text Converts a number to text, using currency format =DOLLAR(number,decimals)

ToolPak into a dollar price expressed as a decimal number

DOLLARFR Analysis Financial Converts a dollar price (expressed as a decimal =DOLLARFR(decimal_dollar,fraction)

ToolPak number) into a dollar price expressed as a

fraction

DPRODUCT Built In Database Multiplies the values in a particular field of records =DPRODUCT(database,field,criteria)

that match the specified criteria in a database

DSTDEV Built In Database Estimates standard deviation of a population =DSTDEV(database,field,criteria)

based on a sample using numbers in a column of

a list or database that match specified conditions

DSTDEVP Built In Database Calculates the standard deviation based on the =DSTDEVP(database,field,criteria)

entire population using numbers in a column of a

list or database that match specified conditions

DSUM Built In Database Adds the numbers in the field column of records =DSUM(database,field,criteria)

in the database that match the specified criteria

DURATION Analysis Financial Returns the Macauley duration of a security with =DURATION(settlement,maturity,coupon,yld,

ToolPak periodic interest payments using the specified or frequency,basis)

default day counting basis

DVAR Built In Database Estimates the variance of a population based on a =DVAR(database,field,criteria)

sample by using the numbers in a column of a list

or database that match specified criteria

DVARP Built In DataBase Calculates the variance of a population based on =DVARP(database,field,criteria)

the entire population by using the numbers in a

column of a list or database that match specified

criteria

EDATE Analysis Date & Returns the Excel date / time serial number of the =EDATE(start_date,months)

ToolPak Time date that is the indicated number of months

before or after the specified number of months

from the start_date

57

Name Source Type Description Syntax

EFFECT Analysis Financial Returns the effective annual interest rate of a =EFFECT(nominal_rate,npery)

ToolPak given nominal rate with its compounding

frequency

EOMONTH Analysis Date & Returns the Excel date / time serial number of the =EOMONTH(start_date,months)

ToolPak Time last day of the month before or after a specified

number of months from start_date

ERF Analysis Engineering Returns the error function integrated between =ERF(lower_limit,upper_limit)

ToolPak lower_limit and upper_limit

ERFC Analysis Engineering Returns the complementary ERF function =ERFC(x)

ToolPak integrated between x and infinity

ERROR.TYPE Built In Information Returns a number corresponding to an Excel =ERROR.TYPE(error_val)

error type

EUROCONVERT Add-in External Converts a number to or from Euros to or from a =EUROCONVERT(number,source,target,

member currency or converts between one euro full_precision,triangulation_precision)

member currency to another using the Euro as an

intermediary (triangulation)

EVEN Built In Maths Rounds a number away from zero to the nearest =EVEN(Number)

even integer

EXACT Built In Text Checks to see whether two text values are =EXACT(text1,text2)

identical

EXP Built In Maths Returns e (=2.71828182845904) raised to the =EXP(Number)

power of a given number

EXPONDIST Built In Statistical Returns the exponential distribution =EXPONDIST(x,lambda,cumulative)

ToolPak

FALSE Built In Logical Returns the logical value FALSE =FALSE()

58

Name Source Type Description Syntax

FDIST Built In Statistical Returns the F probability distribution =FDIST(x,degrees_freedom1,

degrees_freedom2)

FIND Built In Text Finds one text value within another (case =FIND(find_text,within_text,start_num)

sensitive)

FINDB Built In Text Finds one text value within another (case =FINDB(find_text,within_text,start_num)

sensitive) based on the number of bytes each

character uses.

FINV Built In Statistical Returns the inverse of the F probability =FINV(probability,degrees_freedom1,

distribution degrees_freedom2)

FISHER Built In Statistical Returns the Fisher transformation at x =FISHER(x)

FISHERINV Built In Statistical Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation =FISHERINV(y)

FIXED Built In Text Formats a number as text with a fixed number of =FIXED(number,decimals,no_commas)

decimals

FLOOR Built In Maths Rounds a number down towards 0 to the nearest =FLOOR(number,significance)

integer or to the nearest multiple of significance

FORECAST Built In Statistical Calculates a predicted value of y for a given x =FORECAST(x,known_y’s,known_x’s)

value based on known values for x and y

FREQUENCY Built In Statistical Counts how often values occur within given =FREQUENCY(data_array,bins_array)

ranges of values and returns those counts as a

vertical array of numbers

FTEST Built In Statistical Returns the result of an F-test; the one-tailed =FTEST(array1,array2)

probability that the variances in array1 and array2

are not significantly different

FV Built In Financial Returns the future value of an investment =FV(rate,nper,pmt,pv,type)

FVSCHEDULE Analysis Financial Returns the future value of an initial principal after =FVSCHEDULE(principal,schedule)

ToolPak applying a series of compound interest rates

GAMMADIST Built In Statistical Returns the gamma distribution =GAMMADIST(x,alpha,beta,cumulative)

59

Name Source Type Description Syntax

GAMMAINV Built In Statistical Returns the inverse of the gamma distribution =GAMMAINV(probability,alpha,beta)

GAMMALN Built In Statistical Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma =GAMMALN(x)

function Γ(x).

GCD Analysis Maths Returns the greatest common divisor of 2 – 29 =GCD(number1,number2, …)

ToolPak integers

GEOMEAN Built In Statistical Returns the geometric mean of an array or range =GEOMEAN(number1,number2, …)

of positive data

GESTEP Analysis Engineering Tests whether a number is greater than a =GESTEP(number,step)

ToolPak threshold value

GETPIVOTDATA Built In External Returns data stored in a pivot table =GETPIVOTDATA(data_field,pivot_table,

field1,item1,field2,item2,…)

GROWTH Built In Statistical Calculates predicted exponential growth and =GROWTH(known_y’s,known_x’s,new_x’s,

returns the y-values for a series of specified new const)

x-values by using known x-values and y-values

HARMEAN Built In Statistical Returns the harmonic mean of a data set by =HARMEAN(number1,number2, …)

calculating the reciprocal of the arithmetic mean

of reciprocals

HEX2BIN Analysis Engineering Converts a hexadecimal to a binary =HEX2BIN(Number,Places)

ToolPak

HEX2DEC Analysis Engineering Converts a hexadecimal to a decimal =HEX2DEC(Number)

ToolPak

HEX2OCT Analysis Engineering Converts a hexadecimal to an octal =HEX2OCT(Number,Places)

ToolPak

HLOOKUP Built In Lookup & Looks in the top row of a table or array and =HLOOKUP(lookup_value,table_array,

Ref returns the value of the indicated cell row_index_num,range_lookup)

HOUR Built In Date & Converts an Excel date / time serial number to an =HOUR(serial_number)

Time hour

HYPERLINK Built In Lookup & Creates a shortcut that opens a document on =HYPERLINK(link_location,friendly_name)

Ref your hard drive, a server or the internet

60

Name Source Type Description Syntax

HYPGEOMDIST Built In Statistical Returns the hypergeometric distribution by =HYPGEOMDIST(sample_s,number_sample,

calculating the probability of a given number of population_s,number_population)

sample successes, given the sample size,

population successes, and population size

IF Built In Logical Returns one value specified condition evaluates =IF(logical_test,value_if_true,value_if_false)

to TRUE and another value if it evaluates to

FALSE

IMABS Analysis Engineering Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a =IMABS(inumber)

ToolPak complex number provided in the text format “x +

yi” or “x + yj”

IMAGINARY Analysis Engineering Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex =IMAGINARY(inumber)

ToolPak number provided in the text format “x + yi” or “x +

yj”

IMARGUMENT Analysis Engineering Returns the argument theta – an angle expressed =IMARGUMENT(inumber)

ToolPak in radians

IMCONJUGATE Analysis Engineering Returns the complex conjugate of a complex =IMCONJUGATE(inumber)

ToolPak number provided in the text format “x + yi” or “x +

yj”

IMCOS Analysis Engineering Returns the cosine of a complex number provided =IMCOS(inumber)

ToolPak in the text format “x + yi” or

”x + yj”

IMDIV Analysis Engineering Returns the quotient of two complex numbers =IMDIV(inumber1,inumber2)

ToolPak provided in the text format “x + yi” or “x + yj”

IMEXP Analysis Engineering Returns the exponential of a complex number =IMEXP(inumber)

ToolPak provided in the text format “x + yi” or “x + yj”

IMLN Analysis Engineering Returns the natural logarithm of a complex =IMLN(inumber)

ToolPak number provided in the text format “x + yi” or “x +

yj”

IMLOG10 Analysis Engineering Returns the base-10 logarithm of a complex =IMLOG10(inumber)

ToolPak number provided in the text format “x + yi” or “x +

yj”

IMLOG2 Analysis Engineering Returns the base-2 logarithm of a complex =IMLOG2(inumber)

ToolPak number provided in the text format “x + yi” or “x +

yj”

61

Name Source Type Description Syntax

IMPOWER Analysis Engineering Returns a complex number provided in the text =IMPOWER(inumber,number)

ToolPak format “x + yi” or “x + yj” raised to an integer

number

IMPRODUCT Analysis Engineering Returns the product of 2 – 29 complex numbers =IMPRODUCT(inumber1,inumber2,…)

ToolPak provided in the text format “x + yi” or “x + yj”

IMREAL Analysis Engineering Returns the real coefficient of a complex number =IMREAL(inumber)

ToolPak provided in the text format “x + yi” or “x + yj”

IMSIN Analysis Engineering Returns the sine of a complex number provided in =IMSIN(inumber)

ToolPak the text format “x + yi” or

”x + yj”

IMSQRT Analysis Engineering Returns the square root of a complex number =IMSQRT(inumber)

ToolPak provided in the text format “x + yi” or “x + yj”

IMSUB Analysis Engineering Returns the difference of two complex numbers =IMSUB(inumber1,inumber2)

ToolPak provided in the text format “x + yi” or “x + yj”

IMSUM Analysis Engineering Returns the sum of 2 – 29 complex numbers =IMSUM(inumber1,inumber2,…)

ToolPak provided in the text format “x + yi” or “x + yj”

INDEX Built In Lookup & Alternative forms. Array form returns a value or =INDEX(array,row_num,column_num)

Ref array of values. Reference form returns a =INDEX(reference,row_num,column_num,

reference. area_num)

INDIRECT Built In Lookup & Returns a reference indicated by a value provided =INDIRECT(ref_text,a1)

Ref as text

INFO Built In Information returns information about the current operating =INFO(type_text)

environment

INT Built In Maths Rounds a number away from 0 to the nearest =INT(Number)

integer

INTERCEPT Built In Statistical Calculates from given x and y values the point at =INTERCEPT(known_y’s,known_x’s)

which a line will intersect the y-axis

INTRATE Analysis Financial Returns the interest rate for a fully invested =INTRATE(settlement,maturity,investment,

ToolPak security using the specified or default day redemption,basis)

counting basis

IPMT Built In Financial Returns the amount of the interest element in a =IPMT(rate,per,nper,pv,fv,type)

payment for an investment for a given period

62

Name Source Type Description Syntax

IRR Built In Financial Returns the internal rate of return for a series of =IRR(values,guess)

cash flows

ISBLANK Built In Information Returns TRUE if the value is blank =ISBLANK(Value)

ISERR Built In Information Returns TRUE if the value is any error value =ISERR(Value)

except #N/A

ISERROR Built In Information Returns TRUE if the value is any error value =ISERROR(Value)

ToolPak

ISLOGICAL Built In Information Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value =ISLOGICAL(Value)

ISNA Built In Information Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value =ISNA(Value)

ISNONTEXT Built In Information Returns TRUE if the value is not text =ISNONTEXT(Value)

ToolPak

ISPMT Built In Financial Returns the interest associated with a specific =ISPMT(rate,per,nper,pv)

loan payment

ISREF Built In Information Returns TRUE if the value is a reference =ISREF(Value)

katakana within a character string to full-width

(double-byte) characters.

63

Name Source Type Description Syntax

KURT Built In Statistical Returns the kurtosis of a data set; a measure that =KURT(number1,number2, …)

compares the relative peakedness or flatness of a

distribution compared with the normal distribution

LARGE Built In Statistical Returns the kth largest value in a data set =LARGE(array,k)

ToolPak integers

LEFT Built In Text Returns the left most characters from a text value =LEFT(text,num_chars)

LEFTB Built In Text Returns the first character or characters in a text =LEFTB(text,num_bytes)

string, based on the number of bytes you specify.

LEN Built In Text Returns the number of characters in a text string =LEN(text)

LENB Built In Text Returns the number of bytes used to represent =LENB(text)

the characters in a text string

LINEST Built In Statistical Entered as an array formula, LINEST returns an =LINEST(known_y’s,known_x’s,const,stats)

array that describes a line of best fit by using the

least squares method

LN Built In Maths Returns the natural logarithm (base e = =LN(Number)

2.71828182845904) of a number

LOG Built In Maths Returns the logarithm of a number to a specified =LOG(Number,base)

base

LOG10 Built In Maths Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number =LOG10(Number)

an exponential curve that fits known data and

returns an array of values that describes that

curve

LOGINV Built In Statistical Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative =LOGINV(probability,mean,standard_dev)

distribution function of x, where ln(x) is normally

distributed with given probability, mean, and

standard deviation

64

Name Source Type Description Syntax

LOGNORMDIST Built In Statistical Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution of x, =LOGNORMDIST(x,mean,standard_dev)

where ln(x) is normally distributed with known

mean and standard deviation

LOOKUP Built In Lookup & Alternative forms. Vector form looks up values in =LOOKUP(lookup_value,lookup_vector,

Ref a one row or column range and returns a value in result_vector)

a second one row or column range. Array form =LOOKUP(lookup_value,array)

looks in the first row or column of an array for the

specified value and returns a value from the same

position in the last row or column of the array

LOWER Built In Text Converts text to lowercase =LOWER(text)

MATCH Built In Lookup & Returns the relative position of an item in an array =MATCH(lookup_value,lookup_array,

Ref that matches a specified value in a specified order match_type)

MAX Built In Statistical Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments =MAX(number1,number2,…)

ignoring logical values and text

MAXA Built In Statistical Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments =MAXA(value1,value2,…)

including logical values and text

MDETERM Built In Maths Returns the matrix determinant of an array =MDETERM(array)

MDURATION Analysis Financial Returns the Macauley modified duration for a =MDURATION(settlement,maturity,coupon,

ToolPak security with an assumed par value of $100 using yld,frequency,basis)

the specified or default day counting basis

MEDIAN Built In Statistical Returns the median of the given numbers =MEDIAN(number1,number2, …)

string starting at a specified position

MIDB Built In Text Returns a specific number of characters from a =MIDB(text,start_num,num_bytes)

text string, starting at the position you specify,

based on the number of bytes specified

MIN Built In Statistical Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments =MIN(number1,number2,…)

ignoring logical values and text

MINA Built In Statistical Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments =MINA(value1,value2,…)

including logical values and text

65

Name Source Type Description Syntax

MINUTE Built In Date & Converts an Excel date / time serial number to a =MINUTE(serial_number)

Time minute

MINVERSE Built In Maths Returns the matrix inverse of an array =MINVERSE(array)

MIRR Built In Financial Returns the modified internal rate of return based =MIRR(values,finance_rate,reinvest_rate)

on different finance and reinvestment rates for

negative and positive cash flows

MMULT Built In Maths Returns the matrix product of two arrays =MMULT(array1,array2)

MOD** Built In Maths Returns the remainder from division with the =MOD(number,divisor)

result having the same sign as the divisor

MODE Built In Statistical Returns the most common value in a data set =MODE(number1,number2,…)

MONTH Built In Date & Converts an Excel date / time serial number to a =MONTH(serial_number)

Time month number

MROUND Analysis Maths Returns a number rounded to the desired =MROUND(number,multiple)

ToolPak multiple. Midway points are rounded away from 0

MULTINOMIAL Analysis Maths Returns the ratio of the factorial of a sum of =MULTINOMIAL(number1,number2, …)

ToolPak values to the product of factorials

N Built In Information Returns a value converted to a number =N(Value)

NEGBINOMDIST Built In Statistical Returns the negative binomial distribution; the =NEGBINOMDIST(number_f,number_s,

probability that there will be number_f failures probability_s)

before the number_s-th success, when the

constant probability of a success is probability_s

NETWORKDAYS Analysis Date & Returns the number of whole working days =NETWORKDAYS(start_date,end_date,

ToolPak Time between two dates excluding specified holidays holidays)

66

Name Source Type Description Syntax

NOMINAL Analysis Financial Returns the nominal rate equivalent to a given =NOMINAL(effect_rate,npery)

ToolPak annual effective with a given compounding

frequency for the nominal rate

NORMDIST Built In Statistical Returns the cumulative distribution function or =NORMDIST(x,mean,standard_dev,

probability mass function for the value x with cumulative)

specified mean and standard deviation

NORMINV Built In Statistical Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative =NORMINV(probability,mean,standard_dev)

distribution for the specified probability, mean,

and standard deviation

NORMSDIST Built In Statistical Returns the standard normal cumulative =NORMSDIST(z)

distribution function. The distribution has a mean

of 0 and a standard deviation of 1

NORMSINV Built In Statistical Returns the inverse of the standard normal =NORMSINV(probability)

cumulative distribution

NOT Built In Logical Reverses the logic of its argument =NOT(Logical)

NOW Built In Date & Returns the Excel date / time serial number of the =NOW()

Time current date and time

NPER Built In Financial Returns the number of periods for an investment =NPER(rate, pmt, pv, fv, type)

NPV Built In Financial Returns the net present value of an investment =NPV(rate,value1,value2, …)

based upon a series of periodic cash flows and a

discount rate where the first cash flow is received

at the end of the first period

OCT2BIN Analysis Engineering Converts an octal number to binary =OCT2BIN(number,places)

ToolPak

OCT2DEC Analysis Engineering Converts an octal number to decimal =OCT2DEC(number)

ToolPak

OCT2HEX Analysis Engineering Converts an octal number to hexadecimal =OCT2HEX(number,places)

ToolPak

ODD Built In Maths Rounds a number away from 0 to the nearest odd =ODD(number)

integer

67

Name Source Type Description Syntax

ODDFPRICE Analysis Financial Returns the price per $100 face value of a =ODDFPRICE(settlement,maturity,issue,

ToolPak security with an odd first period using the first_coupon,rate,yld,redemption,

specified or default day counting basis frequency,basis)

ODDFYIELD Analysis Financial Returns the yield of a security with an odd first =ODDFYIELD(settlement,maturity,issue,

ToolPak period using the specified or default day counting first_coupon,rate,pr,redemption,

basis frequency,basis)

ODDLPRICE Analysis Financial Returns the price per $100 face value of a =ODDLPRICE(settlement,maturity,

ToolPak security with an odd last period using the last_interest,rate,yld,redemption,

specified or default day counting basis frequency,basis)

ODDLYIELD Analysis Financial Returns the yield of a security with an odd last =ODDLYIELD(settlement,maturity,

ToolPak period using the specified or default day counting last_interest,rate,pr,redemption,

basis frequency,basis)

OFFSET Built In Lookup & Returns a reference to a range that is a specified =OFFSET(reference,rows,cols,height,

Ref number of rows and columns from a cell or range width)

of cells

OR Built In Logical ReturnsTRUE if any argument is TRUE =OR(logical1,logical2,…)

PEARSON Built In Statistical Returns the Pearson product moment correlation =PEARSON(array1,array2)

coefficient

PERCENTILE Built In Statistical Returns the kth percentile of values in a range =PERCENTILE(array,k)

PERCENTRANK Built In Statistical Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data =PERCENTRANK(array,x,significance)

set

PERMUT Built In Statistical Returns the number of permutations for a given =PERMUT(number,number_chosen)

number of objects that can be selected from a

number of objects without replacement

PHONETIC Built In Text Extracts the phonetic (furigana) characters from a =PHONETIC(reference)

text string

PI Built In Maths Returns the number 3.14159265358979, the =PI()

mathematical constant pi, accurate to 15 digits

PMT Built In Financial Returns the periodic payment for an annuity =PMT(rate,nper,pv,fv,type)

68

Name Source Type Description Syntax

POWER Built In Maths Returns the result of a number raised to a power =POWER(number,power)

payment for an investment for a given period

PRICE Analysis Financial Returns the price per $100 face value of a =PRICE(settlement,maturity,rate,yld,

ToolPak security that pays periodic interest using the redemption,frequency,basis)

specified or default day counting basis

PRICEDISC Analysis Financial Returns the price per $100 face value of a =PRICEDISC(settlement,maturity,

ToolPak discounted security using the specified or default discount,redemption,basis)

day counting basis

PRICEMAT Analysis Financial Returns the price per $100 face value of a =PRICEMAT(settlement,maturity,issue,

ToolPak security that pays interest at maturity using the rate,yld,basis)

specified or default day counting basis

PROB Built In Statistical Returns either the probability that values in a =PROB(x_range,prob_range,lower_limit,

range are between two limits or if upper_limit is upper_limit)

not specified, the probability that values in

x_range are equal to lower_limit

PRODUCT Built In Maths Multiplies together 1 – 30 numbers =PRODUCT(number1,number2, …)

PROPER Built In Text Capitalizes the first letter in each word of a text =PROPER(text)

value

PV Built In Financial Returns the present value of an investment =PV(rate,nper,pmt,fv,type)

ToolPak

RADIANS Built In Maths Converts degrees to radians =RADIANS(angle)

greater than or equal to 0 and less than 1

69

Name Source Type Description Syntax

RANDBETWEEN Analysis Maths Returns a random number between (and inclusive =RANDBETWEEN(bottom,top)

ToolPak of) two specified numbers

RANK Built In Statistical Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers =RANK(number,ref,order)

RATE Built In Financial Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity =RATE(nper,pmt,pv,fv,type,guess)

RECEIVED Analysis Financial Returns the amount received at maturity for a fully =RECEIVED(settlement,maturity,

ToolPak invested security using the specified or default investment,discount,basis)

day counting basis

REGISTER.ID Built In External Returns the register ID of the specified dynamic =REGISTER.ID(module_text,procedure,

link library (DLL) or code resource that has been type_text)

previously registered

REPLACE Built In Text Replaces characters within text =REPLACE(old_text,start_num,

num_chars,new_text)

REPLACEB Built In Text Replaces part of a text string, based on the =REPLACEB(old_text,start_num,

number of bytes you specify, with a different text num_bytes,new_text)

string.

REPT Built In Text Repeats text a given number of times =REPT(text,number_times)

RIGHT Built In Text Returns the rightmost characters from a text value =RIGHT(text,num_chars)

RIGHTB Built In Text Returns the last character or characters in a text =RIGHTB(text,num_bytes)

string, based on the number of bytes you specify

ROMAN Built In Maths Converts an 70rabic number to Roman, as text =ROMAN(number,form)

to the left (-) or right (+) of the decimal point. The

midway digit 5 is rounded away from 0.

ROUNDDOWN Built In Maths Rounds a number down towards 0 to a specified =ROUNDDOWN(number,num_digits)

number of digits to the left (-) or right (+) of the

decimal point

ROUNDUP Built In Maths Round a number up away from 0 to a specified =ROUNDUP(number,num_digits)

number of digits to the left (-) or right (+) of the

decimal point

70

Name Source Type Description Syntax

ROW Built In Lookup & Returns the row number of a reference =ROW(reference)

Ref

ROWS Built In Lookup & Returns the number of rows in a reference =ROWS(array)

Ref

RSQ Built In Statistical Returns the square of the Pearson product =RSQ(known_y’s,known_x’s)

moment correlation coefficient through data points

in known_y’s and known_x’s

RTD Built In Lookup & Retrieves real-time data from a program that =RTD(ProgID,server,topic1,[topic2],…)

Ref supports COM automation

SEARCH Built In Text Finds one text value within another (not case =SEARCH(find_text,within_text,

sensitive) and returns the number of the starting start_num)

position

SEARCHB Built In Text Finds one text string (find_text) within another text =SEARCHB(find_text,within_text,

string (within_text), and returns the number of the start_num)

starting position of find_text. The result is based

on the number of bytes each character uses,

beginning with start_num

SECOND Built In Date & Converts an Excel date / time serial number to a =SECOND(serial_number)

Time second

SERIESSUM Analysis Maths Returns the sum of a power series expansion =SERIESSUM(x,n,m,coefficients)

ToolPak

SIGN Built In Maths Returns 1 for 71ositive numbers, 0 if the number =SIGN(number)

is 0 and, -1 if the number is negative

SIN Built In Maths Returns the sine of a given angle given in radians =SIN(number)

SINH Built In Maths Returns the hyperbolic sine of a given angle =SINH(number)

for one period.

71

Name Source Type Description Syntax

SLOPE Built In Statistical Returns the slope (vertical distance / horizontal =SLOPE(known_y’s,known_x’s)

distance) of the linear regression line through

data points in known_y’s and known_x’s

SMALL Built In Statistical Returns the kth smallest value in a data set =SMALL(array,k)

SQL.REQUEST ODBC External Connects with an external data source, and runs =SQL.REQUEST(connection_string,

a query from a worksheet. SQL.REQUEST then output_ref,driver_prompt,query_text,

returns the result as an array col_names_logical)

SQRT Built In Maths Returns a positive square root =SQRT(number)

SQRTPI Analysis Maths Returns the square root of a number multiplied by =SQRTPI(number)

ToolPak pi

STANDARDIZE Built In Statistical Returns a normalized value from a distribution =STANDARDIZE(x,mean,standard_dev)

with known mean and standard_dev

STDEV Built In Statistical Estimates standard distribution based on a =STDEV(number1,number2,…)

sample ignoring text and logical values

STDEVA Built In Statistical Estimates standard deviation based on a sample =STDEVA(value1,value2,…)

including text and logical values

STDEVP Built In Statistical Calculates standard distribution based on the =STDEVP(number1,number2,…)

entire population ignoring text and logical values

STDEVPA Built In Statistical Calculates standard deviation based on the entire =STDEVPA(value1,value2,…)

population including text and logical values

STEYX Built In Statistical Returns the standard error of the predicted y- =STEYX(known_y’s,known_x’s)

value for each x in the regression

SUBSTITUTE Built In Text Substitutes new text for old text in a text string =SUBSTITUTE(text,old_text,new_text,

instance_num)

SUBTOTAL Built In Maths Returns the 72ubtotal in a list or database =SUBTOTAL(function_num,ref1,ref2,…)

72

Name Source Type Description Syntax

SUMIF Built In Maths Add the cells specified by a given criteria =SUMIF(range,criteria,sum_range)

SUMPRODUCT Built In Maths Returns the sum of the products of corresponding =SUMPRODUCT(array1,array2,array3, …)

array components

SUMSQ Built In Maths Returns the sum of the squares of 1 – 30 =SUMSQ(number1,number2, …)

numbers

SUMX2MY2 Built In Maths Returns the sum of the difference of squares of =SUMX2MY2(array_x,array_y)

corresponding values in two arrays

SUMX2PY2 Built In Maths Returns the sum of the sum of squares of =SUMX2PY2(array_x,array_y)

corresponding values in two arrays

SUMXMY2 Built In Maths Returns the sum of squares of differences of =SUMXMY2(array_x,array_y)

corresponding values in two array

SYD Built In Financial Returns the sum of years’ digits depreciation of =SYD(cost,salvage,life,per)

an asset for a specified period

T Built In Text Converts its arguments to text =T(value)

TAN Built In Maths Returns the tangent of a given angle given in =TAN(number)

radians

TANH Built In Maths Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number =TANH(number)

TBILLEQ Analysis Financial Returns the bond-equivalent yield for a treasury =TBILLEQ(settlement,maturity,discount)

ToolPak bill

TBILLPRICE Analysis Financial Returns the price per $100 face value for a =TBILLPRICE(settlement,maturity,

ToolPak Treasury bill discount)

TBILLYIELD Analysis Financial Returns the yield for a treasury bill =TBILLYIELD(settlement,maturity,pr)

ToolPak

TDIST Built In Statistical Returns the probability for the Student t- =TDIST(x,degrees_freedom,tails)

distribution where a numeric value (x) is a

calculated value of t for which the probability is to

be computed

73

Name Source Type Description Syntax

TEXT Built In Text Formats a number and converts it to text =TEXT(value,format_text)

TIME Built In Date & Returns the decimal portion of an Excel date / =TIME(hour,minute,second)

Time time serial number for a particular time

TIMEVALUE Built In Date & Converts the time in an acceptable form of text =TIMEVALUE(time_text)

Time enclosed in quotation marks to the decimal

portion of an Excel date / time serial number

TINV Built In Statistical Returns the t-value of the Student’s t-distribution =TINV(probability,degrees_freedom)

based on given probability and degrees of

freedom

TODAY Built In Date & Returns the Excel date / time serial number of =TODAY()

Time today’s date

TRANSPOSE Built In Lookup & Returns the transpose of an array =TRANSPOSE(array)

Ref

TREND Built In Statistical Entered as an array formula, TREND fits a =TREND(known_y’s,known_x’s,

straight line using the least squares method to new_x’s,const)

arrays of known_y’s and known_x’s and returns

the y-values along that line for the array of

specified new_x’s

TRIM Built In Text Removes all spaces from text except single =TRIM(text)

spaces between words

TRIMMEAN Built In Statistical Calculates the mean by excluding a specified =TRIMMEAN(array,percent)

percentage of data points from the top and bottom

tails of a data set

TRUE Built In Logical Returns the logical value TRUE =TRUE()

precision by removing the fractional part of the

number. (Serves to round down towards 0)

TTEST Built In Statistical Returns the probability associated with a =TTEST(array1,array2,tails,type)

student’s t-test

TYPE Built In Information Returns the type of value (1 for value is a number; =TYPE(value)

2 for value is text; 4 for value is logical value; 16

for value is error value; 64 for value is array)

74

Name Source Type Description Syntax

UPPER Built In Text Converts text to uppercase =UPPER(text)

logical values and text

VARA Built In Statistical Estimates variance based on a sample including =VARA(value1,value2,…)

text and logical values

VARP Built In Statistical Calculates variance based on the entire =VARP(number1,number2,…)

population ignoring text and logical values

VARPA Built In Statistical Calculates variance based on the entire =VARPA(value1,value2,…)

population including text and logical values

VDB Built In Financial Returns the depreciation of an asset for a =VDB(cost,salvage,life,start_period,

specified or partial period using a variable end_period,factor,no_switch)

declining balance method

VLOOKUP Built In Lookup & Locates a specified value in the leftmost column =VLOOKUP(lookup_value,table_array,

Ref of a specified table, and returns the value in the col_index_num,range_lookup)

same row from a specified column in the table

WEEKDAY Built In Date & Converts an Excel date / time serial number to the =WEEKDAY(serial_number,return_type)

Time number of the day of the week based upon

counting system of return_type

WEEKNUM Analysis Date & Returns the weeknumber in the year based upon =WEEKNUM(serial_num,return_type)

ToolPak Time return_type counting basis

WEIBULL Built In Statistical Returns the Weibull distribution =WEIBULL(x,alpha,beta,cumulative)

WORKDAY Analysis Date & Returns the Excel date / time serial number of the =WORKDAY(start_date,days,holidays)

ToolPak Time date before or after a specified number of

workdays excluding holidays

XIRR Analysis Financial Returns the annual effective interest rate for a =XIRR(values,dates,guess)

ToolPak schedule of cash flows received at specified dates

XNPV Analysis Financial Returns the net present value for a schedule of =XNPV(rate,values,dates)

ToolPak cash flows received at specified dates

75

Name Source Type Description Syntax

YEAR Built In Date & Converts an Excel date / time serial number to a =YEAR(serial_number)

Time year

YEARFRAC Analysis Date & Returns the difference between start_date and =YEARFRAC(start_date,end_date,basis)

ToolPak Time end_date expressed as a number of years

including decimal fraction of a year.

YEN Built In Text Converts a number to text, using the ¥ (yen) =YEN(number,decimals)

currency format, with the number rounded to a

specified place

YIELD Analysis Financial Returns the yield on a security that pays periodic =YIELD(settlement,maturity,rate,pr,

ToolPak interest using the specified or default day redemption,frequency,basis)

counting basis

YIELDDISC Analysis Financial Returns the annual yield for a discounted security =YIELDDISC(settlement,maturity,pr,

ToolPak using the specified or default day counting basis. redemption,basis)

YIELDMAT Analysis Financial Returns the annual yield of a security that pays =YIELDMAT(settlement,maturity,issue,

ToolPak interest at maturity using the specified or default rate,pr,basis)

day counting basis

ZTEST Built In Statistical Returns the two-tailed P-value of a z-test =ZTEST(array,x,sigma)

76

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