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# APPENDIX 1

## EXCEL FUNCTION REFERENCE

Introduction
In this appendix we bring together the entire range of functions included by Excel. The material
is provided here in table form but is also contained on the CDROM under Appendix 01
Function List.xls

This Appendix provides classifications of the functions, their source, type, purpose and syntax.
There are additional tables after each classification that outline the details of the function
arguments used by that classification. Finally, we provide a consolidated listing of all of the
functions, which aids if there is any problem associated with discovering the classification. The
tables provided are as follows:

## Table 1: Rounding and Forms of Rounding Functions..............................................................................................3

Table 2: Database Functions....................................................................................................................................6
Table 3: Database Function Arguments...................................................................................................................7
Table 4: Date and Time Functions............................................................................................................................8
Table 5: Date and Time Function Arguments.........................................................................................................10
Table 6: Engineering Functions..............................................................................................................................11
Table 7: Engineering Function Arguments..............................................................................................................14
Table 8: External Functions....................................................................................................................................16
Table 9: External Function Arguments....................................................................................................................17
Table 10: Financial Functions.................................................................................................................................19
Table 11: Financial Function Arguments................................................................................................................23
Table 12: Information Functions.............................................................................................................................26
Table 13: Information Function Arguments.............................................................................................................27
Table 14: Logical Functions....................................................................................................................................28
Table 15: Information Function Arguments.............................................................................................................29
Table 16: Lookup and Reference Functions...........................................................................................................30
Table 17: Lookup and Reference Function Arguments...........................................................................................32
Table 18: Maths Functions.....................................................................................................................................34
Table 19: Maths Function Arguments.....................................................................................................................38
Table 20: Statistical Functions................................................................................................................................40
Table 21: Statistical Function Arguments...............................................................................................................45
Table 22: Text Functions........................................................................................................................................48
Table 23: Text Function Arguments........................................................................................................................50
Table 24: Consolidated List of All Functions...........................................................................................................51

Function Arguments

In many instances important features or limitations of the functions are only revealed by the
knowledge of the arguments. We impart this knowledge not only by providing the syntax of

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each function but also by providing a list and brief details of function arguments used by each
function classification.

There follows brief notes on individual functions and selected issues regarding classification /
purpose.

CONVERT Function
Well worth a visit! But how many, even intermediate users know of this carefully hidden but
very useful function?

CONVERT (perhaps more appropriately named “covert”?) is hidden under the Engineering
classification. CONVERT is a particularly powerful and comprehensive unit conversion
function. It allows conversions of units of:

## Weight and mass,

Distance,
Time,
Pressure,
Force,
Energy,
Power,
Magnetism,
Temperature, and
Liquid measure

It also allows use of 18 prefix abbreviations that allow metric units from the largest to the
smallest magnitudes (eg kg = kilogram, mg = microgram). These prefixes facilitate metric unit
conversions between magnitudes as well as conversions between all metric magnitudes and
the non metric unit. Be honest, intermediate users! Did you really know of (and appreciate) the
existence range and power of this baby?

## Counting Functions where are you?

Counting is a standard task of Excel users and you may not be aware of the range of functions
available because they are located in different categories.

## COUNT, COUNTA and FREQUENCY are under Statistical

COUNTBLANK is under Information,
COUNTIF is provided under Maths, and
DCOUNT and DCOUNTA are provided as database functions.

Note that Excel regards a database as nothing more than a list where the rows represent
records and columns field.

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DATEDIF Function
DATEDIF is a mysterious Excel built in function (not Analysis ToolPak). It is like the drunken
relative of a family; it exists but is not acknowledged! It clearly attempted drying out in Excel
2000 because it was the subject of a Help file for the first time. But it has regressed and In
Excel 2002 it has disappeared from Help and it does not appear in any of the function
classifications. See Appendix 2 for a copy of the Excel 2000 Help file on DATEDIF. ****

EUROCONVERT Function
EUROCONVERT is a specially released Excel Add-in that requires installation using Tools >
Add-Ins and selection of “Euro Currency Tools”. Once installed it appears under the User
Defined classification. In Excel 2002 Help files the classification is under External.

Although available as an Add-In for pre Excel 2002 versions, there is no Help file.

Conversions are from individual member currencies to Euros or to another member currency at
the officially prescribed exchange rates. With triangular conversions (eg DEM > EUR > FFR)
you have the choice between full precision or >= 3 significant figure precision in intermediate
conversions (eg DEM > EUR and EUR > FFR).

Microsoft has announced that the function will be updated as and when other member States
join the Euro Currency system.

## Rounding and Forms of Rounding

Rounding is a common requirement of all Excel users. There are 12 functions that either round
numbers or perform operations that relate to parts of a number. These functions and their
operations are described in the following table which form a useful consolidation of the various
functions involved with this important task.

In finance we often need to round to the second decimal place or to the nearest 5 cents.
Furthermore, we need to know what happens to the mid-way point and how negative numbers
are treated. The terms “up” and “down” are pretty misleading to most users and all of our
descriptions of arguments append expressions such as “away from 0” and “towards 0” that are
invaluable in terms of knowing what happens to negative numbers.

In passing we must stress that a number returned using these rounding functions is stored by
Excel as per the return. This contrasts with “mere” formatting that does not impact upon the
number stored but only impacts upon how it is displayed.

## Table 1: Rounding and Forms of Rounding Functions

Function Operation
Rounds a number (away from zero) to the nearest
CEILING
integer or to the nearest multiple of significance

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Rounds a number (away from zero) to the nearest
EVEN
even integer
Rounds a number (towards zero) to the nearest
FLOOR
integer or to the nearest multiple of significance
INT Rounds a number away from 0 to the nearest integer
Returns the remainder from division with the result
MOD
having the same sign as the divisor
MROUND Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple.
(Analysis Toolpak) Midway points are rounded away from 0
Rounds a number away from zero to the nearest odd
ODD
integer
QUOTIENT Returns the integer portion of a division
Rounds a number to a specified number of digits to
ROUND the left (-) or right (+) of the decimal point. The
midway digit 5 is rounded away from 0.
Rounds a number down towards 0 to a specified
ROUNDDOWN number of digits to the left (-) or right (+) of the
decimal point
Round a number up away from 0 to a specified
ROUNDUP number of digits to the left (-) or right (+) of the
decimal point
Truncates a number to an integer or to specified
TRUNCATE precision by removing the fractional part of the
number. (Serves to round down towards 0)

## Maths or Engineering or Statistical?

There are cases where it can be argued that the classification is arbitrary or inconsistent:

COMBIN, which is used to calculate the number of combinations of a given number of items is
located under Maths. But PERMUT, which is used to calculate the permutations of a given
number of items out of another given number of items, is located under Statistical.

## Some of the Maths classification functions such as SUMPRODUCT, SUMSQ, SUMX2MY2,

SUMX2PY2, and SUMXMY2 are basic tools of the statistician’s trade and they could lay a
good a claim to others.

We might also ask why Engineering should have acquired all the functions relating to
conversions between Binary, Decimal, Hexadecimal, and Octal number systems.

Similarly we might ask why Engineering is the “home” for all of the imaginary and complex
number functions. And why should the engineers be allowed to hijack the incredibly powerful
CONVERT function. Are they the sole users of DELTA, ERF, ERFC and GESTEP? It might
seem that at one stage the adage was, “If in doubt, stick in Engineering!”

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Sub-Classification of Functions
In passing we could suggest that some sub-classifications might be warranted; for example,
there could be justification for extracting all of the geometry and trigonometry functions into a
separate sub-classification. Certainly, there are arguments for sub-classifying financial
functions under amortization, depreciation, securities, interest conversion and DCF.

But the end result is the justification for the following tables and associated Appendix 01
Functions Lists.xls workbook on the CDROM.

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Table 2: Database Functions

## Name Source Description Syntax

DAVERAGE Built In Returns the average of selected list =DAVERAGE(database,field,criteria)
or database entries based on
specified criteria
DCOUNT* Built In Counts the cells containing numbers =DCOUNT(database,field,criteria)
from a specified database that match
specified criteria
DCOUNTA* Built In Counts non blank cells from a =DCOUNTA(database,field,criteria)
specified database that match
specified criteria criteria
DGET Built In Extracts from a specified database a =DGET(database,field,criteria)
single value that matches specified
criteria
DMAX Built In Extracts maximum number in a =DMAX(database,field,criteria)
column of a list or database that
matches specified conditions
DMIN Built In Extracts minimum number in a =DMIN(database,field,criteria)
column of a list or database that
matches specified conditions
DPRODUCT Built In Multiplies the values in a particular =DPRODUCT(database,field,criteria)
field of records that match the
specified criteria in a database
DSTDEV Built In Estimates standard deviation of a =DSTDEV(database,field,criteria)
population based on a sample using
numbers in a column of a list or
database that match specified
conditions
DSTDEVP Built In Calculates the standard deviation =DSTDEVP(database,field,criteria)
based on the entire population using
numbers in a column of a list or
database that match specified criteria
DSUM Built In Adds the numbers in the field column =DSUM(database,field,criteria)
of records in the database that match
the specified criteria
DVAR Built In Estimates the variance of a =DVAR(database,field,criteria)
population based on a sample by
using the numbers in a column of a
list or database that match specified
criteria
DVARP Built In Calculates the variance of a =DVARP(database,field,criteria)
population based on the entire
population by using the numbers in a
column of a list or database that
match specified criteria
Notes: * See also COUNT, COUNTA and FREQUENCY (Statistical) and COUNTIF (Maths) and
COUNTBLANK (Information)

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Table 3: Database Function Arguments

Argument Description
Database The range of cells that makes up the list or database

Field Indicates which column is used in the function as text in inverted commas or as
number of field
Criteria The range of cells that contains the conditions you specify

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Table 4: Date and Time Functions

## Name Source Description Syntax

DATE Built In Returns the sequential =DATE(year,month,day)
Excel date / time serial
number that represents a
particular date
DATEDIF* Analysis Calculates differences =DATEDIF(start_date,end_date,unit)
ToolPak between two dates in
terms of specified units
and assumptions
DATEVALUE Built In Converts a date text form =DATEVALUE(date_text)
to an Excel date / time
serial number
DAY Built In Converts an Excel date / =DAY(serial_number)
time serial number to the
day of a month
DAYS360 Built In Calculates the number of =DAYS360(start_date,end_date,method)
days between two dates
using a specified 30 day
month 360 day year
method
EDATE Analysis Returns the Excel date / =EDATE(start_date,months)
ToolPak time serial number of the
date that is the indicated
number of months before
or after the specified
number of months from
the start_date
EOMONTH Analysis Returns the Excel date / =EOMONTH(start_date,months)
ToolPak time serial number of the
last day of the month
before or after a specified
number of months from
start_date
HOUR Built In Converts an Excel date / =HOUR(serial_number)
time serial number to an
hour
MINUTE Built In Converts an Excel date / =MINUTE(serial_number)
time serial number to a
minute
MONTH Built In Converts an Excel date / =MONTH(serial_number)
time serial number to a
month number
NETWORKDAYS Analysis Returns the number of =NETWORKDAYS(start_date,end_date,
ToolPak whole working days holidays)
between two dates
excluding specified
holidays
NOW Built In Returns the Excel date / =NOW()
time serial number of the
current date and time
SECOND Built In Converts an Excel date / =SECOND(serial_number)
time serial number to a
second

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Name Source Description Syntax
TIME Built In Returns the decimal =TIME(hour,minute,second)
portion of an Excel date /
time serial number for a
particular time
TIMEVALUE Built In Converts the time in an =TIMEVALUE(time_text)
acceptable form of text
enclosed in quotation
marks to the decimal
portion of an Excel date /
time serial number
TODAY Built In Returns the Excel date / =TODAY()
time serial number of
today's date
WEEKDAY Built In Converts an Excel date / =WEEKDAY(serial_number,return_type)
time serial number to the
number of the day of the
week based upon
counting system of
return_type
WEEKNUM Analysis Returns the weeknumber =WEEKNUM(serial_num,return_type)
ToolPak in the year based upon
return_type counting
basis
WORKDAY Analysis Returns the Excel date / =WORKDAY(start_date,days,holidays)
ToolPak time serial number of the
date before or after a
specified number of
workdays excluding
holidays
YEAR Built In Converts an Excel date / =YEAR(serial_number)
time serial number to a
year
YEARFRAC Analysis Returns the difference =YEARFRAC(start_date,end_date,basis)
ToolPak between start_date and
end_date expressed as a
number of years including
decimal fraction of a year.
Notes: * See Appendix 2. DATEDIF really does exist! It is an Excel built in function. It doesn't
appear in the listings in the function wizard and the only documentation reference is in
the Help files for Excel 2000.

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Table 5: Date and Time Function Arguments

Argument Description
Basis The type of day count basis to use: 0 or omitted = US(NASD) 30/360
(For Securities 1 = Actual / Actual 2 = Actual / 360
Functions) 3 = Actual / 365 4 = European 30/360
Date_text A date enclosed in quotation marks that is in a date text form acceptable to Excel.
Note that acceptable date forms vary with system and Excel settings.
Day A number representing the day of the month. If day is greater than the number of
days in the month specified, day aggregates the month and year arguments
appropriately and day represents the balance after this aggregation
Days The number of nonweekend and nonholiday days before or after start_date. A
positive value for days yields a future date; a negative value yields a past date
End_date The last date as an acceptable date in inverted commas or as a serial number

Holidays An optional range of one or more dates to exclude from the working calendar. The
list can be either a range of cells that contains the dates or an array constant of the
serial numbers that represent the dates
Hour A number from 0 to 32767 representing the hour. Any value greater than 23 will be
divided by 24 and the remainder will be treated as the hour value
Method FALSE or omitted = US (NASD) 30/360 method; TRUE = European 30/360 method

Minute A number from 0 to 32767 representing the minute. Any value greater than 59 will be
converted to hours and minutes
Month A number representing the month of the year. If month is greater than 12, month
(For DATE function) adds that number of months to the first month in the year specified
Months The number of months before or after start_date

Return_type A number that determines the type of return value: 1 (or omitted) 1 = Sunday; 2 = 1 =
(WEEKDAY only) Monday; 3 = 0 = Monday
Return_type A number that determines on which day the week begins; 1 (or omitted) = starts
(WEEKNUM only) Sunday nums 1 to 7; 2 = starts Monday nums 1 to 7
Second A number from 0 to 32767 representing the second. Any value greater than 59 will
be converted to hours, minutes, and seconds
Serial_num A date / time serial number. Dates should be entered by using the DATE function, or
as results of other formulas or functions
Serial_Number An Excel date / time serial number. Dates should be entered by using the DATE
function, or as results of other formulas or functions. The Excel date serial number
varies according to setting of 1900 or 1904 date system in Tools > Options >
Calculation.
Start_date The first date as an acceptable date in inverted commas or as a serial number

Time_text A text string enclosed in quotation marks that represents a time in any one of the
Excel time formats
Unit "y" = years; "m" = months; "d" = days; "md" = days ignoring months and years; "ym"
= years and months; "yd" = years and days
Year The year number as one to four digits

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Table 6: Engineering Functions

## Name Source Description Syntax

BESSELI Analysis Returns the Bessel function =BESSELI(x,n)
ToolPak evaluated for purely
imaginary arguments
BESSELJ Analysis Returns the Bessel function =BESSELJ(x,n)
ToolPak represented by Jn(x)
BESSELK Analysis Returns the modified Bessel =BESSELK(x,n)
ToolPak function represented by Kn(x)
BESSELY Analysis Returns the Bessel / Weber / =BESSELY(x,n)
ToolPak Neumann function Yn(x)
BIN2DEC Analysis Converts binary number to =BIN2DEC(Number)
ToolPak decimal
BIN2HEX Analysis Converts binary number to =BIN2HEX(Number,Places)
BIN2OCT Analysis Converts binary number to =BIN2OCT(Number,Places)
ToolPak octal
COMPLEX Analysis Converts real and imaginary =COMPLEX(real_num,i_num,suffix)
ToolPak coefficients into complex
numbers of the form x + yi or
x + yj depending upon suffix
CONVERT Analysis Converts a number from one =CONVERT(number,from_unit,to_unit)
ToolPak measurement system to
another
DEC2BIN Analysis Converts a decimal number =DEC2BIN(Number)
ToolPak to binary
DEC2HEX Analysis Converts a decimal number =DEC2HEX(Number)
DEC2OCT Analysis Converts a decimal number =DEC2OCT(Number)
ToolPak to octal
DELTA Analysis Test whether two values are =DELTA(number1,number2)
ToolPak equal
ERF Analysis Returns the error function =ERF(lower_limit,upper_limit)
ToolPak integrated between
lower_limit and upper_limit
ERFC Analysis Returns the complementary =ERFC(x)
ToolPak ERF function integrated
between x and infinity
GESTEP Analysis Tests whether a number is =GESTEP(number,step)
ToolPak greater than a threshold
value
HEX2BIN Analysis Converts a hexadecimal to a =HEX2BIN(Number,Places)
ToolPak binary
HEX2DEC Analysis Converts a hexadecimal to a =HEX2DEC(Number)
ToolPak decimal
HEX2OCT Analysis Converts a hexadecimal to =HEX2OCT(Number,Places)
ToolPak an octal
IMABS Analysis Returns the absolute value =IMABS(inumber)
ToolPak (modulus) of a complex
number provided in the text
format “x + yi” or “x + yj”
IMAGINARY Analysis Returns the imaginary =IMAGINARY(inumber)
ToolPak coefficient of a complex
number provided in the text
format “x + yi” or “x + yj”

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Name Source Description Syntax
IMARGUMENT Analysis Returns the argument theta – =IMARGUMENT(inumber)
ToolPak an angle expressed in
IMCONJUGATE Analysis Returns the complex =IMCONJUGATE(inumber)
ToolPak conjugate of a complex
number provided in the text
format “x + yi” or “x + yj”
IMCOS Analysis Returns the cosine of a =IMCOS(inumber)
ToolPak complex number provided in
the text format “x + yi” or
”x + yj”
IMDIV Analysis Returns the quotient of two =IMDIV(inumber1,inumber2)
ToolPak complex numbers provided in
the text format “x + yi” or “x +
yj”
IMEXP Analysis Returns the exponential of a =IMEXP(inumber)
ToolPak complex number provided in
the text format “x + yi” or “x +
yj”
IMLN Analysis Returns the natural logarithm =IMLN(inumber)
ToolPak of a complex number
provided in the text format “x
+ yi” or “x + yj”
IMLOG10 Analysis Returns the base-10 =IMLOG10(inumber)
ToolPak logarithm of a complex
number provided in the text
format “x + yi” or “x + yj”
IMLOG2 Analysis Returns the base-2 logarithm =IMLOG2(inumber)
ToolPak of a complex number
provided in the text format “x
+ yi” or “x + yj”
IMPOWER Analysis Returns a complex number =IMPOWER(inumber,number)
ToolPak provided in the text format “x
+ yi” or “x + yj” raised to an
integer number
IMPRODUCT Analysis Returns the product of 2 – 29 =IMPRODUCT(inumber1,inumber2,…)
ToolPak complex numbers provided in
the text format “x + yi” or “x +
yj”
IMREAL Analysis Returns the real coefficient of =IMREAL(inumber)
ToolPak a complex number provided
in the text format “x + yi” or “x
+ yj”
IMSIN Analysis Returns the sine of a =IMSIN(inumber)
ToolPak complex number provided in
the text format “x + yi” or
”x + yj”
IMSQRT Analysis Returns the square root of a =IMSQRT(inumber)
ToolPak complex number provided in
the text format “x + yi” or “x +
yj”
IMSUB Analysis Returns the difference of two =IMSUB(inumber1,inumber2)
ToolPak complex numbers provided in
the text format “x + yi” or “x +
yj”

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Name Source Description Syntax
IMSUM Analysis Returns the sum of 2 – 29 =IMSUM(inumber1,inumber2,…)
ToolPak complex numbers provided in
the text format “x + yi” or “x +
yj”
OCT2BIN Analysis Converts an octal number to =OCT2BIN(number,places)
ToolPak binary
OCT2DEC Analysis Converts an octal number to =OCT2DEC(number)
ToolPak decimal
OCT2HEX Analysis Converts an octal number to =OCT2HEX(number,places)

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Table 7: Engineering Function Arguments

Argument Description
From_unit A unit of measurement
Weight & Mass: “g” = gram; “sg” = slug; “lbm” = pound (avoirdupois); “u” = Atomic mass;
“ozm” = ounces (avoirdupois)
Distance: “m” = meter; “mi” = Statute Mile; “Nmi” = Nautical mile; “in” = inch; “ft” = foot; “yd” =
yard;
”ang” = Angstrom; “pica” = pica (1/72in)
Time: “yr” = year; “day” = day; “hr” = hour; “mn” = minute; “sec” = second
Pressure: “pa” = Pascal; “atm” = atmosphere; “mmHg” = mm of mercury
Force: “N” = Newton; “dyn” = dyne; “lbf” = pound force
Energy: “J” = Joule; “e” = erg; “c” Thermodynamic calorie; “cal” = IT calorie; “eV” = electron
volt;
”HPh” = horsepower-hour; “Wh” = Watt-hour; “flb” = foot-pound; “BTU” = BTU
Power: “HP” = horsepower; “W” = Watt
Magnetism: “T” = Tesler; “ga” = Gauss
Temperature: “C” = degrees Celsius; “F” = degrees Fahrenheit; “K” = Kelvin
Liquid Measure: “tsp” = teaspoon; “tbs” = tablespoon; “oz” = fluid ounce; “cup” = cup;
”pt” = US Pint; “UK_pt” = UK pint; “qt” = quart; “gal” = gallon; “l” = liter
Prefix Abbreviations for metric: “E” = 1E+18 = exa; “P” = 1E+15 = peta; “T” 1E+12 = tera;
“G” = 1E+09 = giga; “M” = 1E+06 = mega; “k” = 1E+03 = kilo; “h” = 1E+02 = 14ector; “e” =
1E+01 = dekao; “d” = 1E-01 = deci; “c”=1E-02 = centi; “m” = 1E-03 = milli; “u” = 1E-06 =
micro; “n” = 1E-09 = nano; “p” = 1E-12 = pico; “f” = 1E-15 = femto; “a” = 1E-18 = atto
I_num Imaginary coeffient of the complex number

## Number2 The second number

Number2,… Second of up to 30 numbers. You can also use a single array or a reference to an array
instead of arguments separated by commas
Places The number of characters to use. If places is omitted, Excel uses the minimum number of
characters necessary
Real_num The real coefficient of the complex number

14
Argument Description
Step The threshold value. If you omit a value for step, GESTEP uses zero

Suffix The suffix for the imaginary component of the complex number. If omitted, suffix is assumed
to be “i”
To_unit A unit of measurement
Weight & Mass: "g" = gram; "sg" = slug; "lbm" = pound (avoirdupois); "u" = Atomic mass;
"ozm" = ounces (avoirdupois)
Distance: "m" = meter; "mi" = Statute Mile; "Nmi" = Nautical mile; "in" = inch; "ft" = foot; "yd"
= yard;
"ang" = Angstrom; "pica" = pica (1/72in)
Time: "yr" = year; "day" = day; "hr" = hour; "mn" = minute; "sec" = second
Pressure: "pa" = Pascal; "atm" = atmosphere; "mmHg" = mm of mercury
Force: "N" = Newton; "dyn" = dyne; "lbf" = pound force
Energy: "J" = Joule; "e" = erg; "c" Thermodynamic calorie; "cal" = IT calorie; "eV" = electron
volt;
"HPh" = horsepower-hour; "Wh" = Watt-hour; "flb" = foot-pound; "BTU" = BTU
Power: "HP" = horsepower; "W" = Watt
Magnetism: "T" = Tesler; "ga" = Gauss
Temperature: "C" = degrees Celsius; "F" = degrees Fahrenheit; "K" = Kelvin
Liquid Measure: "tsp" = teaspoon; "tbs" = tablespoon; "oz" = fluid ounce; "cup" = cup;
"pt" = US Pint; "UK_pt" = UK pint; "qt" = quart; "gal" = gallon; "l" = liter
Prefix Abbreviations for metric: "E" = 1E+18 = exa; "P" = 1E+15 = peta; "T" 1E+12 = tera;
"G" = 1E+09 = giga; "M" = 1E+06 = mega; "k" = 1E+03 = kilo; "h" = 1E+02 = hecto; "e" =
1E+01 = dekao; "d" = 1E-01 = deci; "c"=1E-02 = centi; "m" = 1E-03 = milli; "u" = 1E-06 =
micro; "n" = 1E-09 = nano; "p" = 1E-12 = pico; "f" = 1E-15 = femto; "a" = 1E-18 = atto
Upper_limit The upper bound for integrating ERF. If omitted, ERF integrates between zero and
lower_limit
X The value at which to evaluate the function

15
Table 8: External Functions

## Name Source Description Syntax

CALL Built In Calls a procedure in a =CALL(register_id,argument1,...) With
dynamic link library or code Register.id
resource =CALL(module_text,procedure,type_text,
argument1,...) Excel for Windows
=CALL(file_text,resource,type_text,
argument1,...) Excel for Macintosh
EUROCONVERT Add-in Converts a number to or from =EUROCONVERT(number,source,target,
Euros to or from a member full_precision,triangulation_precision)
currency or converts between
one euro member currency to
another using the Euro as an
intermediary (triangulation)
GETPIVOTDATA Built In Returns data stored in a pivot =GETPIVOTDATA(data_field,pivot_table,
table field1,item1,field2,item2,...)
REGISTER.ID Built In Returns the register ID of the =REGISTER.ID(module_text,procedure,
(DLL) or code resource that
has been previously
registered
SQL.REQUEST ODBC Connects with an external =SQL.REQUEST(connection_string,
data source, and runs a query output_ref,driver_prompt,
from a worksheet. query_text,col_names_logical)
SQL.REQUEST then returns
the result as an array

16
Table 9: External Function Arguments

Argument Description
Argument1,… The arguments to be passed to the procedure

Col_names_logical Indicates whether column names are returned as the first row of the results. TRUE if the
column names to be returned as the first row of the results. FALSE if column names not
wanted. If column_names_logical is omitted, SQL.REQUEST does not return column
names
Connection_string Supplies information, such as the data source name, user ID, and passwords, required
by the driver being used to connect to a data source and must follow the driver's format
Data_field The name, enclosed in quotation marks, for the data field that contains the data

Driver_prompt Specifies when the driver dialog box is displayed and which options are available

Field1, Item1 One of up to 14 pairs of field names and item names that describe the data

Field2, Item2,… Second of up to 14 pairs of field names and item names that describe the data

File_text The name of the file that contains the code resource in Microsoft Excel for the
Macintosh
Item1 One of up to 14 pairs of field names and item names that describe the data

Item2,… Second of up to 14 pairs of field names and item names that describe the data

Module_text Quoted text specifying the name of the dynamic link library (DLL) that contains the
procedure in Microsoft Excel for Windows
Number A number or expression that evaluates to a number

Output_ref A cell reference where you want the completed connection string placed

Pivot_table A reference to any cell, range of cells, or named range of cells in a PivotTable report

Procedure Text specifying the name of the function in the DLL. You can also use the ordinal value
of the function from the EXPORTS statement in the module-definition file (.DEF).
Query_text The SQL statement that you want to execute on the data source

## Register_id The value returned by a previously executed REGISTER or REGISTER.ID function

Resource The name of the code resource in Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh. You can also use
the resource ID number. The resource ID number must not be in the form of text
Source A three-letter string, or reference to a cell containing the string, corresponding to the
ISO code for the source currency:
Belgium - franc - BEF Luxembourg - franc - LUF Germany - deutche mark - DEM
Spain - peseta - ESP France - franc - FRF Ireland - pound - IEP Italy - lira - ITL
Netherlands - guilder - NLG Austria - schilling - ATS Portugal - escudo - PTE
Finland - markka -FIM Euro member states - euro - EUR
Denmark - krone - DKK Greece - drachma - GRD Sweden - krona - SEK
UK - pound sterling - GBP

17
Argument Description
Target A three-letter string, or reference to a cell containing the string, corresponding to the
ISO code for the source currency
Belgium – franc – BEF Luxembourg – franc – LUF Germany – deutche mark –
DEM
Spain – peseta – ESP France – franc – FRF Ireland – pound – IEP Italy – lira –
ITL
Netherlands – guilder – NLG Austria – schilling – ATS Portugal – escudo – PTE
Finland – markka –FIM Euro member states – euro – EUR
Denmark – krone – DKK Greece – drachma – GRD Sweden – krona – SEK
UK – pound sterling – GBP
Type_text (CALL Text specifying the data type of the return value and the data types of all arguments to
function) the DLL or code resource

18
Table 10: Financial Functions

## Name Source Description Syntax

ACCRINT Analysis Returns the accrued interest for =ACCRINT(Issue,First_Interest,
ToolPak a security that pays periodic Settlement,Rate,Par,Frequency,
interest Basis)
ACCRINTM Analysis Returns the accrued interest for =ACCRINTM(Issue,Settlement,Rate,
ToolPak a security that pays interest at Par,Basis)
maturity
AMORDEGRC Analysis Returns the depreciation for =AMORDEGRC(Cost,Date_purchased,
ToolPak each accounting period using First_period,Salvage,Period,
the French accounting system Rate,Basis)
AMORLINC Analysis Returns the depreciation for =AMORLINC(Cost,Date_purchased,
ToolPak each accounting period using First_period,Salvage,Period,
the French accounting system Rate,Basis)
COUPDAYBS Analysis Returns the number of days =COUPDAYBS(settlement,maturity,
ToolPak from the beginning of the frequency,basis)
coupon period to the settlement
date using the specified or
default day counting basis
COUPDAYS Analysis Returns the number of days in =COUPDAYS(settlement,maturity,
ToolPak the coupon period that contains frequency,basis)
the settlent date using the
specified or default day
counting basis
COUPDAYSNC Analysis Returns the number of days =COUPDAYSNC(settlement,maturity,
ToolPak from the settlement date to the frequency,basis)
next coupon date using the
specified or default day
counting basis
COUPNCD Analysis Returns the next coupon date =COUPNCD(settlement,maturity,
ToolPak after the settlement date using frequency,basis)
the specified or default day
counting basis
COUPNUM Analysis Returns the number of coupons =COUPNUM(settlement,maturity,
ToolPak payable between the settlement frequency,basis)
date and maturity date using
the specified or default day
counting basis
COUPPCD Analysis Returns the previous coupon =COUPPCD(settlement,maturity,
ToolPak date before the settlement date frequency,basis)
using the specified or default
day counting basis
CUMIPMT Analysis Returns the cumulative interest =CUMIPMT(rate,nper,pv,start_period,
ToolPak paid between two periods end_period,type)
CUMPRINC Analysis Returns the cumulative =CUMPRINC(rate,nper,pv,start_period,
ToolPak principal paid on a loan end_period, type)
between two periods
DB Built In Returns the depreciation of an =DB(cost,salvage,life,period,month)
asset for a specified period,
using the fixed declining
balance method

19
Name Source Description Syntax
DDB Built In Returns the deoreciation of an =DDB(cost,salvage,life,period,factor)
asset for a specified period,
using the double-declining
balance method of some other
method that is specified
DISC Analysis Returns the discount rate for a =DISC(settlement,maturity,pr,
ToolPak security using the specified or redemption,basis)
default day counting basis
DOLLARDE Analysis Converts a dollar price =DOLLARDE(fractional_dollar,fraction)
ToolPak (expressed as a fraction) into a
dollar price expressed as a
decimal number
DOLLARFR Analysis Converts a dollar price =DOLLARFR(decimal_dollar,fraction)
ToolPak (expressed as a decimal
number) into a dollar price
expressed as a fraction
DURATION Analysis Returns the Macauley duration =DURATION(settlement,maturity,
ToolPak of a security with periodic coupon,yld,frequency,basis)
interest payments using the
specified or default day
counting basis
EFFECT Analysis Returns the effective annual =EFFECT(nominal_rate,npery)
ToolPak interest rate of a given nominal
rate with its compounding
frequency
FV Built In Returns the future value of an =FV(rate,nper,pmt,pv,type)
investment
FVSCHEDULE Analysis Returns the future value of an =FVSCHEDULE(principal,schedule)
ToolPak initial principal after applying a
series of compound interest
rates
INTRATE Analysis Returns the interest rate for a =INTRATE(settlement,maturity,
ToolPak fully invested security using the investment,redemption,basis)
specified or default day
counting basis
IPMT Built In Returns the amount of the =IPMT(rate,per,nper,pv,fv,type)
interest element in a payment
for an investment for a given
period
IRR Built In Returns the internal rate of =IRR(values,guess)
return for a series of cash flows
ISPMT Built In Returns the interest associated =ISPMT(rate,per,nper,pv)
with a specific loan payment
MDURATION Analysis Returns the Macauley modified =MDURATION(settlement,maturity,
ToolPak duration for a security with an coupon,yld,frequency,basis)
assumed par value of \$100
using the specified or default
day counting basis
MIRR Built In Returns the modified internal =MIRR(values,finance_rate,
rate of return based on different reinvest_rate)
finance and reinvestment rates
for negative and positive cash
flows

20
Name Source Description Syntax
NOMINAL Analysis Returns the nominal rate =NOMINAL(effect_rate,npery)
ToolPak equivalent to a given annual
effective with a given
compounding frequency for the
nominal rate
NPER Built In Returns the number of periods =NPER(rate, pmt, pv, fv, type)
for an investment
NPV Built In Returns the net present value =NPV(rate,value1,value2, …)
of an investment based upon a
series of periodic cash flows
and a discount rate where the
first cash flow is received at the
end of the first period
ODDFPRICE Analysis Returns the price per \$100 face =ODDFPRICE(settlement,maturity,
ToolPak value of a security with an odd issue,first_coupon,rate,yld,
first period using the specified redemption,frequency,basis)
or default day counting basis
ODDFYIELD Analysis Returns the yield of a security =ODDFYIELD(settlement,maturity,
ToolPak with an odd first period using issue,first_coupon,rate,pr,
the specified or default day redemption,frequency,basis)
counting basis
ODDLPRICE Analysis Returns the price per \$100 face =ODDLPRICE(settlement,maturity,
ToolPak value of a security with an odd last_interest,rate,yld,
last period using the specified redemption,frequency,basis)
or default day counting basis
ODDLYIELD Analysis Returns the yield of a security =ODDLYIELD(settlement,maturity,
ToolPak with an odd last period using last_interest,rate,pr,
the specified or default day redemption,frequency,basis)
counting basis
PMT Built In Returns the periodic payment =PMT(rate,nper,pv,fv,type)
for an annuity
PPMT Built In Returns the amount of principal =PPMT(rate,per,nper,pv,fv,type)
element in a payment for an
investment for a given period
PRICE Analysis Returns the price per \$100 face =PRICE(settlement,maturity,rate,
ToolPak value of a security that pays yld,redemption,frequency,basis)
periodic interest using the
specified or default day
counting basis
PRICEDISC Analysis Returns the price per \$100 face =PRICEDISC(settlement,maturity,
ToolPak value of a discounted security discount,redemption,basis)
using the specified or default
day counting basis
PRICEMAT Analysis Returns the price per \$100 face =PRICEMAT(settlement,maturity,
ToolPak value of a security that pays issue,rate,yld,basis)
interest at maturity using the
specified or default day
counting basis
PV Built In Returns the present value of an =PV(rate,nper,pmt,fv,type)
investment
RATE Built In Returns the interest rate per =RATE(nper,pmt,pv,fv,type,guess)
period of an annuity

21
Name Source Description Syntax
ToolPak maturity for a fully invested investment,discount,basis)
security using the specified or
default day counting basis
SLN Built In Returns the straight-line =SLN(cost,salvage,life)
depreciation of an asset for one
period.
SYD Built In Returns the sum of years’ digits =SYD(cost,salvage,life,per)
depreciation of an asset for a
specified period
TBILLEQ Analysis Returns the bond-equivalent =TBILLEQ(settlement,maturity,
ToolPak yield for a treasury bill discount)
TBILLPRICE Analysis Returns the price per \$100 face =TBILLPRICE(settlement,maturity,
ToolPak value for a Treasury bill discount)
TBILLYIELD Analysis Returns the yield for a treasury =TBILLYIELD(settlement,maturity,pr)
ToolPak bill
VDB Built In Returns the depreciation of an =VDB(cost,salvage,life,start_period,
asset for a specified or partial end_period,factor,no_switch)
period using a variable
declining balance method
XIRR Analysis Returns the annual effective =XIRR(values,dates,guess)
ToolPak interest rate for a schedule of
dates
XNPV Analysis Returns the net present value =XNPV(rate,values,dates)
ToolPak for a schedule of cash flows
YIELD Analysis Returns the yield on a security =YIELD(settlement,maturity,rate,
ToolPak that pays periodic interest using pr,redemption,frequency,basis)
the specified or default day
counting basis
YIELDDISC Analysis Returns the annual yield for a =YIELDDISC(settlement,maturity,
ToolPak discounted security using the pr,redemption,basis)
specified or default day
counting basis.
YIELDMAT Analysis Returns the annual yield of a =YIELDMAT(settlement,maturity,
ToolPak security that pays interest at issue,rate,pr,basis)
maturity using the specified or
default day counting basis

22
Table 11: Financial Function Arguments

Argument Description
Basis Year basis to be used: 0 or omitted 360 (NASD); 1 = Actual; 2 = 365; 3 = 360
(For Securities (European)
Functions)
Cost Cost of the asset

## Coupon The security’s annual coupon rate

Date_purchased Date of purchase of the asset. Entered as an acceptable date in quotation marks or
as a serial number or function returning a date serial number
Dates A schedule of payment dates that corresponds to the cash flow payments. The first
payment date indicates the beginning of the schedule of payments. All other dates
must be later than this date, but they may occur in any order
Decimal_dollar A decimal number

## End_period Last period number

Factor The rate at which the balance declines. If factor is omitted, it is assumed to be 2
(the double-declining balance method)
Finance_rate The interest rate you pay on the money used in the cash flows

## First_coupon The security’s first coupon date

First_Interest A security’s first interest date entered as an acceptable date in quotation marks or
as a serial number or function returning a date serial number
First_period Date of the end of the first period. Entered as an acceptable date in quotation
marks or as a serial number or function returning a date serial number
Fraction The integer to use in the denominator of the fraction

FV Future Value

## Issue A security’s issue date entered as an acceptable date in quotation marks or as a

serial number or function returning a date serial number

23
Argument Description
Last_interest The security’s last coupon date

Life The number of periods over which the asset is being depreciated (sometimes
called the useful life of the asset)
Maturity The security’s maturity date

Month (For DB The number of months in the first year. If month is omitted, it is assumed to be 12
function)
No_switch A logical value specifying whether to switch to straight-line depreciation when
depreciation is greater than the declining balance calculation.If TRUE, Excel does
not switch to straight-line depreciation even when the depreciation is greater than
the declining balance calculation. FALSE or omitted, Excel switches to straight-line
depreciation when depreciation is greater than the declining balance calculation
Nominal_rate The nominal interest rate

## Rate The interest rate per period

(For amortization
functions)
Rate The rate of depreciation
(For Depreciation
Functions)
Rate The discount rate
(For NPV and XNPV)
Rate A security’s annual coupon rate
(For Securities
Functions)
Redemption The security’s redemption value per \$100 face value

Reinvest_rate The interest rate you receive on the cash flows as you reinvest them

## Salvage Salvage value at the end of the life of the asset

24
Argument Description
Schedule An array of interest rates to apply

Settlement A security's settlement date, which is the date after the issue date when the
security is traded to the buyer. Entered as an acceptable date in quotation marks or
as a serial number or function returning a date serial number
Start_period First period number

## Type (Amortization 0 = Payment in arrears; 1 = payment in advance

functions)
Value1 A numeric value

Value2,… Second of 1 to n possible values (n=30 for AVERAGEA; n=29 for CHOOSE, NPV)

Values (IRR and An array or a reference to cells that contain numbers for which you want to
MIRR) calculate the internal rate of return. Values must contain at least one positive value
and one negative value to calculate the internal rate of return. If an array or
reference argument contains text, logical values, or empty cells, those values are
ignored.
Values (XIRR and A series of cash flows that corresponds to a schedule of payments in dates. The
XNPV) first payment is optional and corresponds to a cost or payment that occurs at the
beginning of the investment. If the first value is a cost or payment, it must be a
negative value. All succeeding payments are discounted based on a 365-day year.
The series of values must contain at least one positive value and one negative
value
Yld The security's annual yield

25
Table 12: Information Functions

## Name Source Description Syntax

CELL Built In Returns information about =CELL(info_type,reference)
the formatting , location or
contents of the cell or upper
left cell of the reference
COUNTBLANK* Built In Counts the number of blank =COUNTBLANK(range)
cells in the range
ERROR.TYPE Built In Returns a number =ERROR.TYPE(error_val)
corresponding to an Excel
error type
INFO Built In Returns information about =INFO(type_text)
the current operating
environment
ISBLANK Built In Returns TRUE if the value is =ISBLANK(Value)
blank
ISERR Built In Returns TRUE if the value is =ISERR(Value)
any error value except #N/A
ISERROR Built In Returns TRUE if the value is =ISERROR(Value)
any error value
ISEVEN Analysis Returns TRUE if the number =ISEVEN(Number)
ToolPak is even
ISLOGICAL Built In Returns TRUE if the value is =ISLOGICAL(Value)
a logical value
ISNA Built In Returns TRUE if the value is =ISNA(Value)
the #N/A error value
ISNONTEXT Built In Returns TRUE if the value is =ISNONTEXT(Value)
not text
ISNUMBER Built In Returns TRUE if the value is =ISNUMBER(Value)
a number
ISODD Analysis Returns TRUE if the number =ISODD(Number)
ToolPak is odd
ISREF Built In Returns TRUE if the value is =ISREF(Value)
a reference
ISTEXT Built In Returns TRUE if the value is =ISTEXT(Value)
text
N Built In Returns a value converted to =N(Value)
a number
NA Built In Returns the error value #N/A =NA()

## TYPE Built In Returns the type of value (1 =TYPE(Value)

for value is a number; 2 for
value is text; 4 for value is
logical value; 16 for value is
error value; 64 for value is
array)
Notes: * See also COUNT, COUNTA and FREQUENCY (Statistical) and COUNTIF (Maths) and
DCOUNT and DCOUNTA (Database)

26
Table 13: Information Function Arguments

Argument Description
Error_val The error value whose identifying number you want:
1 = #Null!; 2 = #Div/0!; 3 = #Value!; 4 = #Ref!; 5 = #Name?;
6 = #N/A
Info_type A text value that specifies what type of cell information you want:
"Address" = first cell in reference
"Col" = First column number in reference
"Color" Returns 1 for negative colored, 0 otherwise
"Contents" = Value of upper left cell in reference
"Format" = Text value corresponding to number format
"Prentheses" = Returns 1 for parenthese for positive or all values, 0 otherwise
"Prefix" = Text value corresponding to label prefix
"Protect" = returns 0 if unlucked, 1 if locked
"Row" = First row number in reference
"Type" = Text value for type of data; b for blank, l for label, v for value
"Width" = Column width rounded to nearest integer
Number A number or expression that evaluates to a number

Reference Reference to a cell or range of cells and can refer to multiple areas. If you want to
specify several references as a single argument, then you must include extra sets
of parentheses so that Microsoft Excel will not interpret the comma as a field
separator
Type_text (INFO Text that specifies what type of information you want returned:
function) "directory" = Path of current directory of folder;
"memavail" = Amount of currently available memory in bytes;
"memused" = Amount of memory being used for data;
"numfile" = number of active worksheets in open workbooks;
"origin" = cell reference of top leftmost cell visible in window, based on current
scrolling position;
"osversion" = current operating system version, as text;
"recalc" = current recalculation mode;
"release" = version of Excel;
"system" = name of the operating environment (Mac or pcdos);
"totmem" = total memory available
Value A value or an expression that evaluates to a value:

27
Table 14: Logical Functions

## Name Source Description Syntax

AND Built In Returns TRUE if all its =AND(Logical1,Logical2,…)
arguments are TRUE
FALSE Built In Returns the logical value =FALSE()
FALSE
IF Built In Returns one value specified =IF(logical_test,value_if_true,value_if_false)
condition evaluates to TRUE
and another value if it
evaluates to FALSE
NOT Built In Reverses the logic of its =NOT(Logical)
argument
OR Built In ReturnsTRUE if any =OR(logical1,logical2,...)
argument is TRUE
TRUE Built In Returns the logical value =TRUE()
TRUE

28
Table 15: Information Function Arguments

Argument Description
Logical A value or expression that can be evaluated to TRUE or FALSE

## Logical1 Condition to be tested. Argument must evaluate to a logical value or be arrays or

references that contain logical values
Logical2,… Second of up to 30 conditions you want to test that can be either TRUE or FALSE

## Value_if_true The value that is returned if logical_test is TRUE

29
Table 16: Lookup and Reference Functions

## Name Source Description Syntax

text based on given row A1,Sheet_text)
and column rumbers
AREAS Built In Returns the number of =AREAS(reference)
areas in a reference
CHOOSE Built In Uses a specified index =CHOOSE(index_num,value1,value2,...)
number to select one from
up to 29 specified values
COLUMN Built In Returns the column =COLUMN(reference)
number of the cell or a
specified reference
COLUMNS Built In Returns the number of =COLUMNS(array)
columns in an array or
reference
HLOOKUP Built In Looks in the top row of a =HLOOKUP(lookup_value,table_array,
table or array and returns row_index_num,range_lookup)
the value of the indicated
cell
opens a document on your
hard drive, a server or the
internet
INDEX Built In Alternative forms. Array =INDEX(array,row_num,column_num)
form returns a value or =INDEX(reference,row_num,column_num,
array of values. Reference area_num)
form returns a reference.
INDIRECT Built In Returns a reference =INDIRECT(ref_text,a1)
indicated by a value
provided as text
LOOKUP Built In Alternative forms. Vector =LOOKUP(lookup_value,lookup_vector,
form looks up values in a result_vector)
one row or column range =LOOKUP(lookup_value,array)
and returns a value in a
second one row or column
range. Array form looks in
the first row or column of
an array for the specified
value and returns a value
from the same position in
the last row or column of
the array
MATCH Built In Returns the relative =MATCH(lookup_value,lookup_array,
position of an item in an match_type)
array that matches a
specified value in a
specified order
OFFSET Built In Returns a reference to a =OFFSET(reference,rows,cols,height,width)
range that is a specified
number of rows and
columns from a cell or
range of cells
ROW Built In Returns the row number of =ROW(reference)
a reference

30
Name Source Description Syntax
ROWS Built In Returns the number of =ROWS(array)
rows in a reference
RTD Built In Retrieves real-time data =RTD(ProgID,server,topic1,[topic2],...)
from a program that
supports COM automation
TRANSPOSE Built In Transposes vertical or =TRANSPOSE(array)
horizontal arrays. Entered
as an array formula in
same number of cells as
array.
VLOOKUP Built In Locates a specified value =VLOOKUP(lookup_value,table_array,
in the leftmost column of a col_index_num,range_lookup)
specified table, and
returns the value in the
same row from a specified
column in the table

31
Table 17: Lookup and Reference Function Arguments

Argument Description
A1 A logical value that specifies the A1 (TRUE) or R1C1 (FALSE) reference style

## Abs_num The type of reference to return:

1 = Absolute; 2 = Abs Row / Rel Col; 3 = Rel Row / Abs Col; 4 = Relative
Area_num Selects a range in reference from which to return the intersection of row_num and
column_num
Array An array or array formula, or a reference to a range of cells

Col_index_num The column number in table_array from which the matching value must be
returned
Cols The number of columns, to the left (-) or right (+), that you want the upper-left cell
of the result to refer to
Column_num Column number

Friendly_name The jump text or numeric value that is displayed in the cell

Height The height, in number of rows, that you want the returned reference to be. Height
must be a positive number
Index_num Specifies which value argument is selected. Index_num must be a number
between 1 and 29, or a formula or reference to a cell containing a number between
1 and 29
Link_location The path and file name to the document to be opened as text

Lookup_array A contiguous range of cells containing possible lookup values. Lookup_array must
be an array or an array reference
Lookup_value The value to be found

Lookup_vector A range that contains only one row or one column. The values in lookup_vector
can be text, numbers, or logical values
Match_type The number -1, 0, or 1. Match_type specifies how Microsoft Excel matches
lookup_value with values in lookup_array:
1 = (default) largest value less than or equal to look_up value; 0 = first value to
exactly equal lookup value
-1 = smallest value greater than or equal to look_value
ProgID The name of the ProgID of a registered COM automation add-in that has been
installed on the local computer. Enclose the name in quotation marks
Range_lookup A logical value that specifies whether you want to find an exact match or an
approximate match. If TRUE = approximate match is returned FALSE = Exact
Ref_text Refers to another workbook (an external reference),

Reference Reference to a cell or range of cells and can refer to multiple areas. If you want to
specify several references as a single argument, then you must include extra sets
of parentheses so that Microsoft Excel will not interpret the comma as a field
separator
Result_vector A range that contains only one row or column. It must be the same size as
lookup_vector

32
Argument Description
Row_index_num The row number in table_array from which the matching value will be returned

## Row_num Row number

Rows The number of rows, up (-) or down (+), that you want the upper-left cell to refer to

Server Name of the server where the add-in should be run. If there is no server, and the
program is run locally, leave the argument blank. Otherwise, enter quotation marks
(“”) around the server name
Sheet_text Text specifying the name of the worksheet to be used as the external reference. If
sheet_text is omitted, no sheet name is used
Table_array A table of information in which data is looked up

## Topic1 First of up to 28 parameters that together represent a unique piece of real-time

data
Topic2,… Second of up to 28 parameters that together represent a unique piece of real-time
data
Value1 A numeric value

Value2,… Second of 1 to n possible values (n=30 for AVERAGEA; n=29 for CHOOSE, NPV)

Width The width, in number of columns, that you want the returned reference to be.
Width must be a positive number

33
Table 18: Maths Functions

## Name Source Description Syntax

ABS Built In Returns the absolute =ABS(Number)
value of a number
ACOS Built In Returns in radians the =ACOS(Number)
arccosine of a number
ACOSH Built In Returns the inverse =ACOSH(Number)
hyperbolic cosine of a
number
ASIN Built In Returns in radians the =ASIN(Number)
arcsine of a number
ASINH Built In Returns the inverse =ASINH(Number)
hyperbolic sine of a
number
ATAN Built In Returns in radians the =ATAN(Number)
arctangent of a number
ATAN2 Built In Returns in radians the =ATAN2(x_num,y_num)
arctangent from x and y
coordinates
ATANH Built In Returns the inverse =ATANH(Number)
hyperbolic tangent of a
number
CEILING Built In Rounds a number (away =CEILING(number,significance)
from zero) to the nearest
integer or to the nearest
multiple of significance
COMBIN++ Built In Returns the number of =COMBIN(number,number_chosen)
combinations for a given
number of objects
COS Built In Returns the cosine of a =COS(Number)
given angle given in
COSH Built In Returns the hyperbolic =COSH(Number)
cosine of a number
COUNTIF* Built In Counts the number of =COUNTIF(range,criteria)
cells that meet the
criteria specified in the
argument
DEGREES Built In Converts radians to =DEGREES(angle)
degrees
EVEN Built In Rounds a number away =EVEN(Number)
from zero to the nearest
even integer
EXP Built In Returns e =EXP(Number)
(=2.71828182845904)
raised to the power of a
given number
FACT Built In Returns the factorial of a =FACT(Number)
number
FACTDOUBLE Analysis Returns the double =FACTDOUBLE(number)
ToolPak factorial of a number
FLOOR Built In Rounds a number down =FLOOR(number,significance)
towards 0 to the nearest
integer or to the nearest
multiple of significance

34
Name Source Description Syntax
GCD Analysis Returns the greatest =GCD(number1,number2, …)
ToolPak common divisor of 2 – 29
integers
INT Built In Rounds a number away =INT(Number)
from 0 to the nearest
integer
LCM Analysis Returns the least =LCM(number1,number2, …)
ToolPak common multiple of 1 –
29 integers
LN Built In Returns the natural =LN(Number)
logarithm (base e =
2.71828182845904) of a
number
LOG Built In Returns the logarithm of =LOG(Number,base)
a number to a specified
base
LOG10 Built In Returns the base-10 =LOG10(Number)
logarithm of a number
MDETERM Built In Returns the matrix =MDETERM(array)
determinant of an array
MINVERSE Built In Returns the matrix =MINVERSE(array)
inverse of an array
MMULT Built In Returns the matrix =MMULT(array1,array2)
product of two arrays
MOD** Built In Returns the remainder =MOD(number,divisor)
from division with the
result having the same
sign as the divisor
MROUND Analysis Returns a number =MROUND(number,multiple)
ToolPak rounded to the desired
multiple. Midway points
are rounded away from 0
MULTINOMIAL Analysis Returns the ratio of the =MULTINOMIAL(number1,number2, …)
ToolPak factorial of a sum of
values to the product of
factorials
ODD Built In Rounds a number away =ODD(number)
from 0 to the nearest odd
integer
PI Built In Returns the number =PI()
3.14159265358979, the
mathematical constant
pi, accurate to 15 digits
POWER Built In Returns the result of a =POWER(number,power)
number raised to a
power
PRODUCT Built In Multiplies together 1 – 30 =PRODUCT(number1,number2, …)
numbers
QUOTIENT Analysis Returns the integer =QUOTIENT(numerator,denominator)
ToolPak portion of a division
RAND Built In Returns an evenly =RAND()
distributed random
number greater than or
equal to 0 and less than
1

35
Name Source Description Syntax
RANDBETWEEN Analysis Returns a random =RANDBETWEEN(bottom,top)
ToolPak number between (and
inclusive of) two
specified numbers
ROMAN Built In Converts an arabic =ROMAN(number,form)
number to Roman, as
text
ROUND Built In Rounds a number to a =ROUND(number,num_digits)
specified number of
digits to the left (-) or
right (+) of the decimal
point. The midway digit 5
is rounded away from 0.
ROUNDDOWN Built In Rounds a number down =ROUNDDOWN(number,num_digits)
towards 0 to a specified
number of digits to the
left (-) or right (+) of the
decimal point
ROUNDUP Built In Round a number up =ROUNDUP(number,num_digits)
away from 0 to a
specified number of
digits to the left (-) or
right (+) of the decimal
point
SERIESSUM Analysis Returns the sum of a =SERIESSUM(x,n,m,coefficients)
ToolPak power series expansion
SIGN Built In Returns 1 for positve =SIGN(number)
numbers, 0 if the number
is 0 and, -1 if the number
is negative
SIN Built In Returns the sine of a =SIN(number)
given angle given in
SINH Built In Returns the hyperbolic =SINH(number)
sine of a given number
SQRT Built In Returns a positive =SQRT(number)
square root
SQRTPI Analysis Returns the square root =SQRTPI(number)
ToolPak of a number multiplied by
pi
SUBTOTAL Built In Returns the sutotal in a =SUBTOTAL(function_num,ref1,ref2,...)
list or database
SUM Built In Adds its arguments =SUM(number1,number2, ...)
SUMIF Built In Add the cells specified by =SUMIF(range,criteria,sum_range)
a given criteria
SUMPRODUCT Built In Returns the sum of the =SUMPRODUCT(array1,array2,array3, ...)
products of
corresponding array
components
SUMSQ Built In Returns the sum of the =SUMSQ(number1,number2, ...)
squares of 1 - 30
numbers
SUMX2MY2 Built In Returns the sum of the =SUMX2MY2(array_x,array_y)
difference of squares of
corresponding values in
two arrays

36
Name Source Description Syntax
SUMX2PY2 Built In Returns the sum of the =SUMX2PY2(array_x,array_y)
sum of squares of
corresponding values in
two arrays
SUMXMY2 Built In Returns the sum of =SUMXMY2(array_x,array_y)
squares of differences of
corresponding values in
two array
TAN Built In Returns the tangent of a =TAN(number)
given angle given in
TANH Built In Returns the hyperbolic =TANH(number)
tangent of a number
TRUNC Built In Truncates a number to =TRUNC(number,num_digits)
an integer or to specified
precision by removing
the fractional part of the
number. (Serves to
round down towards 0)
(Information) and DCOUNT and DCOUNTA (Database)
** The Excel MOD function uses a different definition of MOD to that used by VBA Mod
function insofar as negative numbers are concerned.
++

37
Table 19: Maths Function Arguments

Argument Description

## Array1 A cell range of values (up to 30 with SUMPRODUCT)

(SUMPRODUCT)
Array2 A second cell range of values (up to 30 with SUMPRODUCT)
(SUMPRODUCT)
Array3,… A third cell range of values (up to 30 with SUMPRODUCT)

## Coefficients A set of coefficients by which each successive power of x is multiplied. The

number of values in coefficients determines the number of terms in the power
series
Criteria The range of cells that contains the conditions you specify

## Divisor The number by which you want to divide number

Form A number specifying the type of roman numeral you want; 0 (Default) = Classic; 1-
4 Progressively simplified; TRUE = Classic; FALSE = Most Simplified
Function_num The number 1 to 11 that specifies which function to use in calculating subtotals
within a list: 1 = AVERAGE; 2 = COUNT; 3 = COUNTA; 4 = MAX; 5 = MIN; 6 =
PRODUCT; 7 = STDEV; 8 = STDEVP; 9 = SUM; 10 = VAR; 11 = VARP
M The step by which to increase n for each term in the series

## N The order of the function

Num_digits Specifies the number of digits to which you want to round number: 0 = Integer;
-numbers = to left of decimal; +numbers = to right of decimal
Number A number or expression that evaluates to a number

## Number1 The first number

Number2,… Second of up to 30 numbers. You can also use a single array or a reference to an
array instead of arguments separated by commas
Numerator The dividend

## Power The exponent to which the base number is raised

38
Argument Description
Range A range

Ref1 First of up to 29 ranges or references for which you want the subtotal

Ref2,… Second of up to 29 ranges or references for which you want the subtotal

## Y_num The y-coordinate of the point

39
Table 20: Statistical Functions

## Name Source Description Syntax

AVEDEV Built In Returns the average of the =AVEDEV(Number1,Number2,…)
absolute deviations of data points
from their mean
AVERAGE Built In Returns the average (arithmetic =AVERAGE(Number1,Number2,…)
mean) of up to 30 numeric
arguments
AVERAGEA Built In Returns the average (arithmetic =AVERAGEA(Value1,Value2,…)
mean) of its arguments and
includes evaluation of text and
logical arguments
probability density function
BETAINV Built In Returns the inverse of the =BETAINV(probability,alpha,beta,A,B)
cumulative beta probability density
function
BINOMDIST Built In Returns the individual term =BINOMDIST(number_s,trials,
binomial distribution probability probability_s,cumulative)
CHIDIST Built In Returns the one-tailed probability =CHIDIST(x,degrees_freedom)
of the chi-squared distribution
CHIINV Built In Returns the inverse of the one- =CHIINV(probability,degrees_freedom)
tailed probability of the chi-squared
distribution
CHITEST Built In Returns the value from the chi- =CHITEST(actual_range,expected_range)
squared (γ2) distribution for the
statistic and the appropriate
degrees of freedom
CONFIDENCE Built In Returns the confidence interval for =CONFIDENCE(alpha,standard_dev,size)
a population mean
CORREL Built In Returns the correlation coefficient =CORREL(array1,array2)
between two arrays of data
COUNT* Built In Counts the number of cells that =COUNT(value1,value2, …)
contain numbers and also numbers
within the list of arguments
COUNTA* Built In Counts the number of non-empty =COUNTA(value1,value2, …)
cells and the values within the list
of arguments
COVAR Built In Returns covariance; the average of =COVAR(array1,array2)
the products of deviations for each
data point pair
CRITBINOM Built In Returns the smallest value for =CRITBINOM(trials,probability_s,alpha)
which the cumulative binomial
distribution is less than or equal to
a criterion value
DEVSQ Built In Returns the sum of the squares of =DEVSQ(number1,number2,…)
the deviations from the sample
mean
EXPONDIST Built In Returns the exponential distribution =EXPONDIST(x,lambda,cumulative)

## FDIST Built In Returns the F probability =FDIST(x,degrees_freedom1,

distribution degrees_freedom2)

40
Name Source Description Syntax
FINV Built In Returns the inverse of the F =FINV(probability,degrees_freedom1,
probability distribution degrees_freedom2)
FISHER Built In Returns the Fisher transformation =FISHER(x)
at x
FISHERINV Built In Returns the inverse of the Fisher =FISHERINV(y)
transformation
FORECAST Built In Calculates a predicted value of y =FORECAST(x,known_y’s,known_x’s)
for a given x value based on known
values for x and y
FREQUENCY* Built In Counts how often values occur =FREQUENCY(data_array,bins_array)
within given ranges of values and
returns those counts as a vertical
array of numbers
FTEST Built In Returns the result of an F-test; the =FTEST(array1,array2)
one-tailed probability that the
variances in array1 and array2 are
not significantly different

## GAMMAINV Built In Returns the inverse of the gamma =GAMMAINV(probability,alpha,beta)

distribution
GAMMALN Built In Returns the natural logarithm of the =GAMMALN(x)
gamma function Γ(x).
GEOMEAN Built In Returns the geometric mean of an =GEOMEAN(number1,number2, …)
array or range of positive data
GROWTH Built In Calculates predicted exponential =GROWTH(known_y’s,known_x’s,
growth and returns the y-values for new_x’s,const)
a series of specified new x-values
by using known x-values and y-
values
HARMEAN Built In Returns the harmonic mean of a =HARMEAN(number1,number2, …)
data set by calculating the
reciprocal of the arithmetic mean of
reciprocals
HYPGEOMDIST Built In Returns the hypergeometric =HYPGEOMDIST(sample_s,
distribution by calculating the number_sample,population_s,
probability of a given number of number_population)
sample successes, given the
sample size, population successes,
and population size
INTERCEPT Built In Calculates from given x and y =INTERCEPT(known_y’s,known_x’s)
values the point at which a line will
intersect the y-axis
KURT Built In Returns the kurtosis of a data set; =KURT(number1,number2, …)
a measure that compares the
relative peakedness or flatness of a
distribution compared with the
normal distribution
LARGE Built In Returns the kth largest value in a =LARGE(array,k)
data set

41
Name Source Description Syntax
LINEST Built In Entered as an array formula, =LINEST(known_y’s,known_x’s,const,stats)
LINEST returns an array that
describes a line of best fit by using
the least squares method
LOGEST Built In Entered as an array formula, =LOGEST(known_y’s,known_x’s,const,stats)
LOGEST calculates an exponential
curve that fits known data and
returns an array of values that
describes that curve
lognormal cumulative distribution
function of x, where ln(x) is
normally distributed with given
probability, mean, and standard
deviation
LOGNORMDIST Built In Returns the cumulative lognormal =LOGNORMDIST(x,mean,standard_dev)
distribution of x, where ln(x) is
normally distributed with known
mean and standard deviation
MAX Built In Returns the maximum value in a =MAX(number1,number2,…)
list of arguments ignoring logical
values and text
MAXA Built In Returns the maximum value in a =MAXA(value1,value2,…)
list of arguments including logical
values and text
MEDIAN Built In Returns the median of the given =MEDIAN(number1,number2, …)
numbers
MIN Built In Returns the minimum value in a list =MIN(number1,number2,…)
of arguments ignoring logical
values and text
MINA Built In Returns the minimum value in a list =MINA(value1,value2,…)
of arguments including logical
values and text
MODE Built In Returns the most common value in =MODE(number1,number2,…)
a data set
NEGBINOMDIST Built In Returns the negative binomial =NEGBINOMDIST(number_f,number_s,
distribution; the probability that probability_s)
there will be number_f failures
before the number_s-th success,
when the constant probability of a
success is probability_s
NORMDIST Built In Returns the cumulative distribution =NORMDIST(x,mean,standard_dev,
function or probability mass cumulative)
function for the value x with
specified mean and standard
deviation
NORMINV Built In Returns the inverse of the normal =NORMINV(probability,mean,
cumulative distribution for the standard_dev)
specified probability, mean, and
standard deviation
NORMSDIST Built In Returns the standard normal =NORMSDIST(z)
cumulative distribution function.
The distribution has a mean of 0
and a standard deviation of 1

42
Name Source Description Syntax
NORMSINV Built In Returns the inverse of the standard =NORMSINV(probability)
normal cumulative distribution
PEARSON Built In Returns the Pearson product =PEARSON(array1,array2)
moment correlation coefficient
PERCENTILE Built In Returns the kth percentile of values =PERCENTILE(array,k)
in a range
PERCENTRANK Built In Returns the percentage rank of a =PERCENTRANK(array,x,significance)
value in a data set
PERMUT** Built In Returns the number of =PERMUT(number,number_chosen)
permutations for a given number of
objects that can be selected from a
number of objects without
replacement
POISSON Built In Returns the Poisson distribution =POISSON(x,mean,cumulative)

## PROB Built In Returns either the probability that =PROB(x_range,prob_range,lower_limit,

values in a range are between two upper_limit)
limits or if upper_limit is not
specified, the probability that
values in x_range are equal to
lower_limit
QUARTILE Built In Returns the quartile of a data set =QUARTILE(array,quart)

## RANK Built In Returns the rank of a number in a =RANK(number,ref,order)

list of numbers
RSQ Built In Returns the square of the Pearson =RSQ(known_y’s,known_x’s)
product moment correlation
coefficient through data points in
known_y’s and known_x’s
SKEW Built In Returns the skewness of a =SKEW(number1,number2,…)
distribution
SLOPE Built In Returns the slope (vertical distance =SLOPE(known_y’s,known_x’s)
/ horizontal distance) of the linear
regression line through data points
in known_y’s and known_x’s
SMALL Built In Returns the kth smallest value in a =SMALL(array,k)
data set
STANDARDIZE Built In Returns a normalized value from a =STANDARDIZE(x,mean,standard_dev)
distribution with known mean and
standard_dev
STDEV Built In Estimates standard distribution =STDEV(number1,number2,…)
based on a sample ignoring text
and logical values
STDEVA Built In Estimates standard deviation =STDEVA(value1,value2,…)
based on a sample including text
and logical values
STDEVP Built In Calculates standard distribution =STDEVP(number1,number2,…)
based on the entire population
ignoring text and logical values
STDEVPA Built In Calculates standard deviation =STDEVPA(value1,value2,…)
based on the entire population
including text and logical values

43
Name Source Description Syntax
STEYX Built In Returns the standard error of the =STEYX(known_y’s,known_x’s)
predicted y-value for each x in the
regression
TDIST Built In Returns the probability for the =TDIST(x,degrees_freedom,tails)
Student t-distribution where a
numeric value (x) is a calculated
value of t for which the probability
is to be computed
TINV Built In Returns the t-value of the Student’s =TINV(probability,degrees_freedom)
t-distribution based on given
probability and degrees of freedom
TREND Built In Entered as an array formula, =TREND(known_y’s,known_x’s,new_x’s,
TREND fits a straight line using the const)
least squares method to arrays of
known_y’s and known_x’s and
returns the y-values along that line
for the array of specified new_x’s
TRIMMEAN Built In Calculates the mean by excluding =TRIMMEAN(array,percent)
a specified percentage of data
points from the top and bottom tails
of a data set
TTEST Built In Returns the probability associated =TTEST(array1,array2,tails,type)
with a student’s t-test
VAR Built In Estimates variance based on a =VAR(number1,number2,…)
sample ignoring logical values and
text
VARA Built In Estimates variance based on a =VARA(value1,value2,…)
sample including text and logical
values
VARP Built In Calculates variance based on the =VARP(number1,number2,…)
entire population ignoring text and
logical values
VARPA Built In Calculates variance based on the =VARPA(value1,value2,…)
entire population including text and
logical values
WEIBULL Built In Returns the Weibull distribution =WEIBULL(x,alpha,beta,cumulative)

## ZTEST Built In Returns the two-tailed P-value of a =ZTEST(array,x,sigma)

z-test
Notes: * See also COUNTIF (Maths) and COUNTBLANK (Information) and DCOUNT and DCOUNTA
(Database)

44
Table 21: Statistical Function Arguments

Argument Description
A An optional lower bound to the interval of x

Actual_range The range of data that contains observations to test against expected values

## Array1 (PEARSON A set of independent values

function)
Array2 (PEARSON A set of dependent values
function)
B An optional lower bound to the interval of y

## Beta A parameter of a distribution

Bins_array An array of or reference to intervals into which you want to group the values

## Const A logical value specifying whether to force the constant b to equal 1:

TRUE or omitted, b is calculated normally; FALSE, b is set equal to 1 and the m-
values are adjusted so that y = m^x
Criteria The range of cells that contains the conditions you specify

## Degrees_freedom2 The denominator degrees of freedom

Expected_range The range of data that contains the ratio of the product of row totals and column
totals to the grand total
K Is the position in the array or cell range of data to return

## Lower_limit The lower bound for integrating ERF

45
Argument Description
Mean The arithmetic mean

## Mean (LOGNORMDIST The mean of ln(x).

New_x’s new x-values for which you want GROWTH to return corresponding y-values

## Number1 The first number

Number2,… Second of up to 30 numbers. You can also use a single array or a reference to an
array instead of arguments separated by commas
Order A number specifying how to rank number; 0 or omitted = descending; non-zero =
ascending
Percent The fractional number of data points to exclude from the calculation

## Probability_s The probability of success on each trial

Quart Indicates which value to return: 0 = minimum value; 1 = 1st Quartile (25th
Percentile); 2 = 2nd Quartile; 3 = 3rd Quartile; 4 = Maximum value
Range A range

## Sample_s The number of successes in the sample

Sigma The population (known) standard deviation. If omitted, the sample standard
deviation is used
Significance The multiple to which you want to round

## Size The sample size

46
Argument Description
Standard_dev The population standard deviation for the data range

## Standard_dev The standard deviation of

(LOGNORMDIST and ln(x).
Stats A logical value specifying whether to return additional regression statistics TRUE
Tails Specifies the number of distribution tails to return. If tails = 1, TDIST returns the
one-tailed distribution. If tails = 2, TDIST returns the two-tailed distribution
Trials The number of independent trials

Type (TTEST function) The kind of t-Test to perform; 1 = Paired; 2 = Two-sample equal variance
(homoscedastic); 3 = Two-sample unequal variance (heteroscedastic)
Upper_limit The upper bound for integrating ERF. If omitted, ERF integrates between zero and
lower_limit
Value1 A numeric value

Value2,… Second of 1 to n possible values (n=30 for AVERAGEA; n=29 for CHOOSE, NPV)

## X The value at which to evaluate the function

X_range The range of numeric values of x with which there are associated probabilities

## Z The value for which you want the distribution

47
Table 22: Text Functions

## Name Source Description Syntax

ASC Built In Changes full-width (double-byte) =ASC(Text)
English letters or katakana within
a character string to half-width
(single-byte) characters
BAHTTEXT Built In Converts a number to Thai text =BAHTTEXT(number)
and adds a suffix of “Baht”
CHAR Built In Returns the ANSI character set =CHAR(Number)
(Microsoft) or Macintosh
character set (Macintosh)
specified by the code number
CLEAN Built In Removes all nonprintable =CLEAN(text)
characters from text
CODE Built In Returns a numeric code for the =CODE(text)
first character in a text string
CONCATENATE Built In Joins several text items into one =CONCATENATE (text1,text2,…)
text item
DOLLAR Built In Converts a number to text, using =DOLLAR(number,decimals)
currency format
EXACT Built In Checks to see whether two text =EXACT(text1,text2)
values are identical
FIND Built In Finds one text value within =FIND(find_text,within_text,start_num)
another (case sensitive)
FINDB Built In Finds one text value within =FINDB(find_text,within_text,start_num)
another (case sensitive) based
on the number of bytes each
character uses.
FIXED Built In Formats a number as text with a =FIXED(number,decimals,no_commas)
fixed number of decimals
JIS Built In Changes half-width (single-byte) =JIS(text)
English letters or katakana within
a character string to full-width
(double-byte) characters.
LEFT Built In Returns the left most characters =LEFT(text,num_chars)
from a text value
LEFTB Built In Returns the first character or =LEFTB(text,num_bytes)
characters in a text string, based
on the number of bytes you
specify.
LEN Built In Returns the number of =LEN(text)
characters in a text string
LENB Built In Returns the number of bytes =LENB(text)
used to represent the characters
in a text string
LOWER Built In Converts text to lowercase =LOWER(text)

## MID Built In Returns a specific number of =MID(text,start_num,num_chars)

characters from a string starting
at a specified position

48
Name Source Description Syntax
MIDB Built In Returns a specific number of =MIDB(text,start_num,num_bytes)
characters from a text string,
starting at the position you
specify, based on the number of
bytes specified
PHONETIC Built In Extracts the phonetic (furigana) =PHONETIC(reference)
characters from a text string
PROPER Built In Capitalizes the first letter in each =PROPER(text)
word of a text value
REPLACE Built In Replaces characters within text =REPLACE(old_text,start_num,
num_chars,new_text)
REPLACEB Built In Replaces part of a text string, =REPLACEB(old_text,start_num,
based on the number of bytes num_bytes,new_text)
you specify, with a different text
string.
REPT Built In Repeats text a given number of =REPT(text,number_times)
times
RIGHT Built In Returns the rightmost characters =RIGHT(text,num_chars)
from a text value
RIGHTB Built In Returns the last character or =RIGHTB(text,num_bytes)
characters in a text string, based
on the number of bytes you
specify
SEARCH Built In Finds one text value within =SEARCH(find_text,within_text,
another (not case sensitive) and start_num)
returns the number of the starting
position
SEARCHB Built In Finds one text string (find_text) =SEARCHB(find_text,within_text,
within another text string start_num)
(within_text), and returns the
number of the starting position of
find_text. The result is based on
the number of bytes each
character uses, beginning with
start_num
SUBSTITUTE Built In Substitutes new text for old text =SUBSTITUTE(text,old_text,new_text,
in a text string instance_num)
T Built In Converts its arguments to text =T(value)

## TEXT Built In Formats a number and converts =TEXT(value,format_text)

it to text
TRIM Built In Removes all spaces from text =TRIM(text)
except single spaces between
words
UPPER Built In Converts text to uppercase =UPPER(text)

## VALUE Built In Converts a text argument to a =VALUE(text)

number
YEN Built In Converts a number to text, using =YEN(number,decimals)
the ¥ (yen) currency format, with
the number rounded to a
specified place

49
Table 23: Text Function Arguments

Argument Description
Decimals The number of digits to the right of the decimal point. If decimals is negative,
number is rounded to the left of the decimal point. If you omit decimals, it is
assumed to be 2
Find_text The text you want to find

Format_text A number format in text form from in the Category box on the Number tab in the
Format Cells dialog box
Instance_num Specifies which occurrence of old_text you want to replace with new_text. If you
specify instance_num, only that instance of old_text is replaced. Otherwise, every
occurrence of old_text in text is changed to new_text
New_text The text that will replace characters in old_text

No_commas A logical value that, if TRUE, prevents FIXED from including commas in the
returned text
Num_bytes The number of bytes you want to extract

## Old_text Text in which you want to replace some characters

Reference Reference to a cell or range of cells and can refer to multiple areas. If you want to
specify several references as a single argument, then you must include extra sets
of parentheses so that Microsoft Excel will not interpret the comma as a field
separator
Start_num The character at which to start the search

Text Text or a reference to a cell that contains the text you want to change

## Within_text The text containing the text you want to find

50
Table 24: Consolidated List of All Functions

## Name Source Type Description Syntax

ABS Built In Maths Returns the absolute value of a number =ABS(Number)

ACCRINT Analysis Financial Returns the accrued interest for a security that =ACCRINT(Issue,First_Interest,Settlement,Rate,
ToolPak pays periodic interest Par,Frequency,Basis)
ACCRINTM Analysis Financial Returns the accrued interest for a security that =ACCRINTM(Issue,Settlement,Rate,Par,Basis)
ToolPak pays interest at maturity
ACOS Built In Maths Returns in radians the arccosine of a number =ACOS(Number)

## ACOSH Built In Maths Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a =ACOSH(Number)

number
Ref and column rumbers A1,Sheet_text)
AMORDEGRC Analysis Financial Returns the depreciation for each accounting =AMORDEGRC(Cost,Date_purchased,First_period,
ToolPak period using the French accounting system Salvage,Period,Rate,Basis)
AMORLINC Analysis Financial Returns the depreciation for each accounting =AMORLINC(Cost,Date_purchased,First_period,
ToolPak period using the French accounting system Salvage,Period,Rate,Basis)
AND Built In Logical Returns TRUE if all its arguments are TRUE =AND(Logical1,Logical2,…)

AREAS Built In Lookup & Returns the number of areas in a reference =AREAS(reference)
Ref
ASC Built In Text Changes full-width (double-byte) English letters or =ASC(Text)
katakana within a character string to half-width
(single-byte) characters
ASIN Built In Maths Returns in radians the arcsine of a number =ASIN(Number)

ASINH Built In Maths Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number =ASINH(Number)

51
Name Source Type Description Syntax
ATAN Built In Maths Returns in radians the arctangent of a number =ATAN(Number)

ATAN2 Built In Maths Returns in radians the arctangent from x and y =ATAN2(x_num,y_num)
coordinates
ATANH Built In Maths Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a =ATANH(Number)
number
AVEDEV Built In Statistical Returns the average of the absolute deviations of =AVEDEV(Number1,Number2,…)
data points from their mean
AVERAGE Built In Statistical Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of up to 30 =AVERAGE(Number1,Number2,…)
numeric arguments
AVERAGEA Built In Statistical Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of its =AVERAGEA(Value1,Value2,…)
arguments and includes evaluation of text and
logical arguments
BAHTTEXT Built In Text Converts a number to Thai text and adds a suffix =BAHTTEXT(number)
of “Baht”
BESSELI Analysis Engineering Returns the Bessel function evaluated for purely =BESSELI(x,n)
ToolPak imaginary arguments
BESSELJ Analysis Engineering Returns the Bessel function represented by Jn(x) =BESSELJ(x,n)
ToolPak
BESSELK Analysis Engineering Returns the modified Bessel function represented =BESSELK(x,n)
ToolPak by Kn(x)
BESSELY Analysis Engineering Returns the Bessel / Weber / Neumann function =BESSELY(x,n)
ToolPak Yn(x)
function
BETAINV Built In Statistical Returns the inverse of the cumulative beta =BETAINV(probability,alpha,beta,A,B)
probability density function
BIN2DEC Analysis Engineering Converts binary number to decimal =BIN2DEC(Number)
ToolPak
BIN2HEX Analysis Engineering Converts binary number to hexadecimal =BIN2HEX(Number,Places)
ToolPak

52
Name Source Type Description Syntax
BIN2OCT Analysis Engineering Converts binary number to octal =BIN2OCT(Number,Places)
ToolPak
BINOMDIST Built In Statistical Returns the individual term binomial distribution =BINOMDIST(number_s,trials,probability_s,
probability cumulative)
CALL Built In External Calls a procedure in a dynamic link library or code =CALL(register_id,argument1,…) With Register.id
resource =CALL(module_text,procedure,type_text,
argument1,…) Excel for Windows
=CALL(file_text,resource,type_text,
argument1,…) Excel for Macintosh
CEILING Built In Maths Rounds a number (away from zero) to the nearest =CEILING(number,significance)
integer or to the nearest multiple of significance
CELL Built In Information Returns information about the formatting , location =CELL(info_type,reference)
or contents of the cell or upper left cell of the
reference
CHAR Built In Text Returns the ANSI character set (Microsoft) or =CHAR(Number)
Macintosh character set (Macintosh) specified by
the code number
CHIDIST Built In Statistical Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi- =CHIDIST(x,degrees_freedom)
squared distribution
CHIINV Built In Statistical Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of =CHIINV(probability,degrees_freedom)
the chi-squared distribution
CHITEST Built In Statistical Returns the value from the chi-squared (γ2) =CHITEST(actual_range,expected_range)
distribution for the statistic and the appropriate
degrees of freedom
CHOOSE Built In Lookup & Uses a specified index number to select one from =CHOOSE(index_num,value1,value2,…)
Ref up to 29 specified values
CLEAN Built In Text Removes all nonprintable characters from text =CLEAN(text)

CODE Built In Text Returns a numeric code for the first character in a =CODE(text)
text string
COLUMN Built In Lookup & Returns the column number of the cell or a =COLUMN(reference)
Ref specified reference

53
Name Source Type Description Syntax
COLUMNS Built In Lookup & Returns the number of columns in an array or =COLUMNS(array)
Ref reference
COMBIN Built In Maths Returns the number of combinations for a given =COMBIN(number,number_chosen)
number of objects
COMPLEX Analysis Engineering Converts real and imaginary coefficients into =COMPLEX(real_num,i_num,suffix)
ToolPak complex numbers of the form x + yi or x + yj
depending upon suffix
CONCATENATE Built In Text Joins several text items into one text item =CONCATENATE (text1,text2,…)

CONFIDENCE Built In Statistical Returns the confidence interval for a population =CONFIDENCE(alpha,standard_dev,size)
mean
CONVERT Analysis Engineering Converts a number from one measurement =CONVERT(number,from_unit,to_unit)
ToolPak system to another
CORREL Built In Statistical Returns the correlation coefficient between two =CORREL(array1,array2)
arrays of data
COS Built In Maths Returns the cosine of a given angle given in =COS(Number)
COSH Built In Maths Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number =COSH(Number)

COUNT Built In Statistical Counts the number of cells that contain numbers =COUNT(value1,value2, …)
and also numbers within the list of arguments
COUNTA Built In Statistical counts how many values are in the list of =COUNTA(value1,value2, …)
arguments
COUNTBLANK Built In Information Counts the number of non-empty cells and the =COUNTBLANK(range)
values within the list of arguments
COUNTIF Built In Maths Counts the number of cells that meet the criteria =COUNTIF(range,criteria)
specified in the argument
COUPDAYBS Analysis Financial Returns the number of days from the beginning of =COUPDAYBS(settlement,maturity,
ToolPak the coupon period to the settlement date using frequency,basis)
the specified or default day counting basis

54
Name Source Type Description Syntax
COUPDAYS Analysis Financial Returns the number of days in the coupon period =COUPDAYS(settlement,maturity,
ToolPak that contains the settlent date using the specified frequency,basis)
or default day counting basis
COUPDAYSNC Analysis Financial Returns the number of days from the settlement =COUPDAYSNC(settlement,maturity,
ToolPak date to the next coupon date using the specified frequency,basis)
or default day counting basis
COUPNCD Analysis Financial Returns the next coupon date after the settlement =COUPNCD(settlement,maturity,frequency,basis)
ToolPak date using the specified or default day counting
basis
COUPNUM Analysis Financial Returns the number of coupons payable between =COUPNUM(settlement,maturity,frequency,basis)
ToolPak the settlement date and maturity date using the
specified or default day counting basis
COUPPCD Analysis Financial Returns the previous coupon date before the =COUPPCD(settlement,maturity,frequency,basis)
ToolPak settlement date using the specified or default day
counting basis
COVAR Built In Statistical Returns covariance; the average of the products =COVAR(array1,array2)
of deviations for each data point pair
CRITBINOM Built In Statistical Returns the smallest value for which the =CRITBINOM(trials,probability_s,alpha)
cumulative binomial distribution is less than or
equal to a criterion value
CUMIPMT Analysis Financial Returns the cumulative interest paid between two =CUMIPMT(rate,nper,pv,start_period,end_period,
ToolPak periods type)
CUMPRINC Analysis Financial Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan =CUMPRINC(rate,nper,pv,start_period,end_period,
ToolPak between two periods type)
DATE Built In Date & Returns the sequential Excel date / time serial =DATE(year,month,day)
Time number that represents a particular date
DATEDIF Analysis Date & Calculates differences between two dates in =DATEDIF(start_date,end_date,unit)
ToolPak Time terms of specified units and assumptions
DATEVALUE Built In Date & Converts a date text form to an Excel date / time =DATEVALUE(date_text)
Time serial number
DAVERAGE Built In Database Returns the average of selected list or database =DAVERAGE(database,field,criteria)
entries based on specified criteria
DAY Built In Date & Converts an Excel date / time serial number to the =DAY(serial_number)
Time day of a month

55
Name Source Type Description Syntax
DAYS360 Built In Date & Calculates the number of days between two dates =DAYS360(start_date,end_date,method)
Time using a specified 30 day month 360 day year
method
DB Built In Financial Returns the depreciation of an asset for a =DB(cost,salvage,life,period,month)
specified period, using the fixed declining balance
method
DCOUNT Built In Database Counts the cells containing numbers from a =DCOUNT(database,field,criteria)
specified database that match specified criteria
DCOUNTA Built In Database Counts non blank cells from a specified database =DCOUNTA(database,field,criteria)
that match specified criteria criteria
DDB Built In Financial Returns the deoreciation of an asset for a =DDB(cost,salvage,life,period,factor)
specified period, using the double-declining
balance method of some other method that is
specified
DEC2BIN Analysis Engineering Converts a decimal number to binary =DEC2BIN(Number)
ToolPak
DEC2HEX Analysis Engineering Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal =DEC2HEX(Number)
ToolPak
DEC2OCT Analysis Engineering Converts a decimal number to octal =DEC2OCT(Number)
ToolPak
DEGREES Built In Maths Converts radians to degrees =DEGREES(angle)

DELTA Analysis Engineering Test whether two values are equal =DELTA(number1,number2)
ToolPak
DEVSQ Built In Statistical Returns the sum of the squares of the deviations =DEVSQ(number1,number2,…)
from the sample mean
DGET Built In Database Extracts from a specified database a single value =DGET(database,field,criteria)
that matches specified criteria
DISC Analysis Financial Returns the discount rate for a security using the =DISC(settlement,maturity,pr,redemption,basis)
ToolPak specified or default day counting basis

56
Name Source Type Description Syntax
DMAX Built In Database Extracts maximum number in a column of a list or =DMAX(database,field,criteria)
database that matches specified conditions
DMIN Built In Database Extracts minimum number in a column of a list or =DMIN(database,field,criteria)
database that matches specified conditions
DOLLAR Built In Text Converts a number to text, using currency format =DOLLAR(number,decimals)

## DOLLARDE Analysis Financial Converts a dollar price (expressed as a fraction) =DOLLARDE(fractional_dollar,fraction)

ToolPak into a dollar price expressed as a decimal number
DOLLARFR Analysis Financial Converts a dollar price (expressed as a decimal =DOLLARFR(decimal_dollar,fraction)
ToolPak number) into a dollar price expressed as a
fraction
DPRODUCT Built In Database Multiplies the values in a particular field of records =DPRODUCT(database,field,criteria)
that match the specified criteria in a database
DSTDEV Built In Database Estimates standard deviation of a population =DSTDEV(database,field,criteria)
based on a sample using numbers in a column of
a list or database that match specified conditions
DSTDEVP Built In Database Calculates the standard deviation based on the =DSTDEVP(database,field,criteria)
entire population using numbers in a column of a
list or database that match specified conditions
DSUM Built In Database Adds the numbers in the field column of records =DSUM(database,field,criteria)
in the database that match the specified criteria
DURATION Analysis Financial Returns the Macauley duration of a security with =DURATION(settlement,maturity,coupon,yld,
ToolPak periodic interest payments using the specified or frequency,basis)
default day counting basis
DVAR Built In Database Estimates the variance of a population based on a =DVAR(database,field,criteria)
sample by using the numbers in a column of a list
or database that match specified criteria
DVARP Built In DataBase Calculates the variance of a population based on =DVARP(database,field,criteria)
the entire population by using the numbers in a
column of a list or database that match specified
criteria
EDATE Analysis Date & Returns the Excel date / time serial number of the =EDATE(start_date,months)
ToolPak Time date that is the indicated number of months
before or after the specified number of months
from the start_date

57
Name Source Type Description Syntax
EFFECT Analysis Financial Returns the effective annual interest rate of a =EFFECT(nominal_rate,npery)
ToolPak given nominal rate with its compounding
frequency
EOMONTH Analysis Date & Returns the Excel date / time serial number of the =EOMONTH(start_date,months)
ToolPak Time last day of the month before or after a specified
number of months from start_date
ERF Analysis Engineering Returns the error function integrated between =ERF(lower_limit,upper_limit)
ToolPak lower_limit and upper_limit
ERFC Analysis Engineering Returns the complementary ERF function =ERFC(x)
ToolPak integrated between x and infinity
ERROR.TYPE Built In Information Returns a number corresponding to an Excel =ERROR.TYPE(error_val)
error type
EUROCONVERT Add-in External Converts a number to or from Euros to or from a =EUROCONVERT(number,source,target,
member currency or converts between one euro full_precision,triangulation_precision)
member currency to another using the Euro as an
intermediary (triangulation)
EVEN Built In Maths Rounds a number away from zero to the nearest =EVEN(Number)
even integer
EXACT Built In Text Checks to see whether two text values are =EXACT(text1,text2)
identical
EXP Built In Maths Returns e (=2.71828182845904) raised to the =EXP(Number)
power of a given number
EXPONDIST Built In Statistical Returns the exponential distribution =EXPONDIST(x,lambda,cumulative)

## FACTDOUBLE Analysis Maths Returns the double factorial of a number =FACTDOUBLE(number)

ToolPak
FALSE Built In Logical Returns the logical value FALSE =FALSE()

58
Name Source Type Description Syntax
FDIST Built In Statistical Returns the F probability distribution =FDIST(x,degrees_freedom1,
degrees_freedom2)
FIND Built In Text Finds one text value within another (case =FIND(find_text,within_text,start_num)
sensitive)
FINDB Built In Text Finds one text value within another (case =FINDB(find_text,within_text,start_num)
sensitive) based on the number of bytes each
character uses.
FINV Built In Statistical Returns the inverse of the F probability =FINV(probability,degrees_freedom1,
distribution degrees_freedom2)
FISHER Built In Statistical Returns the Fisher transformation at x =FISHER(x)

FISHERINV Built In Statistical Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation =FISHERINV(y)

FIXED Built In Text Formats a number as text with a fixed number of =FIXED(number,decimals,no_commas)
decimals
FLOOR Built In Maths Rounds a number down towards 0 to the nearest =FLOOR(number,significance)
integer or to the nearest multiple of significance
FORECAST Built In Statistical Calculates a predicted value of y for a given x =FORECAST(x,known_y’s,known_x’s)
value based on known values for x and y
FREQUENCY Built In Statistical Counts how often values occur within given =FREQUENCY(data_array,bins_array)
ranges of values and returns those counts as a
vertical array of numbers
FTEST Built In Statistical Returns the result of an F-test; the one-tailed =FTEST(array1,array2)
probability that the variances in array1 and array2
are not significantly different
FV Built In Financial Returns the future value of an investment =FV(rate,nper,pmt,pv,type)

FVSCHEDULE Analysis Financial Returns the future value of an initial principal after =FVSCHEDULE(principal,schedule)
ToolPak applying a series of compound interest rates

59
Name Source Type Description Syntax
GAMMAINV Built In Statistical Returns the inverse of the gamma distribution =GAMMAINV(probability,alpha,beta)

GAMMALN Built In Statistical Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma =GAMMALN(x)
function Γ(x).
GCD Analysis Maths Returns the greatest common divisor of 2 – 29 =GCD(number1,number2, …)
ToolPak integers
GEOMEAN Built In Statistical Returns the geometric mean of an array or range =GEOMEAN(number1,number2, …)
of positive data
GESTEP Analysis Engineering Tests whether a number is greater than a =GESTEP(number,step)
ToolPak threshold value
GETPIVOTDATA Built In External Returns data stored in a pivot table =GETPIVOTDATA(data_field,pivot_table,
field1,item1,field2,item2,…)
GROWTH Built In Statistical Calculates predicted exponential growth and =GROWTH(known_y’s,known_x’s,new_x’s,
returns the y-values for a series of specified new const)
x-values by using known x-values and y-values
HARMEAN Built In Statistical Returns the harmonic mean of a data set by =HARMEAN(number1,number2, …)
calculating the reciprocal of the arithmetic mean
of reciprocals
HEX2BIN Analysis Engineering Converts a hexadecimal to a binary =HEX2BIN(Number,Places)
ToolPak
HEX2DEC Analysis Engineering Converts a hexadecimal to a decimal =HEX2DEC(Number)
ToolPak
HEX2OCT Analysis Engineering Converts a hexadecimal to an octal =HEX2OCT(Number,Places)
ToolPak
HLOOKUP Built In Lookup & Looks in the top row of a table or array and =HLOOKUP(lookup_value,table_array,
Ref returns the value of the indicated cell row_index_num,range_lookup)
HOUR Built In Date & Converts an Excel date / time serial number to an =HOUR(serial_number)
Time hour
Ref your hard drive, a server or the internet

60
Name Source Type Description Syntax
HYPGEOMDIST Built In Statistical Returns the hypergeometric distribution by =HYPGEOMDIST(sample_s,number_sample,
calculating the probability of a given number of population_s,number_population)
sample successes, given the sample size,
population successes, and population size
IF Built In Logical Returns one value specified condition evaluates =IF(logical_test,value_if_true,value_if_false)
to TRUE and another value if it evaluates to
FALSE
IMABS Analysis Engineering Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a =IMABS(inumber)
ToolPak complex number provided in the text format “x +
yi” or “x + yj”
IMAGINARY Analysis Engineering Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex =IMAGINARY(inumber)
ToolPak number provided in the text format “x + yi” or “x +
yj”
IMARGUMENT Analysis Engineering Returns the argument theta – an angle expressed =IMARGUMENT(inumber)
IMCONJUGATE Analysis Engineering Returns the complex conjugate of a complex =IMCONJUGATE(inumber)
ToolPak number provided in the text format “x + yi” or “x +
yj”
IMCOS Analysis Engineering Returns the cosine of a complex number provided =IMCOS(inumber)
ToolPak in the text format “x + yi” or
”x + yj”
IMDIV Analysis Engineering Returns the quotient of two complex numbers =IMDIV(inumber1,inumber2)
ToolPak provided in the text format “x + yi” or “x + yj”
IMEXP Analysis Engineering Returns the exponential of a complex number =IMEXP(inumber)
ToolPak provided in the text format “x + yi” or “x + yj”
IMLN Analysis Engineering Returns the natural logarithm of a complex =IMLN(inumber)
ToolPak number provided in the text format “x + yi” or “x +
yj”
IMLOG10 Analysis Engineering Returns the base-10 logarithm of a complex =IMLOG10(inumber)
ToolPak number provided in the text format “x + yi” or “x +
yj”
IMLOG2 Analysis Engineering Returns the base-2 logarithm of a complex =IMLOG2(inumber)
ToolPak number provided in the text format “x + yi” or “x +
yj”

61
Name Source Type Description Syntax
IMPOWER Analysis Engineering Returns a complex number provided in the text =IMPOWER(inumber,number)
ToolPak format “x + yi” or “x + yj” raised to an integer
number
IMPRODUCT Analysis Engineering Returns the product of 2 – 29 complex numbers =IMPRODUCT(inumber1,inumber2,…)
ToolPak provided in the text format “x + yi” or “x + yj”
IMREAL Analysis Engineering Returns the real coefficient of a complex number =IMREAL(inumber)
ToolPak provided in the text format “x + yi” or “x + yj”
IMSIN Analysis Engineering Returns the sine of a complex number provided in =IMSIN(inumber)
ToolPak the text format “x + yi” or
”x + yj”
IMSQRT Analysis Engineering Returns the square root of a complex number =IMSQRT(inumber)
ToolPak provided in the text format “x + yi” or “x + yj”
IMSUB Analysis Engineering Returns the difference of two complex numbers =IMSUB(inumber1,inumber2)
ToolPak provided in the text format “x + yi” or “x + yj”
IMSUM Analysis Engineering Returns the sum of 2 – 29 complex numbers =IMSUM(inumber1,inumber2,…)
ToolPak provided in the text format “x + yi” or “x + yj”
INDEX Built In Lookup & Alternative forms. Array form returns a value or =INDEX(array,row_num,column_num)
Ref array of values. Reference form returns a =INDEX(reference,row_num,column_num,
reference. area_num)
INDIRECT Built In Lookup & Returns a reference indicated by a value provided =INDIRECT(ref_text,a1)
Ref as text
INFO Built In Information returns information about the current operating =INFO(type_text)
environment
INT Built In Maths Rounds a number away from 0 to the nearest =INT(Number)
integer
INTERCEPT Built In Statistical Calculates from given x and y values the point at =INTERCEPT(known_y’s,known_x’s)
which a line will intersect the y-axis
INTRATE Analysis Financial Returns the interest rate for a fully invested =INTRATE(settlement,maturity,investment,
ToolPak security using the specified or default day redemption,basis)
counting basis
IPMT Built In Financial Returns the amount of the interest element in a =IPMT(rate,per,nper,pv,fv,type)
payment for an investment for a given period

62
Name Source Type Description Syntax
IRR Built In Financial Returns the internal rate of return for a series of =IRR(values,guess)
cash flows
ISBLANK Built In Information Returns TRUE if the value is blank =ISBLANK(Value)

ISERR Built In Information Returns TRUE if the value is any error value =ISERR(Value)
except #N/A
ISERROR Built In Information Returns TRUE if the value is any error value =ISERROR(Value)

## ISEVEN Analysis Information Returns TRUE if the number is even =ISEVEN(Number)

ToolPak
ISLOGICAL Built In Information Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value =ISLOGICAL(Value)

ISNA Built In Information Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value =ISNA(Value)

ISNONTEXT Built In Information Returns TRUE if the value is not text =ISNONTEXT(Value)

## ISODD Analysis Information Returns TRUE if the number is odd =ISODD(Number)

ToolPak
ISPMT Built In Financial Returns the interest associated with a specific =ISPMT(rate,per,nper,pv)
loan payment
ISREF Built In Information Returns TRUE if the value is a reference =ISREF(Value)

## JIS Built In Text Changes half-width (single-byte) English letters or =JIS(text)

katakana within a character string to full-width
(double-byte) characters.

63
Name Source Type Description Syntax
KURT Built In Statistical Returns the kurtosis of a data set; a measure that =KURT(number1,number2, …)
compares the relative peakedness or flatness of a
distribution compared with the normal distribution
LARGE Built In Statistical Returns the kth largest value in a data set =LARGE(array,k)

## LCM Analysis Maths Returns the least common multiple of 1 – 29 =LCM(number1,number2, …)

ToolPak integers
LEFT Built In Text Returns the left most characters from a text value =LEFT(text,num_chars)

LEFTB Built In Text Returns the first character or characters in a text =LEFTB(text,num_bytes)
string, based on the number of bytes you specify.
LEN Built In Text Returns the number of characters in a text string =LEN(text)

LENB Built In Text Returns the number of bytes used to represent =LENB(text)
the characters in a text string
LINEST Built In Statistical Entered as an array formula, LINEST returns an =LINEST(known_y’s,known_x’s,const,stats)
array that describes a line of best fit by using the
least squares method
LN Built In Maths Returns the natural logarithm (base e = =LN(Number)
2.71828182845904) of a number
LOG Built In Maths Returns the logarithm of a number to a specified =LOG(Number,base)
base
LOG10 Built In Maths Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number =LOG10(Number)

## LOGEST Built In Statistical Entered as an array formula, LOGEST calculates =LOGEST(known_y’s,known_x’s,const,stats)

an exponential curve that fits known data and
returns an array of values that describes that
curve
LOGINV Built In Statistical Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative =LOGINV(probability,mean,standard_dev)
distribution function of x, where ln(x) is normally
distributed with given probability, mean, and
standard deviation

64
Name Source Type Description Syntax
LOGNORMDIST Built In Statistical Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution of x, =LOGNORMDIST(x,mean,standard_dev)
where ln(x) is normally distributed with known
mean and standard deviation
LOOKUP Built In Lookup & Alternative forms. Vector form looks up values in =LOOKUP(lookup_value,lookup_vector,
Ref a one row or column range and returns a value in result_vector)
a second one row or column range. Array form =LOOKUP(lookup_value,array)
looks in the first row or column of an array for the
specified value and returns a value from the same
position in the last row or column of the array
LOWER Built In Text Converts text to lowercase =LOWER(text)

MATCH Built In Lookup & Returns the relative position of an item in an array =MATCH(lookup_value,lookup_array,
Ref that matches a specified value in a specified order match_type)
MAX Built In Statistical Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments =MAX(number1,number2,…)
ignoring logical values and text
MAXA Built In Statistical Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments =MAXA(value1,value2,…)
including logical values and text
MDETERM Built In Maths Returns the matrix determinant of an array =MDETERM(array)

MDURATION Analysis Financial Returns the Macauley modified duration for a =MDURATION(settlement,maturity,coupon,
ToolPak security with an assumed par value of \$100 using yld,frequency,basis)
the specified or default day counting basis
MEDIAN Built In Statistical Returns the median of the given numbers =MEDIAN(number1,number2, …)

## MID Built In Text Returns a specific number of characters from a =MID(text,start_num,num_chars)

string starting at a specified position
MIDB Built In Text Returns a specific number of characters from a =MIDB(text,start_num,num_bytes)
text string, starting at the position you specify,
based on the number of bytes specified
MIN Built In Statistical Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments =MIN(number1,number2,…)
ignoring logical values and text
MINA Built In Statistical Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments =MINA(value1,value2,…)
including logical values and text

65
Name Source Type Description Syntax
MINUTE Built In Date & Converts an Excel date / time serial number to a =MINUTE(serial_number)
Time minute
MINVERSE Built In Maths Returns the matrix inverse of an array =MINVERSE(array)

MIRR Built In Financial Returns the modified internal rate of return based =MIRR(values,finance_rate,reinvest_rate)
on different finance and reinvestment rates for
negative and positive cash flows
MMULT Built In Maths Returns the matrix product of two arrays =MMULT(array1,array2)

MOD** Built In Maths Returns the remainder from division with the =MOD(number,divisor)
result having the same sign as the divisor
MODE Built In Statistical Returns the most common value in a data set =MODE(number1,number2,…)

MONTH Built In Date & Converts an Excel date / time serial number to a =MONTH(serial_number)
Time month number
MROUND Analysis Maths Returns a number rounded to the desired =MROUND(number,multiple)
ToolPak multiple. Midway points are rounded away from 0
MULTINOMIAL Analysis Maths Returns the ratio of the factorial of a sum of =MULTINOMIAL(number1,number2, …)
ToolPak values to the product of factorials
N Built In Information Returns a value converted to a number =N(Value)

## NA Built In Information Returns the error value #N/A =NA()

NEGBINOMDIST Built In Statistical Returns the negative binomial distribution; the =NEGBINOMDIST(number_f,number_s,
probability that there will be number_f failures probability_s)
before the number_s-th success, when the
constant probability of a success is probability_s
NETWORKDAYS Analysis Date & Returns the number of whole working days =NETWORKDAYS(start_date,end_date,
ToolPak Time between two dates excluding specified holidays holidays)

66
Name Source Type Description Syntax
NOMINAL Analysis Financial Returns the nominal rate equivalent to a given =NOMINAL(effect_rate,npery)
ToolPak annual effective with a given compounding
frequency for the nominal rate
NORMDIST Built In Statistical Returns the cumulative distribution function or =NORMDIST(x,mean,standard_dev,
probability mass function for the value x with cumulative)
specified mean and standard deviation
NORMINV Built In Statistical Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative =NORMINV(probability,mean,standard_dev)
distribution for the specified probability, mean,
and standard deviation
NORMSDIST Built In Statistical Returns the standard normal cumulative =NORMSDIST(z)
distribution function. The distribution has a mean
of 0 and a standard deviation of 1
NORMSINV Built In Statistical Returns the inverse of the standard normal =NORMSINV(probability)
cumulative distribution
NOT Built In Logical Reverses the logic of its argument =NOT(Logical)

NOW Built In Date & Returns the Excel date / time serial number of the =NOW()
Time current date and time
NPER Built In Financial Returns the number of periods for an investment =NPER(rate, pmt, pv, fv, type)

NPV Built In Financial Returns the net present value of an investment =NPV(rate,value1,value2, …)
based upon a series of periodic cash flows and a
discount rate where the first cash flow is received
at the end of the first period
OCT2BIN Analysis Engineering Converts an octal number to binary =OCT2BIN(number,places)
ToolPak
OCT2DEC Analysis Engineering Converts an octal number to decimal =OCT2DEC(number)
ToolPak
OCT2HEX Analysis Engineering Converts an octal number to hexadecimal =OCT2HEX(number,places)
ToolPak
ODD Built In Maths Rounds a number away from 0 to the nearest odd =ODD(number)
integer

67
Name Source Type Description Syntax
ODDFPRICE Analysis Financial Returns the price per \$100 face value of a =ODDFPRICE(settlement,maturity,issue,
ToolPak security with an odd first period using the first_coupon,rate,yld,redemption,
specified or default day counting basis frequency,basis)
ODDFYIELD Analysis Financial Returns the yield of a security with an odd first =ODDFYIELD(settlement,maturity,issue,
ToolPak period using the specified or default day counting first_coupon,rate,pr,redemption,
basis frequency,basis)
ODDLPRICE Analysis Financial Returns the price per \$100 face value of a =ODDLPRICE(settlement,maturity,
ToolPak security with an odd last period using the last_interest,rate,yld,redemption,
specified or default day counting basis frequency,basis)
ODDLYIELD Analysis Financial Returns the yield of a security with an odd last =ODDLYIELD(settlement,maturity,
ToolPak period using the specified or default day counting last_interest,rate,pr,redemption,
basis frequency,basis)
OFFSET Built In Lookup & Returns a reference to a range that is a specified =OFFSET(reference,rows,cols,height,
Ref number of rows and columns from a cell or range width)
of cells
OR Built In Logical ReturnsTRUE if any argument is TRUE =OR(logical1,logical2,…)

PEARSON Built In Statistical Returns the Pearson product moment correlation =PEARSON(array1,array2)
coefficient
PERCENTILE Built In Statistical Returns the kth percentile of values in a range =PERCENTILE(array,k)

PERCENTRANK Built In Statistical Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data =PERCENTRANK(array,x,significance)
set
PERMUT Built In Statistical Returns the number of permutations for a given =PERMUT(number,number_chosen)
number of objects that can be selected from a
number of objects without replacement
PHONETIC Built In Text Extracts the phonetic (furigana) characters from a =PHONETIC(reference)
text string
PI Built In Maths Returns the number 3.14159265358979, the =PI()
mathematical constant pi, accurate to 15 digits
PMT Built In Financial Returns the periodic payment for an annuity =PMT(rate,nper,pv,fv,type)

## POISSON Built In Statistical Returns the Poisson distribution =POISSON(x,mean,cumulative)

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Name Source Type Description Syntax
POWER Built In Maths Returns the result of a number raised to a power =POWER(number,power)

## PPMT Built In Financial Returns the amount of principal element in a =PPMT(rate,per,nper,pv,fv,type)

payment for an investment for a given period
PRICE Analysis Financial Returns the price per \$100 face value of a =PRICE(settlement,maturity,rate,yld,
ToolPak security that pays periodic interest using the redemption,frequency,basis)
specified or default day counting basis
PRICEDISC Analysis Financial Returns the price per \$100 face value of a =PRICEDISC(settlement,maturity,
ToolPak discounted security using the specified or default discount,redemption,basis)
day counting basis
PRICEMAT Analysis Financial Returns the price per \$100 face value of a =PRICEMAT(settlement,maturity,issue,
ToolPak security that pays interest at maturity using the rate,yld,basis)
specified or default day counting basis
PROB Built In Statistical Returns either the probability that values in a =PROB(x_range,prob_range,lower_limit,
range are between two limits or if upper_limit is upper_limit)
not specified, the probability that values in
x_range are equal to lower_limit
PRODUCT Built In Maths Multiplies together 1 – 30 numbers =PRODUCT(number1,number2, …)

PROPER Built In Text Capitalizes the first letter in each word of a text =PROPER(text)
value
PV Built In Financial Returns the present value of an investment =PV(rate,nper,pmt,fv,type)

ToolPak

## RAND Built In Maths Returns an evenly distributed random number =RAND()

greater than or equal to 0 and less than 1

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Name Source Type Description Syntax
RANDBETWEEN Analysis Maths Returns a random number between (and inclusive =RANDBETWEEN(bottom,top)
ToolPak of) two specified numbers
RANK Built In Statistical Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers =RANK(number,ref,order)

RATE Built In Financial Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity =RATE(nper,pmt,pv,fv,type,guess)

ToolPak invested security using the specified or default investment,discount,basis)
day counting basis
REGISTER.ID Built In External Returns the register ID of the specified dynamic =REGISTER.ID(module_text,procedure,
link library (DLL) or code resource that has been type_text)
previously registered
REPLACE Built In Text Replaces characters within text =REPLACE(old_text,start_num,
num_chars,new_text)
REPLACEB Built In Text Replaces part of a text string, based on the =REPLACEB(old_text,start_num,
number of bytes you specify, with a different text num_bytes,new_text)
string.
REPT Built In Text Repeats text a given number of times =REPT(text,number_times)

RIGHT Built In Text Returns the rightmost characters from a text value =RIGHT(text,num_chars)

RIGHTB Built In Text Returns the last character or characters in a text =RIGHTB(text,num_bytes)
string, based on the number of bytes you specify
ROMAN Built In Maths Converts an 70rabic number to Roman, as text =ROMAN(number,form)

## ROUND Built In Maths Rounds a number to a specified number of digits =ROUND(number,num_digits)

to the left (-) or right (+) of the decimal point. The
midway digit 5 is rounded away from 0.
ROUNDDOWN Built In Maths Rounds a number down towards 0 to a specified =ROUNDDOWN(number,num_digits)
number of digits to the left (-) or right (+) of the
decimal point
ROUNDUP Built In Maths Round a number up away from 0 to a specified =ROUNDUP(number,num_digits)
number of digits to the left (-) or right (+) of the
decimal point

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Name Source Type Description Syntax
ROW Built In Lookup & Returns the row number of a reference =ROW(reference)
Ref
ROWS Built In Lookup & Returns the number of rows in a reference =ROWS(array)
Ref
RSQ Built In Statistical Returns the square of the Pearson product =RSQ(known_y’s,known_x’s)
moment correlation coefficient through data points
in known_y’s and known_x’s
RTD Built In Lookup & Retrieves real-time data from a program that =RTD(ProgID,server,topic1,[topic2],…)
Ref supports COM automation
SEARCH Built In Text Finds one text value within another (not case =SEARCH(find_text,within_text,
sensitive) and returns the number of the starting start_num)
position
SEARCHB Built In Text Finds one text string (find_text) within another text =SEARCHB(find_text,within_text,
string (within_text), and returns the number of the start_num)
starting position of find_text. The result is based
on the number of bytes each character uses,
beginning with start_num
SECOND Built In Date & Converts an Excel date / time serial number to a =SECOND(serial_number)
Time second
SERIESSUM Analysis Maths Returns the sum of a power series expansion =SERIESSUM(x,n,m,coefficients)
ToolPak
SIGN Built In Maths Returns 1 for 71ositive numbers, 0 if the number =SIGN(number)
is 0 and, -1 if the number is negative
SIN Built In Maths Returns the sine of a given angle given in radians =SIN(number)

SINH Built In Maths Returns the hyperbolic sine of a given angle =SINH(number)

## SLN Built In Financial Returns the straight-line depreciation of an asset =SLN(cost,salvage,life)

for one period.

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Name Source Type Description Syntax
SLOPE Built In Statistical Returns the slope (vertical distance / horizontal =SLOPE(known_y’s,known_x’s)
distance) of the linear regression line through
data points in known_y’s and known_x’s
SMALL Built In Statistical Returns the kth smallest value in a data set =SMALL(array,k)

SQL.REQUEST ODBC External Connects with an external data source, and runs =SQL.REQUEST(connection_string,
a query from a worksheet. SQL.REQUEST then output_ref,driver_prompt,query_text,
returns the result as an array col_names_logical)
SQRT Built In Maths Returns a positive square root =SQRT(number)

SQRTPI Analysis Maths Returns the square root of a number multiplied by =SQRTPI(number)
ToolPak pi
STANDARDIZE Built In Statistical Returns a normalized value from a distribution =STANDARDIZE(x,mean,standard_dev)
with known mean and standard_dev
STDEV Built In Statistical Estimates standard distribution based on a =STDEV(number1,number2,…)
sample ignoring text and logical values
STDEVA Built In Statistical Estimates standard deviation based on a sample =STDEVA(value1,value2,…)
including text and logical values
STDEVP Built In Statistical Calculates standard distribution based on the =STDEVP(number1,number2,…)
entire population ignoring text and logical values
STDEVPA Built In Statistical Calculates standard deviation based on the entire =STDEVPA(value1,value2,…)
population including text and logical values
STEYX Built In Statistical Returns the standard error of the predicted y- =STEYX(known_y’s,known_x’s)
value for each x in the regression
SUBSTITUTE Built In Text Substitutes new text for old text in a text string =SUBSTITUTE(text,old_text,new_text,
instance_num)
SUBTOTAL Built In Maths Returns the 72ubtotal in a list or database =SUBTOTAL(function_num,ref1,ref2,…)

## SUM Built In Maths Adds its arguments =SUM(number1,number2, …)

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Name Source Type Description Syntax
SUMIF Built In Maths Add the cells specified by a given criteria =SUMIF(range,criteria,sum_range)

SUMPRODUCT Built In Maths Returns the sum of the products of corresponding =SUMPRODUCT(array1,array2,array3, …)
array components
SUMSQ Built In Maths Returns the sum of the squares of 1 – 30 =SUMSQ(number1,number2, …)
numbers
SUMX2MY2 Built In Maths Returns the sum of the difference of squares of =SUMX2MY2(array_x,array_y)
corresponding values in two arrays
SUMX2PY2 Built In Maths Returns the sum of the sum of squares of =SUMX2PY2(array_x,array_y)
corresponding values in two arrays
SUMXMY2 Built In Maths Returns the sum of squares of differences of =SUMXMY2(array_x,array_y)
corresponding values in two array
SYD Built In Financial Returns the sum of years’ digits depreciation of =SYD(cost,salvage,life,per)
an asset for a specified period
T Built In Text Converts its arguments to text =T(value)

TAN Built In Maths Returns the tangent of a given angle given in =TAN(number)
TANH Built In Maths Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number =TANH(number)

TBILLEQ Analysis Financial Returns the bond-equivalent yield for a treasury =TBILLEQ(settlement,maturity,discount)
ToolPak bill
TBILLPRICE Analysis Financial Returns the price per \$100 face value for a =TBILLPRICE(settlement,maturity,
ToolPak Treasury bill discount)
TBILLYIELD Analysis Financial Returns the yield for a treasury bill =TBILLYIELD(settlement,maturity,pr)
ToolPak
TDIST Built In Statistical Returns the probability for the Student t- =TDIST(x,degrees_freedom,tails)
distribution where a numeric value (x) is a
calculated value of t for which the probability is to
be computed

73
Name Source Type Description Syntax
TEXT Built In Text Formats a number and converts it to text =TEXT(value,format_text)

TIME Built In Date & Returns the decimal portion of an Excel date / =TIME(hour,minute,second)
Time time serial number for a particular time
TIMEVALUE Built In Date & Converts the time in an acceptable form of text =TIMEVALUE(time_text)
Time enclosed in quotation marks to the decimal
portion of an Excel date / time serial number
TINV Built In Statistical Returns the t-value of the Student’s t-distribution =TINV(probability,degrees_freedom)
based on given probability and degrees of
freedom
TODAY Built In Date & Returns the Excel date / time serial number of =TODAY()
Time today’s date
TRANSPOSE Built In Lookup & Returns the transpose of an array =TRANSPOSE(array)
Ref
TREND Built In Statistical Entered as an array formula, TREND fits a =TREND(known_y’s,known_x’s,
straight line using the least squares method to new_x’s,const)
arrays of known_y’s and known_x’s and returns
the y-values along that line for the array of
specified new_x’s
TRIM Built In Text Removes all spaces from text except single =TRIM(text)
spaces between words
TRIMMEAN Built In Statistical Calculates the mean by excluding a specified =TRIMMEAN(array,percent)
percentage of data points from the top and bottom
tails of a data set
TRUE Built In Logical Returns the logical value TRUE =TRUE()

## TRUNC Built In Maths Truncates a number to an integer or to specified =TRUNC(number,num_digits)

precision by removing the fractional part of the
number. (Serves to round down towards 0)
TTEST Built In Statistical Returns the probability associated with a =TTEST(array1,array2,tails,type)
student’s t-test
TYPE Built In Information Returns the type of value (1 for value is a number; =TYPE(value)
2 for value is text; 4 for value is logical value; 16
for value is error value; 64 for value is array)

74
Name Source Type Description Syntax
UPPER Built In Text Converts text to uppercase =UPPER(text)

## VAR Built In Statistical Estimates variance based on a sample ignoring =VAR(number1,number2,…)

logical values and text
VARA Built In Statistical Estimates variance based on a sample including =VARA(value1,value2,…)
text and logical values
VARP Built In Statistical Calculates variance based on the entire =VARP(number1,number2,…)
population ignoring text and logical values
VARPA Built In Statistical Calculates variance based on the entire =VARPA(value1,value2,…)
population including text and logical values
VDB Built In Financial Returns the depreciation of an asset for a =VDB(cost,salvage,life,start_period,
specified or partial period using a variable end_period,factor,no_switch)
declining balance method
VLOOKUP Built In Lookup & Locates a specified value in the leftmost column =VLOOKUP(lookup_value,table_array,
Ref of a specified table, and returns the value in the col_index_num,range_lookup)
same row from a specified column in the table
WEEKDAY Built In Date & Converts an Excel date / time serial number to the =WEEKDAY(serial_number,return_type)
Time number of the day of the week based upon
counting system of return_type
WEEKNUM Analysis Date & Returns the weeknumber in the year based upon =WEEKNUM(serial_num,return_type)
ToolPak Time return_type counting basis
WEIBULL Built In Statistical Returns the Weibull distribution =WEIBULL(x,alpha,beta,cumulative)

WORKDAY Analysis Date & Returns the Excel date / time serial number of the =WORKDAY(start_date,days,holidays)
ToolPak Time date before or after a specified number of
workdays excluding holidays
XIRR Analysis Financial Returns the annual effective interest rate for a =XIRR(values,dates,guess)
ToolPak schedule of cash flows received at specified dates
XNPV Analysis Financial Returns the net present value for a schedule of =XNPV(rate,values,dates)
ToolPak cash flows received at specified dates

75
Name Source Type Description Syntax
YEAR Built In Date & Converts an Excel date / time serial number to a =YEAR(serial_number)
Time year
YEARFRAC Analysis Date & Returns the difference between start_date and =YEARFRAC(start_date,end_date,basis)
ToolPak Time end_date expressed as a number of years
including decimal fraction of a year.
YEN Built In Text Converts a number to text, using the ¥ (yen) =YEN(number,decimals)
currency format, with the number rounded to a
specified place
YIELD Analysis Financial Returns the yield on a security that pays periodic =YIELD(settlement,maturity,rate,pr,
ToolPak interest using the specified or default day redemption,frequency,basis)
counting basis
YIELDDISC Analysis Financial Returns the annual yield for a discounted security =YIELDDISC(settlement,maturity,pr,
ToolPak using the specified or default day counting basis. redemption,basis)
YIELDMAT Analysis Financial Returns the annual yield of a security that pays =YIELDMAT(settlement,maturity,issue,
ToolPak interest at maturity using the specified or default rate,pr,basis)
day counting basis
ZTEST Built In Statistical Returns the two-tailed P-value of a z-test =ZTEST(array,x,sigma)

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