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SEMESTER - IV

NOTES OF LESSON FOR

ELECTROMAGNETIC

FIELDS (SUBJECT

CODE: EC 43)

Electromagnetic field

A changing magnetic field always produces an electric field, and conversely, a changing

electric field always produces a magnetic field. This interaction of electric and magnetic

forces gives rise to a condition in space known as an electromagnetic field. The

characteristics of an electromagnetic field are expressed mathematically by Maxwell's

equation.

Vector

A directed line segment. As such, vectors have magnitude and direction. Many physical

quantities, for example, velocity, acceleration, and force, are vectors.

Cross product

space that results in another vector which is perpendicular to the two input vectors. By

contrast, the dot product produces a scalar result. In many engineering and physics

problems, it is handy to be able to construct a perpendicular vector from two existing

vectors, and the cross product provides a means for doing so. The cross product is also

known as the vector product, or Gibbs vector product.

The cross product is not defined except in three-dimensions (and the algebra defined by

the cross product is not associative). Like the dot product, it depends on the metric of

Euclidean space. Unlike the dot product, it also depends on the choice of orientation or

"handedness". Certain features of the cross product can be generalized to other situations.

For arbitrary choices of orientation, the cross product must be regarded not as a vector,

but as a pseudovector. For arbitrary choices of metric, and in arbitrary dimensions, the

cross product can be generalized by the exterior product of vectors, defining a two-form

instead of a vector.

Fig 1.2 Finding the direction of the cross product by the right-hand rule.

The cross product of two vectors a and b is denoted by a × b. In a three-dimensional

Euclidean space, with a usual right-handed coordinate system, it is defined as a vector c

that is perpendicular to both a and b, with a direction given by the right-hand rule and a

magnitude equal to the area of the parallelogram that the vectors span.

where θ is the measure of the angle between a and b (0° ≤ θ ≤ 180°), a and b are the

magnitudes of vectors a and b, and is a unit vector perpendicular to the plane

containing a and b. If the vectors a and b are collinear (i.e., the angle θ between them is

either 0° or 180°), by the above formula, the cross product of a and b is the zero vector 0.

The direction of the vector is given by the right-hand rule, where one simply points the

forefinger of the right hand in the direction of a and the middle finger in the direction of

b. Then, the vector is coming out of the thumb (see the picture on the right).

Using the cross product requires the handedness of the coordinate system to be taken into

account (as explicit in the definition above). If a left-handed coordinate system is used,

the direction of the vector is given by the left-hand rule and points in the opposite

direction.

Dot product

The dot product, also known as the scalar product, is an operation which takes two

vectors over the real numbers R and returns a real-valued scalar quantity.

where

θ is the angle between them.

Since |a|cos(θ) is the scalar projection of a onto b, the dot product can be understood

geometrically as the product of this projection with the length of b.

|a|•cos(θ) is the scalar projection of a onto b

Coordinate System

objects analytically

A cartesian coordinate system is one of the simplest and most useful systems of

coordinates. It is constructed by choosing a point O designated as the origin. Through it

three intersecting directed lines OX, OY, OZ, the coordinate axes, are constructed. The

coordinates of a point P are x, the distance of P from the plane YOZ measured parallel to

OX, and y and z, which are determined similarly (Fig. 1). Usually the three axes are taken

to be mutually perpendicular, in which case the system is a rectangular cartesian one.

Obviously a similar construction can be made in the plane, in which case a point has two

coordinates (x,y).

essentially extends circular polar coordinates by adding a third coordinate (usually

denoted h) which measures the height of a point above the plane.

• r is the distance from O to P', the orthogonal projection of the point P onto the XY

plane. This is the same as the distance of P to the z-axis.

• θ is the angle between the positive x-axis and the line OP', measured

counterclockwise.

• h is the same as z.

• Thus, the conversion function f from cylindrical coordinates to Cartesian

coordinates is .

Spherical Coordinates

• 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π is the angle between the positive x-axis and the line from the origin to

the P projected onto the xy-plane.

• 0 ≤ φ ≤ π is the angle between the positive z-axis and the line formed between the

origin and P.

angle.

θ and φ and lose significance when ρ = 0 and θ loses significance when sin(φ) = 0 (at φ =

0 and φ = 180°).

To plot a point from its spherical coordinates, go ρ units from the origin along the

positive z-axis, rotate φ about the y-axis in the direction of the positive x-axis and rotate

θ about the z-axis in the direction of the positive y-axis.

systems, there exist equations for converting coordinates between the spherical

coordinate system and others.

Cartesian coordinate system

The three spherical coordinates are obtained from Cartesian coordinates by:

Note that the arctangent must be defined suitably so as to take account of the correct

quadrant of y / x. The atan2 or equivalent function accomplishes this for computational

purposes.

In study of vector fields, directed line segments, also called flux lines or streamlines,

represent field variations graphically. The intensity of the field is proportional to the density of

lines. For example, the number of flux lines passing through a unit surface S normal to the

vector measures the vector field strength.

....................................................(1.1)

For a volume enclosed by a surface,

.........................................................................................(1.2)

We define the divergence of a vector field at a point P as the net outward flux from a

volume enclosing P, as the volume shrinks to zero.

.................................................................(1.3)

Here is the volume that encloses P and S is the corresponding closed surface.

Let us consider a differential volume centered on point P(u,v,w) in a vector field . The flux

through an elementary area normal to u is given by ,

........................................(1.4)

Fig 1.6 Evaluation of divergence in curvilinear coordinate

Net outward flux along u can be calculated considering the two elementary surfaces perpendicular to u .

.......................................(1.5)

Considering the contribution from all six surfaces that enclose the volume, we can write

.......................................(1.6)

Hence for the Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical polar coordinate system, the expressions for divergence can be

written as:

In Cartesian coordinates:

................................(1.7)

In cylindrical coordinates:

....................................................................(1.8)

and in spherical polar coordinates:

......................................(1.9)

In connection with the divergence of a vector field, the following can be noted

• ..............................................................................(1.10)

Divergence theorem :

Divergence theorem states that the volume integral of the divergence of vector field is equal

to the net outward flux of the vector through the closed surface that bounds the volume.

Mathematically,

Proof:

Let us consider a volume V enclosed by a surface S . Let us subdivide the volume in large

number of cells. Let the kth cell has a volume and the corresponding surface is denoted

by Sk. Interior to the volume, cells have common surfaces. Outward flux through these

common surfaces from one cell becomes the inward flux for the neighboring cells. Therefore

when the total flux from these cells are considered, we actually get the net outward flux

through the surface surrounding the volume. Hence we can write:

......................................(1.11)

In the limit, that is when and the right hand of the expression can be

written as .

Curl of a vector field:

Curl of a vector field is a measure of the vector field's tendency to rotate about a point. Curl

, also written as is defined as a vector whose magnitude is maximum of the net

circulation per unit area when the area tends to zero and its direction is the normal direction

to the area when the area is oriented in such a way so as to make the circulation maximum.

......................................(1.12)

To derive the expression for curl in generalized curvilinear coordinate system, we first

......................................(1.13)

The integrals on the RHS can be evaluated as follows:

.................................(1.14)

................................................(1.15)

The negative sign is because of the fact that the direction of traversal reverses. Similarly,

..................................................(1.16)

............................................................................(1.17)

........................................................................(1.18)

Therefore, ......................................................(1.19)

.......(1.20)

......................................................(1.21)

In Cylindrical coordinates, ....................................(1.23)

..............(1.25)

Stoke's theorem :

It states that the circulation of a vector field around a closed path is equal to the integral of

over the surface bounded by this path. It may be noted that this equality holds

provided and are continuous on the surface.

i.e,

..............(1.26)

Proof:Let us consider an area S that is subdivided into large number of cells as shown in the

figure 1.8

Fig 1.8 Stokes theorem

Let kthcell has surface area and is bounded path Lk while the total area is

bounded by path L. As seen from the figure that if we evaluate the sum of the line

integrals around the elementary areas, there is cancellation along every interior

path and we are left the line integral along path L. Therefore we can write,

..............(1.27)

As 0

. .............(1.28)

Coulomb's Law

"The magnitude of the electrostatic force between two point charges is directly

proportional to the magnitudes of each charge and inversely proportional to the square

of the distance between the charges."

Coulomb's law states that the electrical force between two charged objects is directly

proportional to the product of the quantity of charge on the objects and inversely

proportional to the square of the separation distance between the two objects. In equation

form, Coulomb's law can be stated as

…………………………(1.29)

where Q1 represents the quantity of charge on object 1 (in Coulombs), Q2 represents the

quantity of charge on object 2 (in Coulombs), and d represents the distance of separation

between the two objects (in meters). The symbol k is a proportionality constant known as

the Coulomb's law constant. The value of this constant is dependent upon the medium

that the charged objects are immersed in.

(We are assuming the charges are in free space. If the charges are any other dielectric

medium, we will use instead where is called the relative permittivity or the

dielectric constant of the medium).

Therefore .......................(1.30)

As shown in the Figure 2.1 let the position vectors of the point charges Q1and Q2 are given

The charges are separated by a distance of . We define the unit vectors

as

and ..................................(1.31)

can be defined as

. …..(1.32)

Similarly the force on Q1 due to charge Q2 can be calculated and if represents this force

When we have a number of point charges, to determine the force on a particular charge due

to all other charges, we apply principle of superposition. If we have N number of charges

.................................(1.33)

Electric Field

The electric field intensity or the electric field strength at a point is defined as the force per

unit charge. That is

or, .......................................(1.34)

The electric field intensity E at a point r (observation point) due a point charge Q located at

(source point) is given by:

..........................................(1.35)

For a collection of N point charges Q1 ,Q2 ,.........QN located at , ,...... , the electric field intensity at point is

obtained as

........................................(1.36)

compute the electric filed due to a continuous

distribution of charges.

distribution of charge ρ (t) in the region denoted as the

source region.

considering this charge as point charge, we can write

the field expression as:

.............(2.7)

When this expression is integrated over the source region, we get the electric field at the

point P due to this distribution of charges. Thus the expression for the electric field at P can

be written as:

..........................................(1.37)

Similar technique can be adopted when the charge distribution is in the form of a line charge

density or a surface charge density.

........................................(1.38)

........................................(1.39)

Electric field strength

Electric field strength is a vector quantity; it has both magnitude and direction. The

magnitude of the electric field strength is defined in terms of how it is measured. Let's

suppose that an electric charge can be denoted by the

symbol Q. This electric charge creates an electric field;

since Q is the source of the electric field, we will refer to

it as the source charge. The strength of the source

charge's electric field could be measured by any other

charge placed somewhere in its surroundings. The charge

that is used to measure the electric field strength is referred to as a test charge since it is

used to test the field strength. The test charge has a quantity of charge denoted by the

symbol q. When placed within the electric field, the test charge will experience an

electric force - either attractive or repulsive. As is usually the case, this force will be

denoted by the symbol F. The magnitude of the electric field is simply defined as the

force per charge on the test charge.

If the electric field strength is denoted by the symbol E, then the equation can be

rewritten in symbolic form as

The standard metric units on electric field strength arise from its definition. Since electric

field is defined as a force per charge, its units would be force units divided by charge

units. In this case, the standard metric units are Newton/Coulomb or N/C.

The magnitude or strength of an electric field in the space surrounding a source charge is

related directly to the quantity of charge on the source charge and inversely to the

distance from the source charge. The direction of the electric field is always directed in

the direction that a positive test charge would be pushed or pulled if placed in the space

surrounding the source charge. Since electric field is a vector quantity, it can be

represented by a vector arrow. For any given location, the arrows point in the direction of

the electric field and their length is proportional to the strength of the electric field at that

location. Such vector arrows are shown in the diagram below. Note that the length of the

arrows are longer when closer to the source charge and shorter when further from the

source charge.

A more useful means of visually representing the vector nature of an electric field is

through the use of electric field lines of force. Rather than draw countless vector arrows

in the space surrounding a source charge, it is perhaps more useful to draw a pattern of

several lines which extend between infinity and the source charge. These pattern of lines,

sometimes referred to as electric field lines, point in the direction which a positive test

charge would accelerate if placed upon the line. As such, the lines are directed away from

positively charged source charges and toward negatively charged source charges. To

communicate information about the direction of the field, each line must include an

arrowhead which points in the appropriate direction. An electric field line pattern could

include an infinite number of lines. Because drawing such large quantities of lines tends

to decrease the readability of the patterns, the number of lines are usually limited. The

presence of a few lines around a charge is typically sufficient to convey the nature of the

electric field in the space surrounding the lines.

the excess charge has optimally distanced itself so as to reduce the total amount of

repulsive forces. Once a charged conductor has reached the state of electrostatic

equilibrium, there is no further motion of charge about the surface.

Electric Fields Inside of Charged Conductors

unusual characteristics. One characteristic of a conductor at electrostatic equilibrium is

that the electric field anywhere beneath the surface of a charged conductor is zero. If an

electric field did exist beneath the surface of a conductor (and inside of it), then the

electric field would exert a force on all electrons that were present there. This net force

would begin to accelerate and move these electrons. But objects at electrostatic

equilibrium have no further motion of charge about the surface. So if this were to occur,

then the original claim that the object was at electrostatic equilibrium would be a false

claim. If the electrons within a conductor have assumed an equilibrium state, then the net

force upon those electrons is zero. The electric field lines either begin or end upon a

charge and in the case of a conductor, the charge exists solely upon its outer surface. The

lines extend from this surface outward, not inward. This of course presumes that our

conductor does not surround a region of space where there was another charge.

To illustrate this characteristic, let's consider the space between and inside of two

concentric, conducting cylinders of different radii as shown in the diagram at the right.

The outer cylinder is charged positively. The inner cylinder is

charged negatively. The electric field about the inner cylinder

is directed towards the negatively charged cylinder. Since this

cylinder does not surround a region of space where there is

another charge, it can be concluded that the excess charge

resides solely upon the outer surface of this inner cylinder. The

electric field inside the inner cylinder would be zero. When

drawing electric field lines, the lines would be drawn from the

inner surface of the outer cylinder to the outer surface of the

inner cylinder. For the excess charge on the outer cylinder, there is more to consider than

merely the repulsive forces between charges on its surface. While the excess charge on

the outer cylinder seeks to reduce repulsive forces between its excess charge, it must

balance this with the tendency to be attracted to the negative charges on the inner

cylinder. Since the outer cylinder surrounds a region which is charged, the characteristic

of charge residing on the outer surface of the conductor does not apply.

This concept of the electric field being zero inside of a closed conducting surface was

first demonstrated by Michael Faraday, a 19th century physicist who promoted the field

theory of electricity. Faraday constructed a room within a room, covering the inner room

with a metal foil. He sat inside the inner room with an electroscope and charged the

surfaces of the outer and inner room using an electrostatic generator. While sparks were

seen flying between the walls of the two rooms, there was no detection of an electric field

within the inner room. The excess charge on the walls of the inner room resided entirely

upon the outer surface of the room.

The inner room with the conducting frame which protected Faraday from the static

charge is now referred to as a Faraday's cage. The cage serves to shield whomever and

whatever is on the inside from the influence of electric fields. Any closed, conducting

surface can serve as a Faraday's cage, shielding whatever it surrounds from the

potentially damaging affects of electric fields. This principle of shielding is commonly

utilized today as we protect delicate electrical equipment by enclosing them in metal

cases. Even delicate computer chips and other components are shipped inside of

conducting plastic packaging which shields the chips from potentially damaging affects

of electric fields.

upon the surface of the conductor is directed entirely perpendicular to the surface. There

cannot be a component of electric field (or electric force) that is parallel to the surface. If

the conducting object is spherical, then this means that the perpendicular electric field

vector are aligned with the center of the sphere. If the object is irregularly shaped, then

the electric field vector at any location is perpendicular to a tangent line drawn to the

surface at that location.

and motion. The motion of electrons, like any physical object, is governed by Newton's

laws. One outcome of Newton's laws was that unbalanced forces cause objects to

accelerate in the direction of the unbalanced force and a balance of forces cause objects

to remain at equilibrium. This truth provides the foundation for the rationale behind why

electric fields must be directed perpendicular to the surface of conducting objects. If there

were a component of electric field directed parallel to the surface, then the excess charge

on the surface would be forced into accelerated motion by this component. If a charge is

set into motion, then the object upon which it is on is not in a state of electrostatic

equilibrium. Therefore, the electric field must be entirely perpendicular to the conducting

surface for objects which are at electrostatic equilibrium. Certainly a conducting object

which has recently acquired an excess charge has a component of electric field (and

electric force) parallel to the surface; it is this component which acts upon the newly

acquired excess charge to distribute the excess charge over the surface and establish

electrostatic equilibrium. But once reached, there is no longer any parallel component of

electric field and no longer any motion of excess charge.

Electric Fields and Surface Curvature

fields are strongest at locations along the surface where the object is most curved. The

curvature of a surface can range from absolute flatness on one extreme to being curved to

a blunt point on the other extreme.

A flat location has no curvature and is characterized by relatively weak electric fields. On

the other hand, a blunt point has a high degree of curvature and is characterized by

relatively strong electric fields. A sphere is uniformly shaped with the same curvature at

every location along its surface. As such, the electric field strength on the surface of a

sphere is everywhere the same.

To understand the rationale for this third characteristic, we will consider an irregularly

shaped object which is negatively charged. Such an object has an excess of electrons.

These electrons would distribute themselves in such a manner as to reduce the affect of

their repulsive forces. Since electrostatic forces vary inversely with the

square of the distance, these electrons would tend to position themselves

so as to increase their distance from one another. On a regularly shaped

sphere, the ultimate distance between every neighboring electron would

be the same. But on an irregularly shaped object, excess electrons would

tend to accumulate in greater density along locations of greatest

curvature. Consider the diagram at the right. Electrons A and B are

located along a flatter section of the surface. Like all well-behaved

electrons, they repel each other. The repulsive forces are directed along

a line connecting charge to charge, making the repulsive force primarily parallel to the

surface. On the other hand, electrons C and D are located along a section of the surface

with a sharper curvature. These excess electrons also repel each other with a force

directed along a line connecting charge to charge. But now the force is directed at a

sharper angle to the surface. The components of these forces parallel to the surface are

considerably less. A majority of the repulsive force between electrons C and D is directed

perpendicular to the surface.

The parallel components of these repulsive forces is what causes excess electrons to

move along the surface of the conductor. The electrons will move and distribute

themselves until electrostatic equilibrium is reached. Once reached, the resultant of all

parallel components on any given excess electron (and on all excess electrons) will add

up to zero. All the parallel components of force on each of the electrons must be zero

since the net force parallel to the surface of the conductor is always zero (the second

characteristic discussed above). For the same separation distance, the parallel component

of force is greatest in the case of electrons A and B. So to acquire this balance of parallel

forces, electrons A and B must distance themselves further from each other than electrons

C and D. Electrons C and D on the other hand can crowd closer together at their location

since that the parallel component of repulsive forces is less. In the end, a relatively large

quantity of charge accumulates on the locations of greatest curvature. This larger quantity

of charge combined with the fact that their repulsive forces are primarily directed

perpendicular to the surface results in a considerably stronger electric field at such

locations of increased curvature.

The fact that surfaces which are sharply curved to a blunt edge create strong electric

fields is the underlying principle for the use of lightning rods.

In the previous sections we have seen how the electric field

intensity due to a charge or a charge distribution can be found

using Coulomb's law or Gauss's law. Since a charge placed in the

vicinity of another charge (or in other words in the field of other

charge) experiences a force, the movement of the charge

represents energy exchange. Electrostatic potential is related to the

work done in carrying a charge from one point to the other in the

presence of an electric field.

from a point P to another point Q as shown in the Fig. 1.11

The force at any point along its path would cause the particle to

accelerate and move it out of the region if unconstrained. Since we

are dealing with an electrostatic case, a force equal to the negative

of that acting on the charge is to be applied while moves from P Fig 1.11 Movement of Test Charge in Electric

to Q. The work done by this external agent in moving the charge by Field

a distance is given by:

.............................(1.40)

The negative sign accounts for the fact that work is done on the system by the external

agent.

.....................................(1.41)

The potential difference between two points P and Q , VPQ, is defined as the work done per

unit charge, i.e.

...............................(1.42)

It may be noted that in moving a charge from the initial point to the final point if the potential

difference is positive, there is a gain in potential energy in the movement, external agent

performs the work against the field. If the sign of the potential difference is negative, work is

done by the field.

We will see that the electrostatic system is conservative in that no net energy is exchanged if

the test charge is moved about a closed path, i.e. returning to its initial position. Further, the

potential difference between two points in an electrostatic field is a point function; it is

independent of the path taken. The potential difference is measured in Joules/Coulomb

which is referred to as Volts.

Further consider the two points A and B as shown in the Fig.1.12. Considering the movement

of a unit positive test charge from B to A , we can write an expression for the potential

difference as:

..................................(1.43)

It is customary to choose the potential to be zero at infinity. Thus potential at any point ( rA =

r) due to a point charge Q can be written as the amount of work done in bringing a unit

positive charge from infinity to that point (i.e. rB = 0).

..................................(1.44)

..................................(1.45)

Let us now consider a situation where the point charge Q is not located at the origin as

shown in Fig. 1.13.

..................................(1.46)

So far we have considered the potential due to point charges only. As any other type of

charge distribution can be considered to be consisting of point charges, the same basic

ideas now can be extended to other types of charge distribution also.

Let us first consider N point charges Q1, Q2,.....QN located at points with position vectors ,

,...... . The potential at a point having position vector can be written as:

..................................(1.47)

or, ...........................................................(1.48)

elements or or depending on whether the charge distribution is linear,

surface or a volume charge distribution and the summation is replaced by an integral. With

these modifications we can write:

It may be noted here that the primed coordinates represent the source coordinates and the

unprimed coordinates represent field point.

Further, in our discussion so far we have used the reference or zero potential at infinity. If

any other point is chosen as reference, we can write:

.................................(1.52)

where C is a constant. In the same manner when potential is computed from a known

electric field we can write:

.................................(1.53)

.......................(1.54)

We have mentioned that electrostatic field is a conservative field; the work done in moving a

charge from one point to the other is independent of the path. Let us consider moving a

charge from point P1 to P2 in one path and then from point P2 back to P1 over a different path.

If the work done on the two paths were different, a net positive or negative amount of work

would have been done when the body returns to its original position P1. In a conservative

field there is no mechanism for dissipating energy corresponding to any positive work neither

any source is present from which energy could be absorbed in the case of negative work.

Hence the question of different works in two paths is untenable, the work must have to be

independent of path and depends on the initial and final positions.

Since the potential difference is independent of the paths taken, VAB = - VBA , and over a

closed path,

.................................(1.55)

............................(1.56)

........................................(1.57)

.................................(1.58)

..........................................(1.59)

From the foregoing discussions we observe that the electric field strength at any point is the negative of the poten

gradient at any point, negative sign shows that is directed from higher to lower values of . This gives us ano

method of computing the electric field, i. e. if we know the potential function, the electric field may be computed. W

may note here that that one scalar function contain all the information that three components of carry, the sa

possible because of the fact that three components of are interrelated by the relation .

Example: Electric Dipole

two point charges of equal

magnitude but of opposite sign

and separated by a small

distance.

dipole is formed by the two

point charges Q and -Q

separated by a distance d , the

charges being placed

symmetrically about the origin.

Let us consider a point P at a

distance r, where we are

interested to find the field. Fig 1.14 : Electric Dipole

The potential at P due to the dipole can be written as:

..........................(1.60)

Therefore,

....................................................(1.62)

We can write,

...............................................(1.63)

Hence the expression for the electric potential can now be written as:

................................(1.64)

It may be noted that while potential of an isolated charge varies with distance as 1/r that of

an electric dipole varies as 1/r2 with distance.

If the dipole is not centered at the origin, but the dipole center lies at , the expression for

the potential can be written as:

........................(1.65)

The electric field for the dipole centered at the origin can be computed as

........................(1.66)

is the magnitude of the dipole moment. Once again we note that the electric field of

electric dipole varies as 1/r3 where as that of a point charge varies as 1/r2.

As stated earlier electric field intensity or simply ‘Electric field' gives the strength of the field

at a particular point. The electric field depends on the material media in which the field is

being considered. The flux density vector is defined to be independent of the material media

(as we'll see that it relates to the charge that is producing it).For a linear

isotropic medium under consideration; the flux density vector is defined as:

................................................(1.67)

.....................................(1.68)

Gauss's Law: Gauss's law is one of the fundamental laws of electromagnetism and it states

that the total electric flux through a closed surface is equal to the total charge enclosed by

the surface.

Fig 1.15 Gauss's Law

constant ε . The flux density at a distance r on a surface enclosing the charge is given by

...............................................(1.69)

If we consider an elementary area ds, the amount of flux passing through the elementary

area is given by

.....................................(1.70)

But , is the elementary solid angle subtended by the area at the location of

which can seen to be same as what we have stated in the definition of Gauss's Law.

Gauss's law is particularly useful in computing or where the charge distribution has

some symmetry. We shall illustrate the application of Gauss's Law with some examples.

As the first example of illustration of use of Gauss's law, let consider the problem of

determination of the electric field produced by an infinite line charge of density ρ LC/m. Let

us consider a line charge positioned along the z-axis as shown in Fig.1.16(a) (next slide).

Since the line charge is assumed to be infinitely long, the electric field will be of the form as

shown in Fig. 2.4(b) (next slide).

If we consider a close cylindrical surface as shown in Fig.1.16(a), using Gauss's theorm we

can write,

.....................................(1.71)

Considering the fact that the unit normal vector to areas S1 and S3 are perpendicular to the

electric field, the surface integrals for the top and bottom surfaces evaluates to zero. Hence

we can write,

.....................................(1.72)

2. Infinite Sheet of Charge

theorem, we consider an infinite charged sheet

covering the x-z plane as shown in figure 1.17

infinite surface charge, if we consider a cylindrical

volume having sides placed symmetrically , we

can write:

..............(1.73)

It may be noted that the electric field strength is independent of distance. This is true for the infinite plane of

charge; electric lines of force on either side of the charge will be perpendicular to the sheet and extend to

infinity as parallel lines. As number of lines of force per unit area gives the strength of the field, the field

becomes independent of distance. For a finite charge sheet, the field will be a function of distance.

volume charge density of ρ v C/m3. To determine

everywhere, inside and outside the sphere, we

construct Gaussian surfaces of radius r < r0 and r >

r0 as shown in Fig. 1.18(a) and Fig.1.18(b).

be

...............(1.75)

Therefore

...............................................(1.76)

....................................................................(1.77)

.....................................................(1.78)

Unit II Static Magnetic Field

Introduction :

stationary charges. The relationship of the steady magnetic field to its sources is much more

complicated.

The source of steady magnetic field may be a permanent magnet, a direct current or an

electric field changing with time. In this chapter we shall mainly consider the magnetic field

produced by a direct current. The magnetic field produced due to time varying electric field

will be discussed later. Historically, the link between the electric and magnetic field was

established Oersted in 1820. Ampere and others extended the investigation of magnetic

effect of electricity . There are two major laws governing the magnetostatic fields are:

• Biot-Savart Law

• Ampere's Law

represent the direction of the magnetic field intensity (or current) by a small circle with a dot

or cross sign depending on whether the field (or current) is out of or into the page as shown

in Fig. 2.1.

This law relates the magnetic field intensity dH produced at a point due to a differential

current element as shown in Fig. 2.2.

Fig. 2.2: Magnetic field intensity due to a current element

............................(2.1a)

..............................................(2.1b)

Similar to different charge distributions, we can have different current distribution such as line

current, surface current and volume current. These different types of current densities are

shown in Fig. 2.3.

By denoting the surface current density as K (in amp/m) and volume current density as J (in

amp/m2) we can write:

......................................(2.2)

Employing Biot-Savart Law, we can now express the magnetic field intensity H. In terms of

these current distributions.

To illustrate the application of Biot - Savart's Law, we consider the following example.

Example 2.1: We consider a finite length of a conductor carrying a current placed along z-

axis as shown in the Fig 2.4. We determine the magnetic field at point P due to this current

carrying conductor.

Fig. 2.4: Field at a point P due to a finite length current carrying conductor

..........................................(2.4)

we can write,

..............................................(2.5)

..............(2.6)

Therefore, .........................................................................................(2.7)

The value of the constant of proportionality 'K' depends upon a property called

permeability of the medium around the conductor. Permeability is represented by

symbol 'm' and the constant 'K' is expressed in terms of 'm' as

Magnetic field 'B' is a vector and unless we give the direction of 'dB', its description is

not complete. Its direction is found to be perpendicular to the plane of 'r' and 'dl'.

If we assign the direction of the current 'I' to the length element 'dl', the vector product

dl x r has magnitude r dl sinq and direction perpendicular to 'r' and 'dl'.

Hence, Biot–Savart law can be stated in vector form to give both the magnitude as well

as direction of magnetic field due to a current element as

is much higher than that for other materials. The permeability of free space (vacuum) is

denoted by the symbol 'm0' and its value is 4p x 10–7 Wb/Am

Ampere's Circuital Law:

Ampere's circuital law states that the line integral of the magnetic field (circulation of H )

around a closed path is the net current enclosed by this path. Mathematically,

......................................(24.8)

......................................(24.9)

By applying Stoke's theorem, we can write

......................................(2.10)

which is the Ampere's law in the point form.

Example2.2: We compute magnetic field due to an infinitely long thin current carrying

conductor as shown in Fig. 2.5. Using Ampere's Law, we consider the close path to be a

circle of radius as shown in the Fig. 4.5.

,i.e., .

......................................

(2.11)

Fig. 2.5: Magnetic field due to an infinite thin current carrying conductor

Example 2.3: We consider the cross section of an infinitely long coaxial conductor, the

inner conductor carrying a current I and outer conductor carrying current - I as shown in

figure 2.6. We compute the magnetic field as a function of as follows:

In the region

......................................(2.12)

............................(2.13)

In the region

......................................(2.14)

In the region

......................................(2.15)

........................................(2.16)

In the region

......................................(2.17)

Lorentz force

A charged particle at rest will not interact with a static magnetic field. But if the charged

particle is moving in a magnetic field, the magnetic character of a charge in motion

becomes evident. It experiences a deflecting force. The force is greatest when the

particle moves in a direction perpendicular to the magnetic field lines. At other angles,

the force is less and becomes zero when the particles move parallel to the field lines. In

any case, the direction of the force is always perpendicular to the magnetic field lines

and to the velocity of the charged particle.

The amount of magnetic flux through a unit area taken perpendicular to the direction of

the magnetic flux. Also called magnetic induction.

Definition Of Ampere

When two current carrying conductors are placed next to each other, we notice that each

induces a force on the other. Each conductor produces a magnetic field around itself

(Biot–Savart law) and the second experiences a force that is given by the Lorentz force.

Ampere's Law

The magnetic field in space around an electric current is proportional to the electric

current which serves as its source, just as the electric field in space is proportional

to the charge which serves as its source.

Ampere's law states that for any closed loop path, the sum of the length elements

times the magnetic field in the direction of the length element is equal to the

permeability times the electric current enclosed in the loop.

Or

In the electric case, the relation of field to source is quantified in Gauss's Law

which is a very powerful tool for calculating electric fields.

Ampere's law can be used to calculate 'B' for various current carrying conductor

configurations.

Gauss's Law

Gauss's law for magnetic field This law deals with magnetic flux inside a closed

surface and is equivalent to Gauss's law for electric field discussed in Electric Charge

and Electric Field, connected electric flux j E and electric charge.

And j E = E. A

Similarly, magnetic flux fB can be defined as the number of lines of force crossing a unit

area.

Since there are no free magnetic charges, the magnetic flux crossing a closed surface

will always be zero. Thus Gauss's law of magnetic field says that the net magnetic

flux fB out of any closed surface is zero.

or B.A = 0

Lenz's law

Soon after Faraday proposed his law of electromagnetic induction, Lenz gave the law

determining the direction of the induced emf.

The direction of the induced current is such as to oppose the cause producing it.

Lenz's law can be compared with the Newton's third law ? every action has equal and

opposite reaction.

When an emf is generated by a change in magnetic flux according to the Faraday's law,

the polarity of the induced emf is such that it produces a current whose magnetic field

opposes the change that produces it. The induced magnetic field inside any loop of wire

always acts to keep the magnetic flux in the loop constant.

In the examples below, if the 'B' field is increasing, the induced field acts in opposition

to it. If it is decreasing, the induced field acts in the direction of the applied field to try

to keep it constant.

Magnetic Flux

Faraday understood that the magnitude of the induced current in a loop was due to the

"amount of magnetic field" passing through the loop.

To visualize this "amount of magnetic field", which is now called the magnetic flux, he

introduced a mental picture of magnetic field as lines of force. This is exactly analogous

to electric flux.

Magnetic flux is the product of the 'B' times the perpendicular area that it penetrates.

The contribution to jB for a given area is equal to the area times the component of

magnetic field perpendicular to the area.

For a closed surface, the sum of magnetic flux is always equal to zero (This is also

known as Gauss's law for magnetic field).

The standard unit for magnetic flux is a weber (Wb), it is the number of magnetic lines

of force (Tesla) crossing a unit area (m2).

In simple matter, the magnetic flux density related to the magnetic field intensity as

where called the permeability. In particular when we consider the free space

density is measured in terms of Wb/m 2 .

Wb ......................................(2.18)

In the case of electrostatic field, we have seen that if the surface is a closed surface, the net

flux passing through the surface is equal to the charge enclosed by the surface. In case of

magnetic field isolated magnetic charge (i. e. pole) does not exist. Magnetic poles always

occur in pair (as N-S). For example, if we desire to have an isolated magnetic pole by

dividing the magnetic bar successively into two, we end up with pieces each having north (N)

and south (S) pole as shown in Fig. 2.7 (a). This process could be continued until the

magnets are of atomic dimensions; still we will have N-S pair occurring together. This means

that the magnetic poles cannot be isolated.

Fig. 2.7: (a) Subdivision of a magnet (b) Magnetic field/ flux lines of a straight current

carrying conductor

Similarly if we consider the field/flux lines of a current carrying conductor as shown in Fig. 2.7

(b), we find that these lines are closed lines, that is, if we consider a closed surface, the

number of flux lines that would leave the surface would be same as the number of flux lines

that would enter the surface.

......................................(2.19)

Hence, ......................................(2.20)

which is the Gauss's law for the magnetic field in point form.

In studying electric field problems, we introduced the concept of electric potential that simplified the computation of

electric fields for certain types of problems. In the same manner let us relate the magnetic field intensity to a scalar

magnetic potential and write:

...................................(2.21)

......................................(2.22)

Therefore, ............................(2.23)

But using vector identity, we find that is valid only where . Thus the scalar magnetic

potential is defined only in the region where . Moreover, Vm in general is not a single valued function of position.

This point can be illustrated as follows. Let us consider the cross section of a coaxial line as

shown in fig 2.8.

If Vm is the magnetic potential then,

We observe that as we make a complete lap around the current carrying conductor , we

reach again but Vm this time becomes

We observe that value of Vm keeps changing as we complete additional laps to pass through

the same point. We introduced Vm analogous to electostatic potential V. But for static electric

We now introduce the vector magnetic potential which can be used in regions where

current density may be zero or nonzero and the same can be easily extended to time varying

cases. The use of vector magnetic potential provides elegant ways of solving EM field

problems.

Since and we have the vector identity that for any vector , , we can

write .

Here, the vector field is called the vector magnetic potential. Its SI unit is Wb/m. Thus if

can find of a given current distribution, can be found from through a curl operation.

We have introduced the vector function and related its curl to . A vector function is

defined fully in terms of its curl as well as divergence. The choice of is made as follows.

...........................................(2.24)

By using vector identity, .................................................(2.25)

.........................................(2.26)

In Cartesian coordinates, the above equation can be written in terms of the components as

......................................(2.27a)

......................................(2.27b)

......................................(2.27c)

..........................................(2.28)

..................(2.29)

In case of time varying fields we shall see that , which is known as Lorentz

condition, V being the electric potential. Here we are dealing with static magnetic field, so

.

...................................(2.30)

Computing similar solutions for other two components of the vector potential, the vector

potential can be written as

.......................................(2.31)

This equation enables us to find the vector potential at a given point because of a volume

current density . Similarly for line or surface current density we can write

...................................................(2.32)

respectively. ..............................(2.33)

.............................................(2.34)

Substituting

.........................................(2.35)

Vector potential thus have the physical significance that its integral around any closed path is

equal to the magnetic flux passing through that path.

The magnetic moment of an object is a vector relating the aligning torque in a magnetic

field experienced by the object to the field vector itself. The relationship is given by

where

is the magnetic moment, measured in ampere meters-squared, and

is the magnetic field, measured in teslas or, equivalently in newtons per

(ampere-meter).

The magnetic scalar potential is another useful tool in describing the magnetic field

around a current source. It is only defined in regions of space in absence of (but could be

near) currents.

Applying Ampere's Law to the above definition we get:

Since in any continuous field, the curl of a gradient is zero, this would suggest that

magnetic scalar potential fields cannot support any sources. In fact, sources can be

supported by applying discontinuities to the potential field (thus the same point can have

two values for points along the disconuity). These discontinuities are also known as

"cuts". When solving magnetostatics problems using magnetic scalar potential, the source

currents must be applied at the discontinuity.

The magnetic scalar potential is suited to use around lines/loops of currents, but not a

region of space with finite current density. The use of magnetic potential reduces the

three components of the magnetic field to one component , making computations

and algebraic manipulations easier. It is often used in magnetostatics, but rarely used in

other applications.

The magnetic vector potential is a three-dimensional vector field whose curl is the

magnetic field in the theory of electromagnetism:

Unit III Electric And Magnetic Fiels In Materials

Poisson's equation

The derivation of Poisson's equation in electrostatics follows. SI units are used and

Euclidean space is assumed.

Starting with Gauss' law for electricity (also part of Maxwell's equations) in a differential

control volume, we have:

is the electric displacement field.

ρ is the charge density.

is the electric field.

is the vacuum permittivity.

is the relative permittivity of the medium.

Since the curl of the electric field is zero, it is defined by a scalar electric potential field,

Solving Poisson's equation for the potential requires knowing the charge density

distribution. If the charge density is zero, then Laplace's equation results.

Laplace's equation

of real variables, x, y, and z, such that

or

then the equation is called "Poisson's equation." Laplace's equation and Poisson's

equation are the simplest examples of elliptic partial differential equations. The partial

differential operator, , or Δ, (which may be defined in any number of dimensions) is

called the Laplace operator, or just the Laplacian

..........................................................................................(3.1)

..................................................................(3.2)

For a simple homogeneous medium, is constant and . Therefore,

................(3.4)

This equation is known as Poisson’s equation. Here we have introduced a new operator,

( del square), called the Laplacian operator. In Cartesian coordinates,

...............(3.4)

...............(3.5)

In cylindrical coordinates,

...............(3.6)

...............(3.7)

At points in simple media, where no free charge is present, Poisson’s equation reduces to

...................................(3.8)

Laplace’s and Poisson’s equation are very useful for solving many practical electrostatic field

problems where only the electrostatic conditions (potential and charge) at some boundaries

are known and solution of electric field and potential is to be found throughout the volume.

We shall consider such applications in the section where we deal with boundary value

problems.

The behavior of electric fields (E, D),magnetic fields (B, H), charge density (ρ) and

current density (J) are described by Maxwell's equations. The role of the polarization

density P is described below.

Relations between E, D and P

which is convenient for various calculations.A relation between P and E exists in many

materials, as described later in the article.

Bound charge

material, which creates an additional charge density, known as the bound charge density

ρb:so that the total charge density that enters Maxwell's equations is given bywhere ρf is

the free charge density (describing charges brought from outside).At the surface of the

polarized material, the bound charge appears as a surface charge densitywhere is the

normal vector. If P is uniform inside the material, this surface charge is the only bound

charge.

When the polarization density changes with time, the time-dependent bound-charge

density creates a current density of so that the total current density that enters Maxwell's

equations is given by where Jf is the free-charge current density, and the second term is a

contribution from the magnetization (when it exists).

Capacitance is a measure of the amount of electric charge stored (or separated) for a

given electric potential. The most common form of charge storage device is a two-plate

capacitor. If the charges on the plates are +Q and -Q, and V gives the voltage difference

between the plates, then the capacitance is given by

Capacitors

The capacitance of the majority of capacitors used in electronic circuits is several orders

of magnitude smaller than the farad. The most common subunits of capacitance in use

today are the millifarad (mF), microfarad (µF), the nanofarad (nF) and the picofarad (pF)

The capacitance can be calculated if the geometry of the conductors and the dielectric

properties of the insulator between the conductors are known. For example, the

capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor constructed of two parallel plates of area A

separated by a distance d is approximately equal to the following:

or

where

ϵs is the static permittivity of the insulator used (or ϵ0 for a vacuum)

A is the area of each plate, measured in square metres

ϵr is the relative static permittivity (sometimes called the dielectric constant) of

the material between the plates, (vacuum =1)

d is the separation between the plates, measured in metres

the plates.

body and any charge given to such conductor will distribute themselves in such a manner

that electric field inside the conductor vanishes. If an additional amount of charge is supplied

to an isolated conductor at a given potential, this additional charge will increase the surface

potential of the conductor will also increase maintaining the ratio same. Thus we can write

conductor. SI unit of capacitance is Coulomb/ Volt also called Farad denoted by F. It can It

can be seen that if V=1, C = Q. Thus capacity of an isolated conductor can also be defined

as the amount of charge in Coulomb required to raise the potential of the conductor by 1

Volt.

Of considerable interest in practice is a capacitor that consists of two (or more) conductors

carrying equal and opposite charges and separated by some dielectric media or free space.

The conductors may have arbitrary shapes. A two-conductor capacitor is shown in figure 3.1

Fig 3.1: Capacitance and Capacitors

When a d-c voltage source is connected between the conductors, a charge transfer occurs which results into a positive

charge on one conductor and negative charge on the other conductor. The conductors are equipotential surfaces and

the field lines are perpendicular to the conductor surface. If V is the mean potential difference between the conductors,

the capacitance is given by . Capacitance of a capacitor depends on the geometry of the conductor and the

permittivity of the medium between them and does not depend on the charge or potential difference between

conductors. The capacitance can be computed by assuming Q(at the same time -Q on the other conductor), first

determining using Gauss’s theorem and then determining . We illustrate this procedure by taking the

example of a parallel plate capacitor

Example: Parallel plate capacitor

For the parallel plate capacitor shown in the figure 3.2, let each plate has area A and a distance h separates the plates.

A dielectric of permittivity fills the region between the plates. The electric field lines are confined between the plates.

We ignore the flux fringing at the edges of the plates and charges are assumed to be uniformly distributed over the

As we have assumed to be uniform and fringing of field is neglected, we see that E is

constant in the region between the plates and therefore, we can write . Thus,

........................(3.10)

Capacitors are connected in various manners in electrical circuits; series and parallel

connections are the two basic ways of connecting capacitors. We compute the equivalent

capacitance for such connections.

Series Case: Series connection of two capacitors is shown in the figure 3.3. For this case

we can write,

.......................(3.11)

Fig 3.3: Series Connection of Capacitors Fig 3.4: Parallel Connection of Capacitors

The same approach may be extended to more than two capacitors connected in series.

Parallel Case: For the parallel case, the voltages across the capacitors are the same.

Therefore, .......................(3.12)

Electrostatic Energy and Energy Density

We have stated that the electric potential at a point in an electric field is the amount of work

required to bring a unit positive charge from infinity (reference of zero potential) to that point.

To determine the energy that is present in an assembly of charges, let us first determine the

amount of work required to assemble them. Let us consider a number of discrete charges

Q1, Q2,......., QN are brought from infinity to their present position one by one. Since initially

there is no field present, the amount of work done in bring Q1 is zero. Q2 is brought in the

presence of the field of Q1, the work done W1= Q2V21 where V21 is the potential at the location

of Q2 due to Q1. Proceeding in this manner, we can write, the total work done

.....................................

............(3.13)

.................(3.14)

Therefore,

....

............(3.15)

Here VIJ represent voltage at the Ith charge location due to Jth charge. Therefore,

Or, ................(3.16)

If instead of discrete charges, we now have a distribution of charges over a volume v then

we can write,

................(3.17)

where is the volume charge density and V represents the potential function.

.......................................(3.18)

, we can write

................(3.19)

the term V varies as while the area varies as r2. Hence the integral term varies at least

as and the as surface becomes large (i.e. ) the integral term tends to zero

................(3.20)

In our discussions so far we have considered the existence of electric field in the homogeneous

medium. Practical electromagnetic problems often involve media with different physical properties.

Determination of electric field for such problems requires the knowledge of the relations of field

quantities at an interface between two media. The conditions that the fields must satisfy at the

interface of two different media are referred to as boundary conditions .

In order to discuss the boundary conditions, we first consider the field behavior in some

common material media.

In general, based on the electric properties, materials can be classified into three categories:

conductors, semiconductors and insulators (dielectrics). In conductor , electrons in the

outermost shells of the atoms are very loosely held and they migrate easily from one atom to

the other. Most metals belong to this group. The electrons in the atoms of insulators or

dielectrics remain confined to their orbits and under normal circumstances they are not

liberated under the influence of an externally applied field. The electrical properties of

semiconductors fall between those of conductors and insulators since semiconductors have

very few numbers of free charges.

material medium. The notion of conductivity is more important in dealing with the current flow

and hence the same will be considered in detail later on.

If some free charge is introduced inside a conductor, the charges will experience a force due

to mutual repulsion and owing to the fact that they are free to move, the charges will appear

on the surface. The charges will redistribute themselves in such a manner that the field

within the conductor is zero. Therefore, under steady condition, inside a conductor .

= 0 .......................(3.21)

The surface charge distribution on a conductor depends on the shape of the conductor. The charges on the surface of

the conductor will not be in equilibrium if there is a tangential component of the electric field is present, which would

produce movement of the charges. Hence under static field conditions, tangential component of the electric field on the

conductor surface is zero. The electric field on the surface of the conductor is normal everywhere to the surface .

Since the tangential component of electric field is zero, the conductor surface is an equipotential surface. As = 0

inside the conductor, the conductor as a whole has the same potential. We may further note that charges require a finite

time to redistribute in a conductor. However, this time is very small sec for good conductor like copper.

between a conductor and free

space as shown in the figure 3.5.

Let us consider the closed path pqrsp for which we can write,

.................................(3.22)

For and noting that inside the conductor is zero, we can write

=0.......................................(3.23)

Et = 0 ...........................................(3.24)

In order to determine the normal component En, the normal component of , at the surface

of the conductor, we consider a small cylindrical Gaussian surface . Let represent the

area of the top and bottom faces and represents the height of the cylinder. Once again,

as , we approach the surface of the conductor. Since = 0 inside the conductor is

zero,

.............(3.25)

..................(3.26)

Therefore, we can summarize the boundary conditions at the surface of a conductor as:

Et = 0 ........................(3.27)

.....................(3.28)

Here we briefly describe the behavior of dielectrics or insulators when placed in static electric

field. Ideal dielectrics do not contain free charges. As we know, all material media are

composed of atoms where a positively charged nucleus (diameter ~ 10-15m) is surrounded by

negatively charged electrons (electron cloud has radius ~ 10-10m) moving around the

nucleus. Molecules of dielectrics are neutral macroscopically; an externally applied field

causes small displacement of the charge particles creating small electric dipoles.These

induced dipole moments modify electric fields both inside and outside dielectric material.

Molecules of some dielectric materials posses permanent dipole moments even in the

absence of an external applied field. Usually such molecules consist of two or more

dissimilar atoms and are called polar molecules. A common example of such molecule is

water molecule H2O. In polar molecules the atoms do not arrange themselves to make the

net dipole moment zero. However, in the absence of an external field, the molecules arrange

themselves in a random manner so that net dipole moment over a volume becomes zero.

Under the influence of an applied electric field, these dipoles tend to align themselves along

the field. There are some materials that can exhibit net permanent dipole moment even in

the absence of applied field. These materials are called electrets that made by heating

certain waxes or plastics in the presence of electric field. The applied field aligns the

polarized molecules when the material is in the heated state and they are frozen to their new

position when after the temperature is brought down to its normal temperatures. Permanent

polarization remains without an externally applied field.

As a measure of intensity of polarization, polarization vector (in C/m2) is defined as:

.......................(3.29)

n being the number of molecules per unit volume i.e. is the dipole moment per unit volume. Let us now consider a

dielectric material having polarization and compute the potential at an external point O due to an elementary dipole

dv'.

..........................................(3.30)

Therefore,

....................(3.31))

........(3.32)

Fig 3.6: Potential at an External Point due to an where x,y,z represent the coordinates of the external point O

Elementary Dipole dv'. and x',y',z' are the coordinates of the source point.

.............................................(3.33)

.........................................(3.34)

.......................(3.35)

Converting the first volume integral of the above expression to surface integral, we can write

.................(3.36)

where is the outward normal from the surface element ds' of the dielectric. From the

above expression we find that the electric potential of a polarized dielectric may be found

from the contribution of volume and surface charge distributions having densities

......................................................................(3.37)

......................(3.38)

These are referred to as polarisation or bound charge densities. Therefore we may replace a

polarized dielectric by an equivalent polarization surface charge density and a polarization

volume charge density. We recall that bound charges are those charges that are not free to

move within the dielectric material, such charges are result of displacement that occurs on a

molecular scale during polarization. The total bound charge on the surface is

......................(3.39)

......................(3.40)

......................(3.41)

If we now consider that the dielectric region containing charge density the total volume

charge density becomes

....................(3.42)

Since we have taken into account the effect of the bound charge density, we can write

....................(3.43)

....................(3.44)

When the dielectric properties of the medium are linear and isotropic, polarisation is directly

proportional to the applied field strength and

........................(3.45)

.......................(3.46)

the absolute permittivity.

homogeneous if is also independent of space coordinates. A linear homogeneous and

isotropic medium is called a simple medium and for such medium the relative permittivity is

a constant.

Dielectric constant may be a function of space coordinates. For anistropic materials, the

dielectric constant is different in different directions of the electric field, D and E are related

by a permittivity tensor which may be written as:

.......................(3.47)

For crystals, the reference coordinates can be chosen along the principal axes, which make

off diagonal elements of the permittivity matrix zero. Therefore, we have

.......................(3.48)

Media exhibiting such characteristics are called biaxial. Further, if then the medium is

called uniaxial. It may be noted that for isotropic media, .

Lossy dielectric materials are represented by a complex dielectric constant, the imaginary

part of which provides the power loss in the medium and this is in general dependant on

frequency.

applied electric field causes small displacement of bound charges in a dielectric material that

results into polarization. Strong field can pull electrons completely out of the molecules.

These electrons being accelerated under influence of electric field will collide with molecular

lattice structure causing damage or distortion of material. For very strong fields, avalanche

breakdown may also occur. The dielectric under such condition will become conducting.

The maximum electric field intensity a dielectric can withstand without breakdown is referred

to as the dielectric strength of the material.

Let us consider the relationship among the field components that exist at the interface

between two dielectrics as shown in the figure 3.7. The permittivity of the medium 1 and

medium 2 are and respectively and the interface may also have a net charge density

Coulomb/m.

We can express the electric field in terms of the tangential and normal components

..........(3.49)

where Et and En are the tangential and normal components of the electric field respectively.

Let us assume that the closed path is very small so that over the elemental path length the

variation of E can be neglected. Moreover very near to the interface, . Therefore

.......................(3.50)

Thus, we have,

across the interface.

For relating the flux density vectors on two sides of the interface we apply Gauss’s law to a

small pillbox volume as shown in the figure. Once again as , we can write

..................(3.51a)

i.e., .................................................(3.51b)

i.e., .......................(3.51c)

Thus we find that the normal component of the flux density vector D is discontinuous

across an interface by an amount of discontinuity equal to the surface charge density

at the interface.

Example

Two further illustrate these points; let us consider an example, which involves the refraction

of D or E at a charge free dielectric interface as shown in the figure 3.8.

.......................(3.52a)

.......................(3.52b)

.......................(3.53a)

.......................(3.53b)

Therefore, .......................(3.54)

Fig 3.8: Refraction of D or E at a Charge Free Dielectric Interface

Energy

The energy (measured in joules) stored in a capacitor is equal to the work done to charge

it. Consider a capacitance C, holding a charge +q on one plate and -q on the other.

Moving a small element of charge dq from one plate to the other against the potential

difference V = q/C requires the work dW:

where

q is the charge measured in coulombs

C is the capacitance, measured in farads

We can find the energy stored in a capacitance by integrating this equation. Starting with

an uncharged capacitance (q=0) and moving charge from one plate to the other until the

plates have charge +Q and -Q requires the work W:

Combining this with the above equation for the capacitance of a flat-plate capacitor, we

get:

where

W is the energy measured in joules

C is the capacitance, measured in farads

V is the voltage measured in volts

The physicist James Clerk Maxwell invented the concept of displacement current, ,

to make Ampère's law consistent with conservation of charge in cases where charge is

accumulating, for example in a capacitor. He interpreted this as a real motion of charges,

even in vacuum, where he supposed that it corresponded to motion of dipole charges in

the ether. Although this interpretation has been abandoned, Maxwell's correction to

Ampère's law remains valid (a changing electric field produces a magnetic field).

Maxwell's equation combining Ampère's law with the displacement current concept is

replaced — courtesy of Stokes's theorem — with the integral of over a closed

contour, thus demonstrating the interconnection with Ampère's formulation

Typically you are given or have previously calculated the electric field (E) or flux density

(D) in one of the two regions.

1) Break the electric flux density vector (D) into tangential and normal components

as shown above.

2) Solve for the tangential components like this:

D1t D2t

= or E1t = E2t

ε1 ε2

Because D = ε E = ε oε r E

3) Solve for the normal components like this:

The normal components depend on the surface charge density ρ s (C/m2) .

D1n – D2n = ρ s (C/m2) OR ε 1E1n - ε 2E2n = ρ s

Special Cases:

Surface charge density can only exist on a conductive surface, so if both materials

are perfect dielectrics (have no conductivity), then ρ s = 0.

Perfect Conductors (conductivity is infinite) (metals)

The electric field inside the metal = 0, so Et = 0 inside the metal, and on its

surface. TANGENTIAL E = 0 on surface of metal

Use the same figure as above, but replace electric fields or flux density with magnetic

fields (H) or flux density (B).

Typically you are given or have previously calculated the magnetic field (H) or flux

density (B) in one of the two regions.

1) Break the magnetic flux density vector (B) into tangential and normal components

as shown above.

2) Solve for the tangential components like this:

The tangential magnetic fields depend on the surface current density (most books

call this Js, some call it K). This is the current density (A/m2 ) flowing ON THE

SURFACE.

H 2t − H 1t = J s ( A / m 2 ) = K

B = µH

3) Solve for the normal components like this:

B1n = B2n OR µ1H1n = µ2 H2n

Special Cases:

Surface current density can only exist on a conductive surface, so if both materials

are perfect dielectrics (have no conductivity), then Js = 0

Perfect Conductors (conductivity is infinite) (metals)

The magnetic field inside the metal = 0, so Hn = 0 inside the metal, and on its

surface. NORMAL H = 0 on surface of metal.

Continuity Equation

The continuity equation is derived from two of Maxwell's equations. It states that the

divergence of the current density is equal to the negative rate of change of the charge

density,

Derivation

In our earlier discussion we have mentioned that, conductors have free electrons that move

randomly under thermal agitation. In the absence of an external electric field, the average

thermal velocity on a microscopic scale is zero and so is the net current in the conductor.

Under the influence of an applied field, additional velocity is superimposed on the random

velocities. While the external field accelerates the electron in a direction opposite to it, the

collision with atomic lattice however provide the frictional mechanism by which the electrons

lose some of the momentum gained between the collisions. As a result, the electrons move

with some average drift velocity . This drift velocity can be related to the applied electric

field by the relationship

......................(3.55)

The quantity i.e., the the drift velocity per unit applied field is called the mobility of

electrons and denoted by .

drifts opposite to the applied field.

Let us consider a conductor under the influence of an external electric field. If represents

the number of electrons per unit volume, then the charge crossing an area that is

normal to the direction of the drift velocity is given by:

........................................(3.56)

................(3.57)

.................................(3.58)

..........................................................(3.59)

The above equation is the alternate way of expressing Ohm's law and this relationship is

valid at a point

For semiconductor material, current flow is both due to electrons and holes (however in

practice, it the electron which moves), we can write

......................(3.60)

The point form Ohm's law can be used to derive the form of Ohm's law used in circuit theory

relating the current through a conductor to the voltage across the conductor.

Let us consider a homogeneous conductor of conductivity , length L and having a constant

cross section S as shown the figure 3.9 A potential difference of V is applied across the

conductor.

V = EL ..................................(3.61)

.............(3.62)

............................(3.63)

Therefore,

............(3.64)

where is the resistivity in and R is the resistance in .

Magnetization

extent they are affected by magnetic fields, and also determines the magnetic field that

the material itself creates. Magnetization is defined as the amount of magnetic moment

per unit volume. The origin of the magnetic moments that create the magnetization can

be either microscopic electric currents corresponding to the motion of electrons in atoms,

or the spin of the electrons.

and current density ( ) is described by Maxwell's equations. The role of the

magnetization is described below.

the relation is usually linear:

hysteresis.

Magnetization current

magnetization current or bound current:

so that the total current density that enters Maxwell's equations is given by

where is the electric current density of free charges, the second term is the

contribution from the magnetization, and the last term is related to the electric

polarization .

Magnetostatics

In the absence of free electric currents and time-dependent effects, Maxwell's equations

describing the magnetic quantities reduce to

These equations can be easily solved in analogy with electrostatic problems where

In this sense plays the role of a "magnetic charge density" analogous to the

electric charge density .

Magnetization is volume density of magnetic moment. That is: if a certain volume has

magnetization then volume element dV has magnetic moment of .

Permeability (Electromagnetism)

responds linearly to an applied magnetic field. In SI units, permeability is measured in

henries per metre, or newtons per ampere squared. The constant value μ0 is known as the

magnetic constant or the permeability of vacuum, and has the exact or defined value μ0 =

4π×10−7 N·A−2.

Ferromagnets

relative to most materials. They are composed of a large number of very small magnetic

units working together called domains. Domains are not always aligned, and they often

act against each other to reduce the strength of the net magnetic field.

If the ferromagnetic material is put into an externally applied magnetic field, the domains

tend to line up, so that the sum of the fields from the ferromagnet and the applied

magnetic field is higher in magnitude than the applied magnetic field alone.

where is a dimensionless scalar called the magnetic susceptibility.

where

B is the magnetic field (also called the magnetic flux density or the magnetic

induction) in the material, measured in teslas

H is the auxiliary magnetic field, measured in amperes per metre

M is the material's magnetization, measured in amperes per metre

The permittivity of free space (the vacuum permittivity) and the magnetic constant are

Relative permeability

Relative permeability, sometimes denoted by the symbol μr, is the ratio of the

permeability of a specific medium to the permeability of free space μ0:

distinguish it from χp (magnetic mass or specific susceptibility) and χM (molar or molar

mass susceptibility).

Resistance, capacitance and inductance are the three familiar parameters from circuit

theory. We have already discussed about the parameters resistance and capacitance in the

earlier chapters. In this section, we discuss about the parameter inductance. Before we start

our discussion, let us first introduce the concept of flux linkage. If in a coil with N closely

wound turns around where a current I produces a flux and this flux links or encircles each

of the N turns, the flux linkage is defined as . In a linear medium, where the flux is

proportional to the current, we define the self inductance L as the ratio of the total flux

linkage to the current which they link.

i.e., ...................................(3.65)

To further illustrate the concept of inductance, let us consider two closed loops C1 and C2 as

shown in the figure 3.10, S1 and S2 are respectively the areas of C1 and C2 .

Fig 3.10

If a current I1 flows in C1 , the magnetic flux B1 will be created part of which will be linked to

C2 as shown in Figure 3.10.

...................................(3.66)

...................................(3.67)

where L12 is the mutual inductance. For a more general case, if C2 has N2 turns then

...................................(3.68)

and

or ...................................(3.69)

i.e., the mutual inductance can be defined as the ratio of the total flux linkage of the second

circuit to the current flowing in the first circuit.

As we have already stated, the magnetic flux produced in C1 gets linked to itself and if C1 has

N1 turns then , where is the flux linkage per turn.

= ...................................(3.70)

...................................(3.71)

Let us consider a solenoid having n turns/unit length and carrying a current I. The solenoid is

air cored.

The magnetic flux density inside such a long solenoid can be calculated as

..................................(3.72)

..................................(3.73)

..................................(3.74)

..................................(3.75)

Example 2: Self inductance per unit length of a coaxial cable of inner radius 'a' and outer

radius 'b'. Assume a current I flows through the inner conductor.

Solution:

Let us assume that the current is uniformly distributed in the inner conductor so that inside

the inner conductor.

i.e.,

..................................(3.76)

..................................(3.77)

Let us consider the flux linkage per unit length in the inner conductor. Flux enclosed between

the region and ( and unit length in the axial direction).

..................................(3.78)

..................................(3.79)

..................................(3.80)

& .................................(3.81)

Total linkage

..................................(3.82)

Here, the first term arises from the flux linkage internal to the solid inner conductor and is the internal inductance

per unit length.

In high frequency application and assuming the conductivity to be very high, the current in the internal conductor

instead of being distributed throughout remain essentially concentrated on the surface of the inner conductor ( as we

shall see later) and the internal inductance becomes negligibly small.

Solution: Magnetic flux density inside the toroid is given by

..................................(3.84)

Let the inner radius is 'a' and outer radius is 'b'. Let the cross section area 'S' is small

Then total flux

..................................(3.85)

..................................(3.86)

The inductance

..................................(3.87)

Similar to the boundary conditions in the electro static fields, here we will consider the

behavior of and at the interface of two different media. In particular, we determine how

the tangential and normal components of magnetic fields behave at the boundary of two

regions having different permeabilities.

The figure 4.9 shows the interface between two media having permeabities and ,

being the normal vector from medium 2 to medium 1.

To determine the condition for the normal component of the flux density vector , we

consider a small pill box P with vanishingly small thickness h and having an elementary area

for the faces. Over the pill box, we can write

....................................................(3.88)

Since h --> 0, we can neglect the flux through the sidewall of the pill box.

...........................(3.89)

and ..................(3.90)

where

and ..........................(3.91)

or, ...................................(3.92)

That is, the normal component of the magnetic flux density vector is continuous across the

interface.

In vector form,

...........................(3.93)

To determine the condition for the tangential component for the magnetic field, we consider a

closed path C as shown in figure 4.8. By applying Ampere's law we can write

....................................(3.94)

Since h -->0,

...................................(3.95)

We have shown in figure 4.8, a set of three unit vectors , and such that they satisfy

perpendicular to the surface enclosed by C at the interface

or, ...................................(3.96)

i.e., tangential component of magnetic field component is discontinuous across the interface

where a free surface current exists.

If Js = 0, the tangential magnetic field is also continuous. If one of the medium is a perfect

conductor Js exists on the surface of the perfect conductor.

...................................(3.97)

Therefore,

...................................(3.98)

Unit IV Time Varying Electric and Magnetic Fields

Introduction:

In our study of static fields so far, we have observed that static electric fields are produced by

electric charges, static magnetic fields are produced by charges in motion or by steady

current. Further, static electric field is a conservative field and has no curl, the static

magnetic field is continuous and its divergence is zero. The fundamental relationships for

static electric fields among the field quantities can be summarized as:

(4.1a)

(4.1b)

(4.1c)

(4.2a)

(4.2b)

(4.2c)

It can be seen that for static case, the electric field vectors and and magnetic field

vectors and form separate pairs.

In this chapter we will consider the time varying scenario. In the time varying case we will

observe that a changing magnetic field will produce a changing electric field and vice versa.

We begin our discussion with Faraday's Law of electromagnetic induction and then present

the Maxwell's equations which form the foundation for the electromagnetic theory.

conducting loop when the magnetic flux linking the loop changed. In terms of fields, we can

say that a time varying magnetic field produces an electromotive force (emf) which causes a

current in a closed circuit. The quantitative relation between the induced emf (the voltage

that arises from conductors moving in a magnetic field or from changing magnetic fields) and

the rate of change of flux linkage developed based on experimental observation is known as

Faraday's law. Mathematically, the induced emf can be written as

Emf = Volts (4.3)

The negative sign in equation (4.3) was introduced by Lenz in order to comply with the

polarity of the induced emf. The negative sign implies that the induced emf will cause a

current flow in the closed loop in such a direction so as to oppose the change in the linking

magnetic flux which produces it. (It may be noted that as far as the induced emf is

concerned, the closed path forming a loop does not necessarily have to be conductive).

If the closed path is in the form of N tightly wound turns of a coil, the change in the magnetic

flux linking the coil induces an emf in each turn of the coil and total emf is the sum of the

induced emfs of the individual turns, i.e.,

(4.5)

Emf = (4.6)

Continuing with equation (5.3), over a closed contour 'C' we can write

Emf = (4.7)

where is the induced electric field on the conductor to sustain the current.

(4.8)

(4.9)

(4.10)

(4.11)

We have said that non zero can be produced in a several ways. One particular case is

when a time varying flux linking a stationary closed path induces an emf. The emf induced in

a stationary closed path by a time varying magnetic field is called a transformer emf

As shown in figure 4.1, a transformer consists of two or more numbers of coils coupled

magnetically through a common core. Let us consider an ideal transformer whose winding

has zero resistance, the core having infinite permittivity and magnetic losses are zero.

These assumptions ensure that the magnetization current under no load condition is

vanishingly small and can be ignored. Further, all time varying flux produced by the primary

winding will follow the magnetic path inside the core and link to the secondary coil without

any leakage. If N1 and N2 are the number of turns in the primary and the secondary windings

respectively, the induced emfs are

(4.12a)

(4.12b)

(The polarities are marked, hence negative sign is omitted. The induced emf is +ve at the

dotted end of the winding.)

(4.13)

i.e., the ratio of the induced emfs in primary and secondary is equal to the ratio of their turns.

Under ideal condition, the induced emf in either winding is equal to their voltage rating.

(4.14)

where 'a' is the transformation ratio. When the secondary winding is connected to a load, the

current flows in the secondary, which produces a flux opposing the original flux. The net flux

in the core decreases and induced emf will tend to decrease from the no load value. This

causes the primary current to increase to nullify the decrease in the flux and induced emf.

The current continues to increase till the flux in the core and the induced emfs are restored

to the no load values. Thus the source supplies power to the primary winding and the

secondary winding delivers the power to the load. Equating the powers

(4.15)

(4.16)

Further,

(4.17)

i.e., the net magnetomotive force (mmf) needed to excite the transformer is zero under ideal

condition.

Motional EMF:

Let us consider a conductor moving in a steady magnetic field as shown in the fig 4.2.

Fig 4.2

(4.18)

This force will cause the electrons in the conductor to drift towards one end and leave the

other end positively charged, thus creating a field and charge separation continuous until

electric and magnetic forces balance and an equilibrium is reached very quickly, the net

force on the moving conductor is zero.

can be interpreted as an induced electric field which is called the motional electric

field

(4.19)

If the moving conductor is a part of the closed circuit C, the generated emf around the circuit

Maxwell's Equation

Equation (5.1) and (5.2) gives the relationship among the field quantities in the static field.

For time varying case, the relationship among the field vectors written as

(4.20a)

(4.20b)

(4.20c)

(4.20d)

In addition, from the principle of conservation of charges we get the equation of continuity

(4.21)

The equation 5.20 (a) - (d) must be consistent with equation (4.21).

We observe that

(4.22)

Thus applies only for the static case i.e., for the scenario when .

A classic example for this is given below .

Fig 4.3

Let us apply the Ampere's Law for the Amperian loop shown in fig 4.3. Ienc = I is the total

current passing through the loop. But if we draw a baloon shaped surface as in fig 5.3, no

current passes through this surface and hence Ienc = 0. But for non steady currents such as

this one, the concept of current enclosed by a loop is ill-defined since it depends on what

surface you use. In fact Ampere's Law should also hold true for time varying case as well,

then comes the idea of displacement current which will be introduced in the next few slides.

(4.23)

(4.24)

The equation (4.24) is valid for static as well as for time varying case.

Equation (4.24) indicates that a time varying electric field will give rise to a magnetic field

even in the absence of . The term has a dimension of current densities and is

called the displacement current density.

Maxwell. The modified set of equations

(4.25a)

(4.25b)

(4.25c)

(4.25d)

is known as the Maxwell's equation and this set of equations apply in the time varying

(4.26a)

(4.26b)

(4.26c)

(4.26d)

The modification of Ampere's law by Maxwell has led to the development of a unified

electromagnetic field theory. By introducing the displacement current term, Maxwell could

predict the propagation of EM waves. Existence of EM waves was later demonstrated by

Hertz experimentally which led to the new era of radio communication.

The differential forms of Maxwell's equations are used to solve for the field vectors provided

the field quantities are single valued, bounded and continuous. At the media boundaries, the

field vectors are discontinuous and their behaviors across the boundaries are governed by

boundary conditions. The integral equations(eqn 4.26) are assumed to hold for regions

containing discontinuous media.Boundary conditions can be derived by applying the

Maxwell's equations in the integral form to small regions at the interface of the two media.

The procedure is similar to those used for obtaining boundary conditions for static electric

fields and static magnetic fields . The boundary conditions are summarized as follows

Fig 4.4

Equation 4.27 (a) says that tangential component of electric field is continuous across the

interface while from 4.27 (c) we note that tangential component of the magnetic field is

discontinuous by an amount equal to the surface current density. Similarly 4.27 (b) states

that normal component of electric flux density vector is discontinuous across the interface

by an amount equal to the surface current density while normal component of the magnetic

flux density is continuous.

If one side of the interface, as shown in fig 4.4, is a perfect electric conductor, say region 2, a

Maxwell's equations are a set of four equations that describe the interrelationship

between electric field, magnetic field, electric charge, and electric current.

·D = ρ

where ρ is the electric charge density (in units of C/m3), and D is the electric

displacement field (in units of C/m2) which is related to the electric field E via a

materials-dependent constant called the permittivity, ε. The permittivity of free space is

referred to as ε0, resulting in the equation for free space:

·E = ρ/ε0

where, again, E is the electric field (in units of V/m), ρ is the charge density, and ε0

(approximately 8.854 pF/m) is the permittivity of free space.

dA is the area of a differential square on the surface A with an outward facing surface

normal defining its direction, Qenclosed is the charge enclosed by the surface.

Note: the integral form only works if the integral is over a closed surface. Shape and size

do not matter. The integral form is also known as Gauss's Law.

·B = 0

dA is the area of a differential square on the surface A with an outward facing surface

normal defining its direction. Note: like the electric field's integral form, this equation

only works if the integral is done over a closed surface.

This equation is related to the magnetic field's structure because it states that given any

volume element, the net magnitude of the vector components that point outward from the

surface must be equal to the net magnitude of the vector components that point inward.

Structurally, this means that the magnetic field lines must be closed loops. Another way

of putting it is that the field lines cannot originate from somewhere; attempting to follow

the lines backwards to their source or forward to their terminus ultimately leads back to

the starting position. This implies that there are no magnetic monopoles. If a monopole

were to be discovered, this equation would need to be modified to read

·B = ρm

×E = -∂B/∂t

φB is the magnetic flux through the area A described by the second equation, ε is the

Electromotive Force around the edge of the surface A.

Note: this equation only works of the surface A is not closed because the net magnetic

flux through a closed surface will always be zero, as stated by the previous equation.

That, and the electromotive force is measured along the edge of the surface; a closed

surface has no edge. Some textbooks list the Integral form with an N (representing the

number of coils of wire that are around the edge of A) in front of the flux derivative. The

N can be taken care of in calculating A (multiple wire coils means multiple surfaces for

the flux to go through), and it is an engineering detail so it has been omitted here.

important that it even has its own name, Lenz's Law. This equation relates the electric

and magnetic fields, but it also has a lot of practical applications, too. This equation

describes how electric motors and electric generators work. This law corresponds to the

Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction.

×H = J + ∂E/∂t

where H is the magnetic field strength (in units of A/m), related to the magnetic flux B by

a constant called the permeability, μ, and J is the current density, defined by: J = ∫ρqvdV

where v is a vector field called the drift velocity that describes the velocities of that

charge carriers which have a density described by the scalar function ρq.

In free space, the permeability μ is the permeability of free space, μ0, which is defined to

be exactly 4π×10-7 W/Am. Thus, in free space, the equation becomes:

×B = μ0J + μ0ε0∂E/∂t

s is the edge of the open surface A (any surface with the curve s as its edge will do), and

Iencircled is the current encircled by the curve s (the current through any surface is defined

by the equation: Ithrough A = ∫AJ·dA).

Note: unless there is a capacitor or some other place where ·J ≠ 0, the second term on

the right hand side is generally negligible and ignored. Any time this applies, the integral

form is known as Ampere's Law.

Summary

• ·D = ρ

• ·B = 0

• ×E = -∂B/∂t

• ×H = J + ∂D/∂t

For free space, eliminating the nonphysical quantities D and H, this reduces to:

• ·E = ρ/ε0

• ·B = 0

• ×E = -∂B/∂t

• ×B = μ0J + μ0ε0∂E/∂t

Simplifying further, by considering the case in the absence of imposed current or electric

charge, gives the propagation equation for electromagnetic waves in free space:

• ·E = 0

• ·B = 0

• ×E = -∂B/∂t

• ×B = μ0ε0∂E/∂t

This equation has a simple solution in terms of traveling sinusoidal plane waves,

traveling at the speed (μ0ε0)-1/2.

Maxwell's observation that μ0ε0 = c-2, relating the speed of light c to the permittivity and

permeability of free space, was the first confirmation that light was electromagnetic

radiation.

The above equations are all in a unit system called mks (short for meter, kilogram,

second; also know as the International System of Units (or SI for short). This is more

commonly known as the metric system. In a related unit system, called cgs (short for

centimeter, gram, second), the equations take on a more symmetrical form, as follows:

• ·E = 4πρ

• ·B = 0

• ×E = -c-1 ∂B/∂t

• ×B = c-1 ∂E/∂t + 4πc-1J

Where c is the speed of light in a vacuum. The symmetry is more apparent when the

electromagnetic field is considered in a vacuum. The equations take on the following,

highly symmetric form:

• ·E = 0

• ·B = 0

• ×E = - 1/c ∂B/∂t

• ×B = 1/c ∂E/∂t

Electromagnetic waves can transport energy from one point to another point. The electric

and magnetic field intensities asscociated with a travelling electromagnetic wave can be

related to the rate of such energy transfer.

.............................................(4.29)

and

...........................(4.30)

electric and magnetic fields and the term represents the power dissipation within

the volume. Hence right hand side of the equation (6.36) represents the total decrease in

power within the volume under consideration.

(W/mt2) is called the Poynting vector and it represents the power density vector

associated with the electromagnetic field. The integration of the Poynting vector over any

closed surface gives the net power flowing out of the surface. Equation (6.36) is referred to

as Poynting theorem and it states that the net power flowing out of a given volume is equal

to the time rate of decrease in the energy stored within the volume minus the conduction

losses.

For time harmonic case, the time variation is of the form , and we have seen that

instantaneous value of a quantity is the real part of the product of a phasor quantity and

when is used as reference. For example, if we consider the phasor

.................................(4.31)

when E0 is real.

Let us consider two instanteneous quantities A and B such that

i.e,

Therefore,

..............................(4.32)

Since A and B are periodic with period , the time average value of the product form

AB, denoted by can be written as

.....................................(4.33)

..............................................(4.34)

...................................(4.35)

component, we can write:

Using (6.41)

........................................(4.36)

.....................(4.37)

Unit V Electromagnetic Waves

where v is the phase velocity of the wave and y represents the variable which is changing

as the wave passes. This is the form of the wave equation which applies to a stretched

string or a plane electromagnetic wave. The mathematical description of a wave makes

use of partial derivatives.

equations, material response to the EM fields, and boundary conditions:

∇ ⋅ D = ρv D = εE = ε r ε 0 E = ε 0 E + P

( )

∇⋅B = 0 B = µH = µ 0 H + M = µ 0 (1 + χ m ) H

∂B

∇×E = − J = ρ v u = σE

∂t

∂D

∇×H = J + P = ε 0 χ e E M = µ0 χ m H

∂t

time invariant medium (P responds to E instantaneously). We have

∇⋅ E = 0

∇⋅ H = 0

∂H

∇ × E = −µ

∂t

∂E

∇ × H = σE + ε

∂t

• if the EM wave only contains one frequency component ω , we can rewrite the

Maxwell equation in phasor form using E = Re (Es ejωt).

∇⋅ E s =0

∇⋅ H s =0

∇×E s =−jω µH s

∇×H s =σE s + jω εE s

Use the third equation (Faraday’s Law) and apply the curl on both sides of the full time-

varying equation.

( ) ( )

∂

∇× ∇× E = −µ ∇× H

∂t

Use the last equation into the above equation and use a vector identity..

∂ ∂E

∇ × (∇ × E ) = −µ σE + ε

∂t ∂t

∂E ∂2 E

⇒ ∇⋅ E − ∇ E = −µ σ

2

−µε 2

∂t ∂t

Since we are considering a charge-free region the general wave equation (Helmholtz

equation) becomes:

∂E ∂ 2E

∇ E =µ σ + µ ε 2

2

∂t ∂t

Again, if the E and H fields only have one frequency components, we can get wirte a

phasor equation for the time-harmonic field.

∇2E s = jωµ(σ + jωε ) Es

or ∇2 E s = γ 2 E s where the material properties which govern the wave

propagation are described by::

γ= jωµ(σ + jωε ) = α + jβ

Where α characterizes materials absorption (gain), and β characterize the propagation

speed (propagation constant).

Now, let’s try to solve the waveguide equation. The simplest solution beyond trial (0) is

the UPW solution. While we have

b). This components is constant in two directions (say x-y plane), only change along z-

axis (propagation direction).

So

the proposed solution is (For notational convenience, we drop the subscript s.)

E = E x ( z )a x

How do we know this is a solution? Just plug in the wave equation, if we can find a Ex(x)

which satisfies the wave equation, we have a solution.

d 2 Ex

2

− γ 2 Ex = 0

dz

The solution is

(

E x ( z ) = E 0+ e −γz + E 0− e +γz a x )

( )

E x ( z ) = Re E 0+ e −αz e j ( ωt −βz ) + E 0− e +αz e j ( ωt + βz ) a x

The first term characterizes the forward-propagating UPW, the second term characterizes

the backward-propagating one.

By the help of the Maxwell equations, we can also figure out other field such D, B. and

H.

∇×Es =−jω µH s

1

H s =− ∇× E s

jωµ

H s = e − e a y

jωµ jωµ

(The subcript s is written here to remind you that all quanatities are phasor quantitites.)

Having E and H solution available, the ratio between the E and H field can be taken.

Let’s take a forward-propagation UPW as examples:

E+ jωµ jωµ

η= = =

H +

γ σ + jωε

Since E and H fields have unit (V/m) and (A/m). The ratio yields a unit of (Ω ). This ratio

is referred as intrinsic impedance of the materials.

The

wave propagates along az, we can use a vector to represent that

β = βa z

The unit vector to represent this direction is defined as ap (az in this case) E-field

propagates along ax, and E-field propagates along ay. Therefore, these three vectors form

a right-handed rectangle coordinate system, i.e.

1

H s = a p × Es

η

Es = −ηa p × H s

Now, we can see, the propagation characteristics for UPW is ultimately determined by

γ = jωµ(σ + jωε ) = α + jβ . We then discuss the responses in various materials.

In a charge free region with zero loss, the propagation constant

γ = jωµ(σ + jωε ) = α + jβ

σ =0, so γ = jωµ( 0 + jωε ) = jβ

β = ω µε

µ

η=

ε

( )

E x ( z ) = Re E 0+e j ( ωt −βz ) + E 0−e j ( ωt +βz ) a x

E x ( z ) = a x [ E 0+ cos (ωt − βz ) + E 0− cos ( ωt + βz ) ]

ω 1

up = =

β µε

A special example will be vacuum, where µ =µ 0, ε =ε 0.

µ0

η= = 120π

ε0

u p = 3 ×10 8 ( m / s)

In a lossy media, the loss comes from two parts: a non-zero electric conductivity σ ≠ 0),

a polarization loss (energy required of the filed to flip reluctant dipoles, dielectric loss). A

complex permittivity ε c is used to characterize this part.

ε c = ε '− jε "

Therefore, the propagation constant can be written:

γ ω

=

ω

µ

j

σ

µσωω

ε

ε ωε=ω

µ

jσ

ω

µω

σ [

( +

( +

j

")

c )

+ j

= j

'] =

[

j

+

j

(

(

e

f

f

Where σ e ff = σ + ω " ,ε we can solve for the absorption and the propagation constant of

the medium i.e.and α = Re γ ; β =Im γ

σ eff

2

µ ε

α =ω 1 + − 1

2 ω ε'

σ eff

2

µ ε

β =ω 1 + + 1

2 ωε'

Loss Tangent: a standard measure of lossiness in a dielectric is measured by the ratio of

σ e ff σ + ω " ε

t a nδ = =

ω ' ε ω ' ε

Referred as loss-tangent

Low-loss dielectrics

For low loss dielectrics, σ <<1, ε ”<<ε ’, therefore

σeff

<< 1

ωε'

σ µ

α≈

2 ε

β ≈ω µ ε

Conductors:

In conductor, σ >>1, therefore the loss tangent is >>1, the propagation constant can take

another approximation due to

σeff

>> 1

ωε'

ωµ σ

α =β ≈ = πfµ σ

2

π

jω µ jω µ ωµ j4 πfµ α

η= ≈ = e = (1 + j ) = (1 + j )

σ + jω ε σ σ σ σ

ω 2ω 4πf π

up = = = λ=

β µσ µσ fµ σ

1

H s = a p × Es

η

( )

E x ( z ) = E 0+ e −αz e j ( ωt − βz ) + E 0− e +αz e j ( ωt + βz ) a x

We can see that if α is not a small quantity, the EM wave cannot penetrate into metal too

deep. A fair measure will be the skin depth where the amplitude of E-field reduces to its

1/e of its surface value. This depth is referred as skin depth δ

1

e − α δ = e −1 ⇒ δ =

α

From above analysis, we can see that E-field of a UPW can only penetrate into a finite

depth of a conductor. Therefore, the actual resistance of a conductor to an EM wave is

determined by this penetration depth (not by the actual thickness of the conductor itself).

We now calculate this resistance:

If we have UPW propagating along z-direction, we have E-field pointing along x-

direction. The E-field in the conductor is given by:

(1+ j )

−αz − jβz

− z

E = E0 e e a x = E0 e δ a x

Where δ is the penetration depth defined above, the current density in conductor is:

(1+ j )

− z

J = σE = σE 0 e δ a x

The current flowing through a rectangular strip extending between zero and ∞ in the z-

direction, and width w in y-direction is:

∞ E wδ σ

I = w∫ J ( z ) dz = 0

0 (1 + j )

The voltage across a length l at the surface is given by

V = E0 ⋅ l

So the impedance of a slab of width w and length l is

~

V (1 + j ) l l

Z = ~ = ⋅ = ZS

I δσ w w

Here we define surface impedance ZS:

Z S = RS + jωLS

1 πfµ

RS = =

σδ σ

1 1 µ

LS = =

ωσ δ 2 πfσ

Skin Effect

The skin effect is the tendency of an alternating electric current (AC) to distribute itself

within a conductor so that the current density near the surface of the conductor is greater

than that at its core. That is, the electric current tends to flow at the "skin" of the

conductor.

The skin effect causes the effective resistance of the conductor to increase with the

frequency of the current. The skin effect has practical consequences in the design of

radio-frequency and microwave circuits and to some extent in AC electrical power

transmission and distribution systems. Also, it is of considerable importance when

designing discharge tube circuits.

The current density J in an infinitely thick plane conductor decreases exponentially with

depth δ from the surface, as follows:

where d is a constant called the skin depth. This is defined as the depth below the surface

of the conductor at which the current density decays to 1/e (about 0.37) of the current

density at the surface (JS). It can be calculated as follows:

where

ρ = resistivity of conductor

ω = angular frequency of current = 2π × frequency

μ = absolute magnetic permeability of conductor , where μ0 is the

−7 2

permeability of free space (4π×10 N/A ) and μr is the relative permeability of the

conductor.

The resistance of a flat slab (much thicker than d) to alternating current is exactly equal to

the resistance of a plate of thickness d to direct current. For long, cylindrical conductors

such as wires, with diameter D large compared to d, the resistance is approximately that

of a hollow tube with wall thickness d carrying direct current. That is, the AC resistance

is approximately:

where

L = length of conductor

D = diameter of conductor

circular cross-section whose resistance will increase by 10% at frequency f is:

The increase in ac resistance described above is accurate only for an isolated wire. For a

wire close to other wires, e.g. in a cable or a coil, the ac resistance is also affected by

proximity effect, which often causes a much more severe increase in ac resistance.

The polarisation of a plane wave can be defined as the orientation of the electric field vector

as a function of time at a fixed point in space. For an electromagnetic wave, the specification

of the orientation of the electric field is sufficent as the magnetic field components are related

to electric field vector by the Maxwell's equations.

Let us consider a plane wave travelling in the +z direction. The wave has both Ex and Ey

components.

..........................................(5.1)

Depending upon the values of Eox and Eoy we can have several possibilities:

3. If Eox and Eoy are both real (or complex with equal phase), once again we get a linearly

polarised wave with the axis of polarisation inclined at an angle , with respect to

the x-axis. This is shown in fig 5.1

Fig 5.1 : Linear Polarisation

4. If Eox and Eoy are complex with different phase angles, will not point to a single spatial

Then,

and ....................................(5.2)

To keep the things simple, let us consider a =0 and . Further, let us study the nature of

the electric field on the z =0 plain.

.....................................(5.3)

and the electric field vector at z = 0 can be written as

.............................................(5.4)

From equation and figure we observe that the tip of the arrow representing electric field

vector traces qn ellipse and the field is said to be elliptically polarised.

The polarisation ellipse shown in figure 6.6 is defined by its axial ratio(M/N, the ratio of

semimajor to semiminor axis), tilt angle (orientation with respect to xaxis) and sense of

rotation(i.e., CW or CCW).

Linear polarisation can be treated as a special case of elliptical polarisation, for which the

axial ratio is infinite.

In our example, if , from equation , the tip of the arrow representing electric field

vector traces out a circle. Such a case is referred to as Circular Polarisation. For circular

polarisation the axial ratio is unity.

Further, the circular polarisation is aside to be right handed circular polarisation (RHCP) if

the electric field vector rotates in the direction of the fingers of the right hand when the thumb

points in the direction of propagation-(same and CCW). If the electric field vector rotates in

the opposite direction, the polarisation is asid to be left hand circular polarisation (LHCP)

(same as CW).

In AM radio broadcast, the radiated electromagnetic wave is linearly polarised with the

field vertical to the ground( vertical polarisation) where as TV signals are horizontally

polarised waves. FM broadcast is usually carried out using circularly polarised waves.

frequency at orthogonal polarisation ( one signal as vertically polarised other horizontally

polarised or one as RHCP while the other as LHCP) to increase capacity. Otherwise, same

signal can be transmitted at orthogonal polarisation to obtain diversity gain to improve

reliability of transmission.

Angle Of Incidence

example in the approach of a ray to a surface, or the direction of an airfoil with respect to

the direction of an airplane.

Optics

In geometric optics, the angle of incidence is the angle between a ray incident on a

surface and the line perpendicular to the surface at the point of incidence, called the

normal. The ray can be formed by any wave: optical, acoustic, microwave, X-ray and so

on. In the figure above, the red line representing a ray makes an angle θ with the normal

(dotted line). The angle of incidence at which light is first totally internally reflected is

known as the critical angle. The angle of reflection and angle of refraction are other

angles related to beams.

Grazing angle

When dealing with a beam that is nearly parallel to a surface, it is sometimes more useful

to refer to the angle between the beam and the surface, rather than that between the beam

and the surface normal, in other words 90° minus the angle of incidence. This angle is

called a glancing angle or grazing angle. Incidence at small grazing angle is called

"grazing incidence".

Grazing incidence is used in X-ray spectroscopy and atom optics, where significant

reflection can be achieved only at small values of the grazing angle. Ridged mirrors are

designed for reflection of atoms coming at small grazing angle. This angle is usually

measured in milliradians.

Brewster's angle

An illustration of the polarization of light which is incident on an interface at Brewster's

angle.

named after the Scottish physicist, Sir David Brewster (1781–1868).

When light moves between two media of differing refractive index, generally some of it

is reflected at the boundary. At one particular angle of incidence, however, light with one

particular polarization cannot be reflected. This angle of incidence is Brewster's angle, θB.

The polarization that cannot be reflected at this angle is the polarization for which the

electric field of the light waves lies in the same plane as the incident ray and the surface

normal (i.e. the plane of incidence). Light with this polarization is said to be p-polarized,

because it is parallel to the plane. Light with the perpendicular polarization is said to be

s-polarized, from the German senkrecht—perpendicular. When unpolarized light strikes a

surface at Brewster's angle, the reflected light is always s-polarized.

The physical mechanism for this can be qualitatively understood from the manner in

which electric dipoles in the media respond to p-polarized light. One can imagine that

light incident on the surface is absorbed, and then reradiated by oscillating electric

dipoles at the interface between the two media. The polarization of freely propagating

light is always perpendicular to the direction in which the light is travelling. The dipoles

that produce the transmitted (refracted) light oscillate in the polarization direction of that

light. These same oscillating dipoles also generate the reflected light. However, dipoles

do not radiate any energy in the direction along which they oscillate. Consequently, if the

direction of the refracted light is perpendicular to the direction in which the light is

predicted to be specularly reflected, the dipoles will not create any reflected light. Since,

by definition, the s-polarization is parallel to the interface, the corresponding oscillating

dipoles will always be able to radiate in the specular-reflection direction. This is why

there is no Brewster's angle for s-polarized light.

Rearranging, we get:

where n1 and n2 are the refractive indices of the two media. This equation is known as

Brewster's law.

Note that, since all p-polarized light is refracted (i.e transmitted), any light reflected from

the interface at this angle must be s-polarized. A glass plate or a stack of plates placed at

Brewster's angle in a light beam can thus be used as a polarizer.

For a glass medium (n2≈1.5) in air (n1≈1), Brewster's angle for visible light is

approximately 56° to the normal while for an air-water interface (n2≈1.33), it's

approximately 53°. Since the refractive index for a given medium changes depending on

the wavelength of light, Brewster's angle will also vary with wavelength.

angle was first observed by Etienne-Louis Malus in 1808. He attempted to relate the

polarizing angle to the refractive index of the material, but was frustrated by the

inconsistent quality of glasses available at that time. In 1815, Brewster experimented with

higher-quality materials and showed that this angle was a function of the refractive index,

defining Brewster's law.

from the late 1950s onwards, it truly is a polarizing angle. The concept of a polarizing

angle can be extended to the concept of a Brewster wave number to cover planar

interfaces between two linear bianisotropic materials.

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