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Chapter -1

Introduction to the Industry:-

Innovative Design Group Product Development (IDGPD) is a Pune based


company which works in the area of product development for other companies and in the
field of manufacturing optical instruments. The proprietor of the company is
Mr. Archis Bhave who established it in October 1996.

For the past 12 years the company has been developing products for industrial
applications. A few of the products and the industries for which they were developed
include:

Flame photometer Chemito Technologies Pvt. Ltd.

Fountain vending automation Pepsi

Magnetic flow meter Adept Fluidyne Pvt. Ltd.

Power transducer with modbus Adept Fluidyne Pvt. Ltd.

From last two years, starting with the monochromator, the company introduced
first of its Optical Instrumentation products. The company has its own dark room and
calibration sources for the purpose of developing, testing and calibrating optical
instruments. Currently the company just completed the automated version of the
monochromator.

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Chapter – 2

2.1 The training period at a glance :-

The training began on 24rd November 2009. The first two weeks of the training
period was an assessment period where the mentors (Mr. Archis Bhave and Mr. Rakesh
Shroff) tested my knowledge and skills. The company maintains a policy that a person
approaching them for training must undergo such a test. During this assessment period I
was informed that I was accepted for training with the company.

Basically my training period can be broken up into three main assignments


and some extra activities which I will be describing in detail in the following section.

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2.2 Assignment 1:- Implementation of Programmable Centre
Frequency Band Pass Filter

Statement :-

Design a Band Pass Filter with using IC MF10 Q=100(Need not to be precise)
with center frequency variable from 10Hz to 1KHz.Use LM331 to vary the clock.

Block Diagram :-

Input Switched Capacitor Output Signal


Signal Filter Input Signal

Programmable clock
(V to F converter)

Fig.2.1 Block diagram of Band Pass Filter

Things to learn : -

 IC MF10 (Universal Monolithic Dual Switched Capacitor Filter).

 IC LM331 (Precision V to F converter).

Things to design :-

 V to F converter as a clock for range of up to 100KHz using IC LM331.

 For input, square wave generator using IC TL082CN.

 Finally the Band Pass Filter using IC MF10 along with above two circuits.

2.2.1 IC MF10 (Switched Capacitor Filter) :-

IC MF10 is Universal Monolithic Dual Switched Capacitor Filter . It consists of


2 independent and extremely easy to use, general purpose CMOS active filter building

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blocks. Each block, together with an external clock and 3 to 4 resistors, can produce
various 2nd order functions.

The center frequency of the low-pass and band-pass 2nd order functions can be
either directly dependent on the clock frequency, or they can depend on both clock
frequency and external resistor ratios. The center frequency of the notch and all-pass
functions is directly de-pendent on the clock frequency, while the high-pass center
frequency depends on both resistor ratio and clock.

2.2.1.1 Features :-

• Easy to use

• Clock to center frequency ratio accuracy ±0.6%

• Filter cutoff frequency stability directly dependent on external clock quality

• Low sensitivity to external component variation

• Separate high-pass (or notch or all-pass), bandpass, lowpass outputs

• Fo x Q range up to 200 kHz

The relation between centre frequency (fo) and clock frequency (fclk) for MF10 is given
by the equation

When pin number 12 i.e.50/100/CL is connected to V+, fclk is divided by 50 and when it
is connected to ground, fclk is divided by 100. I connected this pin to ground so as to get

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2.2.1.1 Pin out of IC MF10:-

Fig.2. 2 Pinout of IC MF10

2.2.2 V to F converter for range of up to 100KHz using IC LM331 :-

LM331 is suited for use in simple low cost circuits for analog-to-digital
conversion, precision frequency to voltage conversion, long-term integration, linear
frequency modulation or demodulation, and many other functions. The output frequency
is precisely proportional to the applied input voltage.

2.2.2.1 Features :-

• Guaranteed linearity 0.01% max

• Split or single supply operation

• Low power consumption: 15 mW typical at 5V

• Wide range of full scale frequency: 1 Hz to 100 kHz

• Low cost

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2.2.2.2 Pinout of IC LM331 :-

Fig.2.3 Pinout of IC LM331


2.2.2.3 Principle of Operation :-

Fig.2 4 Simplified block diagram of stand-alone V to F converter

A simplified block diagram of the LM331 is shown in fig.2.4 and consists of a


switched current source, input comparator, 1-shot timer and the various resistors and
capacitors connected to it.

The voltage comparator compares a positive input voltage V1 at pin 7 to the


voltage Vx at pin 6 . If V1 is greater , the comparator will trigger the 1-shot timer. The

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output of the timer will turn ON both the frequency output transistor and the switched
current source for a period t=1.1RtCt. During this period, the current i will flow out of
the switched current source and provide a fixed amount of charge, Q= i*t, into the
capacitor, CL. This will normally charge Vx up to a higher level than V1. At the end of
the timing period, the current i will turn OFF, and the timer will reset itself.

Now there is no current flowing from pin 1 , and the capacitor CL will be
gradually discharged by RL until Vx falls to the level of V1. Then the comparator will
trigger the timer and start another cycle. The current flowing into CL is exactly Iavg = i x
(1.1*Rt*Ct)*f , and the current flowing out of CL is exactly Vx/RL ≈ VIN/RL. If VIN is
doubled, the frequency will double to maintain this balance.

The relation of fout with Vin and other parameters is given by the equation

This is the some information about IC LM331.

First I built the circuit shown in fig.2.5 which is given in the datasheet for the
range of 10Hz to 10KHz, tested it and verified the equation mentioned above.

Fig. 2.5 VCO for the range of 10Hz to 10KHz

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Then I tried the different combinations of Rt and Ct for different ranges of output
frequency. After that I did the calculations and found out the values of components using
the formula for frequency which is mentioned above for the full range of VCO i.e.
100KHz. The values of components for Vin = 5V are -

Rt = 4.5k RL = 100K R3 = 5K Rs = 37.1K

Ct = .001uf CL = 0.1uf .

Here the duty cycle the output waveform is not 50% . And the graph of output
frequency w.r.t. input voltage is shown below.

Fig. 2.6 Output response of VCO for the full range of up to 100KHz

But the requirement for the Band Pass Filter is, it should have the clock signal
having 50% duty cycle. Since the duty cycle of output waveforms of above designed
VCO is not 50% so Sir told me to connect J-K flip flop at the output of VCO. But the
maximum output frequency of VCO is decreased to half of the previous value. This is
because of J-K flip flop is configured as a divide by two counter so as to have 50% duty

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cycle. Therefore the modified circuit diagram is shown in fig.2.7.

Fig. 2.7 VCO for the range of 10Hz to 50KHz with 50% duty cycle

Also the graph of output frequency w.r.t. input voltage for 50% duty cycle is
shown below.

Fig.2.8 Output response of VCO for the range of up to 50KHz with 50% duty cycle

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2.2.3 Square wave generator using IC TL082CN :-

Here the IC TL082CN which is wide bandwidth Dual JFET input Operational
Amplifier is used to generate square wave input signal.

2.2.3.1 Features of IC TL082CN :-

• Low input bias current 50 pA

• Wide gain bandwidth 4 MHz

• High slew rate 13 V/µs

• High input impedance 1012Ω

• Fast settling time.

2.2.3.2 Pinout of TL082CN :-

Fig. 2.9 Pinout of IC TL082CN

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2.2.3.2 Circuit Diagram :-

Fig.2.10 Square wave generator for 227Hz


2.2.3.3 Working :-

Assume that when power is first applied, the output of first opamp U1A goes to
positive saturation .The capacitor C begins charging up toward V+, with time constant
RC.

When it reaches one-half of the supply voltage, the output of first opamp U1A
goes into negative saturation and the capacitor C begins discharging toward V- with the
same time constant. This cycle repeats indefinitely, with period 2.2RC, independent of
the supply voltage. In this way first opamp U1A acts as a Relaxation Oscillator to
generate the square wave at its output.

The potential divider is connected at the output of fist opamp U1A so as to


minimize the amplitude of square wave and then signal is given to the buffer.

This completes the input signal (square wave) generation part.

This is some brief information about the IC’s which I have used in this
assignment.

And final circuit diagram of Band Pass Filter is shown below.

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2.2.3.4 Output Response for particular input :-

2.2.3.4.1 When input signal is square wave with frequency of 227Hz :-

Observation Table :-

Table 2.1- For Band pass filter with square wave input of 227Hz

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Graph :-

Fig. 2.11 Output response of Band pass filter with suare wave input of 227Hz

2.2.3.4.2 When input signal is Triangular with frequency of 227Hz :-

Circuit of Triangular wave generator is shown in the following fig.2.12.

Fig. 2.12 Triangular wave generator of 227Hz

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Observation Table :-

Table 2.2- For Band pass filter with triangular wave input of 227Hz
Graph:-

Fig. 2.13 Output response of Band pass filter with triangular wave input of 227Hz

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2.2.4 Conclusion:-

This circuit is built and tested successesfully. The above graphs shows the results
of band pass filter.

In this way this band pass filter is used to find out the harmonic content present in
the applied input signal.

2.3 Assignment -2 :- Study and Testing of PLL IC HEF4046B

Block Diagram :-

Frequency Phase Amplifier &


Input Detector Low Pass Filter

VCO

Fig. 2.14 Block diagram of PLL

2.3.1 What is Phase Lock Loop (PLL)?

PLL is a electronic feedback system which consist of phase detector, amplifier,


filter and VCO as shown in the above fig.2.14.The feedback signal is frequency or phase
rather than voltage or current.

Whenever the difference between input frequency and free running frequency Fo
of VCO is within the band width of the low pass filter the feedback action of loop gets
activated which try to attain the VCO frequency to be same as input frequency Fin.

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2.3.2. Functional Diagram of IC4046 :-

Fig. 2.15 Functional diagram of PLL IC 4046

2.3.3 Functional Description :-

VCO :-

R1 and C1 determine the frequency range of the VCO. R2 enables the VCO to
have a frequency off-set if required. In order not to load the low-pass filter, a source
follower output of the VCO input voltage is provided at pin 10. The VCO output can
either be connected directly to the comparator input or via a frequency divider.

Phase comparator 1 :-

It is an EX-OR gate. The signal and comparator input frequencies must have a
50% duty factor to obtain the maximum lock range.

Phase comparator 2 :-

It is an edge-controlled digital memory network. It consists of four flip-flops,


control gating and a 3-state output circuit comprising p and n-type drivers having a
common output node.

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Source-follower :-

In order not to load the low-pass filter, a source-follower output of the VCO input
voltage is provided at pin 10. If this pin (SFOUT) is used, a load resistor (RSF) should be
connected from this pin to VSS; if unused, this pin should be left open.

2.3.4 VCO characteristics :- Obsevation Table :-

Table 2.3-For VCO

Graph :-

Fig. 2.16 Response of VCO of PLL IC4046


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2.3.5. Conclusion :-

Thus the PLL IC HEF4046 is tested successesfully. Above graph shows that the
VCO in PLL IC 4046 is less linear than that of VCO IC LM331. This is because the
linearity of VCO is not so much important in PLL.

2.4 Assignment 3:- Project - 3 Channel Indicator Totalizer

This project is a one of the product of the industry. I was asked to study that
project. It measures the three physical quantities which are temperature, level and
pressure. Instead of sensors the trim pots are used for demonstration.

2.4.1 Block Diagram :-

4 to 20 mA I to V Microcontroller Display
Input Converter

Fig. 2.17 Block diagram of 3-channel indicator totalizer

2.4.2 Description :-

As shown, above block diagram consist of four blocks. The first block is
4 to 20 mA input which can be a transducer (for temperature, pressure and level) giving
output directly in 4 to 20 mA range .This current signal is then given to the second block
which is I to V converter which generates corresponding voltage. The generated voltage
signal is then processed by the microcontroller block and finally it is given to display.

2.4.3 Features :-

• Microcontroller – AVR ATtiny45

• Accuracy is 0.5%
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• 3 displays of 4 digit each (multiplexed)

• Controller based zero and span calibration

• 6 digit Totalizer

2.4.4 The GPB of Bar graph for this project is shown below-

It is consist of –

o Microcontroller AVR ATtiny 45

o 5V regulated power supply

o 2 shift registers (IC 4094)

o 15 LEDs arranged in 5 rows and 3 columns

o Differential amplifier using IC LM324

o Current source using transistor (BC 547)

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2.4.5. Conclusion :-

The hardware part of this project is completed and the software part is yet to be
completed.

2.5 Extra Activities :-

These are the extra activities which I did during the training. I have my own kit
of microcontroller for interfacing with other devices such as LCD, PC through serial
communication, etc. This kit has facility of programming microcontroller IC serialy
(using flash magic) or parallely (using ASM51). Activities include includes interfacing of
microcontroller (89V51RD2) with LCD, steeper motor, serial interfacing with PC
through RS232 protocol etc. using Assembly Language. Their details are mentioned
below. Also I built and tested some analog circuits such as op-amp based relaxation
oscillator, integrator, summing amplifier, LDR circuits, etc. which are explained below.

2.5.1 Microcontroller (89V51RD2) based cuircuits :-

a. Interfacing of microcontroller with LCD :-

Here the 16*2 type LCD is used. The 16 pins LCD Module are defined
below.

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It has three control lines which are referred as EN, RS, and RW.

EN :

The EN line is called 'Enable." This control line is used to tell the LCD that you
are sending it data. To send data to the LCD, programmer should send low to high pulse
on EN signal.

RS :

The RS line is the "Register Select" line. When RS is low (0), the data is to be
treated as a command or special instruction .When RS is high (1), the data being sent is
text data which should be displayed on the screen.

RW :

The RW line is the "Read/Write" control line. When RW is low (0), the
information on the data bus is being written to the LCD. When RW is high (1), the
program is effectively reading the LCD.

The interfacing diagram of microcontroller with LCD is shown in the following fig.2.18.

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VCC VCC

89V51RD2 LCD
P0 Data pins
D0-D7

P2.0 RS

P2.1 R/W

P2.2 E

GND GND
Fig. 2.18 Interfacing of Microcontroller with LCD

For writing the programs I used text editor called as Programmers Notepad. After
that the programs are compiled using ASM51 software and then finally loaded into the
controller IC parallely using ASM51 software. For parallel programming I used to
connect one connector and needed to remove it after programming every time. This was
time consuming, therefore I shifted to the serial programming which is fast enough. For
serial programming I used the Flash Magic software.

I tried following programs for LCD using assembly language.

o To display different alphabets, digits and special character by using delay logic
and by checking busy flag logic.

o Programs with look up table and without look up table.

o Programs for 1-line display and 2-line display.

o Program for scrolling the string.

o Program for blinking the string.

o Programs for 1-digit and 2-digit Decimal counters.

b. Interfacing of Microcontroller with Stepper Motor :-

A stepper motor is basically an electromechanical device which converts


electrical pulses into discrete mechanical movements. The shaft or spindle of a
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stepper motor rotates in discrete step increments when electrical command pulses are
applied to it in the proper sequence. The sequence of the applied pulses is directly
related to the direction of motor shafts rotation. The speed of the motor shafts
rotation is directly related to the frequency of the input pulses and the length of
rotation is directly related to the number of input pulses applied.

9, 10, 6, 5 this is sequence generated at the output of controller continuously. I


have used the bidirectional stepper motors having step angle of 15o.

The interfacing diagram of microcontroller with stepper motor is shown in the following
fig.2.19.

Fig. 2.19 Interfacing of Microcontroller with Stepper Motor

I tried following programs for Stepper Motor using assembly language.

o Program to rotate one stepper motor in one direction and in opposite


direction

o Program to rotate two stepper motors in same direction and in opposite


direction

o Program to rotate two stepper motors with different speeds.

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c. Interfacing of Microcontroller with PC through Serial port :-

One of the 89V51RD2s many powerful features is its integrated UART,


otherwise known as a serial port. The fact that, it has an integrated serial port means that
you may very easily read and write values to the serial port. If it were not for the
integrated serial port, writing a byte to a serial line would be a rather tedious process
requiring turning on and off one of the I/O lines in rapid succession to properly "clock
out" each individual bit, including start bits, stop bits, and parity bits.
However, we do not have to do this. Instead, we simply need to configure
the serial ports operation mode and baud rate. Once configured, all we have to do is write
to an SFR to write a value to the serial port or read the same SFR to read a value from the
serial port. The 8051 will automatically let us know when it has finished sending the
character we wrote and will also let us know whenever it has received a byte so that we
can process it. We do not have to worry about transmission at the bit level--which saves
us quite a bit of coding and processing time.
Steps in Serial Communication –
i. Setting the Serial Port Mode
ii. Setting the Serial Port Baud Rate
iii. Reading the Serial Port
iv. Writing to the Serial Port

I tried following programs for Serial Communication.

o Program to read the data of PCs keyboard

o Program to display the characters, strings and numbers loaded in controller on


PCs monitor.

o Program to read the data of PCs keyboard and send it back to PCs monitor to
display.

o Program to rotate and stop stepper motors by reading the keys of PCs keyboard.

o Program to change the direction of stepper motors by reading the keys of PCs
keyboard.

o Program to make LED ON and OFF by reading the keys of PCs keyboard.

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d. Microcontroller based Object counter using IR transmitter and receiver :-

The counter uses an infrared transmitter-receiver pair and a microcontroller. An


infrared emitter is an LED made from gallium arsenide, which emits near-infrared energy
at about 880nm. The infrared phototransistor acts as a transistor with the base voltage
determined by the amount of light hitting the transistor.

The circuit diagram is shown in the following fig.2.20.

Fig. 2.20 Microcontroller based object counter

In this, the microcontroller is used to generate the square wave (on P1.0) for
transmitter and to detect the interrupt from (P1.0) receiver. The frequency of square wave
is 1.1KHz with the duty cycle of 33%. When object cuts the beam we get the count
which is then displayed on PC’s monitor using Terminal software through UART.

e. Interfacing of Microcontroller with 7 segment display :-

The Light Emitting Diode (LED), finds its place in many applications in this
modern electronic fields. One of them is the Seven Segment Display. These are of two

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types; one is common anode (CA) and second is common cathode (CC). Here I have used
common cathode 7 segment.

In a common cathode, all the 8 legs (’a’ through ‘.’) are of anode type and
remaining two legs which are common cathodes will be connected to the ground. By
energizing any of the legs with +5 Volts (logic ‘1’) will make the correspondent segment
ON. The interfacing circuit diagram of microcontroller with 7 segment display is shown
in following fig.2.21.

Fig. 2.21 Interfacing of Microcontroller with 7 segment

2.5.2 Analog Circuits :-

a. Summing Amplifier :-

IC LM 324 which is Low Power Quad Operational Amplifier is used to

design the Summing Amplifier. The circuit diagram is shown in the following fig.2.22.

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Fig. 2.22 Summing amplifier

Here the op-amp is used in inverting configuration with unity gain. Its output voltage is
given by

V0= - (Rf/R)(V1+V2) where R=R1=R2

When inputs are sine waves with same frequencies of 227Hz and voltages

V1 = 3.5V and V2 = 1.5V

Then the output is the addition of V1 and V2 with same frequency

i.e. Vo = 5V .

b. LDR Circuits :-

As its name implies, the Light Dependent Resistor is a resistive light sensor that
changes its electrical resistance from several thousand Ohms in the dark to only a few
hundred Ohms when light falls upon it. The net effect is a decrease in resistance for an
increase in illumination. It is made up of Cadmium Sulphide (Cds), as its spectral
response curve closely matches that of the human eye and can even be controlled using a
simple torch as a light source. Typically it has a peak sensitivity wavelength (λp) of about
560nm to 600nm in the visible spectral range.

The LDR which I have used have resistance of 1.6MΩ in dark and 305Ω in full light.

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i) Amplifier circuit for LDR using LM324 :-

Fig. 2.23 Amplifier for LDR

Here the op-amp is used in non-inverting configuration. Its output voltage is given by

Vo = (1+R/R1)Vin R= LDR resistance

The input to the op-amp is constant. As light intensity changes the resistance of LDR
changes and therefore the gain of op-amp changes .

ii) Comparator circuit for LDR :-

Fig. 2.24 Comparator for LDR

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In this op-amp is used as open loop comparator, which campares the voltage at
pin2 with the fixed voltage at pin3. When the light intensity is high the resistance of the
LDR is low which makes voltage at pin2 less than that of pin3 and output of op-amp goes
in positive saturation which keeps LED in OFF stage.

When the light intensity is low the resistance of the LDR is high which makes
voltage at pin2 more than that of pin3 and output of op-amp goes in negative saturation
which makes LED ON.

c. LED Stroboscope :-

It is an instrument that provides a flashing light synchronized with the periodic


movement of an object and can make moving object appear stationary. An oscillator is
made to produce a pulse wave of a known frequency. This is then used to drive a bright
LED, which can cope with the fast rate of flashing. It can be used to measure the
rotational speed of a motor or wheel.

The VCO which I have built during the first assignment is used as a controlled
oscillator for flashing the light.

The circuit diagram for LED stroboscope is shown the following fig.2.25.

Fig. 2.25 LED based Stroboscope

Here the IC1 LM331 is a precision V to F converter which is designed for range
of 10Hz to 100KHz.But its duty cycle changes as we change the Vin. Therefore to obtain
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constant duty cycle IC2 4017 (Johnson Counter) is connected at its output. But the
frequency range is reduced to 1Hz to 10KHz because IC2 4017 divides frequency by the
factor 0f 10. Then its output is given to the LED driving circuit which is nothing but the
simple npn transistor BC547.

A mark is made on the object that is rotating that you wish to measure, and the
object is spun up to speed. The oscillator is set to a low frequency to start with, and the
LED is shone at the object where the mark is. At first, the mark will appear at random
points around the object. The frequency of the oscillator is then gradually increased until
the mark appears to remain stationary. If the strobe frequency is slightly under the speed
of the object, the mark will creep forward. And if the strobe frequency is slightly faster
than the speed of the object, the mark will creep backwards.

When it is stationary, the LED is flashing at the same frequency as the object is
rotating. Since the frequency is known, the rotational speed is also known, and can be
stated in RPM using the formula:

RPM = 60 * fstrobe

2.5.3 Softwares :-

2.5.3.1 KICAD Software :-

KICAD is open source easy to use software for drawing schematic and PCB
diagrams. On starting the software, it asks whether you want to draw a PCB or a
Schematic diagram. Once started for schematic drawing, you get a workspace page where
you can draw the schematic diagram and write footnotes in a corner specified for Title,
Date etc.

All components are available in libraries so one has to just specify which type of
component he wants. Components that are not available can be made using a powerful
library editor.

The all circuit diagrams which are shown in this report are drawn using KICAD
software.

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2.5.3.2 Terminal Software :-

The software used on the PC to communicate with the controller was


Terminal. This software is ideal for communication as the baud rate, number of bits,
number of stop bits, parity bits etc can be specified or changed. Once communication has
been successfully established with the controller, data can be sent to the controller by
typing it in a box at the lower end of the screen. The data received can be seen in a box
above the transmit box. This program provides the facility to see the vales sent and
received in ASCII, HEX and decimal formats.

2.5.3.3 Anshuman Microcontroller Kit :-

Anshuman Tech Pvt. Ltd. are manufacturers/ exporters of Technical, Electronic


and Educational Equipments, Instruments as well as Test & Measurement Equipment and
series of Microprocessor Trainers.

I worked on the microcontroller (8051) based kit in which I did the logic
development and programming using assembly language.

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2.6 Difficulties Faced:-

During the first assignment when I saw the waveform of LM331 on CRO there
was more noise on the waveform due to which sometimes it was not possible to measure
the frequency. Then Sir told me that the noise is present in the power supply itself and he
suggested me to connect the bypass capacitor across the power supply on breadboard
which will bypass that noise. After that the noise was reduced significantly. One should
always use that bypass capacitor while designing the circuit.

There was a problem of capacitance of breadboard while designing the clock. One
should consider the capacitance of breadboard. Due to large stray capacitance (from 2-
25pF per contact point), high inductance of some connections breadboards are limited to
operate at relatively low frequencies, usually less than 10 MHz, depending on the nature
of the circuit.

Many times it happened that when I interfaced two circuits, I was not getting the
expected results because of the reason that there was no common ground between them.
Therefore it is very essential to make the grounds common.

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Chapter - 3

Conclusion :-

To me training is the core of the syllabus. It provides platform for getting


an experience from real industrial environment. It really helps a student to get
informed about industrial field to some extent.

Though the training lasted or just three months I benefited greatly from this
period. Working under the guidance of Sir taught me a lot not only in the field of
electronics but also in software development, skills and discipline. This training has given
me the confidence I needed in designing and troubleshooting circuits and also in software
development.

The overall experience of industrial training was very good, definitely it will help
me in future.

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References :-

1. Datasheets of following IC’s-

i. MF10 (National Semiconductor)

ii. LM331 (National Semiconductor)

iii. SN7476 (Texas Instruments)

iv. TL082CN (National Semiconductor)

v. LM356 (National Semiconductor)

vi. HEF4046B (Philips)

vii. 89V51RD2 (Philips)

viii. LM324 (National Semiconductor)

ix. ATtiny45 (ATMEL)

2. The Art Of Electronics by Paul Horowitz and Winfield Hill.

3. The 8051 Microcontroller and embedded Systems by Mazidi.

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