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Chapter 2

Mechanical Properties
The objective for this chapter is to understand the following topics:
2.1 Introduction to mechanical properties
2.2 Stress-strain relationships
Tensile, compression, bending, shear
2.3 Hardness
Hardness vs. strength
2.4 Effect of Temperature
2.5 Other properties: fatigue, impact and creep.

Textbook: Chapter 3; Reference 2: Chapter 6 and Chapter 8

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2.1 Introduction to Mechanical Properties


• Mechanical properties are concerned about material behavior
when subject to mechanical stress (force), including

- strength, modulus of elasticity, ductility, hardness.

• On one hand, design objective is to produce the products that can


withstand high force without significant change in geometry and
surface, meaning high strength, modulus and hardness.

• On the other hand, manufacturing objective is to apply sufficient


force so that the material can be cut or deformed to alter its
shape. Usually, high strength materials are difficult and expensive
to manufacture.

• Hence, mechanical properties are an important factor for both


design and manufacturing.
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2.2 Stress-Strain Relationships
Stress (unit area force) = Force / Area

Strain (unit deformation) = Deformation / Length

Stress-strain relationship indicates how much a material will deform


under a given force ! independent of size

F F

L
Lo Lo L

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Stress and Strain Calculation


(Engineering) stress-strain (theoretical)

Stress: σe = F/Ao MPa (psi)

where F - applied force in N (Ib); Ao - original area in mm2 (in2).

1 psi (lb/in2) = 6895 Pa (N/m2)

Strain: e = (L – Lo ) / Lo (dimensionless)

where Lo - original length in mm (in); L - length at any point.

Hooke’s Law: σe = Ee (in elastic region)

where E - modulus of elasticity (Young’s modulus) in Pa (psi).

! inherent material stiffness.

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Stress-Strain Curve

TS

Y
σ = Kεεn

slope = E
σ = Ee

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Material Strength

• The Elastic Limit (E.L.) is the limit of elastic


deformation, below which the material will
not be permanently deformed. Since it is Yield point
difficult to determine this limit, the yield
strength is used instead.

• Yield strength (Y or YS) is defined as the plastic


stress at which a material deforms from the elastic
elastic region to the plastic region.

• Y is determined as the stress at which a


0.2% strain offset from the straight line has
occurred. 0.2%

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Material Strength
• (Ultimate) Tensile Strength (TS) is defined as the maximum
stress. After this point, a localized elongation, known as necking,
occurs.

TS = Fmax/Ao

• Fracture Strength (FS) is the stress at fracture point.

FS = Fat fracture /Ao

Plastic region

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Example 2-1: Tensile Testing


Given:
Lo=125 mm, Ao= 62.5 mm2 (lab measurement)
Test data: (lab record data)
Load (N) 0 17793 23042 27579 28913 27578 20462
Length (m) 125 125.23 131.25 140.05 147.01 153.00 160.00
The maximum load is 28913, and the final load data is recorded
immediately prior to fracture.
Problem: It is required to determine the following
(a) Plot the stress – strain curve
(b) Y (Yield strength)
(c) E (Young’s modulus)
(d) TS (Tensile strength)

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Solution to Example 2-1
• Plot using Excel.
• Y = 290 MPa, at 0.0038 after offset 0.2%
• E = 288 / 0.0018 = 160000Mpa
• TS = 462.61 MPa, FS?

500
450
400
350
300

Stress MPa
250
200
150
100
50
0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3
Strain
σe = F/Ao e = (L – Lo ) / Lo
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Solution to Example 2-1

400
350
Y
300
290
Stress MPa

250
200
150
100
50
tan-1 E
0
0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005
Strain

Offset 0.2%

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True Stress-Strain Relationships

True stress-strain (for manufacturing)

Stress: σ = F/A MPa (psi)

where F - applied force in N (Ib); A - instantaneous area in mm2 (in2).

Strain: dε = dL /L
L
ε =⌡ dL / L = ln L/Lo
Lo

where L - length at any point in mm (in), i.e. instantaneous length,


L = Lf at fracture.

L dL

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True Stress-Strain Relationships


In the elastic region, engineering and true stress-strain are identical,
and E is applicable to both cases.

Hooke’s Law: σ = E ε (in elastic region)

In general, they are related as

ε = ln (1+e) = ln L/Lo
Prove: since e = (L-Lo) / Lo = L/Lo-1, then 1+ e = L/Lo

σ = σe(1+e) = F/A

Prove: (F/Ao)(1+ (L-Lo) / Lo) = F/A ! Ao/A –1 = (L – Lo)/Lo = L/Lo-1

Since no volume change, then AL = AoLo

! Ao/A = L/Lo ! Ao/A –1 = L/Lo-1

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True Stress-Strain Curve - Example 2-1

500 600
450
400 500
350 400

true stress (Mpa)


300
Stress MPa

250 300
200
150 200
100 100
50
0 0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3
Strain true strain %

σe = F/Ao; e = (L – Lo ) / Lo σ = F/A = σe(1+e); ε = ln L/Lo


Y? TS? FS? E?

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Ductility
Ductility – Measurement of flexibility and formability.

Elongation: (strain at fracture) TS


EL = [(Lf – Lo)/Lo] x 100 %
where Lf - length at fracture. EL

Time (heat treatment)


Area reduction:
AR = [(Ao – Af)/Ao] x 100 % ≈ [1- Lo/Lf] x 100 %
where Af - cross-section area at fracture.

Metals Ceramics Polymers


EL % 10 – 60 0 1 – 500
AR % 20 – 90 0 -

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Plastic Deformation – Strain Hardening

In the plastic region after yielding, the


stress-strain relationship (for metals)
Y’
may be expressed as
Y

σ=Kεn (flow curve)

where σ - true stress


ε - true strain
K - strength coefficient (Mpa, Kpsi)
n - strain hardening exponent.

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Plastic Deformation – Strain Hardening


Strain hardening is to increase “elastic region” by permanent
deformation, with new Y’ determined by flow curve,
e.g. Aluminum alloy:

TS 350(Mpa) > Y’ = 240(0.2)0.15=188 > Y 175 (MPa)

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Type of Stress-Strain Relationship

Perfect elastic: Elastic and perfect Elastic and strain


plastic: hardening:
No yielding, only
fracture, Y=TS. Plastic deformation Plastic deformation
at the same level, with higher stress
e.g. brittle materials
K=Y, n=0. K>Y, n>0.
such as ceramic,
cast iron, and e.g. sufficiently heat e.g. Most ductile
polymers treated metals metals.

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Tensile Properties of Selected Materials

1200
Brittle

1000
MPa (E-GPa)

Y
800
TS
600
E
400
%x10
200
0
ed

ed

n
n
y

um

ic
y

l lo

lo
iro
lo

m
al

al
Al

Ny
ni
la

ra
ne

ne

st
ta

Ce
Al

ee

Ca

er
an

an
Ti

m
St

el
y

ly
lo

ck

Po
Al

Ni
Al

Brittle materials and perfect plastic materials (polymers) fracture rather than
yield.
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Compression Properties
In the compression test, a material
specimen is squeezed.
Stress: σe = F/Ao
Strain: e = (h – ho ) /ho (negative) F
where h - height at any point.

True stress: σ = F/A

True strain: ε = ln h/ho (negative) ho h

Example: h = 0.9, ho = 1
e = 0.9 – 1 = -0.1
ε = ln 0.9 = -0.105
Compared to tension: L=1.1, Lo=1
e = 0.1, ε = ln 1.1 = 0.095

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Compression Properties
• For almost all materials, compression
properties are derived from tensile
properties as the true stress-strain
curves for both are nearly identical.

• The difference is to ignore necking in


compression, as materials will not
fracture, but barreling.

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Bending (flexural) Properties
Bending stress: σe = Mc / I
where M – bending moment, c – distance from the center line, I – moment
of inertia of the cross section.

Here, M = F/2 x L/2 = FL/4, c = t/2, I = bt3/12

σe = 1.5 FL/bt2

3 point method

M
F/2 F/2

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Bending Properties
The bending test (flexure test) is used to determine the transverse rupture
strength (TRS).

For rectangular cross section

TRS = 1.5 FL/bt2 MPa (psi)

where F – force, N(lb), L – length, mm(in), b and t are the dimensions of


the cross section, mm(in).

For circular cross section

TRS = FL/πR3 Mpa (psi)

where I = πR4/4

For brittle materials, TRS ≈TS

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Shear Properties
When a material is subject to torsion by twisting, the shear stress occurs,
which is defined as

τ = F/A MPa (psi)

or τ = T/2πR2t (F = T/R, A = 2πRt)

where F – force N(lb), A – area over which the force is applied mm2 (in2),
T – applied torque N-mm (lb-in).

L
γ Rα

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Shear Properties
Shear strain is a measure of angular
δ F
deflection defined as

γ = δ/b (radians) b
where δ - deflection,
F
b – width orthogonal to deflection.

or

γ = Rα/L

Example: R = 10, L=1, α = 0.01(rad) L

γ = Rα/L = 10 x0.01 = 0.1

Note: α - radial direction


γ - circumferential

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Shear Properties - main cutting direction

In the elastic region

τ = Gγ Mpa (psi)

where G – shear modulus in MPa (psi).

In the plastic region,

τ = Kγn

(flow curve is similar to tensile)

For most materials

G = 0.4E or G = E/[2(1+v)]

Shear strength S ≈ 0.7TS

Necking usually does not happen in torsion.

Example: 2024-O: 0.7x27000 = 18900 psi ! 18000

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Mechanical Properties – Aluminum


TS Y EL HB S

E = 10.5x106 psi
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Example 2.2 – Mechanical Properties: Tension
Problem: for given D and d of Al, find the
required force for extrusion/drawing.
Chamber
Solution:
Ram
Since ε = ln L/Lo = ln Ao/A
D d
A = πd2/4; Ao = πD2/4 F, v
Die
Then ε = 2 ln (D/d) = 2ln2 = 1.386
Shrinking tube
In plastic region,

σ = K ε n = 240(1.386)0.15 = 252 Mpa

Drawing: σ = F/A ! F = σ πd2/4

Extrusion: σ = F/Ao ! F = σπD2/4

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Example 2.3 – Mechanical Properties:Shear


Problem: for given Al sheet metal of width (w) and thickness (t), determine
the cutting force (t =1/4”, and w = 6’)

Solution:

Force = S x A = S x w x t = 18000 psi x ¼ x 6x12 = 324,000 lbf = 1.44 MN

(1 lbf = 4.4482N) (how to reduce force)

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2.3 Hardness (friction, grinding)
Hardness is a measure of the material resistance to scratching and
wear. It is proportional to TS.

For example, HB of ferrous materials can be approximately related to


TS as

TS ≈ Kh HB

where Kh = 3.45, TS in MPa;

Kh = 500, TS in psi.

Example: 2024-O:

Estimated TS: 47x500 = 23500 psi

Actual TS: 27000 psi

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Hardness Testing Methods


Various hardness testing methods may be classified into:
1) Size of indentation
Brinell – low to high hardness
Vickers (research too), Knoop
2) Depth of impression
Rockwell A – K
3) Other
Scleroscope (rebound of a ball) (shore ! diamond dart dropped
from a standard height ! not accurate, portable),
Mohs (scratch)

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Hardness Testing Methods

soft

H 60 HRH
K 150 HRK

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Brinell Test
• Brinell Hardness number = HB
• For harder materials over 500 HB, the cemented carbide ball is
used instead of the steel ball.
• Also, high loads (1500 and 3000 Kg) are typically used for harder
materials.
• It is considered good practice to indicate the load used in the test
when reporting HB readings.

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Rockwell Test

• Rockwell = HRA – HRK


• Apply a minor load (10 Kg) first, then a major load (50 –150).
• Indentation HR = E - e = t
• Different indenters with different loads for different materials.
• Commonly used Rockwell scales
Rockwell A – carbides, ceramics
B – (non) ferrous metals (soft)
C – ferrous metals, tool steels
E - softer

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2.4 Effect of Temperature

Effect on hardness

Effect on strength

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2.5 Other Properties - Fatigue
Fatigue failure occurs at the stress low than Y or TS of static
loading, after subject to a cyclic loading for a number of cycles.
Example: turbine blade failure (cracking).

Static Y or TS
Dynamic Y or TS

Fatigue
strength

Fatigue life
S-N curve (stress and Number)
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Fatigue Test
1St, maximum stress = 2/3 (TS), the number of cycles to failure is recorded.
2nd, decreasing stress, the number of cycles to failure is recorded.
….

2/3(TS)
Tension
Stress
Compression

Time

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S-N Behavior

Two distinct types of S-N behavior:


- Fatigue Limit (Endurance Limit): at certain N (number of cycles),
the failure stress is no longer decreasing.
some ferrous materials, heat treated aluminum alloy, titanium
alloys.
usually, fatigue limit ≈ 25-60% TS
- Fatigue Strength: defined at N (e.g. 107cycles)
in this case, no fatigue limit, and the failure stress will decrease as
N increases.
- Fatigue Life: defined as the number of cycles at a given stress
level.

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Impact - Toughness
• Impact testing is a good measure of material toughness by
applying a shock loading.

• Generally, materials with high strength and high ductility have


high impact resistance. (super alloys, composites)

Charpy test (ft.lb) Lzod (ft.lb)

wxtxL

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Impact Testing

• A pendulum is dropped or
swung to the specimen. Temperature (oF)

• Difference between Charpy


and Lzod test is the support of
the specimen.

Impact energy (J)


Impact
• Measure in energy (force x energy

Shear fracture
Shear
distance) fracture

Joule (J) = 1 Nm = 0.738 ft-lbf

• Also indication of ductile-to-


brittle transition.
Temperature (oC)

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Properties of Low Alloy Steels for Making


Landing Gears

Toughess
Area Hardness (Izod)
AISI No Treatment Y (psi) TS (psi) EL (%) reduction HB (ft.lb)
4340 Normalized 125,000 185,500 12.2 36.3 363 11.7
Annealed 68,500 108,000 22 49.9 217 37.7
8740 Normalized 88,000 134,750 16 47.9 269 13
Annealed 60,250 100,750 22.2 46.4 201 29.5
ASM databook

Toughness in line with ductility, but conflict with strength and hardness.
Tough materials may be difficult to cut.
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Creep
• Creep is the permanent elongation of a component under a static load (force or
heat) maintained for a period of time.
• Creep is time vs. static force, fatigue is cycle (time) vs. cyclic force. Tm ↑ creep
resistance ↑
• Examples of creep failure include gas turbine blades, jet engine components,
rocket motors.
• Rupture lifetime tf,,
- long for long-life applications such as nuclear power plant components.
- short for short-life applications such as turbine blades for military aircraft.

Necking
Strain hardening & recovery (tension)
Strain hardening
(steady-state)
(transition)
metal

Upon loading
(elastic)

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Rupture lifetime tr

Residual Stress
Residual stress is caused by inhomogeneous deformation.

Residual stress remains after the material deforms and the force is
removed.

Residual stress can be relieved by heat treatment. (paper clip)

Tensile a b c

Compressive

elastic unloading

plastic

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Assignment 1

Problem 1

In example 2-1, i) determine EL and AR; ii) estimate G, S; iii) Is it possible


to determine K and n? If yes, how?

Problem 2

In example 2-2, If the diameter is reduced by D/d = 3, check if the material


is broken?

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