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# Chapter 2

Mechanical Properties
The objective for this chapter is to understand the following topics:
2.1 Introduction to mechanical properties
2.2 Stress-strain relationships
Tensile, compression, bending, shear
2.3 Hardness
Hardness vs. strength
2.4 Effect of Temperature
2.5 Other properties: fatigue, impact and creep.

## 2.1 Introduction to Mechanical Properties

• Mechanical properties are concerned about material behavior
when subject to mechanical stress (force), including

## • On one hand, design objective is to produce the products that can

withstand high force without significant change in geometry and
surface, meaning high strength, modulus and hardness.

## • On the other hand, manufacturing objective is to apply sufficient

force so that the material can be cut or deformed to alter its
shape. Usually, high strength materials are difficult and expensive
to manufacture.

## • Hence, mechanical properties are an important factor for both

design and manufacturing.
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2.2 Stress-Strain Relationships
Stress (unit area force) = Force / Area

## Stress-strain relationship indicates how much a material will deform

under a given force ! independent of size

F F

L
Lo Lo L

## Stress and Strain Calculation

(Engineering) stress-strain (theoretical)

## 1 psi (lb/in2) = 6895 Pa (N/m2)

Strain: e = (L – Lo ) / Lo (dimensionless)

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Stress-Strain Curve

TS

Y
σ = Kεεn

slope = E
σ = Ee

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Material Strength

## • The Elastic Limit (E.L.) is the limit of elastic

deformation, below which the material will
not be permanently deformed. Since it is Yield point
difficult to determine this limit, the yield

## • Yield strength (Y or YS) is defined as the plastic

stress at which a material deforms from the elastic
elastic region to the plastic region.

## • Y is determined as the stress at which a

0.2% strain offset from the straight line has
occurred. 0.2%

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Material Strength
• (Ultimate) Tensile Strength (TS) is defined as the maximum
stress. After this point, a localized elongation, known as necking,
occurs.

TS = Fmax/Ao

Plastic region

## Example 2-1: Tensile Testing

Given:
Lo=125 mm, Ao= 62.5 mm2 (lab measurement)
Test data: (lab record data)
Load (N) 0 17793 23042 27579 28913 27578 20462
Length (m) 125 125.23 131.25 140.05 147.01 153.00 160.00
The maximum load is 28913, and the final load data is recorded
immediately prior to fracture.
Problem: It is required to determine the following
(a) Plot the stress – strain curve
(b) Y (Yield strength)
(c) E (Young’s modulus)
(d) TS (Tensile strength)

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Solution to Example 2-1
• Plot using Excel.
• Y = 290 MPa, at 0.0038 after offset 0.2%
• E = 288 / 0.0018 = 160000Mpa
• TS = 462.61 MPa, FS?

500
450
400
350
300

Stress MPa
250
200
150
100
50
0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3
Strain
σe = F/Ao e = (L – Lo ) / Lo
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## Solution to Example 2-1

400
350
Y
300
290
Stress MPa

250
200
150
100
50
tan-1 E
0
0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005
Strain

Offset 0.2%

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True Stress-Strain Relationships

## where F - applied force in N (Ib); A - instantaneous area in mm2 (in2).

Strain: dε = dL /L
L
ε =⌡ dL / L = ln L/Lo
Lo

## where L - length at any point in mm (in), i.e. instantaneous length,

L = Lf at fracture.

L dL

## True Stress-Strain Relationships

In the elastic region, engineering and true stress-strain are identical,
and E is applicable to both cases.

## In general, they are related as

ε = ln (1+e) = ln L/Lo
Prove: since e = (L-Lo) / Lo = L/Lo-1, then 1+ e = L/Lo

σ = σe(1+e) = F/A

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True Stress-Strain Curve - Example 2-1

500 600
450
400 500
350 400

## true stress (Mpa)

300
Stress MPa

250 300
200
150 200
100 100
50
0 0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3
Strain true strain %

Y? TS? FS? E?

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Ductility
Ductility – Measurement of flexibility and formability.

## Elongation: (strain at fracture) TS

EL = [(Lf – Lo)/Lo] x 100 %
where Lf - length at fracture. EL

## Time (heat treatment)

Area reduction:
AR = [(Ao – Af)/Ao] x 100 % ≈ [1- Lo/Lf] x 100 %
where Af - cross-section area at fracture.

## Metals Ceramics Polymers

EL % 10 – 60 0 1 – 500
AR % 20 – 90 0 -

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Plastic Deformation – Strain Hardening

## In the plastic region after yielding, the

stress-strain relationship (for metals)
Y’
may be expressed as
Y

## where σ - true stress

ε - true strain
K - strength coefficient (Mpa, Kpsi)
n - strain hardening exponent.

## Plastic Deformation – Strain Hardening

Strain hardening is to increase “elastic region” by permanent
deformation, with new Y’ determined by flow curve,
e.g. Aluminum alloy:

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Type of Stress-Strain Relationship

## Perfect elastic: Elastic and perfect Elastic and strain

plastic: hardening:
No yielding, only
fracture, Y=TS. Plastic deformation Plastic deformation
at the same level, with higher stress
e.g. brittle materials
K=Y, n=0. K>Y, n>0.
such as ceramic,
cast iron, and e.g. sufficiently heat e.g. Most ductile
polymers treated metals metals.

## Tensile Properties of Selected Materials

1200
Brittle

1000
MPa (E-GPa)

Y
800
TS
600
E
400
%x10
200
0
ed

ed

n
n
y

um

ic
y

l lo

lo
iro
lo

m
al

al
Al

Ny
ni
la

ra
ne

ne

st
ta

Ce
Al

ee

Ca

er
an

an
Ti

m
St

el
y

ly
lo

ck

Po
Al

Ni
Al

Brittle materials and perfect plastic materials (polymers) fracture rather than
yield.
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Compression Properties
In the compression test, a material
specimen is squeezed.
Stress: σe = F/Ao
Strain: e = (h – ho ) /ho (negative) F
where h - height at any point.

## True strain: ε = ln h/ho (negative) ho h

Example: h = 0.9, ho = 1
e = 0.9 – 1 = -0.1
ε = ln 0.9 = -0.105
Compared to tension: L=1.1, Lo=1
e = 0.1, ε = ln 1.1 = 0.095

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Compression Properties
• For almost all materials, compression
properties are derived from tensile
properties as the true stress-strain
curves for both are nearly identical.

## • The difference is to ignore necking in

compression, as materials will not
fracture, but barreling.

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Bending (flexural) Properties
Bending stress: σe = Mc / I
where M – bending moment, c – distance from the center line, I – moment
of inertia of the cross section.

σe = 1.5 FL/bt2

3 point method

M
F/2 F/2

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Bending Properties
The bending test (flexure test) is used to determine the transverse rupture
strength (TRS).

## where F – force, N(lb), L – length, mm(in), b and t are the dimensions of

the cross section, mm(in).

where I = πR4/4

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Shear Properties
When a material is subject to torsion by twisting, the shear stress occurs,
which is defined as

## or τ = T/2πR2t (F = T/R, A = 2πRt)

where F – force N(lb), A – area over which the force is applied mm2 (in2),
T – applied torque N-mm (lb-in).

L
γ Rα

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Shear Properties
Shear strain is a measure of angular
δ F
deflection defined as

where δ - deflection,
F
b – width orthogonal to deflection.

or

γ = Rα/L

## Note: α - radial direction

γ - circumferential

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Shear Properties - main cutting direction

τ = Gγ Mpa (psi)

τ = Kγn

## For most materials

G = 0.4E or G = E/[2(1+v)]

## Mechanical Properties – Aluminum

TS Y EL HB S

E = 10.5x106 psi
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Example 2.2 – Mechanical Properties: Tension
Problem: for given D and d of Al, find the
required force for extrusion/drawing.
Chamber
Solution:
Ram
Since ε = ln L/Lo = ln Ao/A
D d
A = πd2/4; Ao = πD2/4 F, v
Die
Then ε = 2 ln (D/d) = 2ln2 = 1.386
Shrinking tube
In plastic region,

## Example 2.3 – Mechanical Properties:Shear

Problem: for given Al sheet metal of width (w) and thickness (t), determine
the cutting force (t =1/4”, and w = 6’)

Solution:

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2.3 Hardness (friction, grinding)
Hardness is a measure of the material resistance to scratching and
wear. It is proportional to TS.

TS as

TS ≈ Kh HB

## where Kh = 3.45, TS in MPa;

Kh = 500, TS in psi.

Example: 2024-O:

## Hardness Testing Methods

Various hardness testing methods may be classified into:
1) Size of indentation
Brinell – low to high hardness
Vickers (research too), Knoop
2) Depth of impression
Rockwell A – K
3) Other
Scleroscope (rebound of a ball) (shore ! diamond dart dropped
from a standard height ! not accurate, portable),
Mohs (scratch)

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Hardness Testing Methods

soft

H 60 HRH
K 150 HRK

## Materials and Manufacturing (AER507), F. Xi

Brinell Test
• Brinell Hardness number = HB
• For harder materials over 500 HB, the cemented carbide ball is
used instead of the steel ball.
• Also, high loads (1500 and 3000 Kg) are typically used for harder
materials.
• It is considered good practice to indicate the load used in the test

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Rockwell Test

## • Rockwell = HRA – HRK

• Apply a minor load (10 Kg) first, then a major load (50 –150).
• Indentation HR = E - e = t
• Different indenters with different loads for different materials.
• Commonly used Rockwell scales
Rockwell A – carbides, ceramics
B – (non) ferrous metals (soft)
C – ferrous metals, tool steels
E - softer

## 2.4 Effect of Temperature

Effect on hardness

Effect on strength

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2.5 Other Properties - Fatigue
Fatigue failure occurs at the stress low than Y or TS of static

Static Y or TS
Dynamic Y or TS

Fatigue
strength

Fatigue life
S-N curve (stress and Number)
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Fatigue Test
1St, maximum stress = 2/3 (TS), the number of cycles to failure is recorded.
2nd, decreasing stress, the number of cycles to failure is recorded.
….

2/3(TS)
Tension
Stress
Compression

Time

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S-N Behavior

## Two distinct types of S-N behavior:

- Fatigue Limit (Endurance Limit): at certain N (number of cycles),
the failure stress is no longer decreasing.
some ferrous materials, heat treated aluminum alloy, titanium
alloys.
usually, fatigue limit ≈ 25-60% TS
- Fatigue Strength: defined at N (e.g. 107cycles)
in this case, no fatigue limit, and the failure stress will decrease as
N increases.
- Fatigue Life: defined as the number of cycles at a given stress
level.

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Impact - Toughness
• Impact testing is a good measure of material toughness by

## • Generally, materials with high strength and high ductility have

high impact resistance. (super alloys, composites)

wxtxL

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Impact Testing

• A pendulum is dropped or
swung to the specimen. Temperature (oF)

## • Difference between Charpy

and Lzod test is the support of
the specimen.

## Impact energy (J)

Impact
• Measure in energy (force x energy

Shear fracture
Shear
distance) fracture

## • Also indication of ductile-to-

brittle transition.
Temperature (oC)

## Properties of Low Alloy Steels for Making

Landing Gears

Toughess
Area Hardness (Izod)
AISI No Treatment Y (psi) TS (psi) EL (%) reduction HB (ft.lb)
4340 Normalized 125,000 185,500 12.2 36.3 363 11.7
Annealed 68,500 108,000 22 49.9 217 37.7
8740 Normalized 88,000 134,750 16 47.9 269 13
Annealed 60,250 100,750 22.2 46.4 201 29.5
ASM databook

Toughness in line with ductility, but conflict with strength and hardness.
Tough materials may be difficult to cut.
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Creep
• Creep is the permanent elongation of a component under a static load (force or
heat) maintained for a period of time.
• Creep is time vs. static force, fatigue is cycle (time) vs. cyclic force. Tm ↑ creep
resistance ↑
• Examples of creep failure include gas turbine blades, jet engine components,
rocket motors.
- long for long-life applications such as nuclear power plant components.
- short for short-life applications such as turbine blades for military aircraft.

Necking
Strain hardening & recovery (tension)
Strain hardening
(transition)
metal

(elastic)

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Residual Stress
Residual stress is caused by inhomogeneous deformation.

Residual stress remains after the material deforms and the force is
removed.

Tensile a b c

Compressive

plastic

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Assignment 1

Problem 1

## In example 2-1, i) determine EL and AR; ii) estimate G, S; iii) Is it possible

to determine K and n? If yes, how?

Problem 2

is broken?

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