Anda di halaman 1dari 20

c  

Complete report of Animal Structure experiment with title ³Nerves tissue´

which written by:

Name : Sureni Hikmawati s

ID : 081404176

Group : VI

Class : D (Biology ICP)

After checked by assistant and coordinator assistant, this report accepted.

Makassar,

Coordinator Assistant Assistant

(Djumarirmanto, S.Pd) ( Andi Anna Ariana )


 
c
c 

? 

Every human being has ability for answering to stimulus, not only from

inside area but from outside area too. This ability to have because in the human

being provided with sensitive body appliance to environment. The appliance to

collectively make a system which to know with nerves system. Nerves system of

human being containing at least 10 billion. Nerves cell is basic component of

nerves tissue. Nerves system covering of brain, ganglion backbone marrow and

nerves. The structural and functional units from nerves system are nerves cell and

neuron. Centre nerves system consists of brain and ganglion backbone marrow,

while edge nerves system consists of all nerves which located outside of brain and

inside of backbone marrow. Nerves tissue is compiled by nerves cells which

called neuron. Neuron has typical characteristic with existence of cytoplasm

sticking out till reach very distance far. Neuron is deliverer of communication

between environmental with body. Cell body containing nucleus. Every

excitement will bring to cell body passing dendrite. Nerves system have two

especially functions are for detecting , analyzing, using and sending all

information which generated by sensory stimulus, and mechanical and chemical

change which happen in inside environmental and also outside environmental.,


and for organizing and arranging, either trough is direct and also indirect most of

function of body, especially motoric activity , visceral, endocrine, and bounce.

Nerves tissue is tissue which have histology structure which immeasurable

and for knowing histology structure from nerves tissue ( Nerves tissue at the | 


    and nerves tissue at the 
 
  ) ,

so we did this experiment.

? 

???????This practicum to purpose for observation structure of nerves tissue histology

at the Cow nerve cell smear, Nerve cell and at the Human sympathetic nerve.

? 

Can to observation and knowing farther about histology structure of nerves

tissue, besides can extending our knowledge about nerves tissue.


 
c
c

 
c  c


Nerves tissue or nerves system guarantying sensitivity of animal to

environmental energy. So that cans self consciousness arid and its environment. Can

awakening and also control muscle movements, and also gland secretion, also play a

part in instinct behavior and things studied. Nerves tissue of parenchyma consists of

neuron which supported by neuralgia. Neuron is set of functional morphology and

also nerve activity also representing nutritive unit, because indirectly can maintaining

life of cells in organs which it. Because neuron can not performing again of mitosis to

pascanatal life. So it ages enough length. All system of nerves is solidarity of

morphology system and functional. So according to concept divided in centre nerves

formatting and Ferrier nerves formatting ( Delmann , 1989 )

Nervous tissue is one of four major classes of vertebrate tissue. (The others being

connective tissue, muscle tissue and epithelial tissue.). The function of the nervous

tissue is in communication between parts of the body. It is composed of neurons,

which transmit impulses, and the neuroglia, which assist propagation of the nerve

impulse as well as provide nutrients to the neuron. Every time you get pinched, part

of your nerve tissue is damaged. All nervous tissue of a living organism makes up its

nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, and nerves throughout the

organism. Nervous tissue is made of nerve cells that come in many varieties, all of

which are distinctly characteristic by the axon or long stem like part of the cell that
sends action potential signals to the next cell, All living cells have the ability to react

to stimuli. (Anonin, 2009 )

Centre nerve system including in brain and backbone marrow. Ferrier nerves

system consist on complete nerves and ganglia and which is the biggest in all body,

including cranial nerve, and spinal nerve. Nerves system woke up by components of

nerve cells or neuron, ganglia cells ( Szechwan cell, oligodendrocite, microglia,

ependym, astrosit, satellite cells ) and real cartilage tissue ( Adnan, 2008 )

Nerve tissue is the most complex tissue in the body. It is the substance of

the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Nerve tissue requires more oxygen and

nutrients than any other body tissue. The basic cell of the nerve tissue is the neuron .

This highly specialized cell receives stimuli from, and conducts impulses to, all

parts of the body ( Anonym , 2009 )

Nerves tissue share in stimulus acceptance and forwarding of stimulus. In

embryology, this tissue come from ectoderm layer. This tissue there are in centre

nerves system ( brain and backbone marrow ) and at the edge nerves system. It¶s two

kinds of nerves cells, there are nerves cells and support cell ( glia cells ). Neuron

containing of body cells, nucleus and sticking out or fiber. One type of sticking out is

dendrite, which share in accepted signal from other cells and continue to cell body.

Type of sticking out the other nerves cells called axon, which share in continue signal

of body cells to other neuron. Some axon has very long is long from brain until to
under abdomen sides ( long is ½ meter or more ). Signal transmission from neuron,

found support cells too, like glia cells ( Campbell, 1999 )

The nervous system is a network of specialized cells that communicate

information about an animal's surroundings and itself. It processes this information

and causes reactions in other parts of the body. It is composed of neurons and other

specialized cells called glia, that aid in the function of the neurons. The nervous

system is divided broadly into two categories: the peripheral nervous system and the

central nervous system. Neurons generate and conduct impulses between and within

the two systems. The peripheral nervous system is composed of sensory neurons and

the neurons that connect them to the nerve cord, spinal cord and brain, which make

up the central nervous system. In response to stimuli, sensory neurons generate and

propagate signals to the central nervous system which then processes and conducts

signals back to the muscles and glands. The neurons of the nervous systems of

animals are interconnected in complex arrangements and use electrochemical signals

and neurotransmitters to transmit impulses from one neuron to the next. The

interaction of the different neurons form neural circuits that regulate an organism's

perception of the world and what is going on with its body, thus regulating its

behavior. Nervous systems are found in many multicellular animals but differ greatly

in complexity between species ( Anonym , 2009 )

Nerve tissue is composed of celis and fibres enclosed by connective tissue and

supplied with bloodvessels and lymphatics ; it controls all the other tissues, it is not
contractile, but generates and propagates. various impulses. The fibres and cells are

arranged in masses called 'Nerve Centres,' or in cords called nerves. The former

contain fibres and cells ; they generate, receive and transmit nervous impulses ; the

latter are composed wholly of fibres which only transmit impulses. They have been

likened to a galvanic battery ; the battery, like the nerve centres, generates, receives

and transmits the electric current, while the wires, like the nerves, only conduct to

and from the battery. They consist of small bundles of fibres called funiculi, bound

together by a delicate sheath of membrane neurilemma ; these small bundles are

again bound into large ones called fasciculi, the whole nerve being at last enclosed in

a common sheath of connective tissue. Cellular tissue, owing to its colour, is called

gray substance ( Adnan, 2007 )

?
 
c
c  !!
 

? "#

Day/Date : Thursday, April 23th , 2009

Time : At 02.00 ± 04.00 pm

Place : In Eastern Biology Laboratory of FMIPA of Makassar State

University (UNM)

? #!#

1.? Tool

a.? Microscope

2.? Materials

a.? Observation I : Nerve cells

b.? Observation II : Cow nerve cell smear

c.? Observation III : Human sympathetic nerve

? $

1.? Observation I

a.? Prepared a nerve cell ( brain )

b.? Observed carefully parts of brain tissue histology, there are molecular

layer, purkinye cells layer, and granular layer. Watched satellite cells,

purkinye cells, and granula cells too.

c.? Drew the observation result.


2.? Observation II

a.? Prepared a Cow nerve cell smear

b.? Use 10 x 40 enlargement, then observed nerve cell at the prepared. Mark

at the nerves cell , watched cell body, nucleus , dendrite and acxon.

c.? Drew the observation result

3.? Observation III

a.? Prepared a Human Sympathetic nerve

b.? Use 10 x 40 enlargement , then observed nerves fiber , perinerium,

adipocyte tissue at the perinerium, connective tissue interfasiculer,

satellite cells, fibroblast, and ganglia cells.


 
c
c
%    % %

? c#

Observation I : Nerves tissue of Nerve cell ( brain )

Enlargement : 10 x 10

Notes:

1.? Molecular layer

2.? Purkinye layer

3.? Granular layer

4.? Satellite cells

5.? Purkinye cells

Comparing Picture
Observation II : Nerves tissue of Cow nerve cell smear

Enlargement : 10 x 40

Notes:
1.? Dendrite

2.? Cell body

3.? Nucleus

4.? Schwann cell

5.? Myelin shroud

6.? Renvier nodus

7.? Neurite

8.? Axon

9.? Cytoplasm

Comparing Picture



Observation II : Nerves tissue of Human sympathetic nerve

Enlargement : 10 x 40

Notes:

1.? Adipocyte cell

2.? Nerve fiber

3.? Fibroblast

4.? Glia cells

5.? Perinerium

6.? Intravascular connective

tissue

Comparing Picture



? 

1.? Observation I : Nerves tissue of nerve cell

At the nerves tissue of Nerve cells, consists from molecular layer,

purkinye cell, granular cell, satellite cell, and purkinye cells. Molecular layer

is the outside layer, like smooth fiber which meeting compile. Purkinye layer

which containing juts out of axon is visible more strong, the nucleus less

solid. The juts out of axon is a long process and the general not branching and

visible like tree with form and size are different. Beside that containing juts

out of axon too and located in satellite cell which have size bigger than other

cells. As for purkinye cells usually certain period interlude with satellite cells

which residing it around.

2.? Observation II : Nerves tissue of Cow nerve cell smear

At this observation, it observed is structure histology of nerves tissue at

the Cow nerve cell smear. At this observation we can see existence of nerves

cell body, nucleus, dendrite and axon. According to Delmann, cell body or

pericardium from a neuron consists from nucleus, cytoplasm and plasmalema

which surround nucleus. Nucleus from a neuron make form like ellipse or

circular, big relative and have character of eukromatik. Dendrite is long

cytoplasm channel, branching wide of , Especially at multipolar neuron.

Dendrite which out from body cell, branch¶s like tree. Especial jetty of

dendrite have organelle look like cell body. At small branch of dendrite many
there are micro reed, with neurofilamen, mitochondria, small bunch and cell

of ribosome. Axon as a rule length, in form of cylinder and seldom branch. if

there are any branch as a rule emerge is vertical of axon referred called

collateral.

3.? Observation III : Nervous tissue of Human sympathetic nerve

At this observation, we can see nervous fiber, adipocyte tissue,

intravascular connective tissue, ganglia cells, satellite cell and myelin fiber

with fibroblast. Nervous fiber have is the biggest Conductivity there are easy

accepting kinds of physically stimulus and bring from one place to other

place. A nervous is a fold axon from a number of neuron covered up by

perinerium having extension into binding mentioned as endonerium. Nervous

fiber containing ganglia cells, while adipocyte tissue is outside layer from

human sympathetic nerve and limited by intravascular connective tissue.

Satellite cells located under perinerium which have size is bigger then other

cells. In Structural nerve fiber containing myelin fiber with fibroblast, where

this fiber is shroud encircling axon from a neuron, which consist from lipoid

substations. This fiber to surround too by a shroud membrane called

Szechwan cells.

?
 
c
 %  %
%

? #

1.? Nerve tissue consists on nerves cells which called neuron. This nerve tissue

have branch¶s structure to other part of body for arranging activity. Nerve cell

consist on cell body , neurit, dendrite, nucleus , axon, cytoplasm, myelin

shroud, sechwan cell, renvier nodus, and akson terminal.

2.? At sympathetic human nerve, located at parts like adipocyte cell, nerve fiber,

perimerium, connective tissue, intravascular tissue and ganglia cells.

3.? Histology structure of nervous tissue at Nerve cells consist from molecular

layer, purkinye layer and granular layer.

? %

1.? We hope so that the prepared tools like preparat must more so that the

practicum can doing be good

2.? We hope to every practicing so that we can know the subjet be good before

doing observation.
  c  &

Adnan. 2007. á . Jurusan Biologi. FMIPA UNM. Makassar

Adnan, dkk. 2008.   


 á  . Jurusan Biologi. FMIPA

UNM. Makassar.

Anonym. 2009. http:/id.wikipedia.Org/wiki/Nervous tissue, accepted at 29 April

2009

Campble. 1999.   . Erlangga: Jakarta

Delmann, Dieter, H. 1989. Histology Veteriner. UI. Jakarta.


'
Nerve tissue is composed of celis and fibres enclosed by connective tissue and
supplied with bloodvessels and lymphatics ; it controls all the other tissues, it is not
contractile, but generates and propagates. various impulses. The fibres and cells are
arranged in masses called 'Nerve Centres,' or in cords called nerves. The former
contain fibres and cells ; they generate, receive and transmit nervous impulses ; the
latter are composed wholly of fibres which only transmit impulses. They have been
likened to a galvanic battery ; the battery, like the nerve centres, generates, receives
and transmits the electric current, while the wires, like the nerves, only conduct to
and from the battery. They consist of small bundles of fibres called funiculi, bound
together by a delicate sheath of membrane neurilemma ; these small bundles are
again bound into large ones called fasciculi, the whole nerve being at last enclosed in
a common sheath of connective tissue. Cellular tissue, owing to its colour, is called
gray substance.

'("
The nervous system is a network of specialized cells that communicate
information about an animal's surroundings and itself. It processes this information
and causes reactions in other parts of the body. It is composed of neurons and other
specialized cells called glia, that aid in the function of the neurons. The nervous
system is divided broadly into two categories: the peripheral nervous system and the
central nervous system. Neurons generate and conduct impulses between and within
the two systems. The peripheral nervous system is composed of sensory neurons and
the neurons that connect them to the nerve cord, spinal cord and brain, which make
up the central nervous system. In response to stimuli, sensory neurons generate and
propagate signals to the central nervous system which then processes and conducts
signals back to the muscles and glands. The neurons of the nervous systems of
animals are interconnected in complex arrangements and use electrochemical signals
and neurotransmitters to transmit impulses from one neuron to the next. The
interaction of the different neurons form neural circuits that regulate an organism's
perception of the world and what is going on with its body, thus regulating its
behavior. Nervous systems are found in many multicellular animals but differ greatly
in complexity between species.

'(")"
The human nervous system can be described both by gross anatomy, (which
describes the parts that are large enough to be seen with the naked eye,) and by
microanatomy, (which describes the system at a cellular level.) In gross anatomy, the
nervous system can be divided into two systems: the central nervous system (CNS)
and the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
#'%("
The central nervous system (CNS) is the largest part of the nervous system,
and includes the brain and spinal cord. The spinal cavity holds and protects the spinal
cord, while the head contains and protects the brain. The CNS is covered by the
meninges, a three layered protective coat. The brain is also protected by the skull, and
the spinal cord is also protected by the vertebrae.

)#'("
The PNS is a regional term for the collective nervous structures that do not lie
in the CNS. The bodies of the nerve cells lie in the CNS, either in the brain or the
spinal cord, and the longer of the cellular processes of these cells, known as axons,
extend through the limbs and the flesh of the torso. The large majority of the axons
which are commonly called nerves, are considered to be PNS. The cell bodies of
afferent PNS nerves lie in the dorsal root ganglia.

!"(
The nervous system is, on a small scale, primarily made up of neurons.
However, glial cells also play a major role.


Neurons are electrically excitable cells in the nervous system that process and
transmit information. Neurons are the core components of the brain, the vertebrate
spinal cord, the invertebrate ventral nerve cord, and the peripheral nerves. A number
of different types of neurons exist: sensory neurons respond to touch, sound, light and
numerous other stimuli effecting sensory organs and send signals to the spinal cord
and brain, motor neurons receive signals from the brain and spinal cord and cause
muscle contractions and affect glands, Interneurons connect neurons to other neurons
within the brain and spinal cord.

####
Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain
homeostasis, form myelin, and participate in signal transmission in the nervous
system. In the total human brain, the number of glia is estimated to be roughly the
same as neurons. Glial cells provide support and protection for neurons. They are
thus known as the "glue" of the nervous system. The four main functions of glial cells
are to surround neurons and hold them in place, to supply nutrients and oxygen to
neurons, to insulate one neuron from another, and to destroy pathogens and remove
dead neurons.
'
Nervous tissue is one of four major classes of vertebrate tissue. (The others
being connective tissue, muscle tissue and epithelial tissue.). The function of the
nervous tissue is in communication between parts of the body. It is composed of
neurons, which transmit impulses, and the neuroglia, which assist propagation of the
nerve impulse as well as provide nutrients to the neuron. Every time you get pinched,
part of your nerve tissue is damaged.
All nervous tissue of a living organism makes up its nervous system, which
includes the brain, spinal cord, and nerves throughout the organism.
Nervous tissue is made of nerve cells that come in many varieties, all of
which are distinctly characteristic by the axon or long stem like part of the cell that
sends action potential signals to the next cell.
All living cells have the ability to react to stimuli. Nervous tissue is
specialized to react to stimuli and to conduct impulses to various organs in the body
which bring about a response to the stimulus. Nerve tissue (as in the brain, spinal
cord and peripheral nerves that branch throughout the body) are all made up of
specialized nerve cells called neurons. Neurons are easily stimulated and transmit
impulses very rapidly. A nerve is made up of many nerve cell fibers (neurons) bound
together by connective tissue. A sheath of dense connective tissue, the epineurium
surrounds the nerve. This sheath penetrates the nerve to form the perineurium which
surrounds bundles of nerve fibers. Blood vessels of various sizes can be seen in the
epineurium. The endoneurium, which consists of a thin layer of loose connective
tissue, surrounds the individual nerve fibers.
The cell body is enclosed by a cell (plasma) membrane and has a central
nucleus. Granules called Nissl bodies are found in the cytoplasm of the cell body.
Within the cell body, extremely fine neurofibrils extend from the dendrites into the
axon. The axon is surrounded by the myelin sheath, which forms a whitish, non-
cellular, fatty layer around the axon. Outside the myelin sheath is a cellular layer
called the neurilemma or sheath of Schwann cells. The myelin sheath together with
the neurilemma is also known as the medullary sheath. This medullary sheath is
interrupted at intervals by the nodes of Ranvier.

#""
Nerve cells are functionally made to each other at a junction known as a
synapse, where the terminal branches of an axon and the dendrites of another neuron
lie in close proximity to each other but normally without direct contact. Information
is transmitted across the gap by chemical secretions called neurotransmitters. It
causes activation in the post-synaptic cell
#
On the basis of their structure, neurons can also be classified into three main types:
a.? Unipolar Neurons
Sensory neurons have only a single process or fibre which divides close to
the cell body into two main branches (axon and dendrite). Because of their
structure they are often referred to as unipolar neurons.
b.? Bipolar Neurons
Bipolar neurons are spindle-shaped, with a dendrite at one end and an
axon at the other . An example can be found in the light-sensitive retina of the
eye.
c.? Multipolar Neurons
Motor neurons, which have numerous cell processes (an axon and many
dendrites) are often referred to as multipolar neurons. Interneurons are also
multipolar.

'
Nerve tissue is the most complex tissue in the body. It is the substance
of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Nerve tissue requires more oxygen and
nutrients than any other body tissue. The basic cell of the nerve tissue is
the neuron (fig. 1-12). This highly specialized cell receives stimuli from, and
conducts impulses to, all parts of the body