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AQA

GCSE

Maths

Unit 2 Exam

1

BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Common factors 01/03/2011 20:20

Unir 2 Maths Revision

Maths

Common factors

Factorising an expression simplifies it in some way.

Factorising is the reverse of expanding brackets.

Common factors

If you cannot remember what factors are, or how to find them,

have another look at: Algebra / Common factors -

Foundation.

When multiplying out 3(4x - 7), the rule was to multiply

everything in the brackets by 3.

This gives 3(4x - 7) = 12x - 21

So, when asked to factorise 12x - 21 look for the Highest

Common Factor (HCF) of 12 and 21 (in this case 3) and divide

both terms by this number.

12x - 21 = 3(4x - 7)

Question

Factorise 24a + 16

Answer

24a + 16 = 8(3a + 2)

Therefore, the HCF of 24 and 16 is 8.

Factorsing Quadratics

You can also factorise quadratic expressions. Eg x 2+x can be

factorised to x (x+1)

Example

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Common factors 01/03/2011 20:20

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Factorise 3p 2 - 6p

Solution

The HCF of 3 and 6 is 3, and the HCF of p 2 and p is p, so

we divide both terms by 3p:

3p 2 - 6p = 3p(p - 2)

Remember that most people find expanding brackets easier than

factorising, so always check that your answer is correct by

multiplying out and seeing whether you have what you started

with.

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Converting fractions, decimals and percentages 01/03/2011 20:24

Unir 2 Maths Revision

Maths

Converting fractions, decimals and percentages

Fractions, decimals and percentages can all represent the

same information. But can you convert between them?

Converting a fraction to a decimal

To change a fraction to a decimal, you divide the top number by

the bottom number. (Divide the numerator by the denominator.)

Example

so 3/ 8 = 0.375

Some decimals will terminate (end) like the example above, but

many will not.

familiar with:

1 / = 0.5

2

1 / = 0.25

4

3 / = 0.75

4

1 / = 0.333333...

3

or

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Converting fractions, decimals and percentages 01/03/2011 20:24

Unir 2 Maths Revision

100, or 1000 or… (depending on the number of decimal places).

etc

If the decimal repeats with a single digit, the denominator will be

9:

0.2222222... = 2/ 9

0.4444444... = 4/ 9

0.6666666... = 6/ 9 = 2/ 3

If the decimal repeats with two digits, the denominator will be 99:

0.24242424... = 24/ 99

etc

If the decimal does not repeat at all it is known as an irrational

number, and you cannot write it as a fraction.

How do we know whether a fraction will give a terminating

decimal? The rule is to find the prime factors of the denominator.

If the prime factors are only 2 and/or 5 the decimal will

terminate.

Examples

3/

28

28 = 2 x 2 x 7

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Converting fractions, decimals and percentages 01/03/2011 20:24

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7/

40

40 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 5

The prime factors of 40 consist of 2s and 5s, so the decimal will

terminate.

6/

125

125 = 5 x 5 x 5

The decimal will terminate.

71/

120

120 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 x 5

There is a 3 in there, so the decimal will recur.

Converting a fraction to a percentage

To change a fraction to a percentage multiply it by 100.

Example

7/ 7

10 becomes / 10 × 100 = 70%

decimal before you multiply by 100.

Example

9/

10 = 0.9

To change a percentage to a fraction divide by 100.

Examples

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Converting fractions, decimals and percentages 01/03/2011 20:24

Unir 2 Maths Revision

4% becomes 4/ 100 = 1/ 25

Converting a decimal to a percentage

To change a decimal to a percentage multiply it by 100.

Examples

0.4 becomes 0.4 x 100 = 40%.

2.01 becomes 2.01 x 100 = 201%.

To change a percentage to a decimal divide by 100.

Examples

34% = 0.34

2% = 0.02

125% = 1.25

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Equations with fractions - Higher 01/03/2011 20:16

Unir 2 Maths Revision

Maths

Equations with fractions - Higher

In addition to solving simple equations, at the higher level

you also need to know how to solve equations with

fractions.

Fractions

How do we solve the equation x/ 2 − 4 = 3?

x/ − 4 = 3

2

x-8=6

x = 14

Or, alternatively, add 4 and then multiply both sides by 2:

x/ − 4 = 3

2

x/ = 7

2

x = 14

Question

Solve the equation: 4 − x/ 3 = 1

Answer

Method 1

4 − x/ 3 = 1

(multiply by 3) 12 − x = 3

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Equations with fractions - Higher 01/03/2011 20:16

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(add x) 12 = 3 + x

(minus 3) x = 9

Method 2

4 − x/ 3 = 1

(add x/ 3) 4 = 1 + x/ 3

(minus 1) 3 = x/ 3

(multiply 3) x = 9

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Factorising quadratic equations 01/03/2011 20:20

Unir 2 Maths Revision

Maths

Factorising quadratic equations

You can also factorise quadratic equations. Remember that

factorising an equation simplifies it in some way.

Factorising is the reverse of expanding brackets.

To factorise an equation such x2 + 5x + 6, you need to look for

two numbers which add up to make 5 and multiply to give 6

The factor pairs of 6 are 1 and 6, 2 and 3

2 and 3 add up to 5

So (x +2 ) (x+3) = x2 + 5x + 6

Factorising expressions gets trickier with negative numbers.

Question

Factorise the expression c2- 3c - 10

Answer

Write down the equation:

c2- 3c - 10

Remember that to factorise an expression we need to look

for common factor pairs.

In this example we are looking for two numbers which:

multiply to give -10

add to give -3

Think of all the factor pairs of -10:

1 and -10, -1 and 10, 2 and -5, -2 and 5

Which of these factor pairs can be added to get -3?

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Factorising quadratic equations 01/03/2011 20:20

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Only 2 + (-5) = -3

So the answer is:

c2 - 3c - 10 = (c + 2)(c - 5)

Activity

Get up to speed with

multiplying out

brackets and

factorising with the

Snap Game

Play

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Index notation 01/03/2011 20:15

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Maths

Index notation

You should already have looked at indices in Number /

Powers and roots - Foundation before working through this

Revision Bite.

Index notation

Index notation is used to repesentent powers, for example

etc.

When there is a number in front of the variable:

4d 2 means 4 × d × d.

2e 3 means 2 × e × e × e

Index laws

Multiplying and dividing

you subtract the indices.

So it follows that:

p3 × p7 = p10, and s5 ÷ s3 = s2

For the expression:

4s 3 x 3s 2

The numbers in front of the variables follow the usual rules of

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Index notation 01/03/2011 20:15

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indices. So we multiply 4 and 3 and add 3 and 2

4s 3 × 3s 2 = 12s5

Question

What is 3c 2 × 5c 4?

Answer

To work it out:

Add the indices:

2+4=6

Multiply the numbers in front of the variable:

3x2

Answer:

3c 2 × 5c 4 = 15c 6

as y × y4 or z3 ÷ z.

3, 4 and 20 are all like terms (because they are all numbers).

a, 3a and 200a are all like terms (because they are all multiples

of a).

a2, 10a2 and -2a 2 are all like terms (because they are all

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Index notation 01/03/2011 20:15

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multiples of a2)

p2 are not like terms.

r 2’ + ‘one lot of r 2’ - so in total ‘nine lots of r 2’, or 9r2.

Question

What is s2 + 8s 2 - 2s 2?

Answer

Answer: 7s 2

Remember that 1 + 8 - 2 = 7, so s2 + 8s 2 - 2s 2 = 7s 2

like terms before we simplify.

Example

3p 2 + 2p + 4 - 2p 2 + 5 = 3p 2 - 2p 2 + 2p + 4 + 5 = p2 + 2p + 9

Substitution

You might be asked to substitue a number into an expression.

substitute this into the expression: 4 × 2 × 2 × 2 (or 4 × 23) = 32

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Index notation 01/03/2011 20:15

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Question

What is the value of 4y 2 - y, when y = 3?

Answer

33

Remember that (4 × y × y) - y, becomes (4 × 3 × 3) - 3 or 36 -

3.

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Percentages - Higher 01/03/2011 20:24

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Maths

Percentages - Higher

'Percent' means 'out of 100'. If 90 per cent of the population

owns a mobile phone, this means 90 out of every 100

people have one. The symbol '%' means per cent.

Reverse percentages

Sometimes a question will ask you to work backwards and find

the original price of something after the price has increased. If

you are given a quantity after a percentage increase or

decrease, and you need to find the original amount, use this

method:

Example 1

A radio sells for £63, after a 40% increase in the cost price. Find

the cost price.

Solution

Start with the original amount as 100%.

Cost price = 100%

We are told the selling price is a 40% in the cost price.

So the selling price is 100% + 40% = 140% of the cost price.

We know that the selling price is £63, so 140% = £63.

Now calculate 1%:

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Percentages - Higher 01/03/2011 20:24

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140% = £63

1% = £63/140

1% = £0.45

The cost price is 100%, so multiply £0.45 by 100.

Cost price = 0.45 × 100 = £45.

Example 2

A new car falls in value by 30% in a year. After a year, it is worth

£8,400.

Find the price of the car when it was new.

Solution

Remember that the original price of the car is 100%.

Original price = 100%.

Second-hand price = 100% - 30% = 70%.

So £8,400 = 70% of the original price.

So 1% of original price = £8,400 ÷ 70

Original price = 100% = 100 x 1% = 100 x (£8,400 ÷ 70)

= £12,000.

It is easy to go wrong in this type of question. Always check that

your answer is realistic.

Simple interest

With simple interest the amount of money borrowed remains

fixed.

For example £400 is borrowed for 3 years at an interest rate of

5% pa (pa means per annum, or each year).

Interest for one year = 5% of £400

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Percentages - Higher 01/03/2011 20:24

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= ( 5/ 100 ) × 400

= £20

Interest for 3 years = £20 × 3 = £60.

You can write this in a formula.

Interest = P × R × T

P (principal) is the amount borrowed.

R is the rate of interest per year.

T is the time in years.

Compound Interest

Here the interest is added to the principal at the end of each

year. So the next year the interest is worked out on a larger

amount of money than what was originally borrowed.

This means paying interest on the interest of previous years

(unlike simple interest, where you only pay interest on the

original amount).

This is how it is calculated:

£400 is borrowed for 3 years at 5% compound interest.

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Percentages - Higher 01/03/2011 20:24

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The total interest charged under compound interest will be

£63.05.

This is different to the simple interest worked out above.

In percentage questions, read the question carefully and decide

what you are being asked to do. You may need to:

Find a given percentage of an amount.

Work out a percentage when given 2 amounts.

Work backwards from a percentage increase or decrease

(reverse percentages).

Find a cumulative change.

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Powers and roots - Higher 01/03/2011 20:25

Unir 2 Maths Revision

Maths

Powers and roots - Higher

In this Revision Bite we are going to look at standard index

form and zero, negative and fractional powers.

Adding and subtracting numbers in standard index

form:

Convert them into ordinary numbers, do the calculation, then

change them back if you want the answer in standard form.

Example 1

4.5 × 10 4 + 6.45 × 10 5

= 45,000 + 645,000

= 690,000

= 6.9 × 10 5

Here you can use the rules for multiplying and dividing powers.

Remember these rules:

To divide powers you subtract, eg, 10 5 ÷ 10 3 = 10 2

Example 2

Simplify (2 × 10 3) × (3 × 10 6)

Solution

Multiply 2 by 3 and add the powers of 10:

(2 × 10 3) × (3 × 10 6) = 6 × 10 9

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Powers and roots - Higher 01/03/2011 20:25

Unir 2 Maths Revision

Question

Simplify (36 × 10 5) ÷ (6 × 10 3)

Answer

Did you get 6 ×10 2?

If not, remember that you should first work out 36 ÷ 6, then

work subtract the powers of 10 (because it is division), like

this:

In the previous pages, we only looked at positive whole number

powers. We can also find zero, negative and fractional powers.

The rules below apply to these powers.

a0 1 4 0 = 11000 = 137 0 = 1

Anything to the power 0 is equal to 1.

a -b

a 1/2

a 1/3

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Prime factors - Higher 01/03/2011 20:26

Unir 2 Maths Revision

Maths

Prime factors - Higher

If you have worked through Factors and multiples, you will

know that the factors of a number are all the numbers that

divide into it. In this Revision Bite we are going to look at

HCF and LCM.

multiple

We can use prime factors to find the highest common factor

(HCF) and lowest common multiple (LCM).

Here are the list of prime factors of 24 and 36:

24 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 3

36 = 2 x 2 x 3 x 3

If we write down the numbers that are the same in both lists,

they will give us the highest common factor of 24 and 36:

HCF of 24 and 36 is 2 x 2 x 3 = 12

To find the lowest common multiple, we need to think about

which list has the most of each factor.

24 = (2 x 2 x 2) x (3)

36 = (2 x 2) x (3 x 3)

24 has the most 2s. (it has three 2s). And 36 has the most 3s (it

has two 3s).

So the LCM of 24 and 36 is (2 x 2 x 2) x (3 x 3) = 72.

Question

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Prime factors - Higher 01/03/2011 20:26

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Answer

90 = 2 x 3 x 3 x 5

175 = 5 x 5 x 7

HCF = 5

90 = (2) x (3 x 3) x (5)

175 = (5 x 5) x (7)

LCM = 2 x (3 x 3) x (5 x 5) x 7 = 3150

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Quadratic sequences - Higher 01/03/2011 20:22

Unir 2 Maths Revision

Maths

Quadratic sequences - Higher

A sequence is a set of numbers that are connected in some

way. In this section we will look at quadratic sequences

where the difference between the terms changes.

Quadratic sequences

If the difference between the terms changes, this is called a

quadratic sequence.

When n = 2 you get 2 2 + 2 = 6

When n = 3 you get 3 2 + 3 = 12

When n = 4 you get 4 2 + 4 = 20

- giving the sequence 2, 6, 12, 20.

Here, the differences between terms are not constant, but there

is still a pattern.

- the first differences increase by 2 each time

- the second increases by 2

sequence - ie, there is an n2 term.

If the second difference is 2, you start with n 2.

If the second difference is 4, you start with 2n 2.

If the second difference is 6, you start with 3n 2.

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Quadratic sequences - Higher 01/03/2011 20:22

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Question

Write down the next two terms and find a formula for the nth

term of the sequence:

5, 12, 23, 38, _, _,

Answer

Find the first differences between the terms:

7, 11, 15

Find the second differences between the terms.

The terms increase by 4 each time, so the second

difference is 4.

So, continuing the sequence, the differences between

each term will be:

15 + 4 = 19

19 + 4 = 23

So the next two terms in the sequence will be:

38 + 19 = 57

57 + 23 = 80

So the sequence will be:

5, 12, 23, 38, 57, 80

To calculate the formula for this sequence we know that the

second difference is 4. The start of the formula will therefore

be 2n 2.

To work out the next part of the sequence have a look at the

table below.

n th term 1 2 3 4 5 6

Sequence 5 12 23 38 57 80

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Quadratic sequences - Higher 01/03/2011 20:22

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2n 2 2 8 18 32 50 72

Sequence - 2n 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

sequence is n +2

So for the sequence 5, 12, 23, 38, the formula for the nth

term is 2n 2 + n + 2

below.

Activity

Click here to play the

activity

Play

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Ratios 01/03/2011 20:25

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Maths

Ratios

Ratios

A ratio is a way to compare amounts of something. Recipes, for

example, are sometimes given as ratios. To make pastry you

may need to mix 2 parts flour to 1 part fat. This means the ratio

of flour to fat is 2 : 1.

1) altogether. Two thirds of the pastry is flour; one third fat.

Ratios are similar to fractions; they can both be simplified by

finding common factors. Always try to divide by the highest

common factor. Have a look at this question.

Question

There are 15 girls and 12 boys in a class. What is the ratio of

girls to boys? Give your answer in its simplest form.

Answer

The ratio of girls to boys is 15:12

However, both sides of this ratio are divisible by 3

Dividing by 3 gives 5:4

5 and 4 have no common factors (apart from 1).

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This means there are 5 girls in the class for every 4 boys.

Activity

Ratios activity

Play

Question

A newspaper includes 12 pages of sport and 8 pages of

TV. What is the ratio of sport to TV? Give your answer in

Answer

The answer is 3:2

You can divide both sides of 12:8 by 4.

If your answer was incorrect, try to fill in the blanks here:

The ratio is 12:8.

Both of these numbers are divisible by 4.

Dividing by ? gives 3:2.

You have to be sure that the things you are comparing are

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Question

Anna has 75p.

Fiona has £1.20.

What is the ratio of Anna's money to Fiona's money, in its

simplest form?

Answer

One amount is in pence, the other in pounds. We have to

convert Fiona's amount into pence first:

£1.20 = 120p.

Now the ratio is 75:120. Both sides are divisible by 15.

Dividing both sides by 15 gives 5:8

So the ratio is 5:8.

We have already covered that to write a ratio in its simplest form

we divide both sides by their highest common factor (just as we

divide the top and bottom of a fraction).

For example, 12:15 becomes 4:5, and 4:8 becomes 1:2.

When a ratio is in its simplest form, all the numbers are whole

numbers.

However, it is sometimes useful to write a ratio in the form 1:n or

n:1 (where n is any number, possibly a fraction or decimal). This

means we will not necessarily be dealing with whole numbers.

For example, if we are asked to write the ratio 2:5 in the form

1:n, we need to make the left-hand side of the ratio equal to 1.

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2:5 = 2/ 2 : 5/ 2

= 1 : 2.5

If we were asked to write 2:5 in the form n:1, we would need to

make the right-hand side equal to 1. So we would divide both

sides by 5:

2:5 = 2/ 5 : 5/ 5= 0.4 : 1

Question

Write the ratio 6:9 in:

a) the form 1:n

b) the form n:1

Answer

a) Did you get 1 : 1.5? You divide both sides by 6.

b) You should have divided both sides by 9 to get 0.6667 : 1

Using ratios

Ratios can be used to solve many different problems - for

example, with recipes, scale drawings or map work. A typical

question will expect you to change a ratio - the reverse of

cancelling down.

Question

Sam does a scale drawing of his kitchen. He uses a scale of

1:100. He measures the length of the kitchen as 5.9m.

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answer in mm.

Answer

The answer is 59mm.

You need to convert 5.9m to mm, then divided by 100 to give

the answer.

If you did not get the correct answer, remember that the scale

of 1:100 means that the real kitchen is 100 times bigger than

the scale drawing.

5.9m = 590cm (multiplied by 100) = 5900mm (multiplied by

10)

So the scale drawing would be 5900 ÷ 100 = 59mm.

different number of people.

Question

A recipe to make lasagne for 6 people uses 300 grams of

minced beef. How much minced beef would be needed to

serve 8 people?

Answer

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The best way to approach a problem like this is to find out how

much 1 person would need first.

Six people need 300g.

So 1 person needs 50g (300 ÷ 6).

So 8 people need 50g × 8 = 400g.

Question

A recipe for flapjacks requires 240g of oats. This makes 18

flapjacks.

What quantity of oats is needed to make 24 flapjacks?

Answer

The answer is 320g.

You divide 240 by 18, then multiply the answer by 24.

If you had problems working out the answer, try to fill in the

blanks here:

Eighteen flapjacks need 240g.

So 1 flapjack needs ?g (240 divided by 18).

So 24 flapjacks need 13.3333 × ? = 320g.

Dividing in a ratio

Ratios are also used when dividing up amounts. The basic

method is:

1. Simplify the ratio, if possible (not essential, but it makes

life easier in the long run).

2. Add the numbers in the ratio together (to get the total

number of parts needed).

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4. Multiply the answer by each of the numbers in the ratio.

Question

Amit is 12 years old. His brother, Arun, is 9.

Their grandfather gives them £140, which is to be divided

between them in the ratio of their ages. How much does each

of them get?

Answer

The ratio of their ages is 12:9

We can simplify this. Dividing by 3 gives 4:3.

So Amit gets 4 parts, and Arun gets 3.

This means that the money has to be divided into 7 parts (4 +

3).

£140 ÷ 7 = £20, so 1 part is £20.

Amit gets 4 parts: 4 × £20 = £80.

Arun gets 3 parts: 3 × £20 = £60.

(Check that they add to make the total amount: £80 + £60 =

£140.)

typical question.

Question

The angles in a triangle are in the ratio 1:2:9. Find the size of

the largest angle.

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Answer

1 + 2 + 9 = 12 so in total, there are 12 parts.

The angles in a triangle add up to 180 degrees.

So 1 part is 180 ÷ 12 = 15

The largest angle in the ratio is the 9.

9 × 15 = 135 degrees.

Question

In a certain town, the ratio of left-handed people to right-

handed people is 2:9. How many right-handed people would

you expect to find in a group of 132 people?

Answer

Did you get the answer 108?

You divide 132 by 11, and multiply by 9.

If you did not get the correct answer, see if you can fill in the

blanks here:

2 + 9 = 11

132 ÷ 11 = ?

9 × ? = 108 people.

Direct proportion

Two quantities are in direct proportion when they increase or

decrease in the same ratio. For example, you could increase

something by doubling it, or decrease it by halving.

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Question

Twelve pencils cost 72p. Find the cost of 30 pencils.

Answer

To solve this problem, we need to know the cost of one pencil.

We know that 12 pencils cost 72p, so if we divide 72 by 12 to

give us the cost of one pencil:

72 ÷ 12 = 6

So 1 pencil costs 6p. Now we need to know the cost of 30

pencils. We multiply 6p by 30.

6 × 30 = 180p.

So 30 pencils cost £1.80.

If you had a problem working out the answer, the basic

method to remember is to divide by how many you know, then

multiply by what you want to know.

Question

Jenny buys 15 felt-tip pens. It costs her £2.85. How much

would 20 pens have cost?

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Answer

The answer is £3.80.

You divide 2.85 by 15, then multiply the answer by 20.

If you had problems working out the answer, see if you can fill

in the blanks here:

15 pens cost £2.85

1 pen costs £2.85 ÷ ? = £0.19

So 20 pens would cost £0.19 × ? = £3.80.

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Re-arranging symbols 01/03/2011 19:17

Unir 2 Maths Revision

Maths

Re-arranging symbols

In algebra, we often get very long expressions that we need

to make simpler. Simpler expressions are easier to solve.

To simplify an expression, we collect like terms. Like terms

include letters and numbers that are the same.

Look at the expression 4x + 5x -2 - 2x + 7

To simplify:

The numbers can be collected together to give 5.

So 4x + 5x -2 - 2x + 7 simplified is 7x + 5.

these are always attached to the front of a term.

Question

Simplify this expression: x + 5 + 3x- 7 + 9x+ 3 - 4x

Answer

To work it out:

Write down the expression

x + 5 + 3x - 7 + 9x + 3 - 4x

Collect all the terms together which are alike. Remember

that each term comes with an operation (+, -) which goes

before it.

x + 3x + 9x - 4x + 5 - 7 + 3

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x + 3x + 9x - 4x = 9x

Simplify the numbers separately.

5-7+3=1

Answer: x + 5 + 3x - 7 + 9x + 3 - 4x can be simplified to 9x +

1

Different terms

To answer some exam questions you will have to simplify an

expression that has many different terms or letters.

Have a look at this typical exam question. You will notice that

there are three different terms in this question: x, y and z.

Question

Simplify the expression 5x + 3y - 6x + 4y + 3z

Answer

To work it out:

Write down the expression

5x + 3y - 6x + 4y + 3z

Collect the like terms together - i.e., re-order them

5x - 6x + 3y + 4y + 3z

Simplify your expression, x first

5x - 6x = -x (ie, -1x)

Then simplify y

3y + 4y = 7y

Then simplify z

3z

The answer is: -x + 7y + 3z

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In your exam, you might get a question that requires you to

multiply out brackets.

in another bracket) is multiplying everything inside the

bracket.

You also need to remember some basic algebra

shorthand:

2a means 2 times a.

ab means a times b.

a2 means a times a.

Multiply out: 3(4x - 7)

First multiply: 3 × 4x = 12x

Then multiply: 3 × -7 = - 21

Therefore: 3(4x - 7) = 12x - 21

Here's a typical exam question.

Question

Multiply out 2(9y + 5)

Answer

Every term in the brackets gets multiplied by 2.

2 × 9y = 18y

2 × 5 = 10

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Question

Multiply out the following:-

a(2a - 5)

Answer

a × 2a = 2a 2

a × -5 = -5a

a(2a - 5) = 2a 2 - 5a

Example

Multiply out the expression:

-3(2n - 8)

First, multiply -3 × 2n = - 6n

Then multiply -3 × -8 = 24

-6n + 24

Therefore, -3(2n - 8) = - 6n + 24

Question

Multiply out the expression:

- 5(4e - 2c)

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Answer

Every term in the bracket gets multiplied by -5.

-5 × 4e = -20e

-5 × -2c = 10c

Therefore, -5(4e - 2c) = - 20e +10c

When we multiply out a pair of brackets, everything in the

second bracket has to be multiplied by everything in the first

bracket.

One way to multiply out a pair of brackets is by taking each term

in the first bracket and multiplying it against the second bracket.

Example

Multiply out these two brackets:

(x + 4) (x + 3)

Multiply everything in the first bracket by the second bracket:

x (x + 3) + 4 (x + 3)

= x2 + 3x + 4x + 12

= x2 + 7x + 12

Try the activity below.

Now take a look at brackets and powers. If you are asked to

multiply out an expression such as (a - 5)2, remember that

squaring means multiplying by itself.

Question

Multiply out (a - 5)2

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Answer

To work it out:

Expand the expression by writing it out: (a - 5) (a - 5)

Everything in the first bracket is multiplied by the second

bracket: a(a - 5) - 5(a - 5)

Expand the brackets, by multiplying everything inside the

brackets by the term outside the bracket:

a × a = a2

a × -5 = -5a

- 5 × a = -5a

- 5 × - 5 = 25

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Recognising sequences 01/03/2011 20:21

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Maths

Recognising sequences

A sequence is a set of numbers that are connected in some

way. For your exam, you will need to learn how to recognise

different types of sequence, how to find missing terms, and

how to find a general term.

Recognising sequences

A sequence is a list of numbers. The numbers are called the

terms of the sequence.

There are many well-known sequences of numbers which you

should be able to recognise.

Even numbers

2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12…

Odd numbers

1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11…

Square numbers

1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64…

Cube numbers

1, 8, 27, 64, 125…

Powers of 2

2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64…

Powers of 10

10, 100, 1,000, 10,000, 100,000, 1,000,000…

Triangle numbers

1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, 28…

Linear sequences

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You get the next term by adding 3 to the previous term.

You are often asked to find a formula for the nth term.

When n = 1, 3n = 3, and we subtract 2 to make the first

term correct.

So the n th term = 3n - 2

This method will always work for sequences where the

difference between terms stays the same.

Question

Find the nth term in the sequence 1, 5, 9, 13.

Answer

n th term 1 2 3 4 5

Original number 1 5 9 13 17

Difference between each term 4 4 4 4

The difference between each term is 4.

This lets you work out the first part of the formula.

The formula for this sequence will start with 4n.

Now look at each term.

When n = 1, 4n = 4.

We therefore have to subtract 3 to get the first correct

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term.

The formula for the sequence is 4n - 3.

Activity

Click here to play the

activity

Play

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Rounding and estimating 01/03/2011 20:23

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Maths

Rounding and estimating

Some exam questions may ask you to give the answer in a

simplified form. Rounding and estimating are two ways to

make numbers easier to manage.

Rounding numbers

Giving the complete number for something is sometimes

unnecessary. For instance, the attendance at a football match

might be 23745. But for most people who want to know the

attendance figure, an answer of 'nearly 24000', or 'roughly

23700', is fine.

We can round off large numbers like

these to the nearest thousand,

nearest hundred, nearest ten, nearest

whole number, or any other specified

number.

Round 23745 to the nearest thousand.

football

First, look at the digit in the thousands

place. It is 3. This means the number lies between 23000 and

24000. Look at the digit to the right of the 3. It is 7. That means

23745 is closer to 24000 than 23000.

Remember

The rule is, if the next digit is: 5 or more, we 'round up'. 4 or

less, it stays at it is.

23745 to the nearest thousand = 24000.

23745 to the nearest hundred = 23700.

Question

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Answer

Did you get the answer 23750?

If so, well done! You saw that 23745 lies between 23740 and

23750, but is closer to 23750.

If you did not get the correct answer, remember that the tens

digit is 4. This means that the number lies between 23740 and

23750. The next digit is 5, so we round up: 23745 = 23750 to

the nearest ten.

Decimal places

Sometimes, rather than rounding off to the nearest whole

number, you might need to be a little more accurate. You might

need to include some of the digits after the decimal point.

In these cases, we can round off the number up to a certain

number of decimal places.

Do not confuse this with rounding off using significant figures

(intermediate), as this is slightly different!

Remember

The same rules for rounding up apply here:

5 or more, we 'round up'.

4 or less, it stays as it is.

Question

Write 2.6470588 to 2 decimal places (dp).

Answer

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Did you get the answer 2.65? You needed to round up. We

want 2 decimal places.

Look at the 2nd decimal digit.

and 2.65

Look at the next digit.

The next digit is 7, so we have to round up. So the answer is

2.65 (2 dp).

Question

On a calculator, work out , giving your answer correct to

one decimal place.

Answer

On a calculator, work out = 7.874007874...

We need one decimal place. That means one number after

the decimal point. The 1st number after the decimal point is 8.

This means the answer lies between 7.8 and 7.9. The next

digit is 7. This means we have to round up.

So the answer is = 7.9 to 1 dp.

Question

Round off the number 3.9762645 to 1 dp.

Answer

The number lies between 3.9 and 4.0. The 7 after the 9

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Significant figures

Sometimes we do not always need to give detailed answers to

problems - we just want a rough idea. When we are faced with a

long number, we could round it off to the nearest thousand, or

nearest million. And when we get a long decimal answer on a

calculator, we could round it off to a certain number of decimal

places.

Another method of giving an approximated answer is to round

off using significant figures.

The word significant means important. The closer a digit is to

the beginning of a number, the more important - or significant - it

is.

With the number 368249, the 3 is the most significant digit,

because it tells us that the number is 3 hundred thousand and

something. It follows that the 6 is the next most significant, and

so on.

With the number 0.0000058763, the 5 is the most significant

digit, because it tells us that the number is 5 millionths and

something. The 8 is the next most significant, and so on.

We round off a number using a certain number of significant

figures. The most common are 1, 2 or 3 significant figures.

Remember the rules for rounding up are the same as before:

If the next number is 5 or more, we round up.

If the next number is 4 or less, we do not round up.

Question

What would you get if you wrote the number 368249 correct

to 1 significant figure?

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Answer

Did you get the answer 400000?

3 is the first significant figure, and the digit after it is more than

5, so you round up.

Question

What would you get if you wrote the number 0.00245 correct

to 1 significant figure?

Answer

Did you get the answer 0.002?

2 is the first significant figure and the digit after this is less

than 5, so you do not round up.

Higher only

Question

What would you get if you wrote 0.0000058763 correct to 2

significant figures?

Answer

Did you get the answer 0.0000059?

You had to round up the 8 to 9.

If you had problems, remember that the 2 most significant

figures are 5 and 8. The digit after 8 is 7, so we have to round

up 8 to 9.

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Estimating

We can use significant figures to get an approximate answer to

a problem.

We can round off all the numbers in a maths problem to 1

significant figure to make 'easier' numbers. It is often possible to

do this in your head.

Question

Find a rough answer to

Answer

We first round off both numbers to 1 significant figure (s.f.):

19.4 = 20 (1 s.f.)

0.0437 = 0.04 (1 s.f.)

So we now need to make the denominator a whole number.

We can do this by multiplying both 20 and 0.04 by 100.

Divide everything by 4.

good estimate.

as the answer.

Question

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0.007243?

Answer

Did you get the answer 400000 × 0.007 = 2800?

If so, well done! You rounded off correctly and worked out the

approximate answer.

Rounding to 1 s.f.

386062 = 400000

0.007243 = 0.007

So 400000 × 0.007 = 2800

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Simultaneous equations - Higher 01/03/2011 20:18

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Maths

Simultaneous equations - Higher

Sometimes you will be asked to find 2 unknown values by

solving 2 equations at the same time. These types of

equations are called simultaneous equations.

Simultaneous equations

Simultaneous equations are two equations with two unknowns.

They are called simultaneous because they must both be solved

at the same time.

The first step is to try to eliminate one of the unknowns.

Example

Solve these simultaneous equations and find the values of x and

y.

Equation 1: 2x + y = 7

Equation 2: 3x - y = 8

Add the two equations to eliminate the ys:

2x + y = 7

3x - y = 8

------------

5x = 15

x=3

Now you can put x = 3 in either of the equations.

Substitute x = 3 into the equation 2x + y = 7:

6+y=7

y=1

So the answers are x = 3 and y = 1

Sometimes you will need to multiply one of the equations before

you can add or subtract. Have a look at the activity below.

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find the unknown values. Always look for a way to cancel out

one of the unknown terms. Have a go at the question below.

Question

Solve the two equations:

Equation 1: 2a - 5b = 11

Equation 2: 3a + 2b = 7

Answer

4a - 10b = 22 (Multiply by 2)

15a + 10b = 35 (Multiply by 5)

----------------------

19a = 57 (Adding)

a=3

Put a = 3 into the equation 3a + 2b = 7:

9 + 2b = 7

2b = -2

b = -1

So the answers are a = 3 and b = -1.

example:

Example

Solve the simultaneous equations:

Equation 1: y - 2x = 1

Equation 2: 2y - 3x = 5

Rearranging Equation 1, we get y = 1 + 2x

We can replace the ‘y’ in equation 2 by substituting it with 1 + 2x

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2 + 4x - 3x = 5

2+x=5

x=3

Substituting x = 3 into Equation 1 gives us y - 6 = 1, so y = 7.

Solving simultaneous equations using a graph is easier than you

might think. First, you need to draw the lines of the equations.

The points where the lines cross is the solution.

Linear equations

The graphs of linear equations will give straight lines.

Example

Solve these simultaneous equations by drawing graphs:

2x + 3y = 6

4x - 6y = - 4

For example, to draw the line 2x + 3y = 6 pick two easy

numbers to plot. One when x = 0 and one where y= 0

When x = 0 in the equation 2x + 3y = 6

This means 3y = 6 so y = 2

So one point on the line is (0, 2)

When y = 0

2x = 6 so x = 3

So another point on the line is (3 ,0)

In an exam, only use this method if you are prompted to by a

question. It is usually quicker to use algebra if you are not asked

to use graphs.

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Example

Solve the simultaneous equations by drawing graphs.

y - 2x = 1

y = x2 - 2

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Solving and using quadratic equations 01/03/2011 20:21

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Maths

Solving and using quadratic equations

Quadratic equations can be solved by factorising and

completing the square.

To solve a quadratic equation, the first step is to write it in the

form: ax 2 + bx + c = 0. Then factorise the equation as you have

revised in the previous section.

If we have two numbers, A and B, and we know that A × B = 0,

then it must follow that either A = 0, or B = 0 (or both). When we

multiply any number by 0, we get 0.

Example

Solve the equation x2 - 9x + 20 = 0

Solution

Find two numbers which add up to 9 and multiply to give 20.

These numbers are 4 and 5.

(x - 4) (x - 5) = 0

Now find the value x so that when these brackets are

multiplied together the answer is 0.

This means either (x - 4) = 0 or (x - 5) = 0

So x = 4 or x = 5.

You can check these answers by substitutuing 4 and 5 in to

the equation:

x2- 9x + 20

Substituting 4 gives:

4 2 - 9 × 4 + 20 = 16 - 36 + 20 = 0

Substituting 5 gives:

5 2 - 9 × 5 + 20 = 25 - 45 + 20 = 0

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quadratic equations.

Now try this question.

This is another way to solve a quadratic equation if the equation

will not factorise.

It is often convenient to write an algebraic expression as a

square plus another term. The other term is found by dividing

the coefficient of x by 2, and squaring it.

Any quadratic equation can be rearranged so that it can be

solved in this way.

Have a look at this example.

Example 1

Rewrite x2 + 6x as a square plus another term.

The coeffient of x is 6. Dividing 6 by 2 and squaring it gives 9.

x2 + 6x = (x2 + 6x + 9) - 9

= (x + 3)2 - 9

Example 2

We have seen in the previous example that x 2 + 6x = (x + 3)2 -

9

So work out x2 + 6x - 2

x2 + 6x - 2 = ( x2 + 6x + 9 ) - 9 - 2 = (x + 3)2 - 11

Now try one for yourself.

Question

Solve x2 + 6x - 2 = 0

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Answer

From the previous examples, we know that x2 + 6x - 2 = 0

can be written as (x + 3)2 - 11 = 0

So, to solve the equation, take the square root of both sides.

So (x + 3)2 = 11

x+3=+

or x + 3 = -

x=-3+

or x = - 3 -

x = - 3 + 3.317 or x = - 3 - 3.317 ( is 3.317)

x = 0.317 (3 s.f) or x = - 6.317 (3 s.f)

Example 3

Rewrite 2x 2 + 20x + 3

2( x2 + 10x ) + 3

The coefficient of x is 10. Divide 10 by 2, and square to get

25.

= 2 ( ( x + 5)2 - 25) + 3

= 2 (x + 5)2 - 50 + 3

= 2 (x + 5)2 - 47

Question

Now use the previous example to solve 2x 2 + 20x + 3 = 0

Answer

From the previous example, we know that 2x 2 + 20x + 3 can

be rewritten as:

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2 (x + 5)2 - 47

Therefore, we can rewrite the equation as:

2(x + 5 )2 - 47 = 0

2(x + 5 )2 = 47

(x + 5 )2 = 23.5 (dividing both sides by 2)

Take the square root of both sides.

x+5=

or x + 5 = -

x=-5+

or x = - 5 -

x=-5+

or x = - 5 -

x = - 0.152 (3 s.f) or x = - 9.85 (3 s.f)

Using the technique of completing the square, you can make a

formula which works for all quadratic equations.

The most general way to write a quadratic equation is:

ax 2 + bx + c = 0

Here a, b and c are numbers that vary for different

equations.

So if the equation was:

2x 2 + 7x + 11 = 0

then a = 2, b = 7, c = 11.

The formula for the solution is:

This formula will work for all equations that can be solved.

Always try to factorise first. If the equation factorises, this is

the easier method. In an exam, any question that asks for an

answer to a quadratic equation correct to x decimal places

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Solve 2x 2 - 5x - 6 = 0

Here a = 2, b = -5, c = -6

Substituting these values in the formula, gives you:

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Maths

Solving equations

Do you go blank when you see x, y and z in maths? Well,

this is your abc to solving equations.

In an equation, letters stand for a missing number. To solve an

equation, find the values of missing numbers. A typical exam

question is:

Solve the equation 2a + 3 = 7

This means we need to find the value of a. The answer is a = 2

There are two methods you can use when solving this type of

problem:

Using inverses

Trial and improvement

This method involves trying different values until we find one that

works.

Look at the equation 2x + 3 = 7

To solve it:

Write down the expression: 2x +3 = 7

Then choose a value for a that looks about right and work

out the equation. Try 3.

a = 3, so 2 ×3 + 3 = 9

Using 3 to represent a makes the calculation more than 7, so

choose a smaller number for a.

Try a = 2, then 2

2×2+3=7

Which gives the right answer. So a = 2

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1. choose a number

2. work it out

3. then move the number up or down

However, sometimes the answers are negatives or decimals,

and the trial and improvement method will take a long time.

Luckily, there is a better method.

Using inverses

The best way to solve an equation is by using 'inverses', or

undoing what the equation is doing.

To use this method to solve equations remember that:

each other.

Multiplying and dividing are the inverse of each other.

This method is explained in the next pages. But here for now is

how to solve the question in the above example using inverses:

First write down the expression:

2a + 3 = 7

Then undo the + 3 by subtracting 3. Remember, you need to

do it to BOTH sides!

2a + 3 - 3 = 7 - 3

so 2a = 4

Undo the multiply by 2 by dividing by 2 - again on both

sides:

2a ÷ 2 = 4 ÷ 2

The answer is: a = 2

Now you've got the hang of simple equations, let's look at some

slightly trickier ones.

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3x = 12, 5b = 20 or 16y = 4

To solve these, you need to get the unknown on its own. Do this

by dividing both sides.

Question

Solve the equation 2y = 6 to find the value of y.

Answer

To get y on its own, we need to divide it by 2. As you already

know, you must always perform the same operation on both

sides of the equation.

2y ÷ 2 = 6 ÷ 2

y=3

Sometimes you will be asked to solve an equation with

unknowns on both sides of the equation.

Remember that whatever you do to one side you must also do to

the other.

Question

Solve the equation 3b + 4 = b + 12, and find the value of b.

Answer

First, you need to get all the bs on the same side of the

equation.

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This simplifies to: 2b + 4 = 12

Subtract 4 from both sides: 2b = 8

To find the value of b, divide both sides by 2 So b = 4

If an equation has brackets in it one method of solving it is to

multiply out the brackets first, for example:

Solve the equation 3(b + 2) = 15

Write down the equation:

3(b + 2) = 15

Multiply out the brackets. Remember, everything inside the

brackets gets multiplied by 3

3 × b + 3 ×2 = 15

When you have multiplied out the brackets you get:

3b + 6 = 15

Next, undo the + 6. In other words, do the inverse and

subtract 6 from both sides.

3b + 6 - 6 = 15 - 6

So 3b = 9

Therefore, to find out what b is you need to do the inverse of

multiplying by 3 which is dividing by 3.

So b = 3

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Surds - Higher 01/03/2011 20:25

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Maths

Surds - Higher

Basic rules

A surd is a square root which cannot be reduced to a whole

number. For example, is not a surd, as the answer is a

whole number. But is not a whole number. You could use a

calculator to find that but instead of this we often

leave our answers in the square root form, as a surd.

You need to be able to simplify expressions involving surds.

Here are some general rules that you will need to learn.

Activity

Feeling confident?

Test yourself in a

quick game of before

trying some questions

for yourself below.

Play

Question

Simplify

Answer

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Question

Simplify

Answer

= = =6

Question

Simplify

Answer

Rationalising

Rationalising an expression means getting rid of any surds from

the bottom of fractions. Usually when you are asked to simplify

an expression it means you should also rationalise it.

Question

Rationalise

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Answer

We need to get rid of the surds on the bottom of the fraction.

We can do this by multiplying top and bottom of the fraction

like this:

= = =

Simplifying surds

Question

Simplify

Answer

Question

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Simplify

Answer

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Symbols, solving inequalities and graphs 01/03/2011 20:19

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Maths

Symbols, solving inequalities and graphs

You need to have revised Solving equations before trying

this Revision Bite.

Inequalities are expressions which indicate when a variable is:

Greater than or equal to another

Less than another

Less than or equal to another

Symbols and their meaning

Symbol Meaning

< is less than, so 2 < 5 is a true statement.

> is more than, so 6 > 4 is a true statement.

is less than or equal to

so 2 5 is true

and so is 2 2.

so 6 4 is true,

and so is 6 6.

Solving inequalities

An expression such as 3x - 7 < 8 is similar to the equation 3x - 7

= 8. However, this time we are looking for numbers which if you

multiply by 3, then subtract 7, you get an answer of less than 8.

Unlike 3x - 7 = 8, which has just one answer, there are lots of

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our answer is not a number, but a range of numbers.

We solve these equations just like simple equations: what you

do to one side, you must do to the other.

Now have a look at this typical question:

Question

Solve the expression 3x - 7 < 8.

Answer

First, write down the expression:

3x - 7 < 8

Then add 7 to both sides, to cancel out the -7:

3x < 15

Next, simplify the expression by dividing both sides by the

number in front of x - in this case 3.

x<5

So the inequality in 3x - 7 < 8 is satisfied when x is less than

5. (Note that this does not include 5 itself.)

simple equations.

Now look at this question.

Sometimes you are given a 'double' inequality to solve. In this

case, you just do the same thing to all three parts .

Example

Solve:

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-4 < 2x - 6 < 12

Cancel out one of the numbers by adding or subtracting that

number in all three parts of the inequality. Here we can add

6 to all the parts.

2 < 2x < 18

Divide all three parts by the number in front of the x term.

Here we can divide all the parts by 2.

1<x<9

Question

Solve the inequality -4 < 2x - 6 < 12

Answer

Add 6 to all parts: 2 < 2x < 18

Divide all parts by 2: 1 < x < 9

So the inequality is satisfied when x is between 1 and 9 (not

including 1 and 9).

Number lines

Inequalities can also be shown on a number line.

Example

Solve 2 < 3x + 5 17, and show the solution on a number line.

2 < 3x + 5 17

-3 < 3x 12

-1 < x 4

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Regions on a graph

Another way to show inequalities is by shading regions on a

graph.

Example

On a graph, show the region where:-

x 1 and y 3.

Draw on the lines x = 1 and y = 3.

The possible values of x and y are shown by the area between

these two lines.

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Maths

Trial and improvement

If you are asked to solve an equation where there is no

exact answer, you might need to use trial and improvement.

If you are asked to give the solution to an equation to a given

number of decimal places (d.p.) or significant figures (s.f.), you

can be sure there is no exact solution. In this case, you might be

asked to solve it through a method of trial and improvement. The

question should indicate the degree of accuracy required (1 d.p.,

2 s.f. etc).

Have a look at the example below:

Example

An equation such as x³ + x = 50 does not have an exact

solution: the answer is a decimal number. Find the answer

correct to 1 decimal place.

Solution

We are looking for a number which, when you cube it and add

the number itself, you get the answer 50. One way to do this is

to use trial and improvement. Start with a guess, then keep on

guessing, trying to get closer to the right answer.

Set it out like this:

First guess: x = 3

3 × 3 × 3 + 3 = 27 + 3 = 30 - too small

Second guess x = 4

4 × 4 × 4 + 4 = 64 + 4 = 68 - too big

We now know that the answer lies between 3 and 4.

Third guess: x = 3.5

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We now know that the answer lies between 3.5 and 4.

Fourth guess x = 3.6

3.6 × 3.6 × 3.6 + 3.6 = 46.656 + 3.6 = 50.256 - too big

We now know that the answer lies between 3.5 and 3.6. But it

must be closer to 3.6, so the answer is x = 3.6 correct to 1

decimal place.

Have a go at this one. You will need to have a calculator handy.

Question

Solve the equation y² + 2y = 40, correct to 1 decimal place.

Answer

Here is a worked solution:

y² + 2y = 40

Let's start with y = 5:

5 × 5 + 2 × 5 = 25 + 10 = 35 - too small!

y = 6?

6 × 6 + 2 × 6 = 36 + 12 = 48 - too big!

So the answer lies between 5 and 6.

y = 5.5?

5.5 × 5.5 + 2 × 5.5 = 30.25 + 11 = 41.25 - too big!

y = 5.4?

5.4 × 5.4 + 2 × 5.4 = 29.16 + 10.8 = 39.96 - too small!

So the answer lies between 5.4 and 5.5, but must be closer to

5.4

y = 5.4 (1 d.p.)

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So y = 5.4

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize: More than one inequality 01/03/2011 20:19

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Home > Maths > Algebra > More than one inequality - Higher

Maths Print

Make sure that you are familiar with Algebra / Solving equations before

trying this Revision Bite.

Example

What values of s satisfy the inequalities -1 s < 6 and s > 0?

If -1 s < 6, then s = -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

If s > 0, then s = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7…

The only values of s that satisfy both of these inequalities are 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.

So the solution is:

1 s 5

We can also see this on a number line:

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